Recovery Emas dari Limbah Elekronik

Surabaya 2010

Pengantar
Perkembangan dunia modern sangat tergantung dari perkembangan dunia elektronik, dunia elektronik yang berhubungan langsung dengan perkembangan dunia adalah bidang teknologi informasi. Teknologi informasi sangat tergantung dari dunia computer, baik hardware maupun software. Untuk membuat hardware computer menjadi lebih hebat maka digunakan logam emas untuk spare partnya. Perkembangan teknologi yang sangat cepat berakibat pada cepatnya perubahan teknologi hardware. Dalam waktu satu tahun saja teknologi hardware bias jauh tertinggal. Hal tersebut akan mengakibatkan perangkat keras ketinggalan zaman. Sehingga dalam waktu lima tahun saja sudah banyak sampah elektronik. Buku ini membahas metode untuk memanfaatkan sampah elektronik, memproses emas dari sampah elektronik, mengetahui bagian mana yang banyak mengandung emasnya, menggunakan bahan kimia untuk memproses emas 24k, tempat untuk mendapatkan sampah elektronik, penghasilan tetap perbulan, daftar peralatan yang dibutuhkan, tempat untuk memperoleh peralatan dan bahan kimia. Akhir kata semoga buku ini bermanfaat untuk kita semua.

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1. The Formula
Warning: This stuff is dangerous, the fumes are wicked. Don’t breathe them. Do this outdoors. Use a mask, or a fan, or be upwind. Be sure children or pets cannot accidentally get near it or the fumes. Be responsible or just plain old don’t do it. The gold is not worth an injury! You assume all risks for the use of this information. DO NOT try to use this formula on circuit boards. Use it only on components, such as CPUs, ceramic chips, “fingers”, etc., after removing them from the circuit boards. A variation of this formula, substituting Sulfuric Acid (battery acid) for the Hydrochloric Acid (Muriatic Acid), will work for pins, but you should wait until you have success first with other simple items before trying to refine pins. Formula to Make Aqua Regia. This quantity of ingredients is for about 200 grams of mixed metals, gold, copper, etc. Ingredients: 1 quart of Muriatic Acid (31%) 1 quart= 1 Ltr 1/2 pound Sodium Nitrate 16-00-00 Distilled water (tap water is usually O.K). Additional ingredients for precipitating out the gold: 1. Urea (The Urea you get should be nice clean white pellets a little larger than BBs. Some people are getting dirty Urea, with other stuff mixed in, it may cause problems.) 2. Sodium Metabisulfite Materials: 2 Five gallon buckets Cloth for filtering Instructions: Please note: The instructions call for distilled water. I never use distilled water. I only call for distilled water to cover the possibility that your tap water could have some weird substance in it that may cause some problems. MOST likely if will be just fine to use whatever water is available to you. You could always do your learning with distilled water if you like, and then once you’re confident of your abilities, switch to tap water, and see if there’s really any difference. Place the metals you want to dissolve in the first bucket. Dissolve ½ pound of Sodium Nitrate (Nitrate of Soda 16-00-00) in 16 oz. of HOT distilled water, and pour it over the metals. Then add the 1 quart of Muriatic Acid (Hydrochloric Acid). This is the method I use.An alternate method is to dissolve 1/2 pound of Sodium Nitrate (Nitrate of Soda 16-00-00) in 16 oz. of HOT distilled water and then add the quart of Hydrochloric Acid to the Sodium Nitrate solution. Usually (but not always) a salt will form rather quickly and settle to the bottom. You then pour off the Aqua Regia, leaving the salt in the bottom of the container.

