Formulae

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Formulae

© All Rights Reserved

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The design formulae and data provided in this Annex are for education, training and assessment purposes only.

They are based on the Hong Kong Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013 (HKCP-2013).

Grade of concrete not higher than 45.

The moment redistribution is not more than 10%, i.e. b < 0.9.

The structural element is subjected to gravitational loads, i.e. dead and imposed loads, only.

Grade 250 500B or 500C

2

Specified characteristic strength, fy (N/mm ) 250 500

Appearance Plain Ribbed

Notation R T

Preferred nominal consideration for ULS

cross-sectional area

size (mm)

(mm2) Reinforcement 1.15

10 78.5 Concrete in flexure or axial

1.50

12 113 load

1.25

without shear reinforcement

20 314

Bond strength 1.40

25 491

Others (e.g. bearing stress) >= 1.50

32 804

40 1257 Table 1.3 Values of Partial Safety Factors for

Material Strength (m) for ULS

Table 1.2 Sizes of Reinforcement Bars (Extracted from Table 2.2 of HKCP 2013)

(Extracted from Table 2 of CS2:2012)

Usage qk (kPa)

Domestic 2.0

Materials Density (kN/m3) Offices for general use 3.0

Reinforced concrete 24.5 Department stores, shops, etc. 5.0

Cement mortar 23

Natural stone Table 1.5 - Examples of Imposed Load

29 (Extracted from Table 3.2 of the Code of Practice for Dead

(granite) and Imposed Loads 2011)

Soil 20

Table 1.4 - Examples of Density of Material

(Extracted from Appendix A of the Code of Practice for Adverse effect 1.4 1.6

Dead and Imposed Loads 2011)

Beneficial effect 1.0 0

for Load (f) for ULS

(Extracted from Table 2.1 of HKCP 2013)

Aug 2014

Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

BEAM

Sw Sw

Clear Span, Ln a2 = h/2 (if h < Sw)

a1 = Sw/2 (if Sw < h)

Effective Span, L

SUPPORT 1 SUPPORT 2

Elevation

Figure 1.5 - Effective Span

b = [1.1]

moment at the section before redistribution

The lever arm z= [0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9)0.5] d [2.3]

As = M / (0.87 fy z) [2.4]

(d z) / 0.45 hf [2.11]

z= 0.775 d [2.5]

A's= [2.8]

0.87 fy (d - d')

As = + A's [2.9]

0.87 fy z

K 0.043 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.156

z/d 0.950 0.941 0.928 0.915 0.901 0.887 0.873 0.857 0.842 0.825 0.807 0.789 0.775

Aug 2014

Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

Notes:

(a) The length of the cantilever, l3, should be less than half the adjacent span.

(b) The ratio of the adjacent spans should lie between 2/3 and 1.5.

(c) For simply-supported beam, lpi = L.

(Figure 5.1 of HKCP-2013)

Beam

Flexural tension steel

Rectangular section 0.13

4

Flanged section (bw/b < 0.4) 0.18

Flexural compression steel

Rectangular section 0.20

Column 0.80 6

Wall

Vertical bars 0.40 4

Horizontal bars 0.25

Aug 2014

Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

Shear Stress v= [3.1]

bvd bv = bw for flanged beam section

100 As 400 1

vc = 0.79 ( )1/3 ( )1/4 [3.2]

bvd d m

where

100 As

( ) should not be taken as greater than 3. (As is the steel area of longitudinal tension steel.)

bvd

400

( )1/4 should not be taken as less than 0.67 for members without shear reinforcement.

d

400

( )1/4 should not be taken as less than 1 for members with minimum shear reinforcement.

d

m 1.25, partial factor of safety for shear strength of concrete

(Extracted from Table 6.3 of HKCP-2013)

Link Size

80 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325

8 1.257 1.005 0.804 0.670 0.574 0.503 0.447 0.402 0.366 0.335 0.309

10 1.964 1.571 1.257 1.047 0.898 0.785 0.698 0.628 0.571 0.524 0.483

12 2.827 2.262 1.810 1.508 1.293 1.131 1.005 0.905 0.823 0.754 0.696

16 5.027 4.021 3.217 2.681 2.298 2.011 1.787 1.608 1.462 1.340 1.237

Table 3.23 Asv / sv Values for Single Link (2 legs) (in mm2 per mm)

