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Inductance in Multiphase Electrical Machines

DOI: 10.1109/ICELMACH.2016.7732700

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Analytical Calculation of Slot Leakage Inductance in

Multiphase Electrical Machines

P. Cordovil, I. E. Chabu

Abstract Opting for a multiphase electrical machine may six-phase electrical generator in the 1920s to not exceed the

provide, in several industrial cases, significant benefits in terms current limit of the circuit breakers of that time.

of performance, resilience and reliability. The interest in

multiphase topologies is recently increasing due to the trend for An important feature of multiphase electrical machines is

more electric transportation and high power offshore wind their capacity of maintaining a revolving magnetic field even

turbines. In this paper, the classical analytical method for in the case there is a fault in some of the machine windings.

calculating the slot leakage inductance of three-phase electrical The fault tolerance capability provided by multiphase

machines with double-layer windings are extended for other

arrangements may be an essential requirement to meet the

multiphase topologies.

resilience targets of safety-critical applications. Due to the

Index TermsMultiphase Electrical Machines, Electrical aforementioned features, multiphase electrical machines have

Machines, Slot Leakage Inductance, Design of Electrical been widely used in applications where high power and high

Machines reliability are required [2][5]. Military and marine

transportation industries are the most noticeable sectors

I. NOMENCLATURE where multiphase machines are applied [1][5]. However, it is

Average of for a symmetry group worth noticing that the trend for more electrical

Correction factor of for one slot transportation is giving an important push for further

Effective length developments in the field of multiphase electrical machines,

Air-gap length where they have been considered for applications such as

Slot leakage inductance more-electric aircrafts, electrical and hybrid electrical

Tooth-tip leakage inductance vehicles [2][5].

Number of series-connected turns per phase

Pairs of poles

While the most common topology for multiphase

Specific permeance of the top coil machines is the six-phase dual-star induction motor [5],

Specific permeance of the bottom coil several different topologies can be found in the industry and

Specific permeance related to the mutual coupling literature. E.g., in references [4] and [6] a 12-phase and 15-

phase induction machines are presented for naval propulsion

between top and bottom coils in a full pitch winding

Number of slots per pole per phase systems and reference [7] discuss a four-phase high-speed

Coil pitch permanent magnet machine for an aircraft fuel pump drive. A

Coil pitch in percentage of significant number of other topologies and applications may

Pole pitch be found in the following references [1][2][3][5].

Pole arc

As the power limit of a two-level 690V PWM power

Phase difference between the currents in the top and

converter with 1700V/3600A IGBTs is typically between

bottom layers of the slot

Vacuum magnetic permeability 1.5MVA and 2MVA, multiphase topologies have also been

used for high power offshore wind turbines. One solution is

II. INTRODUCTION to connect in parallel several power converters to handle with

the total power from the turbine. Even though, this topology,

S ince the beginning of the 20th century multiphase

electrical machines have been used to meet specific

with parallel-connected converters, may be fault tolerant to

failures in the power electronics, it does not have the fault

performance targets of industrial applications, including the tolerance capability in the case the fault occurs in the

need of splitting the power in more phases to meet the power machine windings, e.g. insulation failure. A multiphase

handling limitations of other auxiliary electrical equipment. electrical generator can be used to provide this additional

As an example, reference [1] comments about the usage of a resilience to failures in the generator windings, reducing the

risks of unpredicted maintenance.

P. T. C. Cordovil is with the Department of Electrical Energy and

Automation, University of So Paulo, So Paulo, SP-Brazil (e-mail: For offshore wind turbines, the number of phases of the

paulo.cordovil@usp.br).

I. Chabu is with the Department of Electrical Energy and Automation,

machine would typically be multiple of three to use on-the-

University of So Paulo, So Paulo, SP-Brazil (e-mail: ichabu@pea.usp.br). shelf back-to-back three-phase power converters. The best

l-)))

examples of multiphase machines in this industry are the III. ANALYTICAL CALCULATION OF THE SLOT LEAKAGE

GEs 6MW-150m, Haliade, and the 5MW-128/132m wind INDUCTANCE

turbine generator from Gamesa/ Adwen1. GEs Haliade (ex- A. Slot Leakage Inductance

Alstom) 6MW is a nine-phase, with three three-phase sets,

direct-drive (low speed) Permanent Magnet Synchronous The slot leakage inductance of a double layer winding is

Generator (PMSG), with three 900V three-phase power calculated in function of: the specific permeance of top and

converters [8]. While the 5MW platform from Gamesa is bottom coils and , the specific permeance related to the

based on a twelve-phase, with four three-phase sets, PMSG mutual inductance between top and bottom layers in a full

with four 690V three-phase power converters [3] [9]. pitch winding , a correction factor that should be

applied when the winding is short-pitched [10][11]:

There are important differences when considering a

multiphase induction motor and a multiphase PMSG.

