Journal of the Persian Gulf

(Marine Science)/Vol. 3/No. 10/December 2012/6/1-6

Numerical Study on Resistance of a Bulk
Carrier Vessel Using CFD Method
Ebrahimi, Aboozar
1- Faculty of Marine Engineering, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar, IR Iran

Received: July 2012 Accepted: November 2012

© 2012 Journal of the Persian Gulf. All rights reserved.

Bulk carriers have an important role in international maritime transport. In this paper, we carried out a
numerical study on a model of bulk carrier vessel and calculated total resistance of the model. A model of a
bulk carrier vessel with length of 2.76 m, breadth of 0.403 m and draught of 0.173 m was selected for
numerical modeling. Numerical work was done by commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT 13 based on
finite volume method (FVM). Applying VOF model, FLUENT solved RANS equations and accordingly, free
surface waves around vessel and total resistance were calculated. A fully structured mesh was used which
generated in GAMBIT pre-processing software. Numerical solution was done for 5 different speeds from 0.2
to 0.95 m/s. Also, mesh dependency was studied by using four mesh sizes and finally, a mesh with 755,000
hexahedral cells was selected for all speeds. For verification of numerical results, experimental data from test
of bulk carrier model were used. Model tests were carried out in towing tank of Galati University in Romania.
Moreover, free surface waves from numerical study were compared with waves captured from model tests.
The results showed that CFD results had an error up to 12 % relative to model test results and wave patterns
around vessel were very similar to that of model test.

Keywords: Bulk Carrier Vessel, Resistance, CFD, FLUENT, Model Test

1. Introduction In recent years, the numerical solution method and
specially Computational Fluid Dynamic method
Bulk carriers contribute to a substantial portion of (CFD) have developed for studying hydrodynamics of
world maritime transport. The world's bulk transport ships. The CFD method in comparison with model
reached immense proportions in 2005 in which, test has great advantages, such as lower costs,
1.7 billion metric tons of coal, iron ore, grain, accessibility and more visible details in results e.g.,
bauxite, and phosphate were transported by bulk pressure and velocity contours, vectors and gradients.
carrier ships (UNCTAD, 2006). Today, the world's One of the important weaknesses of this method is
bulker fleet includes 6,225 ships of over 10,000 tons that it is less accurate.
deadweight and represents 40% of all ships in terms Therefore, experimental data should be used for
of tonnage and 39.4% in terms of vessels. verification of CFD results. In this study, we use CFD
method for calculating resistance of a bulk carrier