Cover the bucket with a cloth (I like to use a wet towel) and leave it alone for several hours or even overnight until all the metal has dissolved. This is a powerful Aqua Regia solution. Never seal any container with Aqua Regia. It will release chlorine gas for weeks, building up dangerous pressure. BE SURE CHILDREN, PETS, OR UNWARY ADULTS CANNOT ACCIDENTALLY GET NEAR IT OR THE FUMES. Very carefully pour or siphon off the blue, green, or yellow liquid into the second bucket without disturbing the sediment on the bottom of the first bucket. Don’t even think about starting a siphon using your mouth! I start the siphon by prefilling the siphon tube with water, putting a finger of each end of the tube while wearing rubber gloves, and then releasing my fingers once the ends of the tube are submerged in the containers. Now add anywhere from a cup to a gallon of water to the first bucket (I add very little water, it’s up to you how much you want to add). This will stir up the remaining liquid and all the sediment. Let this settle for a while. Then with a cloth filter on the second bucket, slowly pour or siphon this liquid into the second bucket, adding it to the solution you already poured into the second bucket. A sheet will work as a filter, or better yet, I like the sheer material that’s used on a wedding gown. I don’t always use a filter, usually I just carefully pour off the liquid being sure to not let any sediment carry over. To precipitate the gold out of solution, slowly add a handful of Urea (available at feedstores) to the solution (the second bucket). If your Urea is “dirty”, instead of adding the Urea pellets directly to the solution, you may want to first dissolve the Urea pellets in boiling water and then filter it to clear any sediment. It should fizzle and it may even foam up. When it no longer fizzles upon adding more Urea you can stop adding it. It may not fizzle at all, which is O.K. (it just means that all the NITRIC Acid has been used up in the reaction). Most likely if you look very closely you will see thousands of tiny bubbles forming in the solution in the bucket after you’ve added the Urea. I like to wait 5 to 15 minutes for the bubbling to die down a good bit. Now, mix 1 oz. of Sodium Metabisulfite (contact me if you can’t locate it) into 8 oz. of HOT water. The actual amount of Sodium Metabisulfite you mix up depends on the amount of gold in your solution. Here you have to guess. You want to mix into a small quantity of water an amount of Sodium Metabisulfite equal to or slightly greater than the amount of gold dissolved in your solution. It’s better to put in MORE rather than LESS. You just don’t want to use a LOT more than is necessary. If you use too little, all the gold will NOT come out of solution, which you can determine with a gold testing solution. If you didn’t add enough Sodium Metabisulfite you can always add more. One way of knowing if you’ve added enough is the STRONG smell of sulfur coming from the solution afterwards. Slowly pour the Sodium Metabisulfite mixture into the solution while briskly stirring. You will smell the Sulfur Dioxide being produced. Hopefully the liquid will begin to turn brown right away. If it doesn’t, give it some time. It may take a few minutes or long er. Once you see the brown gold forming, cover it with a cloth and wait for a couple of hours, overnight, or even a full day to allow enough time for the gold sediment to all settle to the bottom. I’ve found out (from one of my students) that you can heat it up at this point to around 150 F, and it will usually settle out the gold without having to wait. Test the solution for gold. You can test to see if the gold has precipitated out of the

solution at any time, but the less time you wait the worse the TOXIC fumes you’ll be exposed to will be. If there is still gold left in the solution (after you have waited at least 8 hours), mix up some more of the Sodium Metabisulfite and once again precipitate the gold out of solution. If there is no gold left in the solution, pour off the liquid, being careful not to lose any of the gold sediment that will be at the bottom. Do properly dispose of this liquid (after neutralizing with baking soda or wood ashes). Be aware that when you neutralize the liquid it will give off strong, poisonous fumes of Sulfur Dioxide. The more Sodium Metabisulfite you used to precipitate the gold out of solution, the more Sulfur Dioxide will be released, which is one reason to try to not use more than is necessary. Here’s another disposal method you may like to know about. The leftover solution is still strongly acidic from the residual Hydrochloric Acid. I just take the aluminum shell (stripped of all other metals) from an old 5 1/4" disk drive and drop it in the bucket of leftover acid solution. I leave it in there for days or weeks. The aluminum will dissolve in the acid and become covered with what looks like a coral reef composed mostly of copper. The aluminum is causing the copper, lead, nickel, and other base metals, etc. (plus any other precious metals you left behind) to come out of solution. I then pour off this liquid, which should now be mostly aluminum hydroxide, (which has very little environmental impact) and collect the solid residue. The solid residue is dried out, and then should be able to be recycled as scrap metal, primarily copper. There will be a brown or black residue on the bottom. This is the gold. Rinse with clean water several times, carefully pouring it off to not lose any gold (after waiting LONG enough for ALL the gold to settle to the bottom, this could take a good while). It’s a good idea to do a final rinse with ammonia, followed with a distilled water rinse. The ammonia will remove traces of silver and other metal oxides. If the residue is light brown, you have very pure gold. If it is darker, or almost black, you may want to redissolve this residue in the Aqua Regia, and reprocess it, to make very pure gold. In fact, if you want high purity gold, it’s best to ALWAYS redissolve the residue, and do the precipitation again. This will produce very fine gold. Flux Formula 50% Ammonium Chloride 25% Sodium Nitrate 25% Borax Just mix the three ingredients together. Do NOT grind them. Feel free to experiment with the proportions. Ammonium Chloride is used to turn any base metals, i.e. copper, tin, etc., into chlorides, which will go up in smoke. The Sodium Nitrate is used to provide oxygen, to help oxidize any base metals. And the borax forms a glasslike slag to absorb away any solid residues. Gold Testing Solution You can use this solution to test for dissolved gold in solution. It will turn black or purple if there’s gold, the darker the better. To make the gold testing solution, just put an inch or two of 95/5 tin/antimony solder in a test tube and fill it with HCL. The solder will dissolve and leave a black residue in the bottom of the test tube. Carefully pour off the