Namely, the main magnetizing current linkage of the

(2)

induction motor is created by the stator currents, with

reduced harmonic content due to the multiphase arrangement Considering the semi-closed slot presented in Fig. 1, the

[5][11]. While in the PMSG the main current linkage is specific permeances , and are calculated according

produced by the permanent magnets and its harmonic content to the following equations[11][12]:

will depend on the rotor geometry/topology, e.g. a PMSG

with surface mounted magnets will have significant

harmonic content. (3)

designed with concentrated windings [5]. This, however,

may not be necessarily true for multiphase synchronous

machines, as it may be required to mitigate the field

harmonics by using distributed and chorded windings. (4)

Another relevant difference is that induction machines have a

small air-gap and a large magnetizing reactance, while

synchronous and, especially, permanent magnet machines are (5)

characterized by a large effective air-gap leading to a

relatively low magnetizing inductance.

The difference between the magnetizing inductance of

these two topologies has significant impact in the relevance

of different leakage inductances. E.g. for induction machines,

the harmonic leakage inductance is more important, while

the tooth-tip leakage inductance is commonly neglected. For

synchronous machines, however, it is the other way around.

In this work, the classical analytical method for the

calculation of the slot leakage inductance of three-phase

electrical machines is revisited and extended for multiphase

Fig. 1. Double Layer winding slot.

topologies with 180/ phase-belts, where is the number of

phases of the machine. It is emphasized that the parameter Considering = and substituting equations (3), (4)

that is further defined in equation (8) is also used for the and (5) in (2) the slot leakage inductance is calculated by

calculation of the tooth-tip leakage inductance, according to [11] [13]:

the following equation [10]:

(1)

(6)

Where:

1

The 5MW platform from Gamesa is now part of the joint venture

(7)

between Gamesa and Areva Adwen.

possible:

(8) 1) Top and bottom coils are from phase 1, = 0. This

case occurs when the chording is in the range of [0;

In full-pitch windings, top and bottom coils are from the 60[.

same phase, while in a chorded winding top and bottom

layers may be from different phases. In a chorded winding, 2) When phase 1 and phase -3 (negative polarity) share

the difference between the currents flowing in the top and the same slot: = 60 (240-180). This case occurs

bottom coils reduces the mutual inductance between these when the chording is in the range of ]0; 120[.

layers, when compared to the full pitch winding case [11]. 3) The last case occurs when the slot is shared by phases

The parameter is defined to quantify this effect. 1 and 2, leading to = 120. This case occurs when

Following the definition in [11], , where is the chording is in the range of [120; 180[.

the phase difference between the current in the top and

In practical cases, the chording is less than 60, otherwise

bottom layers of the slot.

the winding factor for the fundamental harmonic would be

To calculate this phenomena for the entire winding, not excessively low. Typically, the winding is short-pitched by,

just for one specific slot, the average value of per or close to, 30, to mitigate the impacts of the 5th and 7th

symmetry group2 of the winding is used: . harmonics of the excitation magnetic field. It is worth noting,

Electrical machines with integral number of slots per pole that the chording factor does not depend on the number of

per phase are symmetrical each two poles, with total number phases of the machine.

of slots per symmetry group per phase equal to . TABLE I

Therefore, when is an integer is calculated by [11][13]: PHASES SEQUENCE PER PAIR OF POLES IN A THREE-PHASE MACHINE

PHASE-BELT 0-60 60-120 120-180

PHASE 1 -3 2

PHASE-BELT 180-240 240-300 300-360

PHASE -1 3 -2

(9)

When the machine is short-pitched by a multiple of 180/

Considering a fractional slot winding, where all coils from one specific phase share slots with coils from

( ), the symmetry of the winding is reached each another specific phase. E.g. for a three-phase machine

poles. Therefore, the total number of slots per symmetry chorded in 60, all the coils from phase 1 share slots with

group is . In these conditions: coils from phase -3, leading to a . For a

chording equal to 120, , as all coils from

phase 1 share slots with phase 2.