.30 [m m] 2. (2005) carrieed outt a series of model tests in a bulk carrrier vessel. DTM MB 5415 annd Main characteristics Full scale shhip Model callculated wavves and free surface arou und it. Numerical sstudy on resiistance of a ship has beeen perrformed in sseveral cases. Thornhill et al. freee surface floow around a model wass simu ulated using g FLUENT CFD soft ftware. 2005) 2 aro ound its huull. In In n recent yearrs. Lengtth of waterline ( LWL) 220.. w we havee developed.173[m] Trim (t) 0 [m m] 0 [m] AN NSYS CFX X for num merical sim mulation annd Volum metric displacemment (  ) 82626 m3] 0. e drag andd lift forces. (200 3) useed a finite volume code to simulate the floow aro ound a plannning vessel at steady speed s througgh callm water. Vaan et al.995 0. Nu umerical So olution witth experimental data. Finaally. Thiss comm mercial sofftware solvves Reynollds-Averagedd A model of a Panamax bulk b carrier ship was useed Naviier-Stokes (R RANS) equaations in co omputationall in this study. 2005) aro ound a moddern naval ship. study ying details of flow charracteristics. (2010) calculated co omponents of Bread dth of waterline (B) 32. Obreja O et al. (1994) carried ou ut a study oon serries of 60 and calculaated pressure distributioon Fig. w we used ressults of these tests ffor of thhese method ds for hydroodynamic stu udy of shipss verrification off numerical results.403[m] con ntainer shipp resistance numerically y.161 [m3] [m com mpared CFD D results with w experim mental resultts. Although. Jones and a Clarke (2010) useed Tablee 1: Full scale ship s and modell main characteeristics (Obrejaa FL LUENT code for numeerical simulaation of floow et al. Thhe nodees and accorrdingly calcuulates total resistance r off chaaracteristics of the shipp and of th he model aare model. preesented in Taable 1. it can be used forr num merical moddeling. verify ressults by experimental daata fro om model test. 2. For capturing surfacce waves aro ound model.. Ogiwara et al. domain and com mputes presssure and velocity in alll Th he bulk carriier model iss shown in Figure F 1.g. Model Geom metry In thhis study. (19998) measurred flow aro ound a VLC CC tan nker model.837 Midsh hip section coeffficient (CM) 0.761[m] Lengtth between perp pendiculars ( LBBP) 217. ((2007) modeeled a ship hull by usinng Waterrline coefficient (CWP) 0. Volu ume of Fluid (VOF) methhod was used d.995 Haakan et al. Force and mom ment data from fr the sim mulations weere useed in an iteraative schemee to determin ne the dynam mic equ uilibrium poosition of thee model at seelected speedds.83 [m m] 0. they coompared num merical resullts 3.923 0. Block k coefficient (CB B) 0. f pressuure and veloccity contourss and waves. They useed Draug ght mean (D) 13. Accordingly.20 [m m] 0. 2 .915 [m m] 2.837 0. the CFD m methods and d applicationn this study.. Ebrahim mi / Numericaal Study on Reesistance of a Bulk Carrier Vessel Using CFD Methodd mo odel and theen. 1: 1 Model of bullk carrier ship ((Obreja et al. uusing 3D unnstructured hybrid messh.716[m] Banks et aal. thhat was a 1:80 scale of full f scale shiip. e.923 FL mercial codee and calculaated resistancce LUENT comm of model. thhis method in n comparisonn useed the geoometry of experimentaal model ffor with model test is less accuurate.

For checking gridg calculated aas Hakan et al.. When the interface bettween two fluids cuut through a computationaal cell the vallue of the functionn for a parrticular fluid d representedd the fraction of thhe cell volum me occupied byb that fluid Jones and Clarke ((2010). free surfface 4. (Ui ) (UiU j ) P    Ui U j   t  x j        xi x j   x j x j  x j    u 'i u ' j  fi (1) U i Fiig. were meshes m have refined in aall states. ρ. T This could increase i ratee of defined for eeach of the fluids fl in the siimulation andd was coomputations and reduce ttime of soluttion. was w used to know k when the problem m had reacheed a from the boottom of thee domain to the initial w water sttationary soluution. variationn of resistanc nce would be inconsiderabble. just half of by solving a single set of momentu um equationss and coomputationaal domain waas considered d for numeriical tracking thee volume fraactions of each of the fluids trreatment and the symm metry boun ndary condittion throughout tthe domain. The doomain seecond was usedu for nummerical solutiion. we w selected the represented as fi. surface wass occupied byy the water and a the rest bby the reesistance of model m and suurface wavess did not channge air. A by y using highher grid sizees. Monitorring was defined by a cubbe volume which w the m model of the resistan nce and free ssurface wavees around moodel volume subbtracted fromm it. ceells. total resiistance of moodel to differencces in density and mom mentum souurces. a (2007):    air c   water (1  c ) (4) in ndependency y.. Computaational Dom main waves w could be b captured m more accurateely. We obbserved that after a 20 seconnds. Although. A volume fraction functionn was appplied at cen nter plane. µ. Journal of the Persian Gulf G (Marine Science)/Vol S . A sttructured meesh was usedd in t x j domain which h all of the ccells were hexahedral h tyype. this t siize of mesh was selecteed for numeerical modeliing. 2: Dimensio ons of computaational domain 0 (2)  xi The GAMBIT Pre-proocessing softtware was used u c  ( cU j ) (3)  0 foor mesh generation. The commputational domain d and itts dimensionns are Details D of the grid are dispplayed in Figu ure 4.9. this time was w selected for 3 . Finally. which include buo oyancy forcees due opptimum mesh. The hulll and flow fiield were sym mmetric abouut the coonsiderablly.. such as a pressure and External forces appplied to the fluid were velocity conttours and reesistance. s By vissual in nspection of o the wavve pattern and detaiiled   air c  water (1  c) (5) coomparison of o other resuults. Accordin ng to VOF m model. Therefore. V It seem med by increeasing grid siize over 7550000 Equation (22) by the Reyynolds stress tensor  u 'i u ' j . For exampple. set to unity if the given fluid f occupied a cell volum me or was set to zzero otherwise. 10/Deceember 2012/6//1-6 The VOF F method sim mulates the mo otion of two fluids ceenter plane of model. The voluume fractionn c was defin ned as (Vair/V total) At A stern and bow b side of m model and neear free surfaace.0005 selected acccording to Van V et al. Equationns (1) and (2) ( were the incompresssible RANS equuations in teensor form and a Equationn (3) was the equuation of voolume fractio on transport Peric and Ferzigeer (2002). displayed iin (Figure 2). and viscosity. Therefore. and the fluuid density. due to differeent grid sizees is plotted in Figure 3 for The effect oof turbulencee on the flow w is representted in V=0. (19 998).33/No. we examinned 4 grid sizes. These dimensions d were A time-dep pendent soluttion with timme step of 0.

