/tsn

i

-<*

LIBRARY
OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
GIFT OF

la
Class

OF TUP

UNIVERSITY OF

THE

FARMERS' AND MECHANICS'

MANUAL.
WITH MANY VALUABLE TABLES FOR MACHINISTS, MANUFACTURERS, MERCHANTS, BUILDERS, ENGINEERS, MASONS, PAINTERS, PLUMBERS,

GARDENERS, ACCOUNTANTS,

ETC.,

BY W.

S.

COURTNEY.

REVISED AND ENLARGED

BY GEORGE
:

E.

WARING,

JR.,

" DRAINING FOR PROFIT AND FOR HEALTH," AUTHOR OF " ELEMENTS OF AGRICULTURE," " EARTH CLOSETS HOW TO MAKE AND HOW TO USE THEM," AND FORMERLY

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER OF THE CENTRAL PARK,

NEW

TORK.

TWO HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS.

SOLD ONLY BY SUBSCRIPTION.

NEW YORK
E. B.
C.

:

TEE AT &

CO.,
;

654

W. LTLLEY, CHICAGO,
H. H.

ILL.

A. H.

BKOADWAY; HUBBARD,

PHILA., PA.

BANCROFT, SAN
1869.

FRANCISCO, CAL.

01

EBB AT A.
PAGE
79.

10th line from top of page

should read 298

80. 1st
87. 87.

6th 7th

87.
88. 88.

7th

" "
298

296

3d
23d

303 296

&

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by
E. B.

TREAT &

Co.,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.

Sanford, Cashing

&

Co., Printers, 644

& 646

Broadway,

New

York.;.

PREFACE.
THERE

are few persons, no matter

what

their calling or

not occasionally find themselves at a loss for information of the commonest kind, on any of the
their education,

who do

knowlsubjects pertaining to the practical arts of daily life edge which was, perhaps, familiar to them in their school-

boy days, but which has been forgotten or become obscured through the lapse of years. For example, how few persons can tell, without consulting books, the cubic inches contained in a bushel, the square yards in an acre, or how to measure
the contents of a corn crib, or gauge a cistern.
inability to

Nor

is

the

do so any

reflection

upon

either their native

It is simply impossible to carry capacity or their education. all these things in the memory so as to apply them when Hence the necessity for " Hand-Books," occasion requires. " Pocket " &c.

Mechanics' Assistants," Companions," Besides the labor involved in the almost daily necessity of

calculating arithmetical, mensural, and other results, and the constant liability to error to which even the competent
scholar
age,
is

subject, the time required in the process, in this

when time has emphatically acquired a money value, is no inconsiderable desideratum. Hence the necessity for
"

Keady Keckoners,"

" Calculators' " Pocket Accountants,"

Assistants," &c.

195064

Vlll

PREFACE.

this volume, a chief aim of the author was combine the Manual with the Reckoner, as to furnish the inquirer, in brief, with all the necessary rules and data and the elementary facts and axioms relating to almost every branch of industrial science, and particularly that of agriculture, and, at the same time, whenever it was possible, to compute and tabulate the results for him in the same connection. Hence he will find in the ensuing pages the axio-

In presenting

so to

matical or elementary propositions, the data, the standards, the units, &c., of almost every useful and practical art with

which the farmer may have
with their simplest tions, and, wherever
sults calculated

rules, illustrated

to deal, clearly stated, together by examples and solu-

it was practicable, the arithmetical reand tabularized. Those who consult this book must remember that it is not a work of recipes, prescriptions, or of directions and

advice as to the best

mode

of conducting any or

all

the

various operations pertaining to agriculture, &c. But they will bear in mind that the subjects of which this book treats

the most part, facts and figures assured analyses and demonstrations about which there can be no dispute. The design was to produce a work of substantial and enduring value, and of universal application and use something in the sphere of agriculture corresponding to Haswell in
are, for

How far the Engineering, or Fairbairn in Mechanics. author's labors have tended to that end remains to be tested
by experience. He is sanguine of their ultimate fruition. So vast is the domain of agriculture, that there are few of the mechanic arts of which the farmer does not require some information, and which he is often compelled to seek through many books and journals. He is, in a certain sense, encyclopediac in his science and use. Hence many subjects

PREFACE.

IX

upon which he may require elementary knowledge and the assistance of computations may have escaped the vigilance
of the author.

When a friend first suggested to the author the design of such a work, the latter had no adequate conception of the labor involved in such an undertaking. Although many of the tables were supplied or compiled from other authors, yet
the labor involved in those he himself calculated and ar-

ranged was prodigious. Besides, the composition or typesetting of the matter was of the most tedious, difficult, and expensive kind, so that the volume of matter included within
the covers would seem to bear no just proportion to the price Books much the publisher is obliged to charge for it.
larger,

can be afforded at a
author

and of many more pages of the ordinary composition, much less cost. Withal, however, the

commends
it is

it

to the favorable regard of those to

whom

addressed.

TO THE PRACTICAL READER

HAVING been long engaged
into

in the various occupations
is

which a

life

of combined farming and engineering

quite sure to lead any

man

of a practical turn of mind, I

look back with regret on the days wasted in making long
calculations to decide

some simple question of size, or form,
a long day have I hunted through

or quantity.

Many

alcoves full of practical hand-books at the Astor Library,

scouring

now

the field of Agriculture,

now

of Mechanics,

and now of Hydraulics, often disappointed in my search, and compelled to go home and work far into the night, pursuing, through the long lanes of square and cube roots,
the

phantom

of

some every-day question of the discharge

of water through pipes, the strength of material, or the
resistance in ploughing.

I have always found less assistance than I

had a right

to

from works written with the professed object of I wanted to know. After hunting them telling through, I have generally come to the conclusion that they
expect

me what

contain almost everything except what I

am

looking

for.

Xll

TO THE PRACTICAL READER.
all

Certainly

that I have hitherto seen have been sadly in-

complete.
Finally, I quite accidentally

Courtney's Manual, and I
it

became acquainted with Mr. found it much more nearly what
I

professes to be than

any book that

had hitherto
its

seen,

for,

although he very modestly complains of

incomplete-

undoubtedly much more thorough and accurate than are most works of its class.
ness, it is

my experience such books to bear upon the completion and amendment of Mr. Courtney's work, I might render a good
idea occurred to me, that by bringing
in the use of

The

service to the thousands

who have almost
;

daily occasion to
in

consult a book of this character

and

some degree
in his

make up

for the loss that the

community sustained

death, although I cannot

hope

to bring to the task either

the patience or the experience that constituted his great

merit as a compiler.

would be presumption to claim that, even in its enlarged and corrected condition, this book is complete, and
It
all

that could be desired, for there are

more

subjects of quite

general interest to farmers and mechanics than could be

properly catalogued in a book of this

size.
;

All that

is it

claimed
goes

is,

that so far as

it

goes

it

is

correct

and that

as far,
its size

and

in as

many

directions,

as is

compatible

with

and purpose.
of having such a book as this always at

The importance
one's elbow
is

very

much greater than would
has not

at first sight be
it.

supposed by one

who

known

the convenience of

TO THE PRACTICAL READER.

How
on the

often, in farming,

do we wish that 'we could know,
weight of hay in various
the weight of a piece of

spot,

how

to estimate the

conditions in the

mow

;

the weight of cattle by measure;

ment

;

the capacity of a grain bin

timber, or of a load of

manure

;

the distance apart to which

to set trees or plants in order to get

a certain

number

within a certain space
often in mechanics do

;

the size of an irregular

field.