Aug 2014

Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

(Table 7.3 of HKCP-2013)

(Table 7.4 of HKCP-2013)

Aug 2014

Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

(Table 7.5 of HKCP-2013)

support end span support interior span supports

Moment 0 0.09FL -0.11FL 0.07FL -0.08FL

Shear 0.45F - 0.6F - 0.55F

Notes:

No redistribution of the moments calculated from this table should be made.

Characteristic imposed load may not exceed the characteristic dead load.

Load should be substantially uniformly distributed over three or more spans.

Variation in span length should not exceed 15% of the longest.

Table 4.1 Force Coefficients for Continuous Beams with Approximately Equal Span under udl

(Table 6.1 of HKCP-2013)

support (simply end span support interior span supports

supported)

Shear 0.4F - 0.6F - 0.5F

Notes:

2

1. Area of each bay exceeds 30 m .

2. Characteristic imposed load does not exceed 5kPa.

3. The ratio of characteristic imposed load to the characteristic dead load does not exceed 1.25.

4. An allowance of 20% redistribution of the moments at the supports has been made.

5. Load should be substantially uniformly distributed over three or more spans.

Table 5.1 Force Coefficients for One-way Slabs with Approximately Equal Span

under udl (Extracted from Table 6.4 of HKCP-2013)

Aug 2014

Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

Bar Spacing in mm

Bar Size

100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 350

8 503 402 335 287 251 223 201 183 168 144

10 785 628 524 449 393 349 314 286 262 224

12 1131 905 754 646 565 503 452 411 377 323

16 2011 1608 1340 1149 1005 894 804 731 670 574

w2

w1 w1

Shear and moment for simply-supported beam

symmetrically loaded with two partial udl loads, L2 L1

L1

w1 and w2, as shown in the figure on the right:

where, Lo = The clear height between end restraints

The value of is given in the following table:

End Condition at the Condition 1. The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams

Bottom on either side which are at least as deep as the overall dimension of the

column in the plane considered. Where the column is designed to a

1 2 3 foundation structure, this should be of a form specifically designed to carry

the moment.

1 0.75 0.80 0.90 Condition 2. The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams

Condition at

on either side which are shallower than the overall dimension of the column

the Top

End

Condition 3. The end of the column is connected to members which, while

3 0.90 0.95 1.00 not specifically designed to provide restraint to rotation of the column will,

nevertheless, provide some nominal restraint.

Kcu

K = 4E(bh3/12)/L (for rectangular beam with fixed

end)

Mes = The unbalance fixed end moment (FEM) of beams

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.0Gk

= (FEM of b1) (FEM of b2)

Kb1 Kb2 FEM = (1/12)wL2 (for beam under udl)

Mcl = Moment to the lower column

Kcl = Mes Kcl / (Kcu + Klu + 0.5Kb1 + 0.5Kb2)

Mcu = Moment to the upper column

= Mes Kcu / (Kcu + Klu + 0.5Kb1 + 0.5Kb2)

for Determination of Design Moment for Column

Aug 2014

Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

N = 0.4fcu Ac + 0.75fyAsc [6.3]

Biaxial Bending

1.00 0.88 0.77 0.65 0.53 0.42 0.30

(Table 6.14 of HKCP-2013)

Aug 2014

Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

Aug 2014

Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

for bending

a c

Pad Footing

(2) Perimeter of the column

check vmax

e f

column from design for

shear

Column

L

1.5d

column face check punching

h g shear

b d

PLAN

Design of Square Footing

No. of

Configuration Bottom

Piles

Reinforcement

2 T = FcL/(4d)

L

L

3 T = FcL/(9d) av

L

Critical section for shear check

Shear Check in Pile Cap (Plan)

L (Adapted from Figure 6.19 of

4 T = FcL/(8d) HKCP-2013)

Simple Pile Cap

Aug 2014

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