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Water Level Indicator

Component List:
1. Transistor (BC 547)
2. Resistor (220)
3. LEDs
4. Integrates Circuits ( ICs)
Not Gate (7404)
And Gate (7408)
Or Gate (7432)

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals
and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with
at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A
voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's
terminals changes the current through another pair of
terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher
than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a
signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but
many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

BC547 Transistor:
BC547 i s an NPN bi-polar junction transistor. A transistor,
stands for transfer of resistance, is commonly used to
amplify current. A small current at its base controls a larger current at
collector & emitter terminals.
BC547 is mainly used for amplification and switching purposes. It has a maximum current
gain of 800. Its equivalent transistors are BC548 and BC549.
The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its
characteristic curves. This is known as the biasing. For amplification applications, the
transistor is biased such that it is partly on for all input conditions. The input signal at base is
amplified and taken at the emitter. BC547 is used in common emitter configuration for
amplifiers. The voltage divider is the commonly used biasing mode. For switching
applications, transistor is biased so that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In
the absence of base signal, it gets completely off.

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Water Level Indicator

Transistor can operate in four basic modes:

1. Active mode (BEJ is forward biased and CBJ is reverse biased) and used as amplifier.
2. Cut off (BEJ is reverse biased and CBJ is reverse biased) and used as OFF Switch.
3. Saturation (BEJ is forward biased and CBJ is forward biased) and used as amplifier
4. Reverse Active mode (BEJ is reverse biased and CBJ is forward biased)

Here in this project we are using the transistor as a switch (i.e. In cut off and active mode)

Integrates Circuits (ICs)

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated
circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or
a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one
small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material,
normally silicon. This can be made much smaller
than a discrete circuit made from
independent electronic components. ICs can be
made very compact, having up to several
billion transistors and other electronic
components in an area the size of a fingernail.

And gate:
A Boolean operator which gives the value one if and only if all the operands are one, and
otherwise has a value of zero.
OR gate:
A logical operation which gives the value one if at least one operand has the value one, and
otherwise gives a value of zero.
A circuit which produces an output signal only when signals are received simultaneously
through all input connections.
Not gate:
A gate circuit which produces an output if there is a signal on any of its inputs.
In digital logic, an inverter or NOT gate is a logic gate which implements logical negation.
The truth table is shown on the right.

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical
resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the
same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits. In electronic circuits, resistors
are used to limit current flow, to adjust signal levels, bias active elements, and
terminate transmission lines among other uses.

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Water Level Indicator

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a pn
junction diode, which emits light when activated.[4] When a suitable voltage is
applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the
device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called
electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the
photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.

Here he have different color LEDs

Schematic Diagram:


Here we are using transistor (of NPN type) as a Switch. Initially there is no
voltage applied to the base of the
Transistor Q1 and the transistor is in OFF state and no current is flowing through
collector and emitter and LED is OFF.

When the water level reaches to Point A in the tank, the positive side of the
battery gets connected to the base of the Transistor Q1 through the water. So
when a positive voltage has been applied to the base of the Transistor Q1, it gets

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Water Level Indicator

into ON state and current starts flowing from collector to emitter. And RED LED

You can see resistors (R1, R2, R3) at the base of each transistor, which is used to
limit the maximum Base current. Generally a transistor gets its ON state fully
when a voltage of 0.7 V is applied to the base. There are also resistors (R4, R5,
R6) with each of the LEDs, to drop the voltage across LEDs, otherwise LED may
blow up.

Same phenomenon happens when water level reaches to Point B. As soon as

water level reaches to Point B, a positive voltage gets applied to the Transistor Q2,
it gets ON and current started flowing through YELLOW LED, and LED glows. With
same principal, GREEN LED glow when water level reaches to Point C. And finally
Buzzer beeps when water level reaches to D.

Note that Left most wire in the tank must be lengthier than other four wires in the
tanks, because this is the wire which is connected to positive voltage.

Basically the unit is made up of various sensors acting as a switch. Let me explain in
a simple way. What happens is when you turn on your water pump, the water starts
to get pumped from your underground reservoir or from your underground water
supply from the pipes to your water tank. In the tank there is a set of sensors (to be
precise there are 2 levels), in the water tank. Just think them as a switch, as the
work of the sensor will be to connect a circuit.. So the water starts to get filled in the
tank and when the water level in the tank starts to rise up, what happens is that the
sensors that is installed in the tank starts to get activated one by one indicating the
water level in the tank. And finally when it reaches to its top most level, the LED will
ON and the Motor will Automatically OFF. (Motor is Replace by LED here.)

It has numerous transistors acting as a switch and the switch gets activated when
the sensors tell them to.

As the water starts to rise up the sensors starts to get in contact with the water and
the transistors are activated and there is a flow of current in the transistors making
the LED's light up. Here in between the transistor and the LED there is a current

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Water Level Indicator

limiting resistor 220 ohms. The resistor is used to limit the voltage and to prevent
the LED to be destroyed.

Truth Table Describing the Motor ON/OFF

Lower Tank Lower Level of Upper Level of Motor/LED
Upper Tank Upper Tank
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 0

The Equation from the above Table is:


In the Project We have implemented this equation to Drive

the Motor

Motor ON/OFF:
The circuit detects the water level and then turns the water pump on/off
automatically to ensure sufficient water in the tank.

Here two tanks are used one is underground Tank (Reservoir Tank) and other one is
upper tank. The motor will turn ON When the underground task is at level high (Full)
and upper tank is at zero level (Empty). The motor will turn OFF when the upper
tank is Full and the lower tank has some water. The motor should also turn OFF
when the lower tank become empty (Zero Level) unless the upper tank is full or

The output is shown on LED and it can be replaced by Motor/Pump to work



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Water Level Indicator

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