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Refrigeration 101

Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer


Hill PHOENIX
Compressor

Basic
Evaporator Condenser /
Refrigeration Receiver
Cycle

Expansion
Device
Vapor Compression Cycle
Th MOVEMENT
The
Cooling by the of HEAT from a
removal of heat place where it is
not
ot wanted
a ted to a
place where it is
unobjectionable
How Heat is Removed
What is heat? A form of energy

What is cold? Absences of heat.

How does heat High heat to low heat


flow?

Does cold NO
flow?

How is heat British Thermal Unit (BTU)


measured?
Heat is a form of energy and is measured
British in BTUs.
ThermalUnit
(BTU)
A BTU is the quantity of heat required to
p
raise the temperature,, of one p
pound of
water, one degree Fahrenheit.
1. Heat flows from high energy levels to
a lower energy level.

1
2. Heat
eat will not
ot flow
o without
t out a

2 temperature difference

3 3. The greater the temperature


difference, the faster the energy will
flow.
Radiation
HeatFlows
H tFl
ThreeWays Convection

Conduction
Conduction

The transfer of heat Example:


from molecule to Heating one end of
molecule through a copper tube,
tube will
a substance by cause the other
chain collision end to get hot.
Convection

Heat transfer by the Example:


movement of Convection oven
molecules from
Forced air furnace
f
one place to
another.
Radiation

The transfer of heat Example:


by passing from a Sunlight goes
source to an through a window
absorbent surface without heating the
without heating glass but heats the
the space in s rface in the room
surface
between. it is shinning on.
Temperature
Temperatureindicatesthe
g y
averagevelocityofthe
molecules ofasubstance.

Astheheatenergyinasubstance
increases itssmoleculesvibrate
increases,it molecules vibrate
moreintensely

Athermometermeasuresthe
i
intensityofthisvibration.
i f hi ib i

Thermometersdonot measure
heat,theymeasuretheeffectof
heat.
Temperature Animation
The amount of heat (measured in BTUs) required
to raise one pound of a substance one degree
Fahrenheit.

Specific Heat Temp Rise (Deg F)


Substance (BTU/LB/Deg F) (From 1 BTU Addition)
Water (Liquid) 1.00 1.00
Ice 0.50 2.00
Steam 0 48
0.48 2 08
2.08
Aluminum 0.22 4.54
Brass 0.09 11.11
Physical State of a Substance

Gas
Adding heat Changing the
energy in any off state off a
the three states substance will
will increase the require a larger
Liquid temperature. quantity of heat
energy.

Solid
Heat Energy

There are two


yp of Heat
types 1. 2.
Energy Sensible Heat Latent Heat
1. Is the energy of molecular motion

1 2. Causes a change in temperature, with

2
No change in state.

3 3. Sensible heat causes an increase in


molecular motion.

4 4. The addition or removal of sensible


heat is measurable with a thermometer
1. Is the energy of molecular
separation and arrangement.

1
2. Causes a cchange
a ge in state, while
e tthere
ee

2 is no change In temperature.

3 3. It can not be measured with a


thermometer.
Mechanical refrigeration The majority of heat is The majority of the
works by changing the removed from the absorbed heat is
state of the refrigerant. temperature controlled removed from the
space as the refrigerant refrigeration system in
absorbs heat when it the condenser as the
changes state from a refrigerant changes
liquid to a gas in the state from a gas back to
evaporator. a liquid.
Vapor Compression Cycle
Example

(Deg. F.) ( Deg. C.) No are


970 BTUs
measurable
required to
temperature
change the water
250 Boiling
toLatent
steam. Water
Heat
change Sensible
Steam
Measurable
212
200
100
tHeat
temperature
t
152
change
180
MS BTUs
BTU
ibls bl
Sensible
Measurableare
100
Liquid to Heat Energy is
i added
dd d to
required
Heat
temperature
50 reach Boiling 32 F. (0C) Water (liquid)
change
32 0 Point
25

100 200 400 600 800 1000 1100 1200 BTUs


The temperature Add Heat = Liquid to Vapor (Vaporization)
at which a
substance will
change
h state from
f
a liquid to a vapor
or a vapor to a Remove Heat = Vapor to Liquid
((Condensation))
liquid
At a temperature Addition of Heat = Boiling
equal to its boiling
point or
condensing
d i point,i
a substance can be
both vapor and Removal Heat = Condensing
liquid.
liquid
100% Liquid, no vapor present

At a temperature
b l
below i boiling
its b ili
point, a substance is: 1lb. Of water @ 200o F. What is the state
of water?
- Sub-cooled liquid
- Sub-cooled by 12o F.
100% vapor, no liquid present

At a temperature
above its boiling
point, a substance is: 1lb. Of water @ 220o F. What is the state
of water?
- Super heated vapor (steam)
- Super heated by 8o F.
Example

(Deg. F.) ( Deg. C.)