clear liquid, that’s the testing solution. If you have any pure tin to use instead, you can make it the same way, and there won’t be a black residue in the test tube. This solution will not last very long, so make up some new solution about every month. If you leave a small piece of tin solder in the solution, it will last longer. It’s a good idea to keep some dissolved gold on hand, to use for testing to make sure the gold testing solution is still good.

2.Apa yang direkoveri?
Beberapa orang yang telah berusaha untuk rekoveri emas dari limbah elektronik mengalami masalah karena tidak mengidahkan saran yang sudah diberikan. Bahan yang paling mudah untuk belajar untuk rekoveri emas dari limbah elektronik adalah computer CPU 486. sederhana dan mudah ditebak ( diperkirakan ). Satu pound 486s (20 chips) menghasilkan sekitar 3 to 3.5 grams emas. Pukulah CPU dengan pukul besi barang sekali atau dua kali, kemudian ambil plat yang berlapis emas. Jamgan masukkan plat tersebut kedalam proses refining ( rekoveri ), simpanlah untuk saat dimana sudah mahir. Plat tersebut mempunyai jumalh emas yang lumayan banyak, maka tanpa memprosesnya hasil yang didapat dari refining akan sangat berkurang dari jumlah yang sudah diceritakan lebih awal. Sangat baik untuk memulai dengan 2 pound CPU 486. dapat juga ditambah dengan memori card. Hasil yang didapat per pound akan sama dengan 486, apabila kartu memorinya dari versi yang lebih lama, pertengahan tahun 90 an atau sebelumnya maka emas yang didapat lebih sedikit. Jauhilah pin, pin mempunyai kandungan emas yang banyak seperti umumnya yang lebih tua lebih banyak emasnya, dikemudian hari pin akan kita refining. Sangat tidak praktis untuk mengolah semua sirkuit board. Terlalu banyak junk. CPU pentium ada banyak masalah, tetapi jika sudah bisa mengatasi 486 maka bisa bergerak ke pentium. Sedikitnya mempunyai 1/3 jumlalh emas 486. apabila tidak bisa didapat 486 dengan harga yang murah, pertimbangkan untuk beli limbah dari perusahaan perhiasan untuk sekedar tujuan berlatih. Untuk berlatih tidak hanya dengan emas 18k tetapi juga bisa digunakan emas 10k, jika dimungkinkan tidak ada aloy peraknya.

3. Sumber bahan limbah

Beberapa bahan limbah emas dari elektronik adalah laboratorium pembuatan gigi palsu dari emas, limbah dari pengrajin perhiasan dan tukang emas, limbah dari perusahaan pemrosesan emas dari batu tambang dan limabah elektronik. Beberapa produk elektronik yang mengandung emas adalah;
• • • • • •

CPU's Pins Electronic boards Cell phones boards Integrated circuits printed circuit boards

4.Foto Proses Recoveri Emas dari Limbah
PERINGATAN : barang ini berbahaya, asap beracun. Jangan dihirup. Lakukan diluar rumah. Pakai masker atau kipas angin untuk mendorong asap. Anak-anak atau binatang piaraan tidak boleh mendekat ke asap itu. tanggung jawab kita untuk menjauhkan mereka ,mohon hati-hati. Emas tidak sepadan nilainya dengan luka! jangan mengambil risiko untuk penggunaan informasi ini.