(10) When the chording is in-between multiples of 180/, two

different slot configurations are possible for each phase. In

B. Analytical calculation of in a three-phase machine these circumstances, e.g. for a chording equal to 30, the

value of for half of the slots of one phase is going to be

Even though, equations (9) and (10) are valid for all

equal to e.g. top and bottom coils from phase 1

multiphase machines, following the methodology presented

while for the another half e.g. top coil

in [11], the typical approach is to calculate in function of

from phase 1 and bottom coil from phase -3. Leading to =

the coil pitch of the winding 3 [10][13][14].

. Therefore, the different values of

The methodology for calculating in function of is in function of the coil pitch in % are presented in

further explained for the three-phase case and it is going to Fig.2.

provide the base for the extrapolation of this methodology

for other multiphase topologies.

In a three-phase machine, the phase belts (180/) in each

pair of poles are associated to the phases, 1, 2 and 3

according to Table I. Considering, as an example, the

possible slot configurations for phase 1, three slot-cases are

2

Alternatively, repeatable group, using the terms of [11].

In fact [10] presents and in function of , [13] writes the

3

[12] uses a different methodology and presents in function of

and [14] presents in function of . Fig. 2. in fuction of the coild pitch in a three-phase machine.

For three-phase machines and considering practical TABLE V 6 PHASES: 2-STAR MACHINE. POSSIBLE SLOTS

chording cases, where , is calculated by the CONFIGURATIONS FOR PHASE 1.

() 0 30 60 90 120 150

In Table V, it is possible to observe that the values of

(11)

for the six-phase asymmetrical two-star machine are also in

It is worth noting that equation (11), is just the line accordance to equation (13). For this arrangement, it is

equation between the points (1, 1) and (2/3, 0.5) from Fig. 2 interesting to observe that, considering the typical chording

and the dashed blue line is a cosine function according to the of 30, has a straightforward calculation: ,

following equation: as, e.g. phase 1 share all slots with phase 4.

(12)

Figures 3, 4 and 5 presents in function of for five,

C. Analytical calculation of for five, six and seven six (dual-star) and seven-phase machines. Analysing these

phases machines. figures it becomes clear that , is the linear

Applying the same methodology for 5 and 7 phases discretization of equation (12) with step size equal to 1/.

symmetrical machines with phase-belts of 180/, we

observe that the possible values of are going to be in the

form of:

(13)

It is worth noting that equation (13) is also valid for three-

phase machines. In six-phase machines, we observe that the

symmetrical arrangement, with 30 phase-belts (180/), may

not be suitable, as it would lead to a configuration where the

same phase-belt would be shared by two different phases. In

Fig. 3. in fuction of the coild pitch in a five-phase machine.

addition, the consecutive phase-belt would not have any

phase associated (Table II). The practical solution for the

construction of six-phase symmetrical machines is to spread

the phases in 60 phase-belts (360/), as it is presented in

Table III.

The scope of this work is limited to multiphase electrical

machines with 180/ phase-belts. Therefore, the six-phase

topology is analysed only in the 2-star asymmetrical

arrangement. The two-star machine (or dual-star) is

composed by two three-phase sets displaced by 30 each

other. This topology is presented in Table IV.

TABLE II 6 PHASES SYMMETRICAL MACHINE, 30 PHASE-BELT Fig. 4. in function of the coil pitch in a six-phase two-star

PHASE BELT 0-30 30-60 60-90 90-120 120-150 150-180 machine.

PHASE 1/-4 2/-5 3/-6

PHASE BELT 180-210 210-240 240-270 270-300 300-330 330-360

PHASE 4/-1 5/-2 6/-3

TABLE III 6 PHASES SYMMETRICAL MACHINE, 60 PHASE-BELT

PHASE BELT 0-60 60-120 120-180

PHASE 1/-4 2/-5 3/-6

PHASE BELT 180-240 240-300 300-360

PHASE 4/-1 5/-2 6/-3

TABLE IV 6 PHASES: 2-STAR MACHINE, 30 PHASE-BELT

PHASE BELT 0-30 30-60 60-90 90-120 120-150 150-180

PHASE 1 4 -3 -6 2 5

PHASE BELT 180-210 210-240 240-270 270-300 300-330 330-360

PHASE -1 -4 3 6 -2 -5

Fig. 5. in function of the coil pitch in a seven-phase

machine.

