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Computing International Roughness Index of Roads from

Longitudinal Profile Measurements1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 1926; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of

original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A

superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1.1 This practice covers the mathematical processing of sponse to Traveled Surface Roughness

longitudinal profile measurements to produce a road roughness E 1170 Practices for Simulating Vehicular Response to

statistic called the International Roughness Index (IRI). Longitudinal Profiles of Traveled Surfaces

1.2 The intent is to provide a standard practice for comput- E 1215 Specification for Trailers Used for Measuring Ve-

ing and reporting an estimate of road roughness for highway hicular Response to Road Roughness

pavements. E 1364 Test Method for Measuring Road Roughness by

1.3 This practice is based on an algorithm developed in The Static Level Method

International Road Roughness Experiment sponsored by a E 1656 Guide for Classification of Automated Pavement

number of institutions including the World Bank and reported Condition Survey Equipment

in two World Bank Technical Papers (1, 2).2 Additional E 2133 Test Method for Using a Rolling Inclinometer to

technical information is provided in two Transportation Re- Measure Longitudinal and Transverse Profiles of a Trav-

search Board (TRB) papers (3, 4). eled Surface

1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the

3. Terminology

standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for

information only. 3.1 Definitions:

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the 3.1.1 Terminology used in this practice conforms to the

safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the definitions included in Terminology E 867.

responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:

priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- 3.2.1 International Roughness Index (IRI), nan index

bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. computed from a longitudinal profile measurement using a

quarter-car simulation (see Practice E 1170) at a simulation

2. Referenced Documents speed of 80 km/h (50 mph).

2.1 ASTM Standards: 3 3.2.1.1 DiscussionIRI is reported in either metres per

E 177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in kilometre (m/km) or inches per mile (in./mile). (Note1 m/km

ASTM Test Methods = 63.36 in./mile.)

E 867 Terminology Relating to Vehicle-Pavement Systems 3.2.2 longitudinal profile measurement, na series of el-

E 950 Test Method for Measuring the Longitudinal Profile evation values taken at a constant interval along a wheel track.

of Traveled Surfaces with an Accelerometer Established 3.2.2.1 DiscussionElevation measurements may be taken

Inertial Profiling Reference statically, as with rod and level (see Test Method E 1364) or

inclinometer (see Test Method E 2133), or dynamically, as with

an inertial profiler (see Test Method E 950).

1

This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E17 on Vehicle - 3.2.3 Mean Roughness Index (MRI), nthe average of the

Pavement Systems and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E17.33 on IRI values for the right and left wheel tracks.

Methodology for Analyzing Pavement Roughness. 3.2.3.1 DiscussionUnits are in metres per kilometre or

Current edition approved June 1, 2008. Published July 2008. Originally approved

in 1998. Last previous edition approved in 2003 as E 1926 98 (2003). inches per mile.

2

The boldface numbers given in parentheses refer to a list of references at the 3.2.4 traveled surface roughnessthe deviations of a sur-

end of the text.

3

face from a true planar surface with characteristics dimensions

For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or

contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM

that affect vehicle dynamics, ride quality, dynamic loads, and

Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on drainage, for example, longitudinal profile, transverse profile,

the ASTM website. and cross slope.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1

E 1926 08

3.2.5 true International Roughness Index, nthe value of 5.5 IRI can also be interpreted as average absolute slope of

IRI that would be computed for a longitudinal profile measure- the profile, filtered mathematically to modify the amplitudes

ment with the constant interval approaching zero. associated with different wavelengths (3).

3.2.6 wave number, nthe inverse of wavelength.

3.2.6.1 DiscussionWave number, sometimes called spa- 6. Longitudinal Profile Measurement

tial frequency, typically has units of cycle/m or cycle/ft. 6.1 The longitudinal profile measurements can be obtained

3.2.7 wheel track, na line or path followed by the tire of from equipment that operate in a range of speeds from static to

a road vehicle on a traveled surface. highway traffic speeds.