How
and
;

we need
;

to

know

the strength and
cisterns

measurement of masonry
small vessels
the
;

the contents of
;

the area of circles
fuel
;

the quality of cements

power value of
;

the weight of bar iron, or of lead
;

pipe

the fusing heat of metals

the strength of materials

;

or the board measure of scantling.

And, worst of all, how sadly we accustom ourselves
along without knowing these things
!

to get
lose

How much we

by guessing instead of knowing ! The object of this book is to put
every practical

it

within the power of
;

man

to

know

these details

to leave less to

guessing, and to enable him to guide

his daily operations
it

by

the light of positive knowledge.

If

accomplishes this

purpose, neither Mr. Courtney nor I will have worked in
vain.

In addition to the

many

tables

and statements of valu-

able facts with which the book abounds, I have thought it advisable to review very carefully all of its " agricultural "

matter, and to add

what

I

could, in the space allowed to

me, that
look a

might be of interest to those farmers

who

care to

little

beyond the mere question of dollars and cents

XIV

TO THE PRACTICAL READER.

in farming, and of value to those

who

believe

(as,

happily,

a yearly increasing number do believe) that the road to surer and greater profit lies through the door that Science

and

Common

Sense

the guardian angels of Agriculture

hold open to them. It has not been possible to do
the subject
is

much

in this direction, for

a very extended one, but I think that
if

many

he will consider well the principles that " " are laid down under the headings of Plants," Soils," and " Manures," will at least feel a desire to learn more of the simple truths which lie at the foundation of his practice.
a young farmer,
I

am

sure, also, that it is not too

much

to say, that a
for Tile-

careful study of the directions

and the reasons

Draining will richly repay
This

any occupier of cold, wet land
in

for the purchase of the book.
is

a subject which, in this country at least,
its
it

is still

the very early infancy of

progress.

Not one

acre in ten

thousand of the land that

would pay well to drain in the
;

best manner, has yet felt the benefit of the operation

and

the fact,

not one farmer in a thousand has the faintest conception of a fact that ample experience, here and in Europe,

has fully demonstrated, that he can no more afford to farm an undrained heavy soil, than a carpenter can afford
to

work with a

dull tool.

I have introduced another novelty into the work, under " the head of The Dry Earth System." This is a bantling

that has raised

now

head within a very few years, and is only coming to be recognized at its full value but it is
its
;

TO THE PRACTICAL HEADER.

XV

ushered before our attention with
sideration of decency, health,

all

the force that con;

and economy can lend
is

and
It is

the most thoughtful attention

asked for

its

claims.

really the coining Reform, and promises
tion,

more

for civiliza-

and

for national prosperity,

than any improvement that

has yet been brought to the notice of the public.

To sum
it is

up, then

:

this

book

is

offered as containing
;

more
that
;

that has been proven

by long use to be of value

more

most necessary for every farmer and mechanic to know and more of promising novelty, than any other that has ever
to the farmers

been presented
It is

and mechanics of America.

for such a
is

complete in every particular in which it is possible book to be complete, and, in addition to this, it

sufficiently suggestive in

many

other respects to induce

its readers to read more, to think more, to

experiment more,

and

to

become more

intelligent

and more successful in the

management
wiser men.
If
it

of their business, as well as really happier

and

Hand- Book, which

should be thought that I claim too much for a single is mainly filled with dry details con-

cerning the measurement of boards, and the spacing of trees in an orchard, I trust that I shall at least not be condemned
as

an enthusiast until the reader has taken the trouble to

to

examine carefully what I have to say, and to consider well what better things the helping hand of Nature may lead
if

him

he has the wisdom to heed

its

beckonings.

GEO. E. WARING, JR.

OGDEN FARM, NEWPORT,

R.

I.,

September, 1868.

ENGRAVINGS.
1.

HARVESI
iLLUSTRj
"

2.

2.
2.
1.

1.

2.

"

14.
1.

"

"
"
"

3.

2.
1.

1.
1. 1.

" "

"

2. 3.

2.
3.
1.

" "

3.
1.

"

"
"

2.
1.
1.

" "

1.

1.

2.

"

25.
16.

"

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
ENGBAVINGS. 12. ILLUSTRATING
5.
6.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT

152-154
156,157 158, 159
160, 161

" "
" " " "

TROY
APOTHECARIES'
LIQUID MEASURE

" "

5.
6.
1. 1.

DRY
SQUARE

"

162-164 165
167

LONG
CUBIC

"
"

4.
2.
1.
1.

" "
" "

170,171 177 METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 183 SPECIFIC GRAVITY

CORN AND PORK
LIFE AND INCREASE OF ANIMALS

196 197 201-205 209-211 212-215 250

1.

4.
2. 2.
1.

"

"

"
" "

1. 1. 1.

" " "
" " " " "

THE AGE OF ANIMALS " COMPUTED WEIGHT OF CATTLE " FOOD OF ANIMALS LIGHTNING RODS WEIGHT OF SQUARE AND ROLLED IRON MASONRY MECHANICAL POWERS INCLINED PLANE
"

273

276 282 286

1.
1. 1.

" " "

WEDGE
SCREW PULLEY

" "

24.
1.

MATHEMATICAL DEFINITIONS

288 290 292-295 327 363-372 400

MANURES
TILE DRAINING

21.
1.

3.
1.

"

BUTTER AND CHEESE STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK
G-ARDENING TOR

MARKET

1.

"

STEAM PLOUGHING

414-423 428 448

211

EXPLANATION OF ARITHMETICAL CHARACTERS USED IN THIS BOOK.
=
-|-

Equal; as 12 inches
Plus or more;

=

1 foot,

or

4x5=20.

signifies addition, as 3-f-5-f-7=15.

Minus

or

less

;

signifies subtraction, as
;

124=8.
8x7=56.
as 2
is

X
-r:

Multiplied by

signifies multiplication, as

Divided by
::
:

;

signifies division, as.
;

56-7-8=7.
;

Proportion

as 2

:

4

::

8

:

16

that

is,

to 4 so

is

8 to 16.

y Prefixed to
required, as,

a number denotes that the square

root of

that

number

is

V36=6. * y Prefixed to a number denotes that the 8 quired, as, V 27 =3.
a

cube root of that

number

is re-

Added

to a
is

number

signifies that

the

number

is

to be squared, as 4 8

means that 4
'

to be multiplied

by

4.

Added

to a

number

signifies that the

number

is

to be cubed, as, 4*

means 4 x 4 x 4=64.
.

Decimal point, when prefixed to a number signified that that number
(1) for its

has an unit
Ac.

denominator, as

.

1 is

&,

.

2 is -&,

.

12

is

tfg,

.

125

is

'

Signifies degrees

:

minutes, and

*

seconds.

OF THE

\
1

UNIVERSITY

icnRt^S^

/

SEASONS, LONGITUDE,
Spring.

VT,

&o.

Summer.

Autumn.

Winter.

To reduce longitude to time. The English count their degrees

of longitude east and

west from Greenwich, which, owing to our early dependence upon the mother country for books and science, became
extensively adopted in this country, and
still

prevails to a

considerable extent, especially in our nautical charts, and

20

SEASONS, LONGITUDE, ETC.

works on navigation. But by an act of Congress, passed some thirty years ago, the meridian of Washington was established as the point of departure, and accordingly
our maps, charts, &c., have since been adapted
to

that

meridian.

The sun
the 360

passes over a degree of longitude in 4 minutes
in 24 hours.