1.Photo diatas memperlihatkan dimana kita mulai, sekitar 9 pon potongan CPUs, umumnya Pentiums awal, dan beberapa 486s. Ada juga beberapa lembar dari kartu komputer. Saya anjurkan bagi pemula untuk mulai dengan bahan tersebut. Jangan masukkan pin komputer, atau emas dari piring logam segi empat yang jatuh CPUs kalau anda pisahkan mereka, kecuali untuk mengolah nanti, sesudah mempunyai lebih banyak pengalaman.

2. pemandangan dari lembar memori card, terlihat agak banyak.

3.Satu lagi pemandangan chips dan fingger.

4.Ini adalah Muriatic Acid I atau HCL. Perhatikan bahwa prosen asam sebanyak 31%.

5.Ini adalah Nitrat Sodium biasa dipakai,

6.Sebelum menjelaskan gambar ini, perlu diberitahukan bahwa saya tidak mengikuti beberapa recipe untuk mengolah tumpuk emas ini. Oleh sebab itu anda akan memahami perbedaan di antara recipe recipe tersebut, dan apa yang saya lakukan di sini. Perbedaan utama adalah bahwa saya mencoba melarutkan sodium nitra kedalam hcl, lebih baik daripada diair. Tidak bekerja, tetapi ada beberapa keuntungan, sebagian besar bahwa Muriatic Acid berbelok menjadi Aqua Regia, sebagai bukti digambar berikut. Sewaktu anda melihat warna berubah dari kuning sampai jingga menunjukkan bahwa sudah menghasilkan Aqua Regia, dan waktu lama , mendidih panas dan memulai reaksi segera,.

7.ember yang digunakan sebaiknya agak tinggi, apabila terjdi reaksi kimia yang menimbulkan panas dan asap beracun, langsung menuju kea rah atas tidak kea arah hidung kita. Kemudian ada tempat yang longgar dari ember tersebut untuk reaksi kimia yang terjadi.

8. chips didalam ember.

9.timbangan elektronik yang digital, ditentukan untuk titik nol.

10.taruh gelas kimia kaca untuk menimbang Nitrat Sodium. Kemudian posisikan timbangan pada titik nol

11.Skala sekarang sudah dinolkan kembali.

12.Nitrat Sodium sudah ditambahkan ke gelas kimia.

13.Skala membaca 1 pon Nitrat Sodium. Mengamati: ini berarti saya melakukan recipe ganda, karena hanya singgah untuk 1/2 jumlah Nitrat Sodium.

14. saya tuangkan 2 quart ( 2x formula lagi ) dari hcl ke dalam poci yang ditempatkan diatas kompor listrik untuk dipanaskan, kompor diset pada level low lebih dahulu, dibawah skala medium, setelah beberapa saat naikkan ke level yang lebih tinggi, untuk menghindari tekanan ke pot gelas agar tidak mendadak kena panas, pot tersebut tidak digunakan utnuk hal yang demikian maka bias pecah, yang akan mengakibatkan tumpahan asam kemana mana. .

15. terlihat mendidih

16. tambahkan (1) pound Sodium Nitrate.

17. terjadi reaksi dan berubah menjadi kuning pucat.

18. terus dimasak, warna menjadi kuning.

19. dimasak, kuning.

20. tetap dimasak, mulai terlihat warna orange. Petunjuk awal adanya Aqua Regia. 21. perhatikan bahwa semua sodium nitrat yang tidak larut ada didasar pot.

22. masih terus dimasak, bahwa terlihat HCl tidak akan melarutkan semua sodium nitrat..

23. sekarang tuang aqua regia kedalam ember yang berisi chip.

24. setelah aqua regia dituang kedalam ember akan segera terjadi reaksi dengan muncul warna hijau, karena reaksi dari logam tembaga dan nikel yang melarut.

25. Sudut pandang lain, ketika terjadi reaksi asam dengan chip.

26. kembali kita perhatikan pot yang berisi sisa sodium nitrat yang belum larut, tambah lagi air dan panaskan lagi agar menjadi aqua regia.