4. Summary of Practice 6.2 The elevation profile measuring equipment used to

4.1 The practice presented here was developed specifically collect the longitudinal profile data used in this practice must

for estimating road roughness from longitudinal profile mea- have sufficient accuracy to measure the longitudinal profile

surements. attributes that are essential to the computation of the IRI.

4.2 Longitudinal profile measurements for one wheel track

are transformed mathematically by a computer program and 7. Computation of International Roughness Index (IRI)

accumulated to obtain the IRI. The profile must be represented 7.1 This practice consists of the computation of IRI from an

as a series of elevation values taken at constant intervals along algorithm developed in the International Road Roughness

the wheel track. Experiment and described in the World Bank Technical Papers

4.3 The IRI scale starts at zero for a road with no roughness 45 and 46 (1, 2). Additional technical information provided in

and covers positive numbers that increase in proportion to two TRB papers (3, 4).

roughness. Fig. 1 associated typical IRI values with verbal 7.2 A Fortran version of this algorithm has been imple-

descriptors from World Bank Technical Paper No. 46 (2) for mented as described in Ref (3).

roads with bituminous pavement, and Fig. 2 shows similar 7.2.1 This practice presents a sample computer program

associations for roads with earth or gravel surfaces. IRISMP for the computation of the IRI from the recorded

longitudinal profile measurement.

5. Significance and Use

7.2.1.1 The computer program IRISMP is a general com-

5.1 This practice provides a means for obtaining a quanti- puter program which accepts the elevation profile data set as

tative estimate of a pavement property defined as roughness input and then calculates the IRI values for that profile data set.

using longitudinal profile measuring equipment. 7.2.1.2 A listing of the IRISMP computer program for the

5.1.1 The IRI is portable in that it can be obtained from computation of IRI is included in this practice as Appendix X2.

longitudinal profiles obtained with a variety of instruments. 7.2.1.3 A provision has been made in the computer program

5.1.2 The IRI is stable with time because true IRI is based listing (Appendix X2) for the computation of IRI from re-

on the concept of a true longitudinal profile, rather than the corded longitudinal profile measurements in either SI or

physical properties of a particular type of instrument. inch-pound units.

5.2 Roughness information is a useful input to the pavement 7.2.2 The input to the sample IRI computer program is an

management systems (PMS) maintained by transportation ASCII profile data set stored in a 1X,F8.3,1X,F8.3 Fortran

agencies. format. In this format, the profile data appear as a multi-row,

5.2.1 The IRI for the right wheel track is the measurement two column array with the left wheel path profile data points in

of road surface roughness specified by the Federal Highway Column 1 and the right wheel path points in Column 2. The

Administration (FHWA) as the input to their Highway Perfor- profile data point interval is discretionary. However the quality

mance Monitoring System (HPMS). of the IRI values computed by this algorithm is a function of

5.2.2 When profiles are measured simultaneously for both the data point interval.

traveled wheel tracks, then the MRI is considered to be a better

7.2.2.1 If the input to the IRI computer program is in SI

measure of road surface roughness than the IRI for either wheel

units, the elevation profile data points are scaled in millimetres

track.

with the least significant digit being equal to 0.001 mm.

NOTE 1The MRI scale is identical to the IRI scale. 7.2.2.2 If the input to the IRI computer program is in

5.3 IRI can be interpreted as the output of an idealized inch-pound units, the elevation profile data points are scaled in

response-type measuring system (see Test Method E 1082 and inches with the least significant digit being equal to 0.001 in.

Specification E 1215), where the physical vehicle and instru- 7.3 The distance interval over which the IRI is computed is

mentation are replaced with a mathematical model. The units discretionary, but shall be reported along with the IRI results.

of slope correspond to accumulated suspension motions (for 7.4 Validation of the IRI program is required when it is

example, metres), divided by the distance traveled (for ex- installed. Provision for the IRI program installation validation

ample, kilometres). has been provided in this practice.

5.4 IRI is a useful calibration reference for response-type 7.4.1 The sample profile data set TRIPULSE.ASC has been

systems that estimate roughness by measuring vehicular re- provided in SI units in Appendix X2 for validation of the

sponse (see Test Method E 1082 and Specification E 1215). computer program installation.