Thus, when
is

we
If

travel west, or

on a line with the sun, our watch
every 60 geographical miles
or on a line with the sun,
it

four minutes fast for

we
is

travel.

we

travel east,

four minutes slow for every

degree
that
is,

we

travel.

when

the sun

Hence, when it is noon at Greenwich, is on the meridian there, if we multi-

west from Greenwich, from 12 o'clock M., it will give by 4, and subtract the result the corresponding time at JSTew York. Thus, 74 x 4=296
ply

74, the longitude of

New York

minutes, which, divided by 60, gives 4 hours and 56 minutes
for

the sun

to
this

travel

from Greenwich to
o'clock
(the
as

New

York.

Subtracting

from 12

Greenwich time)
the corresponding

gives 7 o'clock and 4 minutes

A.M.

time
at

at

New

York.
it

at

New York, Greenwich.
RULE.

is

by reverse, when it is noon 4 hours and 56 minutes past noon So
also
results the following

Hence

Multiply the number of degrees, minutes, and seconds west or east of the given meridian by 4, reduce
the product to hours, &c., and for west longitude subtract

SEASONS, LONGITUDE, ETC.

21
to 12 hours
(i. e.,

from 12 hours, and
so

for east longitude

add

many

hours past 12), and the result will be the corre-

sponding time.

Required the time at longitude 50 corresponding to noon at Greenwich ?
SOLUTION.
h.

EXAMPLE.

31/ west,

50
sec.
is

31' x

4=3

hours 22 min. 4

sec.

12=8

37 min. 56

A.M.

Ans.

both apparent and mean. The sun is on the meridian at 12 o'clock on four days only in the It is sometimes as much as 16J minutes before or year.

NOTE.

Time

after 12
dial.

when
is

its

shadow

strikes the

noon mark on the sun-

This
its

occasioned by the irregular motion of the

earth on

axis

and the inclination of

its

poles.

This

is

called apparent time.

Mean

time

is

determined by the

equation of these irregularities

for every
'

day

in

the year,
is

and
or

is

noted in
time.

all

good almanacs.

The
rule

latter
is

the true
to

correct

The foregoing

applicable

either.

When

you buy an almanac, buy one that expresses on

each calendar page the

mean time when
fast or

the sun reaches

the meridian, or the shadow the noon-mark on the dial,

and

set

your time-piece

slow as indicated in the

almanac.

To

ascertain the length of the
in the year,

day and

night.

At any time
sun's setting

add 12 hours to the time of the

and from the sum subtract the time of rising

22
for the length

SEASONS, LONGITUDE, ETC.

of the day. Subtract the time of setting from 12 hours, and to the remainder add the time of rising
the next morning for the length of the night.
true of either apparent or

This rule

is

mean

time.

CIRCULAR OR ANGULAR MEASURE.
This Measure
circles.
is

used to measure angles or the arcs of

It

is

used in astronomy, geography, navigation,
for calculating differences of time.

and surveying, and

TABLE.
60 seconds
(")

make
"

1 minute, 1 degree,
1 sign,
j

marked

'

60 minutes 30 degrees 90 degrees
4:

"

sig.

1 quadrant,

quad,
r. a.

llri right angle,
circumference
j

quadrants or
"
) I

12 signs

\

or circle

cir.

NOTES.

1.

The

greatest
is

dis-

tance across
its

a circle

called
.

diameter.
it

The
called
its

distance

,

around
ference.

is

circumcir-

R*i

Any
is

part of the

H
"Q

cumference
2.

called an arc.

If

any

circumference,

whether large or small, be divided into 360 equal arcs, each arc

is

called a degree.

The

24
degree
is

CIRCULAR OR ANGULAR MEASURE.
divided into 60 minutes, and the minute into 60

seconds.

The length

of a degree, minute, or second, deIf the size of the circle
is

pends on the
or second
3.

size of the circle.

increased or decreased, the length of the degree, minute,
is

also increased or decreased.
is

The

greatest circumference of the earth's surface
;

about 24,930 miles

1
is

of that circumference

is

one 360th

of 24,930 miles, which
4.

69 J miles.
is

A geographical or nautical mile
which
statute mile
is

equal to

V

of the
little

earth's greatest circumference,

is

found to be a

more than one
Latitude

and 49

rods.

measured north or south from the equator 5. on any meridian, and is expressed in degrees, minutes, and 17' 31" north lat. denotes a position seconds thus, 43
;

43
6.

17'

31" north from the equator.
linear extent of a degree of longitude

The

depends
;

upon the
it is

latitude,

and diminishes
its

as the latitude increases

thus, at latitude 10

extent

is

359640
it

feet

;

at lat.
feet.

40

280106

feet

;

and

at lat.

80

is

only 63612

MEASURE OF
Time
is

TIME.

the measure of duration.

TABLE.
60 seconds 60 minutes
24:

(sec.)

make
"
"

1
1

minute,
hour,

marked min.
h.

hours

*
'

da.7>
week,
"

da.

7 days

"
days, or

1

wk.

4 weeks 2
30 days

"

1

month,

"

mo.

26

MEASURE OF

TIME.

365 days, or 52 weeks 1 day 12 calendar months

make
j

1 year,

marked

yr.

100 years

1 century,

C.

The calendar year
Season.

is

divided as follows
No. of days.

:

Months.
1.

Abbreviations.

Winter
2.
f

January
February

31

Jan.

28 or 29
31

Feb.

3.

March
April

Mar.
Apr.
Jim.

Spring
t

4.
5.
6.

30
31

May
June
July

30
31 31

Summer

Y.

8.

August
September October

Aug.
Sept.

f

9.

30
31

Autumn
|

10.
[ 11.

Oct.

Winter

12.

November December

30
31

Nov.
Dec.

365 or 366.
NOTES.

1.

The exact length of the
;

solar year

is

5 h. 48 min. 49 sec.

but, for convenience,
this,

it is

365 days reckoned

11 min. 11
days.

365J which every fourth year (called Bissextile or leap year) is added to the shortest month, giving it 29 days. The numbers deThis

sec.

more than

or 365 da. 6 h.
1 day,

=

day

in four years

makes

MEASURE OF

TIME.

27
;

noting leap years are exactly divisible by 4 as, 1856, 1860, 1864 except years whose number can be divided without a
;

remainder by 100, but not by 400.
2.

Owing

to

an error in the Julian calendar,

it

was

de-

creed by the British

Government that the day following

the second day of September, 1752, should be called the
fourteenth day of September, or that 11 days should be
stricken from the calendar.

Time, previous to this decree, is called Old Style (O. S.), and since, New Style (N. S.). Russia still reckons time by
3.

the Old Style, hence their dates are 12 days behind ours.

In most business transactions 30 days are called a month, and 52 weeks a year.
4.
5.

The

centuries are
;

numbered from the commencement

of the Christian era
of the year
;

the months from the
the

commencement
of the

the days from

commencement

month

;

and the hours from the

commencement

of the day

A.M. (12 o'clock, midnight), and from mid-day or noon. denotes time before noon, M., at noon, and P.M., after noon.

Thus, 9 o'clock A.M.,

May

23, 1860,
fifth

is

the end of the ninth
of the 60th year of

hour of the 23d day of the
the 19th century.
6.

month

A

decade

is

a period of 10 years.
Cycle, or

7.

The Lunar

Golden Number,

is

a period of

19 years, after which the changes of the

moon

return on the

same davs of the month.

Of THE

UNIVERSITY
OF

28
8.

MEASURE OF

TIME.

The Solar

Cycle

is

a period

of

28 years, when the

days of the

week again return

to the

same days of the

month.

To find
RULE.

the golden

number or lunar
;

cycle.

Add

1 to the given year
is

divide the

sum by

19,

and the remainder

the golden number.
is

EXAMPLE.
SOLUTION.