For the five-phase machine, the maximum difference As the error between the function and equation

between the cosine function and is approximately 5%. (12) starts to be negligible, we recommend the usage of

While for the six and seven phases this value is reduced to equation (12) for machines with nine or more phases. This is

3.5% and 2.5%, respectively. also supported by the fact that error in is naturally

For five, six (dual-star) and seven-phase machines, we attenuated for the calculation of the slot leakage inductance

consider that two linear equations should be enough to by the factors and :

characterize in practical chording conditions. These

(14)

equations are presented in Table VI.

TABLE VI FOR FIVE, SIX AND SEVEN PHASES MACHINES

PHASES . RANGE (15)

1. [; 1.00]

FIVE In synthesis, for symmetrical multiphase machines with

2. [; ]

odd, equal or higher than nine, and considering 180/

phase-belts, we suggest the following equation to calculate

1. [; 1.00]

SIX4 :

2. [; ]

(16)

1. [; 1.00]

SEVEN Equation (16) is also valid for asymmetrical multiphase

2. [; ]

N-star machines where each three-phase set is displaced by

D. Analytical calculation of for 9 and more phases. one phase-belt and N may be odd or even.

For a nine-phase machine, the symmetrical or E. Method Validation

asymmetrical three-star arrangements are possible, with To validate the proposed method, was calculated for

180/ phase-belts. Considering the same methodology nine, twelve and fifteen-phase machines by equation (9). For

applied in the previous sections, one can prove that the nine and twelve-phase machines the chosen value of was

values of are again in accordance with equation (13), in

and for the fifteen-phase machine .

both cases. The same is also valid for other machines with

odd number of phases and multiple of three (always

In the nine-phase machine with the symmetry

considering 180/ phase-belts). This result means that the group of the winding is found each 5 poles with 6 slots per

value of is the same for the same chording, independent if phase per symmetry group. In this case, applying equation

the symmetrical or asymmetrical (N-star) winding is (9):

selected.

In the following figure, the function is presented,

again compared to the cosine function from equation (12),

(17)

where it is possible to observe that the difference between

both functions is very small. The maximum difference is Equation (17) was used to calculate for different values

below 1.6%. of . E.g. short-pitching the winding in one slot = 93%

and the coils from phase 1 share two slots with phase 1 (

) and 4 slots with phase -6 ( ), so

= 0.96. The same procedure is repeated for other values of

, the results are presented in Fig. 7.

Afterwards and are calculated by equations (7)

and (8). The difference/error in those parameters when is

estimated by equation (16) are presented in Fig. 8.

(symmetrical or asymmetrical).

4

Six-phase two-star machines, each three-phase set displaced by 30.

Fig. 9. Calculated values of for the twelve-phase machine.

Fig. 7. Calculated values of for the nine-phase machine.

Fig. 8. Error for the nine-phase machine for , , .

the values of , when calculated by equation (17), are still

part of the linear discretization of the cosine function in 1/

steps. In addition to that, the error of estimating by

equation (16) and calculating it by equation (17) is below

1.6%.

The same analysis can be done for the twelve and fifteen-

phase machines. However, as for the fifteen-phase

machine, , in this case, is calculated by:

Fig. 11. Calculated values of for the fifteen-phase machine.

(18)

and fifteen-phase cases, where it is possible to observe that

the simplification of using equation (16), instead of applying

the conventional method that would be a set of linear

equations, similar to what was presented in Table V, give us

a very good approach for estimating in function of . It

is also possible to observe (figures 8, 10 and 12), that the

error in and is always below 1%.

Fig. 12. Error for the fifteen-phase machine for , , .

IV. CONCLUSION

In this work, the classical analytical method of calculating

the slot leakage inductance of three-phase machines,

presented in [10][11][13][14], is revisited and applied to

multiphase counterparts with 180/ phase-belts. Even

though clearly explained in reference [11], in this work we The function is equal to for in the range

extend equation (9), for the case where a fractional slot

between .

winding (with > 1), is applied equation (10). From this

basic definitions, equations (9) and (10), it is possible to

VI. REFERENCES

establish in function of .

[1] R. Bojoi, A. Cavagnino, A. Tenconi, A. Tessarolo, S. Vaschetto

It was observed that the function is the linear Multiphase Electrical Machines and Drives in the Transportation

interpolation of a cosine function equation (12) in Electrification.

