You are on page 1of 2

Quality Control Test with

Cross-Hole Ultrasonic
Integrity testing of concrete by ultrasonic "Cross-Hole Sonic Logging"
Sonic or transmission testing is a fre-
quently used test procedure to verify
the integrity of concrete in piles and
diaphragm walls.

The Technical Services Department of

BAUER Spezialtiefbau GmbH of
Schrobenhausen, Germany, uses a
Cross Hole Ultrasonic Monitor (CHUM).

Bauer brings to bear its extensive

experience gained over many years in
the application of this test procedure on
numerous sites both in Germany and

Measuring Principle
Vertical access tubes attached to the
reinforcement cage are inserted into a
pile or trench. The actual spacing
between the tubes must be known and
can be up to five metres.

In two adjacent access tubes, ultra-

sound transmitter and receiver probes
are moved simultaneously from the
bottom upward until the entire shaft is
scanned. Both access tubes are filled
with water to facilitate optimal transmis-
sion of the sonic signal from the trans-
mitter into the concrete and from the
concrete into the receiver.

Both the signal travel time between

transmitter and receiver and the inten-
sity or strength of the signal arriving at
the receiver are recorded.

The signal travel time is directly propor- Belgium, Eupen: Cross-Hole Ultrasonic Logging being carried out by Bauer Spezialtiefbau
tional to the distance between transmit-
ter and receiver probes and, thus, the a reduction in the quality of the con-
spacing of the access tubes. The signal crete.
travel time is also inversely proportion-
al to the speed of propagation of the The "softer" the concrete, the lower is
sonic signal in concrete. the sonic energy arriving at the receiv-
er. This sonic energy or signal strength
The speed of signal propagation is pri- is also recorded concurrently with the
marily dependent on the shear modu- signal travel time.
lus of the concrete and thus on the
quality of the concrete. A similar relationship applies to damp-
ening or impedance of the sonic signal.
For two parallel access tubes an Standards regulating the test proce- Cross-Hole Ultrasonic Monitor (CHUM) unit set
increase in signal travel time indicates dure and the evaluation of test results up on site (
are not currently available in Germany.
We have, therefore, adopted the rele-
vant French Standard (NF P 94-160-1,
"Auscultation d'un lement de fonda-

If anomalies or variations in signal trav-

el time or signal strength are detected,
these can be defined more accurately
by comparing the results of all scans
carried out on different pairs of access
tubes (see: layout plan).

Glossary for Schematic

(1) Concrete structure (e. g. pile or

diaphragm wall with cast-in
access tubes filled with water)

(2) Ultrasound transmitter

(3) Ultrasound receiver

(4) Depth sensor

(5) Standard laptop

(6) Defects in the pile and correspon-
4 ding on-screen presentation

2 3

BAUER Spezialtiefbau GmbH

Technical Services Department /
Instrumentation and field testing
BAUER-Strae 1
86529 Schrobenhausen
Telephone: +49 8252 97-1303
Telefax: +49 8252 97-1426
Schematic illustration of Cross-Hole Ultrasonic Monitoring (Source: e-mail:

BAUER Spezialtiefbau GmbH D-86529 Schrobenhausen Germany Tel. +49 8252 97-0 Fax +49 8252 97-1359 905.160.2 08/2009