What

the golden

number
15.

for

1857?

1857 + l-=-19=97,rem.
remain,
it

Ans.
in 1861, the

NOTE.

If

will be 19.

Hence,

changes of the

moon occur on

the

same days

ot the

month

they did in 1842, 1823, 1804, &c.

TABLE showing the number of days from any day in one month to the same day in any other.
FROM

MEASURE OF

TIME.

29

30

MEASURE OF
RULE.
I.

TIME.

When

the dates are in the

same

year, subtract

the

number of days

of the earlier date from the
;

number
number

of days of the later date
of days required.
II.

the result will be the

When

the dates are in consecutive years, subtract the the earlier date from 365, and add to

number of days of
the remainder the
result will be the

number

of days of the later date; the
required.

number of days
is

When

the year

a leap year, add one day to the result.

PENDULUMS.

The
in

vibrations of

pendulums are

as the square roots of

their lengths.

The length

of one that will vibrate seconds

New

York,

at the level of the sea, is

39.1013 inches.

To Jmd
RULE.

the length

of a pendulum for any given number
the

of vibrations per minute.

As

the

number

of vibrations given
is

is

to

square root of 39.1013 inches, so of the length of the pendulum required.

60 to the square root

EXAMPLE.

What

is

the length of a
?

pendulum

that will

make 50

vibrations per minute

32
SOLUTION.
2

PENDULUMS.
50
:

6.25 (the sq. root of 39.1013):: 60

:

Y.5,

then 7.5 =56.25 inches.

Ans.
,

To find
of
the

the

number of vibrations per minute

the length

RULE.

pendulum being given. As the square root

of the length of the pendu-

lum

is

to 60, so is the square root of 39.1013 to the

number

of vibrations required.

EXAMPLE.
inches long

How many
make
in a

vibrations will a

pendulum 64
of

minute ?
:

SOLUTION.

8 (square root of 64)

60:: 6.25

(sq. root

39.1013)

:

46.875 vibrations.
the planets,

Ans.
comparative
size, dec.,

TABLE showing

in the

solar system.

THE WEATHER.
and the accompanying remarks, formed by Dr. Herschel, and approved with originally some alterations by the experienced Dr. Adam Clarke, are

The

following table,

the result of

many

years' close observation

;

the

whole

being on a due consideration of the attraction of the sun and moon, in their several positions respecting the earth,

and

will,

by inspection, show the observer what kind of

weather will most probably follow the entrance of the
into any of
its

moon
it

quarters
fail.

so probably, indeed, that

has

seldom been found to

TABLE, for

telling the

weather through all the lunations of

each year forever.
MOON

THE WEATHER.
change,
first

quarter,

full,

or last quarter are to midnight,
fol-

the fairer will the weather be during the seven days

lowing.
2.

The space
till

for this calculation occupies

from ten

at

night
3.

two next morning.
to

mid-day or noon, the phases of the moon happen, the more foul or wet weather may be expected during the next seven days.
4. The space of this calculation occupies from ten in the forenoon to two in the afternoon. These observations

The nearer

refer principally to the

and autumn nearly

in

summer, though they the same ratio.

affect spring

of the wind increases directly as the square of the velocity. Thus, a wind blowing 10 miles an hour exerts a pressure four times as great as at 5 miles an hour, and 25 times as great as at 2 miles an hour.
force

The

To find
face.

the force

of wind acting directly against a sur-

EULE.

Multiply the surface in square feet by the

Ibs.

pressure per square foot as given in the following table.

EXAMPLE. What is the pressure of a wind of a velocity of 20 miles per hour against a barn door 10 feet by 6 ?
SOLUTION.

10x6=60
Ibs.

sq.

ft.,

surface,

x2

Ibs.,

per square foot, = 120

pressure

Ans.

36

WINDMILLS.

TABLE, showing
Miles per hour.

the

force and velocity of wind.

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND FALL OF RAIN.
TABLE, showing
the average temperature

of the four Seacoasts,

sons at points on the

Pacific and Atlantic

and

the interior

of this continent.

38

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND FALL OF

RAIN.

The United
fall

States

may

be divided with reference to the
:

of rain into three regions, namely

the region of peri-

odical

rains, the region of frequent rains, and the region

of scanty rains.

The

region

of periodical rains comprises the western

division of the Pacific slope.

In that portion of
of latitude,
little

this division south of the

40th parallel

scarcely any rain falls in

in

autumn.

The quantity
falls

in

summer, and very winter somewhat ex-

ceeds that- which

during the spring.
falls

A
the

much

greater quantity of rain
lat.

upon that part of
it
;

the division north of

40 than south of

but, as in
to the

southern

division, the largest

amount belongs

winter and spring.

The region
This

of frequent rains extends from the Atlantic

coast westward to about the 100th meridian of longitude.
region, considered
as a

whole,

is

exceedingly well

watered, the rain being quite equally distributed through
the different seasons.

From an examination

of the table,

it

will appear that

along the Atlantic slope, as far south as Washington, very nearly the same annual quantity of rain falls and that it
;

is

very equally distributed throughout the year.

In the

States, and along the Atlantic slope south of Washington, the annual amount of rain is much greater than in

Gulf

the other sections, and the

summer

rains are

much more

abundant than those of the winter.

In the interior the

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND FALL OF
annual quantity is less, and generally much in winter than in the other seasons.

RAIN.
less rain

39
falls

The

region of scanty rains embraces the country between

about the 100th meridian of longitude and the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains. It includes the northern

and southern divisions of the Pacific

slope, the inland basin

of Utah, the table-lands of the Texas slope, and the sterile
region east of the

Rocky Mountains.
this

Among

the

mountains of
falls,

region a considerable

quantity of rain

in all seasons of the year.

and violent showers are experienced Some of the mountain valleys

are also well watered.

Thus the annual

fall

of rain

at
is

Santa Fe, situated on a plateau enclosed by mountains, 19.83 inches and the fall at Fort Massachusetts, which
;

is

situated in a valley 100 miles further north,

is

20.54 inches.

The annual

fall

of rain in the desert region, through
flows,
is

which the great Colorado

estimated at three inches

;

that of the inland basin of Utah, at five inches; of the

Great Plain south of the Columbia River, ten inches of the Llano Estacado, ten inches and of the sterile region
;
;

east

of the

Rocky Mountains, from
all

fifteen

to

twenty
falls

inches.

In

these sections scarcely any rain

in

summer.

The

greatest

amount of

rain reported in the

"Army
fall,

Meteorological Register," for
in 1846, at

any given year, was the
least, a

Baton Rouge, of 116.6 inches; the

fall,

in 1853, at Fort

Yuma,

California, of 1.78 inches.

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND FALL OF RAIN.
[This valuable Table is compiled from the "Army Meteorological Regisand presents the results of all the records, in the Army Medical Bu-

ter,"

reau, for 33 years,

from 1822 to the

close of 1854 ]

the level of TABLE, shewing the latitude and longitude, the elevation above and the average annual fail of rain the sea, the mean annual temperature,

at various places in the United States,

II
NAME
OF PLACE OF OBSERVATION.
si-

Fort Kent, Maine. Fort Fairfield, Maine

Hancock Barracks, Maine Fort Sullivan, Eastport, Maine Fort Preble, Portland, Maine

, . .

47Q15' 46 46 46 07

Fort Constitution, Portsmouth, N.H. Fort Independence, Bost. Har., Mass

Watertown Arsenal, Mass Fort Adams, Rhode Island Fort Wolcott, Newport Harbor, R.

