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Linear state equations also arise in the course of linearizing nonlinear state equations about nominal trajectories. We begin with a more general nonlinear, time-varying state equation FXO, uO, 1] = hi), wry 2] *40) = %0 (1.4) where x(t), u(t), and y(¢) retain their default vector dimensions and f(s) and hG,-,-) are continuously differentiable functions of their (a +m + 1)-dimensional arguments. Linearization is performed about a nominal trajectory defined as follows. Definition 1.1 For a nominal input signal, ii(t), the nominal state tra- jectory E(t) satisfies F(t) = FRG), #0), 1] and the nominal ouput trajectory $(t) satisfies S(t) = ALE (1), HC), f] If, (2) =i, a constant vector, a special case is an equilibrium state that satisfies 0=f(,a,1) ‘for all t o Deviations of the state, input, and output from their nominal trajectories are denoted by 5 subscripts via x31) us(t) = wO = yO) — FO Using the compact notation Using the compact notation seo 0] mx m Mhewa]inen ah; See, uy j= “fh 0] (p xm) rearranging slightly, and substituting deviation variables [recognizing that s(t) = X(t) — E(0)] we have %3(t) = A(t)xs(t) + B(t)us(t) + higher-order terms yalt) = C()xs(t) + D()us(t) + higher-order terms Under the assumption that the state, input, and output remain close to their respective nominal trajectories, the high-order terms can be neglected, yielding the linear state equation X(t) = A(C)xs(t) + BOus(0) ys(t) = C(e)xs(t) + DOs) (15) which constitutes the linearization of the nonlinear state equation (1.4) about the specified nominal trajectory. The linearized state equation approximates the behavior of the nonlinear state equation provided that the deviation variables remain small in norm so that omitting the higher-order terms is justified. If the nonlinear maps in Equation (1.4) do not explicitly depend on t, and the nominal trajectory is an equilibrium condition for a constant nom- inal input, then the coefficient matrices in the linearized state equation are constant; i.e., the linearization yields a time-invariant linear state equation.