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Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

The design formulae and data provided in this Annex are for education, training and assessment purposes only.
They are based on the Hong Kong Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013 (HKCP-2013).

Unless otherwise specified, their application is subject to the following conditions:


Grade of concrete not higher than 45.
The moment redistribution is not more than 10%, i.e. b < 0.9.
The structural element is subjected to gravitational loads, i.e. dead and imposed loads, only.

Mild Steel High Tensile Steel


Grade 250 500B or 500C
2
Specified characteristic strength, fy (N/mm ) 250 500
Appearance Plain Ribbed
Notation R T

Table 1.1 Properties of Reinforcement Bars

Nominal Material/design Values of m


Preferred nominal consideration for ULS
cross-sectional area
size (mm)
(mm2) Reinforcement 1.15
10 78.5 Concrete in flexure or axial
1.50
12 113 load

16 201 Concrete in shear strength


1.25
without shear reinforcement
20 314
Bond strength 1.40
25 491
Others (e.g. bearing stress) >= 1.50
32 804
40 1257 Table 1.3 Values of Partial Safety Factors for
Material Strength (m) for ULS
Table 1.2 Sizes of Reinforcement Bars (Extracted from Table 2.2 of HKCP 2013)
(Extracted from Table 2 of CS2:2012)

Usage qk (kPa)
Domestic 2.0
Materials Density (kN/m3) Offices for general use 3.0
Reinforced concrete 24.5 Department stores, shops, etc. 5.0
Cement mortar 23
Natural stone Table 1.5 - Examples of Imposed Load
29 (Extracted from Table 3.2 of the Code of Practice for Dead
(granite) and Imposed Loads 2011)
Soil 20

Dead Load Imposed Load


Table 1.4 - Examples of Density of Material
(Extracted from Appendix A of the Code of Practice for Adverse effect 1.4 1.6
Dead and Imposed Loads 2011)
Beneficial effect 1.0 0

Table 1.6 - Values of Partial Safety Factors


for Load (f) for ULS
(Extracted from Table 2.1 of HKCP 2013)

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BEAM
Sw Sw
Clear Span, Ln a2 = h/2 (if h < Sw)
a1 = Sw/2 (if Sw < h)
Effective Span, L

SUPPORT 1 SUPPORT 2
Elevation

Figure 1.5 - Effective Span

moment at the section after redistribution


b = [1.1]
moment at the section before redistribution

Limit to neutral axis x 0.5d [2.1]

The K-value K= M/(bd2fcu) [2.2]

b = 1.0 K' = 0.156 [2.7]

b = 0.8 K' = 0.132

Singly-reinforced section, K < K


The lever arm z= [0.5 + (0.25 K/0.9)0.5] d [2.3]

If K 0.0428 z= 0.95 d [2.6]

As = M / (0.87 fy z) [2.4]

Check depth of neutral axis for flanged section


(d z) / 0.45 hf [2.11]

Doubly-reinforced section, K > K


z= 0.775 d [2.5]

Check d' / x < 0.38 [2.10]

(K K') fcu bd2


A's= [2.8]
0.87 fy (d - d')

K' fcu bd2


As = + A's [2.9]
0.87 fy z

K 0.043 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.156

z/d 0.950 0.941 0.928 0.915 0.901 0.887 0.873 0.857 0.842 0.825 0.807 0.789 0.775

Table 2.2 Lever Arm Factor

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Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

Notes:
(a) The length of the cantilever, l3, should be less than half the adjacent span.
(b) The ratio of the adjacent spans should lie between 2/3 and 1.5.
(c) For simply-supported beam, lpi = L.

Figure 2.11 Definition of lpi for Calculation of Effective Flange Width


(Figure 5.1 of HKCP-2013)

c/c distance of adjacent slabs

Figure 2.12 Effective Flange Width (Figure 5.2 of HKCP-2013)

Elements Minimum (%) Maximum (%)


Beam
Flexural tension steel
Rectangular section 0.13
4
Flanged section (bw/b < 0.4) 0.18
Flexural compression steel
Rectangular section 0.20
Column 0.80 6
Wall
Vertical bars 0.40 4
Horizontal bars 0.25

Table 2.1 Minimum and Maximum Percentage of Reinforcement (Grade 500)

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V bv = b for rectangular beam section


Shear Stress v= [3.1]
bvd bv = bw for flanged beam section

100 As 400 1
vc = 0.79 ( )1/3 ( )1/4 [3.2]
bvd d m
where
100 As
( ) should not be taken as greater than 3. (As is the steel area of longitudinal tension steel.)
bvd
400
( )1/4 should not be taken as less than 0.67 for members without shear reinforcement.
d
400
( )1/4 should not be taken as less than 1 for members with minimum shear reinforcement.
d
m 1.25, partial factor of safety for shear strength of concrete

Table 3.1 Values of Design Concrete Shear Stress, vc


(Extracted from Table 6.3 of HKCP-2013)

If fcu > 25 MPa, the value of vc has to be multiplied by (fcu / 25)1/3.