44 43 43 42 41

54
39

04 20 21

68035' 67 49 67 49 66 58 70 20 70 49
71 71 09

4129
I.

Fort Trumbull, New London, Conn. Fort Columbus, N. Y. Harbor ..... Fort Hamilton, N. Y. Harbor

New York ........... Watervliet Arsenal, New York .... Plattsburg Barracks, New York ... Sackett's Harbor, New York ...... Fort Ontario, New York Fort Niagara, New York Buffalo Barracks New York .,,...
West Point,
Alleghany Arsenal. Pittsburg, Pa.. Carlisle Barracks Carlisle, Pa .... Fort Mifflin, Pa . ...,,..... Fort Delaware, Del Fort McHenry. Md Fort Severn, Md

41 30 41 21 40 42 40 37 41 23 42 43 44 41 43 57 43 20 43 18 42 53 40 32 40 12 39 53 39 35
39 17 38 58 38 53

Washington City, D. C Fort Washington, Md Bellona Arsenal, Richmond,
Fort Monroe. Va Fort Macon, N. C Fort Johnston, N. C

Va

38 43 37 20
37

o . . .

.

Augusta Arsenal, Ga
Fort Moultrie, Charleston, S C. Oglethorpe Barracks. Ga Fort Marion, St Augustine, Fla Fort Shannon. Pi'atka. East Fia. New Smyrna, East Fla
. .
.

34 41 34 33 28
32 32 29 29 28

71 71 72 74 74 74 73 73 76 76 79 78 80 77 75 75 71 76 77 77 77 76 76 78

20 20
06 01

02

43
25
15

40 08 58
02 14 13 34 35 27 02 06 25 18

.

.

45 05 38 34

40 05 81 53 79 51 81 07
81 35 81 48 81 02

.-.

54

575 37 -04 38-11 415 40-51 620 70 43-02 45-22 20 40 45-81 50 48-92 47-34 40 49-70 50-72 20 49-62 23 51-69 23 51 54 25 50-73 167 50? 48-07 44, 186 46-38 262 46-44 250 47.91 250 660 46.25 704 50.86 500 51-10 53-85 20 56-06 10 54-36 36 55-42 20 56-14 50-90 57-87 60 59-27 120 8 58-89 62-23 20 20 65-68 600? 64-01 25 66-58 40 67-44 25 69-61 25 69-64 20 69-17
=

36 46

36-97 39-39 45-25 35-57 35^30 42-07 52-46
45-69 42-23 43-65 54-15 34-55 33-39 39-78 SO'88 31 77 38-80 34 96 34<01 45-27
=

42-

48-61 41-20 45-02

50.89 46.01
23-

44-92 53-33 31-80 48-68

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND FALL OF
Table continued.

RAIN.

41

42

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND FALL OF RAIN.

Table continued.

MEASUREMENT OF LAND.

Every farmer should know the contents, in acres, of each of his fields, meadows, and lots, to ascertain which he
should have a rod measure, a light
long, with division
stiff pole,

just 16

feet

marks on

it

of a yard each,

making

5J yards.
according

Provided with
to

this

measure, and proceeding

the

following

rules,

he can ascertain the
&c.

area in acres of each of his

fields, lots,

4:4:

MEASUREMENT OF LAND.
Where
the field is

a square, a parallelogram, a rhombus,

or a rhomboid.

Square.

Parallelogram.

Rhombus.

Rhomboid.

HULE.
rods,

Multiply the length in rods by the breadth in and divide the product by 160, and the quotient will

be the number of acres.

EXAMPLE.
rods long

What

is

the area in acres of a field of 30

by 28 rods wide.
30 x 28 =840-=- 160 =5 acres and 40 rods, or

SOLUTION.

5^

acres.

Ans.
the field is triangular.

Where

RULE.

Multiply the base or longest
(i.e.,

side,

in rods,

by

the perpendicular height

the greatest width), in rods,
will

and divide half the product by 160, and the quotient
be the

number

of acres.
is

EXAMPLE.
field,

What
?

the
is

area in acres

of a triangular
its

the base of which

60 rods long, and

perpendi-

cular height 28 rods

SOLUTION.
rods, or

60 x 28 =1680-f-2= 8404-160 =5 acres and 40

5J

acres.

Ans.

MEASUREMENT OF LAND.

45

When

the field is

a trapezium or a

trapezoid.

Trapezium.

Trapezoid.

running from one extreme corner to the other, which will cut the field into two triangles then proceed with each as in the foreit

RULE.

Divide

diagonally by a

line

;

going rule, and add the areas of the two triangles together. The product will be the number of acres.

Where

the field is

an irregular polygon.

RULE.

Draw

diagonals to divide the

field

into

tri-

angles; find the area of each separately,

and the sum of

the whole will be the

number of acres.

There are very few fields or lots which cannot be measured by cutting them into triangles, and proceedNOTE.
ing by the above rule.

In

fact,

all

straight-sided fields

can be so measured.

MEASUREMENT OF LAND.
Where
irregular.
the field is long,

and

the

sides

crooked

and

RULE.

Take the breadth
;

in rods in a

number of

places,

at equal distances apart

add them, and divide the sum by
;

number of breadths for the mean average or breadth then multiply that by the length in rods arid divide the product by 160, and the quotient will be the number of
the
acres.

EXAMPLE.
sided
field,

What

is

the area in acres of a long irregularis

the length of which

80 rods, and
:

its

breadths

at 10 rods apart are as follows, viz.

8, 10,

11, 9, 8, 7, 9,

10 rods?
SOLUTION.
rods

+ 10 + 11 + 9 + 8 + 7 + 9 + 10 = 72 ~ 8 = 9 mean breadth; then 9 x 80 =720 160 =4 acres and
8
-i-

80 rods, or

4|- acres.

A.ns.

Where

the field is long,

and

the sides

and ends crooked

and

irregular.

MEASUREMENT OF LAND.
RULE.
rule,

47

Find the mean breadth
in like

in rods

by the foregoing

and proceed
;

manner

to find the

mean
the

length

in

rods

then multiply the

mean length by

mean

breadth, and divide the product by 160, and the quotient
will

be the number of acres.

EXAMPLE.

What

is

the area in acres of a field of

irre-

gular sides and ends, the various breadths of which are as
follows, viz.
:

9, 6, 7, 8,

follows, viz.

:

10 and 8 rods, and the lengths as 50, 40, 30 and 40 rods ?
9

SOLUTION.

+ 6 + 7 + 8 + 10 + 8=48-7-6 =
breadth.

8 ro d s

mean

50 + 40 + 30 + 40
length.

=

160 -h 4

= 40

rods

mean

Then 40 x 8=320-^160=2
Where
RULE.
the field is

acres.

Ans.

a

circle.

Take the diameter

in rods,

and find the area of
,

the circle in the table of circles on page and divide by 160, and the quotient will be the number of acres.

it

EXAMPLE.

What

is

the area in acres of a circular field

22 rods in diameter?
SOLUTION.
380,

area of circle, -f- 160 =2

acres

and 80

rods, or 2|- acres.

Ans.

An

acre of land is contained in a plot,
rods "
"

3 by 53

4 by 40 5 by 32 6 by 26f

7 by 22f rods " 8 by 20
9

10 by 16
11

rods

by 17|

"

by

14^

12 by 13 J

"

12 rods 10 feet and

8J-

inches square

make an

acre.

MEASUREMENT OF LAND.
It
is

often desirable, for experimental and other pur-

poses, for a

To

farmer to lay off small portions of his ground. enable him to do so, we have compiled the following
the feet square

:

TABLE, showing the square feet and

of

the

fractions of an acre.
Fractions of

an

acre.