27. segera Sodium Nitrate melarut.

28. Sodium Nitrate dimasak, ember 5 gallon ditutup agar dangerous fumes tidak keluar.

29 hampir semua Sodium Nitrate larut.

30. aqua regia yang dimasukkan kedalam ember tidak cukup untuk melarutkan semua logam yang menempel di chip, tetapi sudah terjadi banyak asap, dari reaksi tersebut

31. sekarang semua Sodium Nitrate sudah larut, maka waktunya untuk menuangkan kedalam ember agar terjadi reaksi yang sempurna, panaskan lebih dahulu.

32. I have added some of the boiling Sodium Nitrate to the bucket of chips.

33 tuangkan larutan Sodium Nitrate panas kedalam ember..

34. masukkan semuanya.

35. jika sudah masuk semua, pot akan mendidih.

36. akan muncul panas dari reaksi kimia yang sedang berjalan.

37. pandangan yang tampak dari luar ember adalah cairan dengan warna gelap, dari tembaga dan nikel dan logam lain yang melarut..

38. Cooking.

39. Cooking.

40. COOKING.

41. COOKING. Semakin banyak gas yang terjadi. Sangat bahaya.

42. DANGEROUS

43. saat yang sangat berbahaya ketika menutup ember yang didalamnya sedang terjadi reaksi..

44. tong abu – abu yang besar siap digunakan untuk menutup gas yang keluar saat reaksi, terlihat asap cokalt, asap yang mematikan. Saat ini adlah yang paling berbahaya jangan mendekat area tersebut untuk 2 sampai 4 jam mendatang.

45. The immediate danger is the fumes, afterwards the danger is the bucket of Aqua Regia. Great care is required from this point on. YOU are responsible to keep children and pets away, and alert any adults to the dangers at hand.

46. The bucket is covered with the trashcan.

47. Deadly fumes are leaking out because I did not have it sealed with loose dirt.

48. The liquid is turning very dark from the dissolving metals. By the way, the Gold will be the last one to dissolve.

49. Bubbles and stuff floating around.

50. I’ve tilted the bucket to one side, exposing the chips, and leaving a film of yellow stained liquid on the sides of the bucket, that’s GOLD (actually, gold chloride).

51. See how much of the metal has been eaten away by the acid! It’s only been about an hour.

52. I waited an extra hour, for a total of two hours, to give the acid plenty of time to work. Some people give it overnight to get a slightly higher yield. By the way, save the left over chips. If you can grind them up, there’s about another $2.00 or more per pound of gold left in them.

53. Everything’s stripped clean, and the yellow color indicates plenty of gold.

54. Preparing a second bucket to pour the gold containing liquid into, while filtering out the trash. I took a double layer of fabric and covered a clean bucket with it, be sure to secure it very securely, you don’t want it falling into your bucket, loaded with acid and trash.

55. Ready to pour.

56. All poured.

57. Drip, drip.

58. The chips after the acid has been poured off.

59. Close-up of the same. The yellow drops on the sides of the bucket also indicate gold.

60. The bottom of the bucket, good to the last drop.

61. This is a bottle of gold testing solution. It’s just some tin (or 95/5 tin/antimony solder) dissolved in some HCL.

62. Using the eyedropper to test a droplet of the gold bearing solution. A positive test for gold is if the drop turns purple or black, the darker it is, the more the gold there is.

63. Looks real nice.

64. Drip, drip, it took about 15 to 20 minutes.

65. Drip, drip, getting close.

66. Now I’ve covered the chips with fresh clean water to rinse any extra gold from them.

67. Swish the water around to get it all.

68. Drip, drip, almost done.

69. Another gold test, looks good.

70. Look carefully. I’ve poured the rinse water from the bucket with the chips now into the bucket with the gold bearing acid. See how the yellow color is going away, it’s being rinsed into the bucket, where you want it.