[2] F. Barrero, M. Duran Recent Advances in the Design, Modeling

steps. The resultant linear equations for five, six (dual-star) and Control of Multiphase Machines Part I. IEEE Transactions on

and seven phase machines in practical chording conditions Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, No. 1, January 2016.

are presented in Table VI. [3] M. J. Duran, F. Barrero Recent Advances in the Design, Modeling

and Control of Multiphase Machines Part II. IEEE Transactions on

It is suggested to use equation (16) to calculate , Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, No. 1, January 2016.

for simplicity, instead of using a set of linear equations when [4] F. Scuiller, J. F. Charpentier, E. Semail Multi-star multi-phase

winding for a high power naval propulsion machine with low ripple

the number of phases is equal or higher than nine. This is

torques and high fault tolerant ability.

suggested because the step size becomes sufficient [5] E. Levi, R. Bojoi, F. Profumo, H.A. Toylat, S. Wiliamson

small and so is approximately equal to the cosine "Multiphase induction motor drives a technology status review" IET

function, leading to equation (16). It may also be proved that Elect. Power Appl., 2007, 1, (4), pp.489-516.

[6] F. Terrien, S. Siala, P. Noy Multiphase Induction Motor Sensorless

using equation (16), the error in and is below 1% for Control for Electric Ship Propulsion.

nine or more phases. [7] B. C. Mecrow, A. G. Jack, D. J. Atkinson, S. R. Green, G. J. Atkinson,

A. King, B. Green Design and Testing of a Four-Phase Fault-

Electrical machines with an even number of phases were Tolerant Permanent-Magnet Machine for an Engine Fuel Pump. IEEE

considered just in the case was multiple of three and in the transactions on Energy Conversion Vol. 19, No. 4, December 2004.

N-star configuration (asymmetrical). For electrical machines [8] Haliade 150-6MW product brochure - "GEs Haliade 150-6MW High

with multiple of 3 and odd, no difference was found when Yield offshore wind turbine". Available at the company website:

https://renewables.gepower.com/".

calculating for the symmetrical and the asymmetrical N- [9] Gamesa 5.0MW technical specifications Gamesa 5.0 MW

star configuration. Innovating for reliability. Available at: http://www.gamesacorp.com/

recursos/doc/productos-servicios/aerogeneradores/catalogo-g10x-

When compared to three-phase machines, multiphase 45mw-eng.pdf

machines tend to have higher values of , in practical [10] M. Liwschitz-Garik, C. C. Whipple Electric Machinery Vol. I:

chording values, leading to a higher slot leakage inductance Fundamentals and DC Machines. Third Printing 1947, D. Van

Nostrand Company, Inc. USA.

for the same chording. This value is limited by the cosine [11] M. Liwschitz-Garik, C. C. Whipple Electric Machinery Vol. II: AC

function, equation (12), that may be seen as when Machines. 5th Printing 1950, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. USA.

. [12] T. A. Lipo Introduction to AC Machine Design. Third Edition

2013. Wincosin Power Electronics Research Center, University of

It is worth noting that phase-belts of 180/ were Winconsin, USA.

considered for all analyzed cases, for multiphase machines [13] J. Pyrhonen, T. Jokinen, V. Hrabovcova Design of Rotating Electrical

with different phase-belts, the analysis here presented may Machines Second Edition 2014, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, West

Sussex, UK.

not be valid. [14] P. L. Alger The Nature of Polyphase Induction Machines, 1951,

John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, New York, USA.

V. APPENDIX GENERIC SET OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

For multiphase electrical machines with the characteristics VII. BIOGRAPHIES

presented in this work, namely 180/ phase-belts and

Paulo Cordovil received the B.Sc and M.Sc degrees in Electrical

possible values of according to (13), the set of linear Engineering in 2013 from Escola Politcnica da Universidade de So Paulo

equations that describes is calculated (EPUSP), Brazil, and from Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de

according to the following: Lisboa, Portugal. He is currently working toward a second M.Sc degree in

electrical machines and drives at EPUSP.

(19)

Ivan Eduardo Chabu was born in So Paulo, in June 3, 1955. He obtained

the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D degrees in electrical engineering from Escola

(20)

Politcnica da Universidade de So Paulo in 1978, 1990 and 1997,

respectively.

Currently, he is professor at the Universidade de So Paulo, with lectures

on electric machines. His research interests include special electric

(21) machines, magnetic circuits, brushless motors, linear motors, reluctance

motors, electromechanical devices, permanent magnet systems and

magnetorheological fluids.

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