E
apai quir
S(

in

tl

colu
hills

TAB
ta

u
D
3 in 4

6
9

Ifoc

lfe
2 2
1

I 3
3

4 4
4 4

?
5 5 5 5

GOYEKNMENT LAND MEASUEE.

A

township

is

6 miles square, and contains 36 sections,

or 23,04:0 acres.

A section is 1 mile square, and contains 640 acres. A quarter-section is half a mile square, and contains
acres.

160

A A
and

half quarter-section

is

half a mile long, almost

uni-

versally north and south, and one-fourth of a mile wide, and contains 80 acres.

quarter quarter-section
contains 40 acres.

is

one-fourth of a mile square,
is

It

the smallest sized

tract,

except fractions, sold

by the government.

MEASUREMENT OF HAY.

no accurate mode of measuring hay but by weighing it. This, on account of its bulk and character,

There

is

is

very

difficult,

unless

it

is

baled or otherwise compacted.

the bulk or cubic contents, a of the commodity,
is

This difficulty has led farmers to estimate the weight by mode which, from the nature
only approximately correct.

Some

kinds of hay are light, while others are heavy, theft equal bulks varying in weight.

But

for all

ordinary farming

purposes of estimating the amount of hay in meadows,

mows, and

stacks, the following rules will

be found

sufficient.

52

MEASUREMENT OF HAY.
as

As nearly age meadow

can be ascertained, 10 cubic yards of aver-

hay, in windrows,

When
make

well settled in

make mows or

a ton.
stacks, 5

cubic yards

a ton.

When

taken out of

mows

or old stacks, and loaded on

wagons, 8 cubic yards

make

a ton.

Eleven or twelve cubic yards of clover, when dry, make a ton.

To find
windrows.

the

number of

tons

of meadow hay raked into

RULE.

Multiply the length of the windrow in yards by

the width in yards, and that product by the height in yards,

and divide by 10; the quotient in the windrow.

will be the

number

of tons

EXAMPLE.

How many tons
?

of hay in a

windrow 40 yards
Ans.

long by 2 wide and 2 high
SOLUTION.

40 x 2 x 2=160-^10=16.

To find
RULE.

the

number of

tons of

hay in a mow.

Multiply the length in yards by the height in
the quotient will be the

yards, and that by the width in yards, and divide the pro-

duct by 5

;

number of

tons.

EXAMPLE.

How many

tons of well-settled hay in a
?

mow

10 yards long by 6
SOLUTION.

wide and 8 high

10 x 6 x 8=480-7-5=96 tons.

Ans.

MEASUREMENT OF HAY.

53
stacks.

To find

the

number of

tons

of hay in old

RULE.

Find the area

in

square yards of the base in the
,

table of the areas of circles on page

or

by the rule

given

011

page

;

then multiply the area of the base by

half the altitude of the stack in yards, and divide the pro-

duct by 5

;

the quotient will be the

number of

tons.

EXAMPLE.

How many
at the base

tons of hay in a circular stack,
is

whose diameter
SOLUTION.

8 yards,

and height 9 yards ?

50.265, area of base in sq. yards, x

4,

half

the altitude, =226.192-7-5=45.238 tons.

Ans.
stack*.

To find
RULE.

the

number of tons in long square

yards, and that by half the

Multiply the length in yards by the width in altitude in yards, and divide the
;

product by 5

the quotient will be the

number of

tons.

EXAMPLE.

How many

tons of hay in a square stack 10
?

yards long, 5 wide, and 9 high
SOLUTION.

10 x 5 x 44=225-7-5=45 tons.

Ans.

54

MEASUREMENT OF HAY.

56

MEASUREMENT OF HAY,
NOTE.

The

principle in this

rule

is

the same as in

interest

half a ton,

us the price of dividing the price by two gives and pointing off three figures to or 1000 Ibs.
;

the right

is

dividing by 1000.
is
;

A truss of hay, new, 60 Ibs. A load of hay 36 trusses. A bale of hay 300 Ibs.
is

old,

56

Ibs.

;

straw, 40 Ibs.

is

TO MEASURE* CORN ON THE COB IN CRIBS.

equilateral.

RULE.
inches,

Multiply the length in inches by the breadth in
in inches,

and that again by the height

and divide

the

product by 2748 (the number of cubic inches in a heaped bushel), and the quotient will be the number of
leaped bushels of ears.

1

Take two-thirds of the quotient
shelled corn.

for the

number of bushels of

EXAMPLE.

Required the number of bushels of shelled
a crib of ears, 15 feet long by 5 feet
?

corn contained in

wide and 10
SOLUTION.

feet

high

180

in.,

length,
3*

x60

in.,

width,

x!20

in.,

58

CORN IN

CRIBS.

is

height,=1296000-^274r8=4:71.6 heaped bushels, f of which 314.6 bushels shelled. Ans.

NOTE.

The above

rule assumes that three heaping half

bushels of ears

make one

struck bushel of shelled corn.

This proportion has been adopted upon the authority of the major part of our best agricultural journals. Nevertheless,

ears to one of shelled corn

some journals claim that two heaping bushels of is a more correct proportion,
the custom in
that rate.

and

it

is

and

sell at

many parts of the country to buy Of course, much will depend upon
heaping half
;

the kind of corn, the shape of the ear, the size of the cob,

&c.

Some samples

are to be found, three

bushels of which will even overrun one bushel shelled

while others again are to be found, two bushels of which will fall short of one bushel shelled. Every farmer must

from the sample on hand, whether to allow one and a half or two bushels ears to one of shelled
judge
for himself,

corn.

In either case,

it is

only an approximate measurement,

but

sufficient for all ordinary

purposes of estimation.

The

only true

way of measuring

all

such products

is

by weight.

When
RULE.

the crib is flared at the sides.

Multiply half the

sum

of the top and bottom
inches,

widths in inches

by the perpendicular height in

and that again by the length in inches, and divide the product by 2748, and the quotient will be the number of

heaped bushels of
for the

ears.

Take two-thirds of the quotient

number

of bushels of shelled corn.

CORN IN

CRIBS.

59

EXAMPLE.

Required, the number of bushels of shelled

corn contained in a crib of ears 4 feet wide at the bottom, 8 feet at the top, 10 feet in perpendicular height, and 15
feet

long

?

SOLUTION.

width, =144-7- 2

48 inches, bottom width, +96 inches, top 72 x 120 inches perpendicular height, x
ears,

180 inches len g th,=1555200-v-2748=565.9 bus. which is 37T.28 bus. shelled corn. Ans.

f of

NOTE.
latter

A

barrel of corn

is

5 bushels shelled.

By

this

measure crops are estimated, and corn bought and sold throughout most of the Southern and Western States.

At New Orleans
ears.

a barrel of corn

is

a flour-barrel

full

of

In some parts of the "West,

it is

common

to count

100 ears to the bushel.

MEASUREMENT OF GRAIN

IN GRANARIES.

To find
RULE.
inches,

the

number of bushels of grain in a granary.
in inches,

Multiply the length in inches by the breadth in

and that again by the depth

and divide
in

the product by 2150 (the
bushel),

number

of cubic inches

a

and for heaped bushels by 2748, and the quotient

will be the answer.

EXAMPLE.
deep.

Given a granary 9
bushels will
it

feet

long by 4 wide and 6
?

How many

contain

SOLUTION.
in.

108 inches length, x 48 inches width, x 72 depth,=3T3248-5-2150= 173.65 bus. An*.

MEASUREMENT OF TIMBER.

The unit of board measure is a superficial foot 1
Besides inch-boards, plank and
scantling

inch thick.
usually

are

bought and sold by board measure.

