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Engr. Marcelo V. Rivera

1. Algebra of Vectors
2. Equality of Vectors, Addition, Subtraction, Scalar Product,
3. Vector Product
4. Vector and Scalar Functions of one variable
5. Calculus of Vectors and vector identities
6. Derivative of a vector function
7. Directional Derivative, The del operator
8. Gradient, Divergence, Curl 9
. Line Integral
10. Surface Integral
11. Volume Integral
12. Integral Theorems: Green's Lemma, Divergence Theorem, and Stokes'
Theorem and its aplications
Our introduction to vectors is geometric.
We conceive of a vector as a directed line segment PQ.
P - initial point
Q - terminal point
PQ is denoted by A, or A
- Norm or length of the vector.
- It is denoted by PQ , PQ , A , A , A , or A .
1. Two vectors A and B are equal if they have the same
magnitude and direction regardless of their initial points.
Thus A = B.
2. A vector having direction opposite to that of vector A but
with the same magnitude is denoted by A.
3a. The sum or resultant of vectors A and B is another vector
say C formed by placing the initial point of B on the terminal
point of A and joining the initial point of A to the terminal
point of B.
3b. The sum C is written C = A + B. The denition here is
equivalent to the parallelogram law for vector addition.
3c. Extensions to sums of more than two vectors are
immediate. For example, to obtain the sum or resultant E of
the vectors A, B, C, and D.
4. The dierence of vectors A and B, represented by AB, is
that vector C which added to B gives A.
5. Multiplication of a vector A by a scalar m produces a vector
mA with magnitude times the magnitude of A and
direction the same as or opposite to that of A according as m
is positive or negative. If m=0, mA=0, the null vector.
If A, B and C are vectors, and m and n are scalars, then:
1. A+B = B+A Commutative Law for Addition
2. A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C Associative Law for Addition
3. m(nA) = (mn)A = n(mA) Associative Law for Multiplication
4. (m+n)A = mA+nA Distributive Law
5. m(A+B) = mA+mB Distributive Law

Note that in these laws only multiplication of a vector by one or

more scalars is dened.
Unit vectors are vectors having unit length.

The unit vector in A direction if A is any vector with length A>0

is: a =

The rectangular unit vectors i, j, and k are unit vectors having the
direction of the positive x, y, and z axes of a rectangular
coordinate system.
Any vector A in 3 dimensions can be represented with initial
point at the origin O of a rectangular coordinate system.
Let (A1, A2, A3) be the rectangular
coordinates of the terminal point of
vector A with initial point at O.
The vectors A1i, A2j, and A3k are called the rectangular component
vectors, or simply component vectors, of A in the x, y, and z
directions respectively. A1, A2, and A3
are called the rectangular components,
or simply components, of A in the x, y,
and z directions respectively.
2 2 2
A = 1 + 2 + 3
= =
A 2 2 2
1 + 2 + 3
-or radius vector r from 0 to the point (x, y, z) is written:
= + +
Find the distance between (3, 4, 5) and (0, 8, 7).
Given = 2 5 + 10; = + 2 9 and = 2.
Find a) + , b) , and c) .
a) 3 +
b) 3 7 + 19
c) 4 10 + 20
Given A= + and B = 3 + 4 12.
Find the norm of a vector of A and B.
A = 3
B = 13
Given A= 2 3. Find the unit vector in A direction.
2 3

13 13
Determine if the points P(1, 2, 3), Q(2, 1, 0), and R(4, 7, 6) are
Definitely yes.
Specify the unit vector extending from the origin toward the
point G(2, 2, 1).
2 2 1
3 3 3
Given points M(1, 2, 1), N(3, 3, 0), and P(2, 3, 4), find
b) +
e) 2 3
a) 4 5
b) 3 10 6
c) 2.45
d) 0.14 0.7 0.7
e) 15.56