2

E 1926 08

FIG. 1 Road Roughness Estimation Scale for Paved Roads With Asphaltic Concrete or Surface Treatment (Chipseal)

7.4.2 Using the sample profile data set TRIPULSE.ASC as defined in Test Method E 950 and Test Method E 1364 shall be

input to the IRI computer program, an IRI value of 4.36 mm/m included in the report.

was computed for a profile data point interval of 0.15 m (0.5 ft) 8.1.2 Longitudinal Profile MeasurementsReport data

and a distance interval equal to 15 m of the profile data set in from the profile measuring process shall include the date and

Appendix X2. time of day of the measurement, the location of the measure-

ment, the lane measured, the direction of the measurement,

8. Report length of measurement, and the descriptions of the beginning

8.1 Include the following information in the report for this and ending points of the measurement. The recorded wheel

practice: track (left, right, or both) must also be included.

8.1.1 Profile Measuring DeviceThe Class of the profile 8.1.3 IRI ResolutionThe number of digits after the deci-

measuring device used to make the profile measurement as mal point depends on the choice of units. If the units are m/km,

3

E 1926 08

FIG. 2 Road Roughness Estimation Scale for Unpaved Roads with Gravel or Earth Surfaces

then results should be reported with two digits after the decimal 9.2 For the effects of the precision and bias of the measured

point. If the units are in./mile, then the IRI results should be profile on the computed IRI, see precision and bias in Appen-

reported to a resolution of 0.1 in./mile. dix X1.

9. Precision and Bias 10. Keywords

9.1 The precision and bias of the computed IRI is limited by 10.1 highway performance monitoring system; HPMS; in-

the procedures used in making the longitudinal profile mea- ternational roughness index; International Roughness Index;

surement. Guidelines for measuring longitudinal profile are longitudinal profile; pavement management systems; pavement

provided in Test Method E 950 and Test Method E 1364. roughness; PMS

4

E 1926 08

APPENDIXES

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1.1.1 The precision of the computed IRI is limited by the provided in Test Method E 950 and Test Method E 1364.

procedures used in making the longitudinal profile measure- X1.2.2 IRI bias depends on the interval between adjacent

ment. Guidelines for measuring longitudinal profile are pro- profile elevation measures. An interval of 0.3 m (12 in.) or

vided in Test Method E 950 and Test Method E 1364. smaller is recommended. Shorter intervals improve precision

but have little effect on bias. More information about the

X1.1.2 IRI precision depends on the interval between adja-

sensitivity of IRI to the profile data interval is provided in Ref

cent profile elevation measures (see Test Method E 950 and

(3).

Test Method E 1364). Reducing the interval typically improves

X1.2.3 Many forms of measurement error cause an upward

the precision. An interval of 0.3 m (12 in.) or smaller is

bias in IRI. (The reason is that variations in profile elevation

recommended. For some surface types, a shorter interval will

due to measurement error are usually not correlated with the

improve precision. More information about the sensitivity of

profile changes.) Some common sources of positive IRI bias

IRI to the profile data interval is provided in Ref (3).

are: height-sensor round-off, mechanical vibrations in the

X1.1.3 IRI precision is roughly equivalent to the precision instrument that are not corrected and electronic noise. Bias is

of the slope obtained from the longitudinal profile measure- reduced by using profiler instruments that minimize these

ments, for distances ranging from approximately 1.5 m (5 ft) to errors.

about 25 m (80 ft). For example, a relative error on profile X1.2.4 Inertial profiler systems (see Test Method E 950)

elevation of 1.0 mm over a distance of 10 m corresponds to a include one or more filters that attenuate long wavelengths

slope error of 0.1 mm/m, or 0.1 m/km (6.3 in./mi). (low wave numbers). If the cut-off wavelength is too short,

X1.1.4 IRI precision is limited by the degree to which a then the IRI computed from the profile will have a negative

wheel track on the road can be profiled. Errors in locating the bias. A cut off wavelength of 91.4 m/cycle (300 ft/cycle) is

wheel track longitudinally and laterally can influence the IRI considered sufficiently long.

values, because the IRI will be computed for the profile of the

NOTE X1.1Profiles obtained with static methods are generally not

wheel track as measured, rather than the wheel track as filtered, and therefore this source of bias is not relevant for them.

intended. These effects are reduced by using longer profiles.