Round, sawed, or hewn timber
the cubic foot.

is

bought and sold by

Pine and spruce spars, from 10 to 4 % inches in diameter inclusive, are measured by taking the diameter, clear of
bark, at one-third of their length from the large end.

Spars are usually purchased by the inch diameter; under 4 inches are considered poles.

all

62

BOARD MEASURE.
Spruce spars of 7 inches and
should have 5 feet in

less,

length for every inch in diameter.

WOOD MEASURE.
To
ascertain the contents or

number of cords in a given

pile of wood.

RULE. Multiply the length by the width, and that product by the height, which will give you the number of
cubic
will
feet.

Divide that product by 128, and the quotient

be the number of cords.
pile of

A

wood 4

feet wide,

and 4

feet high,
is

and 8

feet

long, contains 1 cord ; and a cord foot

1 foot in length of

such a

pile,

thus

:

8

FT

LONG

BOARD MEASURE.
To
ascertain the
contents

(board measure) of boards,

scantling,

and planTt.

Multiply the breadth in inches by the thickness in inches, and that by the length in feet, and divide the will be the contents. product by 12, and the quotient

RULE.

BOAKD MEASURE.
i

63
Ins.

'OOOO

HI

J

Os

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1

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ic to to

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'

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64

KOUNI) TIMBER.

EXPLANATION.

First find the width in inches in the left
in feet at the

hand column, and the length
other columns
;

heads of the

then trace the two until they meet, and the

figures so found will express the contents in feet

and inches.

ROUND

TIMBER.

Round timber when squared
40 cubic
feet.

is

estimated to lose oneis

of round timber fifth ; hence a ton

said to contain only

and scantlings, are now and sold by board measure. The dimengenerally bought sions of a foot of board measure is 1 foot long, 1 ft. wide,

Sawed lumber,

as joists, plank,

and

1 inch thick.

AU'

SQUARE TIMBER.

65

To measure round
RULE.

timber.

Take the

girth in inches at both the large

and

small ends, add them, and divide their

sum by two

for the

mean

girth

;

then multiply the length in feet by the square

of one-fourth of the

mean

girth in inches, divide the product
will

by 144, and the quotient
feet.

be the contents in cubic

EXAMPLE.

What

are the cubic contents of a round log

12 feet long, 54 inches girth at the large end, and 34 at the small end ?
SOLUTION.

54+34=88-^-2=44

inches,

mean

girth.

Then 12 length x 121
girth)

inches (the square of \
feet.

mean

= 1452

-=-

144

IO T^- cubic

Am.

SQUARE TIMBER.
To measure square
RULE.
timber.

Multiply the breadth in inches by the depth in inches, and that by the length in feet, and divide the product by 144, and the quotient will be the contents in cubic
feet.

EXAMPLE.

What

is

the cubic contents of a square log
?

12 feet long by 20 inches broad and 18 deep
SOLUTION.
feet.

20 x 18

= 360 x 12 = 4320

-=-

144

= 30

cubic

Ans.

66

PLANK MEASURE.

PLANK MEASURE.
TABLE, showing
the contents (board

measure) of planks of various dimensions.

si ^q z

I

04 IQ 00

f-4

*

fr~

O CO CO O

*

>O OO rH ^*t

O OO to O

*

lO QO rH ^*

t<>

O 00 <0

f

_
i

COOOOOCJSOSO5OOO'-'-

PLANK MEASURE.
Table continued.
j

67

^^^COt^t^t-t^OOOOOOOOCOOiCSOSOOOOi-Hr-Jt-J^HC^^CvlC^CO
^^H^-ci-ir-(^i2^^
l>.C<lt-CMC
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i

j

^_ ,_

^

_^

.,

ievjc<ie^o4aqifqi>i(Mcsi <M <M ;M

^

0t^t-OOOOSOiOO^-ii-i(M(M!>lCO

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ii

(CMCMC<ICO

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J^^2^^<?> -*

OrHr-(

;

j

P05 r'-*o><MooO'
>

I

o*-*-.t>t^oooSooSo>o>oooo-*^-^>-oiSe*w3coO'*5'*
'JQCOOO

|oo<o<0ett^^&aoaocoaae>o>ooo<5o<--ir-irHi-Hi--i?4eft94

O7

,/Cfl

^

'

(

*^

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*

^^

^

"^

^

^* "^

^

^"

t

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^

^

^"

^

'^" r

~ "^
<

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^^O^

"^

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C^l

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r-*r-<

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rt<

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t

b- CO OO 00 O5 O5 3i

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68
Table continued.

PLANK MEASURE.

S8
6t
oi-Hj-i

3
<M <M (M IM (M 'M

ooo

i

1

1

i

r-4

9i^qg

i

<M -M c5

O-<tll~-T-liO05C<IO OiOSOiOOOr li ^r^^'*OO^>OCC<lOOi OOOOO5O5OOOO' '> irH
(

O^'^

Qoai

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<i

i

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t-l
1

i

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I

id ZK OO

-*i
i
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^

(N S^ IO

!

00 0^^ C^

*L,ANK

MEASURE.

(59

Table continued.
nr AClf' yffl X, 9T
co <M co co

PT A( 91 An l

*, f'

^
I I

>

so CM <M

_ c so 06 A M.IO
/>
,-,

cor O^

i

oOi

i

co

M

co eo
00 OS
7 7&.Q <f 66 A HTb

OCO'MOi'OC --

OS

<M CO CC ><
<

I
I

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>

'"

i-H

li-^i

fc-

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1

^it.

i-M-^jo^rt.^-^.r. loo-ob-t^ooooososoo
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i

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r

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^-:
r-i
<

c^i

i

I

ll

(i

I

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I I

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I-H
i

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^CO^
'

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1

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COJCICCOCOCOCCCO

" -l b Id C
v

!

I

r;^ ?O^Ot-OOOOO5OO 'COTOCOrtliOiO'-^t t OOO535O i'>3COCO-^t<lO HI (r-Hi it (i (COCOCOCOCOC-J<MC<lCOCO'riCOCOCOJOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO
i

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i

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<ti

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ir^"*c^cooocoa5ocoos>oc<i'OOiO eo to fi J>. oo os o o -- -" 55

70

LOGS REDUCED TO INCH-BOARD MEASURE.

Table continued.

tOtC>tOl>DtOtOt>3tOt>OtOtOtOtOt-OI
i

r-

o

o <o og oo <- o

'H-'i

'

i

>t

'I

it ii

'I

ii

'i

'I
!*.

'

I

c* cw m.

cs

I

4

by

17

ccwwfc3^^3t3i>3fc3*oiNSisDt>sfcoisDtotoi>3b3i^HJHJHJh-h-'HJi--ii----

i

W r-COCOOO^I>5bCitOI>DtOlNSfcOfcO>StOlNObOtx3tONS>-ih-*l-i-l-*l-'l-'K-|

~3;?ggg
*^i
'

i

4byl9
y
J *
V>

to ^ o co
I

o cc *^ o
OO OO CD >o
JT

I

COCOCOWCOCOCOCOCOWtOM^I>3fc3^ltOtOtChSfcOtCbObOI--'-'-'l-t-OO OS
<r>

I
I

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v

21 A

I

i

fo"^5ocoS^2oo^

i

4 by 22
4 by 23

I

!

4by24

^S|4by25
^
EXPLANATION.
!

4by26

Find the length in feet in the left hand column, and the width and thickness in inches at the heads of the other columns, and trace the two until they meet,

and the

figures so found will express the contents in feet,

board measure.
the table, take the

For a
|-.

less

length than any provided in
of the lengths given.

