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Question 5.

3

Discuss on the differences of the stress-strain properties (Figure) for different type
of samples. How thermal history can affect microstructure and mechanical
behavior of semi-crystalline materials?

Stress-strain properties can be understand from the stress-strain curve shown
above. If the modulus of a particular curve is steep means the sample is brittle. Gradient
of the curve is to determine its modulus of elasticity, which indicate the sample’s
brittleness. If a curve propagates nearly parallel to the x-axis that shows the sample is
tough. The toughness of the sample can be determined by calculating the area under the
curve with trapezoidal rule.

The polymer chains in HDPE is linear hence they have higher degree of crystallinity. it shows “necking” during the stretching process. it showed that PS has the greatest modulus elasticity thus it is the most brittle. at least near Tg and above. The amorphous polymer will start to begin plastic deformation stage once it is subject to stress due to absence or less crystalline regions. but at the yield point a constriction developed. HDPE has highest elongation and yield point. Actual processing operations also include the application of anisotropic stresses/strains throughout this thermal history. it does not elongate constantly. The effect of cooling rate on glass transition is measured to determine the effect of thermal history to microstructure of the plastic material. LDPE has the lowest modulus. There are numerous examples of the effects of thermal history on the linear and nonlinear mechanical properties of polymers. LDPE and HDPE are ductile material as they have significant area under the curve whereas PP and PS are brittle material. Moreover. PP and PS. Glasses formed via the “simple” thermal history described above exhibit a higher modulus and yield stress for formation histories with higher pressures. When a semi-crystalline polymer applied to stress. In the most idealized situation a polymer melt well above Tg is cooled at a constant rate and pressure through Tg. slower cooling rates. HDPE have the largest area under the curve in the graph which present it is the toughest material. The separation of crystalline block segments begin and then deformation stage of plastic. the lamellae will start to deform by tilting in order to respond to the pull. and longer aging times. following by LDPE. From the stress-strain curve above. PP can be say as hard and brittle material. which means highest tensile strength among those polymer samples but soft and tough material. Polymer microstructure is . annealed isothermally below Tg and finally deformed isothermally. The stress-strain properties are dependent with the degree of crystallinity of the sample. The effect of temperature on the isothermal. linear viscoelastic material properties of amorphous polymers is well described by time temperature superposition.

Semicrystalline materials may sustained morphological conformation of the polymer chains because of previous treatment. This show that perfection of the crystalline materials during slow cooling or annealing increases and the defects responsible for initiation are transferred to interlamellar regions. temperature. variations in sequencing of copolymer repeat units. temporal spontaneous relaxations). The materials cooled at higher temperatures after melting and the annealed samples appear to be more accessible to oxygen in the initial steps of photo-initiated oxidation than the materials quenched at lower temperature after melting. storage conditions (humidity. . the polymer structure which pack closer will be higher mechanical strength than other due to the crystallinity of the polymer. The mechanical behaviour of semi-crystalline materials can be known as viscoelastic. Thermal history influence the rate of photo-oxidation of semi-crystalline materials. sequence distributions. chirality. They can be glassy-like and rubbery at low and high temperatures respectively. Quenching process and Annealing process is the simple test to study the effects.described from topology. High crystallinity of the polymer material has higher mechanical strength. contributing to the amorphous parts which are more susceptible to photo-oxidation. and molecular weight and end groups. In this case. repeat unit structures. Rapid cooling (quenching process) caused the microstructure of the polymer react faster and packed closer than the room temperature cooling rate (annealing).

1994. Shay Jr. . A predictive model for the effects of thermal history on the mechanical behaviour of amorphous polymers. Caruthers. Materials Park.. Wiley. Advanced Polymer Composites: Principles and Applications. Sci. J. New York. Poly. M.. M. Vol 46. 619-624 (1992) 3. andJ. George. of Appl. R. Odian. Jang. Principles of Polymerization. B. Souheng Wu. 26 AUG 2004 2.. J. ASM International. 1991 4. OH. Z.Refferences 1. 3rd ed.