Th he motion off the free surrface flow was w governedd by grravitational force. Reesults and Discussion D For turbuleence modeliing. Ebrahim mi / Numericaal Study on Reesistance of a Bulk Carrier Vessel Using CFD Methodd moodeling at aall speeds. Accordinngly.95). f Hence. The static pressurre at the outllet boundary was definedd as a function of water volum me fraction. weree used. standarrd. that is. Thee veloccity inlet co ondition was imposed to o both parts. Inllet and outlett of do omain were divided intoo two bound daries by thee initiaal location off free surfacee.1. respectivvely. m but thhe One way for verification oof numericall results wass appplied computting time for standard k   model wwas compparing wavees generatedd around model. thee computatio onal domainn was modeled as an a open channnel flow. the boundarry conditionss to be imposed must m take innto account the gravityy effeccts. it seem med that thiss assum mption was juustifiable.. 4: Details of mesh 6. wee applied thiss strateegy. 5. In numerical solut ution.18 (V=0. Althhough. Bo oundary Conditions Th he non-slip boundary coondition wass applied onn Fig g.. standaard prediicted waves around a modeel of bulk carrrier at speedd 4 . The movingg wall boundary co ondition was applied to side walls. perrformed for 6 speeds beetween Fr = 0. RNG annd Reealizable k   models were used in numericcal 6. the fluid fl particless on thhe body mov ve with body velocity. Also. At inlet. 3: Variation oof resistance foorce due to messh size the hull h surface of o the model. Resuults showed that there was w not mucch diffference betw ween results of these models. Numerical N modeling m w was k   model waas selected fo for numericall simulation. Thee shoorter than th that of otheers.. topp and bottom b of do omain and finnally symmettry for centerr planee of domaiin. th he upper partt was entrance of air and the loower was fo or water. Thee PISOO scheme waas selected att this study. because the vesssel was displlacement andd Frouude number was under 0. wh hich was alsoo consistent with ex xperimental ssetup. Numerical N Results R sollution. it co ould producee errorrs in results. A variet ety of Presssure-Velocityy Coup pling schemees were avaailable in FL LUENT. trim an nd sinkage off model were kept fixed. For pressuree and momentum spatial disccretizations. body forcee weigghted and seecond order upwind meethods weree seleccted. For this purpose. t Sttandard Wall Functionss m//s) and Fr = 00. but becausee of our lim mitations andd comp plexity of 6-D DOF modelinng of hull. Fig g.559 For near wall treatment.09 (V=0.3.