71. All the yellow is gone, that’s good, it’s now in the bucket.

72. See how clean the bucket and chips are.

73. The chips again.

74. The rinse drip is almost done.

75. Another view of the rinse water dripping through the strainer cloth.

76. I’ve lifted up the cloth so you can see under it.

77. Drippp.

78. Splash.

79. The filtered acid, with the water from the rinsed chips. All the gold is here.

80. The leftover crud, discard.

81. Keep it covered.

82. Next is Urea.

83. Urea is used as a fertilizer, and for ice melting.

84. This is what Urea looks like.

85. A handful of Urea.

86. Throw the Urea in the acid. See the yellow/green bubbles.

87. Run spot run, oops, wrong story (you need to be over 40 years old to appreciate the humor here, if you need help, email me). More green bubbles. Good. This step is one of the greatest recently discovered steps in gold refining with Aqua Regia, for many of hundreds of years, this step required a very difficult and tedious process of boiling the liquid down to a syrup, THREE times, to get

rid of all of the Nitric Acid. The urea accomplishes the same thing. All the bubbles you see indicate that it’s working. I just slowly put in small handfuls of urea until the bubbles die down, I put in less and less, slower and slower, until the action quits. This is very important, if all the nitric isn’t gone, you still have Aqua Regia, which will dissolve gold, and prevent you from getting it out of the solution later.

88. More bubbles, good.

89. I like bubbles, you will learn to like bubbles too.

90. Time to weight out the precipitant. I use Sodium Metabisulfite. You want to use more than the amount of gold you suspect to be in the acid. In this case I’m hoping there’s around 20 grams of gold, so I’ll use 30 grams of Sodium Metabisulfite.

91. Double check the weight, 30 grams.

92. Dissolving the 30 grams of Sodium Metabisulfite in a small amount of water. About a cup.

93. A coffee pot of gold. Don’t drink it. The Sodium Metabisulfite had been poured into the bucket of acid. The acid turns brown like dark coffee. That’s what you want it to do. That’s the gold coming out of solution.

94. Look close at the cylinder, you can see the gold dropping.

95. Let it drop for an hour or more, even overnight. Carefully pour off the liquid on top, what’s left over is a brown “mud” at the bottom. That’s the gold.

96. Rinse the mud with water, let the mud resettle. Pour off the clear water, your rinsed gold is on the bottom. Let it dry for several hours.

97. It’s not unusual for a small amount of gold to float to the top, not as a brown mud, but as metallic gold flakes. It’s pretty, but doesn’t amount to much, the mud is more important.

98. The gold mud has been mixed with flux and melted down. Here’s what it yielded, 11.4 grams of 23K gold. In the pictures below, you will see the same piece of gold, after I have refined it a second time. It turned out that there was some silver in this gold nugget, the second refining yielded a 10.6 gram nugget of 24K gold. Here are pictures showing the procedure for taking the brown “mud”, and converting it into yellow gold.

99. Here’s a picture showing the brown gold “mud” mixed with flux. I like to mix an equal amount of flux as the amount of gold mud. The formula for the flux is: 50% ammonium chloride, 25% sodium nitrate, and 25% borax. The amount does not need to be exact. You could vary it a good bit with out much problem. Here’s what happens with the flux and gold mud, the ammonium chloride combines with any base metals, such as copper, and forms chlorides, that turn into smoke, lots of it. The sodium nitrate provides oxygen to oxidize any base metals. The borax forms a slag to collect any oxidized metals that didn’t go up in smoke.

100. Do NOT try to do this on as small a piece of brick as you see me using here, until you have had a lot of practice. Use a full sized brick, and be sure that the turntable is level, or you WILL have the gold bead roll off the side and turn into hundreds of little gold beads that may burn you.

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As you melt the gold and flux mix, the flux will keep the gold from just blowing away from the torch. Don’t use too much gas pressure, or too large a flame. I use a fine Oxy/MAPP gas torch.

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115 The brown “mud” (gold) begins to look like gold as it melts.IMPORTANT NOTE: You will see that the gold is forming around the perimeter. I make this happen by putting the firebrick on a turntable, that I spin very slowing by hand. It lets me use the torch flame to always “push” the melting gold in towards the center.

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When the gold nugget is done forming, I then look for little beads left in the flux on the firebrick. You can use the torch flame to melt and “push” away the flux to reveal any hidden beads underneath the flux. When I find one, I then push the HOT gold nugget with a stainless steel spoon over the little bead. Then I reheat the nugget, since it’s so hot already, it takes just a small amount of heat to remelt it, when this happens, it also melts the little bead underneath it, and they are joined together.

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