X1.2.5 The measures from some inertial profilers are pro-

X1.1.5 Computational errors due to round-off are typically cessed during measurement to attenuate short wavelengths and

about two orders of magnitude smaller than those due to prevent aliasing. The effect is to smooth the profile measure-

limitations in the profile measuring process, and can be safely ment. If a smoothing filter is used and it affects wavelengths

ignored. longer than 1 m (3.3 ft), then the computed IRI will have a

negative bias.

X1.2 Bias:

NOTE X1.2If the profiler includes a smoothing filter that affects

X1.2.1 The bias of the computed IRI is typically limited by wavelengths shorter than 1 m (3.3 ft) and longer than 250 mm (10 in.), no

the procedures used in making the longitudinal profile mea- more smoothing is required during the computation of IRI.

X2.1 Included in this appendix is the coding in Fortran two profile tracks in either SI or inch-pound units. For SI data,

language for a computer subroutine, SUBROUTINE IRI, (see the program assumes the input amplitudes are stored in

Fig. X2.1), which calculates the International Roughness Index millimetre units; if inch-pound, inches. For the sample pro-

as prescribed by this practice. A sample main program is also gram, the maximum length road section that can be processed

included, which when executed, prompts the user for the name is limited to 1058 sample pairs.

of a data file containing the profile data to be processed and the

parameters needed by the subroutine to compute the IRI. The X2.3 The sample data file shown in Fig. X2.2 and Fig. X2.3

subroutine is called and returns the computed IRI values to the is in SI units (mm) and contains 101 profile data point pairs.

main program which then displays them. The tracks are identical. The recording interval for the data is

X2.2 The sample program can process data files containing 0.15 m.

5

E 1926 08

FIG. X2.1 Sample Fortran Program Using Subroutine IRI to Compute International Roughness Index

6

E 1926 08

FIG. X2.1 Sample Fortran Program Using Subroutine IRI to Compute International Roughness Index (continued)

7

E 1926 08

FIG. X2.1 Sample Fortran Program Using Subroutine IRI to Compute International Roughness Index (continued)

8

E 1926 08

FIG. X2.1 Sample Fortran Program Using Subroutine IRI to Compute International Roughness Index (continued)

9

E 1926 08

10

E 1926 08

11

E 1926 08

12

E 1926 08

13

E 1926 08

14

E 1926 08

NOTE 1Elevations are metric units (mm). The profile consists of identical right and left wheel tracks, each consisting of zero elevations everywhere

except the triangular pulse from 0.6 to 3.0 m peaking at 20.0 mm. The interval between elevations is 0.15 m and the total length is 15 m. This data

set may be used as a test of the users implementation of IRI standard computation.

FIG. X2.2 Sample Load Profile Input Data Set, TRIPULSE.ASC

15

E 1926 08

FIG. X2.3 Input/Output for RNSMP sample program using data input file TRIPULSE.ASC

REFERENCES

(1) Sayers, M.W., Gillespie, T.D., Queiroz, C.A.V., The International (3) Sayers, M.W., On the Calculation of IRI from Longitudinal Profile,

Road Roughness Experiment, World Bank Technical Paper , Number Transportation Research Record 1501, Transportation Research

45, 1986. Board, 1995, pp. 112.

(2) Sayers, M.W., Gillespie, T.D., Paterson, W.D.O., Guidelines for (4) Sayers, M.W., Two Quarter-Car Models for Defining Road Rough-

Conducting and Calibrating Road Roughness Measurements, World ness: IRI and HRI, Transportation Research Record 1215, 1989, pp.

Bank Technical Paper , Number 46, 1986. 165172.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned

in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk

of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and

if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards

and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the

responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should

make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,

United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above

address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website

(www.astm.org).

16

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