A mixture
i t off vapor
250 Temperature at 212 F. (100C)
and liquid.
= Saturated Mixture
Sensible
100Steam
Measurable
%
Temperaturevapor
Above
212 F. (100C) =
212
200
100 Heat
-temperature
p p
There
Superheated isVapor
no
p

152
change
liquid.
Temperature below
100 %((100C)
212 F. liquid
)= Saturation Temperature of Water
100
-Sub-cooled
There is no
Liquid i 212 F.
is F ((100C)
C) att S
Sea L
Levell
50 vapor. (0 PSIG / 14.7 PSIA)
32 0
2
25

100 200 400 600 800 1000 1100 1200 BTUs


Pressure:
Defined as a force per unit of
area PSI

Bars

KPA
How does pressure flow?

High To Low
What would
happen if you take Refrigerant flows
two refrigerant from the tank
tanks, one with with refrigerant to
refrigerant and the the tank that is in
other in a vacuum a vacuum, until
and connect a the pressures
hose between equalize.
them?
As the pressure on a substance increases, boiling
temperature will increase. As pressure decreases, boiling
temperature will also decrease.

Pressure and boiling temperature follow each other

At the boiling point we have both Liquid and Vapor.


Vapor
As the pressure increases, saturation temperature will
increase. As pressure decreases, saturation temperature will
also decrease.

Pressure and boiling temperature follow each other

At the saturation temperature we have a saturated mixture


(both liquid and vapor are present).
Atmospheric Pressure

At Sea Level, the


atmospheric
pressure on our
bodies is 14.7 PSIA.

A column of air,, one


inch square and 60
miles high weighs
14.7 pounds.
Pressure Scales
Gauge Scale Absolute Scale

ATMOSPHERE 0 PSIG 14.7 PSIA


(Pressure @ Sea Level) 0 in Hg 29.92 in Hg

Hg is the symbol for


M
Mercury.

VACUUM 29 92 in Hg
29.92 0 in Hg
Compound Gauge
Gauge Scale:

Positive
Pressure Scale

Vacuum Scale
(Reference Only!)
Vacuum Gauge

Absolute Pressure in
microns of Hg.
Mercury Barometer
Vacuum

Atmospheric
Pressure at
Sea Level
Column of mercury
766
supported bcm
d by
760 mm
29.92 in
atmospheric Hg
pressure.

1 inch of Hg
=25,400 microns

Mercury
A medium to move heat

A substance that absorbs heat by


evaporating at low temperatures
What is a and pressures.
refrigerant?
g

And ggives up
p heat byy condensingg
at high temperatures and pressures
RefrigerantsNoLongerAvailable
R12CFC R11CFC R500CFC R502CFC

100% Ozone 100% Ozone 66% Ozone 28% Ozone


depletion depletion depletion depletion
potential Used in Used in Used in
Used in centrifugals 50hz deep freezers
every thing Med. Temp Med. - Low Low. Temp
Med. Low Temp
temp.

Production Production Production Production


ceased in 1995 ceased in 1995 ceased in 1995 ceased in 1995
Refrigerants Currently in Use
RefrigerantsCurrentlyinUse
R22HCFC R134aHFC R507HFC 404AHFC

5% Ozone 0% Ozone 0% Ozone 0% Ozone


depletion depletion depletion depletion
potential Used in Used in Used in
Used in auto A/C freezers deep freezers
every thing Med. - Low Low Temp Med. Low
Med. Low Temp Temp
temp.

Production
phase out Replaced R-12 Replaced R-502
Compressor

Refrigeration
g
Evaporator Condenser /
System Receiver
Components

Expansion
Device
Compressors
Compressors
Additional Compressor Types
Example Mechanical Center
Condensers
C d
Condensers

Air Cooled Water Cooled

Tube and fin Shell and tube


Plate
Evaporative
Superheated Sub-cooled
Vapor In Liquid Out
Evaporative
p

Plate
Metering Device
TXV and Electronic
Evaporators
Display Case Evaporators
Walk--In Evaporators
Walk
Plate to Plate Heat Exchanger
Questions