it reacheed to 13%. In all speeds. upp to 5 percennt difference with experim mental resultss in In these figuures. Frictional reesistance of ship (RF) was w Figs.95 m/s and witth available experimentall data reesistance of bulk b carrier m model from CFD methodd is showed gennerally good agreement (F Figures 5a annd b). but after thhat. Total method m 5 . frictional resistannce of model fo or comparisoon by CFD D results were w in nvestigated. ITTC 57 Method Another way w for estim mating resisttance of a ship s was w applying g common eempirical forrmulas. 10/Deceember 2012/6//1-6 of V=0. 2005) in towing tank of G Galati 0. there was little differrence Fiig. wave syystems of bo ow and stern were lo ower speeds. The totall resistance calculated c byy CFD methhod is 7 frictional resistance frrom ITTC 19957 In Figure 7. Fig.075 Cf  ( (7) (log Rn  2)2 University. We could seeemingly redduce errrors by usinng the modeern computerrs for numerrical modeling m and using finer gr grids..33/No. shown in Figure 6 and coompared with h the experim mental method m was compared c wiith frictional resistance frrom results. F For verifyingg of numericcal results inn this 57 as shown in i Equation ((7): study. The T obvious. In this study. CFD reesults showed d less differeence with w experimeental results. Howevver. 7: Comparison of frictional resistance from m CFD and ITTC C 57 between exxperimental and a numerical findings. Journal of the Persian Gulf G (Marine Science)/Vol S . 6: Comparrison of total ressistance from CFD C and model ttest As showwn in Figure 6. reeason of thesse errors mayay be weakneess of this CFD C coode for calcu ulating wave m making resistance. in n low speed ds which waave making resistance had smmaller magniitude. 5a (top) and b (bottom)): Comparison of waves from CFD caalculated from Equation (6): method and m model test RF  C f (0. theree was aboutt 8% differeence between results. CFD C method and there w was good corrrelation betw wen th hem.5 SVm 2 ) (6) The moddel test waas an accurrate and relliable Coefficientt of frictioonal resistance (Cf) was w method for measuring and investig gating of thee ship co omputed by empirical foormula preseented by ITT TC- resistance. we ussed results off model testss accomplisheed by (Obreja et al.2. 6. suchh as IT TTC 57 metthod.

2002.185-188. Van. and Yilmaz. 3rd edition. model calculated by ITTC 57 method was compared Peric. Kim. 13th Numerical Towing Tank United Nations Conference on Trade and Symposium.H. 24th Symposium on Banks. H. P..H.B.. 10/December 2012/6/1-6 6 .J. Phillips. Ulsan.J. 2010. Veitch. Clarke. and Kajitani. F. S.. Ebrahimi / Numerical Study on Resistance of a Bulk Carrier Vessel Using CFD Method 7. 2006. and Pacuraru. pp. resistance for KCS. E. an investigation was carried out on 5415. There was good agreement Methods for Fluid Dynamics. References Planing hull performance evaluation using a general purpose CFD code. Pressure results had a difference up to 5% relative to the distribution on the hull surface of series 60 model. S. Proceedings of the Transportation.. Yim. Experimental techniques for vortices around model were obtained numerically. 1998. D. CFD investigation around the ship model. 2010. pp.145-150. Lee.. T. G. Conclusion Jones. N.. M. A.. 10/December 2012/6/1-6 Journal of the Persian Gulf (Marine Science)/Vol.. and Turnock. D. Springer Pulication.A.. O. Hakan.. Popescue. S.. In higher Froude numbers... Vortex Dominated Flows. DSTO-TR-2465. Kim W. Development (UNCTAD). 30P.. Analysis showed that in low Froude numbers.T. 3/No. Total resistance of model was Obreja. 2007. error Proceedings of CFD Workshop Tokyo. Japan. and Eom. Bayraktar. Ebrahimi / Numerical Study on Resistance of a Bulk Carrier Vessel Using CFD Method Journal of the Persian Gulf (Marine Science)/Vol . the National Academy of surface CFD prediction of components of ship Sciences. Germany. J.. pp.350- increased up to 13%. 2003. S. Bose.1-7. Romania. Workshop on results were compared with experimental data.3/No.Y. 2nd C.. B.H. and Liu. pp. J. O. Defense Science and resistance of a bulk carrier vessel using CFD method Technology Organization. Ferziger. D. CFD Ogiwara. Computational with CFD results. Finally. model test results. Flow measurement International Conference on Marine Research and around a 300K VLCC model. Free Naval Hydrodynamics. The frictional resistance of 358. Italy. Thornhill. calculated for different speeds and surface waves 2005. Ionas. 1994. G. by FLUENT software. the DTMB In this paper. 11 P. J.. between results of CFD and ITTC method. Computational investigation of a hull. annual spring meeting. Technical report. D. 426P.. Fluent code simulation of flow around a naval hull...

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