Asv / sv bv(v vc) / (0.87 fyv) [3.3]

Asv / sv 0.4 bv / (0.87 fyv) [3.4]

Vn = (vc + 0.4) bvd [3.5]

Max. Allowable Shear Stress = 0.8 fcu [3.6]

Max sv 0.75d [3.7]

Spacing of Links in (mm)


Link Size
80 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325
8 1.257 1.005 0.804 0.670 0.574 0.503 0.447 0.402 0.366 0.335 0.309
10 1.964 1.571 1.257 1.047 0.898 0.785 0.698 0.628 0.571 0.524 0.483
12 2.827 2.262 1.810 1.508 1.293 1.131 1.005 0.905 0.823 0.754 0.696
16 5.027 4.021 3.217 2.681 2.298 2.011 1.787 1.608 1.462 1.340 1.237

Table 3.23 Asv / sv Values for Single Link (2 legs) (in mm2 per mm)

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Table 3.4 Basic L/d Ratio for R. C. Section


(Table 7.3 of HKCP-2013)

Table 3.5 Modification Factor for Tension Reinforcement


(Table 7.4 of HKCP-2013)

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Annex - R C Design Formulae and Data

Table 3.6 Modification Factor for Compression Reinforcement


(Table 7.5 of HKCP-2013)

At outer Near middle of At first interior At middle of At interior


support end span support interior span supports
Moment 0 0.09FL -0.11FL 0.07FL -0.08FL
Shear 0.45F - 0.6F - 0.55F
Notes:
No redistribution of the moments calculated from this table should be made.
Characteristic imposed load may not exceed the characteristic dead load.
Load should be substantially uniformly distributed over three or more spans.
Variation in span length should not exceed 15% of the longest.

Table 4.1 Force Coefficients for Continuous Beams with Approximately Equal Span under udl
(Table 6.1 of HKCP-2013)

At outer Near middle of At first interior At middle of At interior


support (simply end span support interior span supports
supported)

Moment 0 0.086FL -0.086FL 0.063FL -0.063FL


Shear 0.4F - 0.6F - 0.5F
Notes:
2
1. Area of each bay exceeds 30 m .
2. Characteristic imposed load does not exceed 5kPa.
3. The ratio of characteristic imposed load to the characteristic dead load does not exceed 1.25.
4. An allowance of 20% redistribution of the moments at the supports has been made.
5. Load should be substantially uniformly distributed over three or more spans.

Table 5.1 Force Coefficients for One-way Slabs with Approximately Equal Span
under udl (Extracted from Table 6.4 of HKCP-2013)

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Bar Spacing in mm
Bar Size
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 350
8 503 402 335 287 251 223 201 183 168 144
10 785 628 524 449 393 349 314 286 262 224
12 1131 905 754 646 565 503 452 411 377 323
16 2011 1608 1340 1149 1005 894 804 731 670 574

Table 5.2 Steel Area in mm2 per m Width

w2
w1 w1
Shear and moment for simply-supported beam
symmetrically loaded with two partial udl loads, L2 L1
L1
w1 and w2, as shown in the figure on the right:

Shears at the supports V= w1L1 + 0.5 w2L2 [5.1]

Mid-span moment M= 0.5w1L12 + 0.5w2L2(L1 + 0.25L2) [5.2]

Effective height of a column: Le = Lo [6.1]


where, Lo = The clear height between end restraints
The value of is given in the following table:

End Condition at the Condition 1. The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams
Bottom on either side which are at least as deep as the overall dimension of the
column in the plane considered. Where the column is designed to a
1 2 3 foundation structure, this should be of a form specifically designed to carry
the moment.
1 0.75 0.80 0.90 Condition 2. The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams
Condition at

on either side which are shallower than the overall dimension of the column
the Top
End

2 0.80 0.85 0.95 in the plane considered.


Condition 3. The end of the column is connected to members which, while
3 0.90 0.95 1.00 not specifically designed to provide restraint to rotation of the column will,
nevertheless, provide some nominal restraint.

Table 6.1 Values of for Braced Columns (Table 6.11 of HKCP-2013)

K = Stiffness of the member


Kcu
K = 4E(bh3/12)/L (for rectangular beam with fixed
end)
Mes = The unbalance fixed end moment (FEM) of beams
1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.0Gk
= (FEM of b1) (FEM of b2)
Kb1 Kb2 FEM = (1/12)wL2 (for beam under udl)
Mcl = Moment to the lower column
Kcl = Mes Kcl / (Kcu + Klu + 0.5Kb1 + 0.5Kb2)
Mcu = Moment to the upper column
= Mes Kcu / (Kcu + Klu + 0.5Kb1 + 0.5Kb2)

Figure 6.2 Simplified Sub-frame Analysis


for Determination of Design Moment for Column

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Column under Axial Force


N = 0.4fcu Ac + 0.75fyAsc [6.3]

N= 0.35fcu Ac + 0.67fyAsc [6.4]

Biaxial Bending

For Mx/h' My/b', Mx' = Mx + (h'/b')My [6.5]

For Mx/h' < My/b', My' = My + (b'/h')Mx [6.6]

N/(bhfcu) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6


1.00 0.88 0.77 0.65 0.53 0.42 0.30

Table 6.2 Values of the Coefficient for Biaxial Bending


(Table 6.14 of HKCP-2013)

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(1) Section across column face design


for bending

a c
Pad Footing
(2) Perimeter of the column
check vmax
e f

(3) Section at 1d from the


column from design for
shear
Column
L
1.5d

(4) Perimeter at 1.5d from the


column face check punching
h g shear

b d

PLAN

Figure 7.3 Critical Sections for R C


Design of Square Footing

Check distribution of rebars in square footing: L 1.5(c+3d) [7.1]

Tensile Force of the 0.2


No. of
Configuration Bottom
Piles
Reinforcement

2 T = FcL/(4d)
L
L

3 T = FcL/(9d) av

L
Critical section for shear check

Figure 7.5 Critical Section for


Shear Check in Pile Cap (Plan)
L (Adapted from Figure 6.19 of
4 T = FcL/(8d) HKCP-2013)

Table 7.1 Tensile Force for the Reinforcement in


Simple Pile Cap

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