-J,

J, &c.,

Thus

for 6 feet take \ of 24,

&c.

^

LOGS REDUCED TO INCH-BOARD MEASURE.
TABLE, showing the number of feet (board measure) of
inch-boards contained in round

saw

logs

of various

dimensions

LOGS REDUCED TO INCH-BOARD MEASURE.

71

/

1

1

r

SCANTLING MEASURE.
Table continued.
_i H- i-J k-- )_i bOtCtOtCtCtOI 'I t u. CObOhOlsStObOtCbObCtC Oitf^COtCl 'OOOO^TCiOitf^COfcOl-'OeOOO'^IOsCrtrf^COtOI-'
'

i

i

i

|

^

g_

OiCrOt^rf^*-*-rf^*-OiCCCOOSCOtOtCt>StOtOtOi Cncoi-^o JO irfi>-toOCcCi*'-Cot ^o~~iO>cctcoOO
1

H-'t--'(-"^~.

^60"

SC-^ICTICOH^

OS CO

<> 05 CO

CO OS

W

O

05 CC

O

OS CO

O

Ci CO

SO OS CO

05 00

^
4-00
00

rf^

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00

4-00

^00

rf^

00

rf-

00

>K 00

rffc.

OO

*
00

00

CJt

Oi 00 <O I- 1

tC CO

tr

O5 OO

O

I

tC CO Oi O5 OO

O

*-"

tC CO Cn O5 OO

O

i-

COOStCh^lt^

DCntCI-''<IOO

o

OOrf^I--I-'CSCOH-'OoI*>--*O05toi--^lIfck

o

i

i_i

p

O5

OS

Oi

O5

OS

OS

O5

O5

OS

OS

OS

OS

3
1

1-

oooseo

cooseo

cooso

cooso'

coosio'

ocoso

p

3

74:

SCANTLING MEASURE.
Table continued.

!

..__
Ol CO

ICO .cr
CO O5 CO
CO Oi CO CO OS CO
CO OS
t/3

1

O

O> CO

CO OS CO

CD O5 CC

1l
O5
1

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_.

-

:

:---

-----

-

-

-

*
to

G69*O*QiO*9*i|t||tifcfc|fc|feCl0C0C0Ctt9fcdfc0fcdfc0fcOH*>*N*f^t>rf

OOOO5^t*OOOO5*>.,L>O0005rf^K)OOOO5t^t*OOOC5^tCiOOOOi*.U)

C" x
!

cc
I

I*
1

^} ^1 co

050505O5C50505O5 OSO5O5O5O*

,3
^

^OOC<^I^1-^=^C10505OlOiC^hP>.^cOCOCOCOtOK>t<)l--'(--'K-i O'^l*^' 'OOOirOCOO5COO~-l^' 'OOWlOtOOCOC -^IkJXl 'CDwtC"-OOiCO

^V10

CO tO

tO hO tC

t

!-

H-i

H-*

_i

i-.

ii ^

o6oOSrf^tCOCCC;^l-OOa30i^l*O0005^ts5OOOC5rfa.tOC:O005^.|>S

I

I

cT v;

SCANTLING MEASURE.
Table continued.
OO O tOtOtOtOKtCtObOtObJi

II
00

00^

K

CC 4-

OO

^

^

004^

004^

00

tfs.

00

004-

^ OO

4-00

4-00

4-00

4^00

4^00

4^ OO

4^ OC

4- OC

4-

QC'

X

C*

00 4^

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CO 4-

CO

.4-

00 4-

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CO 4-

CC 4*

CC 4-

QO iK

I

04^00

4- OC

>K 00

4-00

rf^

00

tf>-

00

rf*.

00

4^00

4*CO

4- QO

C50SOS04

OOSC4OJ

OOCOpC^WpCiOSp
OO 4^

CO 4-

OOrf^

00 4^

CO 4-

00 4^

CO 4^

OO 4^

00 4^

OD *-

<1

CO

Oi CD

OS

O

O

CO

<3*

CC OS

O

O3

O3 OS

O

CO OS <O

CO CJ

O

SCANTLING MEASURE.
Table continued.
tc t<s to to to COtOtxSfcOtCtCtCtOfcOtOfcO

_

Ot

cnoStcGc*rf^ooH-~-ioo>oastcoo^owir-~Jo;oooo^icoo4.

,5000000^'-l-Ia>Cr505Cr.O>Ot*. ^^ooOCtCOCtCtOtCHO^M^i OOCJitCCOOTCOO^li^l-'OOtritOOC^CCS-^rf^l 'OOQitCSOaiCC
1

I

O" V-

1

'

OO

tf-

'^4rf-

rfi.

00

tf-

00

rfi-

00

rf^

00

rf^

00

tffc.

00

tf^

00

rf*.

OO

tf*.

OO

rfi-

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<OC5OO
l-^j *h-*
'1

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'I
'

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QC

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'r-'l

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1|

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Oo'rfx

OO*^

00*"

OOrf^

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rf^OC

rf^OC

^00

t*>-00

rf^OO

rf-00

rf^OO

tf-OO

rf^OO

rf^OO

^ ^

SCANTLING MEASURE.

77

CASK-GAUGING.

Casks are usually comprised under the following
viz.
1.
:

figures,

2. 3.

The middle frustum of The middle frustum of

a spheroid.
a parabolic spindle. a paraboloid. a cone.

4.

The two equal frustums of The two equal frustums of

Their contents can be computed by the rules for ascertaining the contents of these figures.

But

in

almost

all

ordinary casks the

l>ilge

or swell from

CASK-GAUGING.
the bung to the head (not from head to head)
is

T9
so small,

that they are, with scarcely an appreciable difference in the
results,

usually regarded as the two equal frustums of a

cone, and are very accurately gauged by three dimensions,
as follows
:

To find
RULE.
divide

the contents

of a cask

~by

three dimensions.

Add

the

them by 2

for the

bung and head diameters in inches, and mean diameter find the area of
;

the

mean diameter

in the table of the areas of circles
it

on

page
inches
;

and multiply

by the length of the cask in

then divide the product by 231 (the cubic inches

in a gallon),

and the quotient will be the number of

gal-

lons the cask contains.

EXAMPLE.
the

What

are the contents in gallons of a cask,
is

bung diameter of which
22 + 20=42
of

22 inches, the head diameter
?

20 inches, and the length 32 inches
SOLUTION.
346.36,

2=21, mean

diameter:

then

area

mean

diameter,

x 32=11083.52-^-231 =

47.98 gallons.

Ans.
is

When
to

the cask

much

bilged or rounded from the

bung

the head,

a more accurate
:

way

is

to

gauge by four

dimensions, as follows

To find
RULE.
the

the contents

Add

of a cask by four dimensions. the head and bung diameters in inches, and
their

diameter taken in inches in the middle between the

bung and head, and divide
diameter
;

find the area of the

sum by 3 for the mean mean diameter in the table

80

CASK-GAUGING.

of the areas of circles on page

and multiply

it

by the

length of the cask in inches and divide the product by 231
(the cubic inches in a gallon),

and the quotient

will be the

contents of the cask in gallons.

EXAMPLE.
the

What

are the contents in gallons of a cask,
is

bung diameter of which

24 inches, the middle
its

dia-

meter 20 inches, the head diameter 16 inches, and 40 inches ?
SOLUTION.

length

24 + 20

+

16

= 603 = 20,
diameter,

mean diameter:
inches, length

the'n 314.16, area of

mean

x40

=

12566.40-r- 231

= 54.4 galls. Am.

CAPACITY OF BOXES.

A

box 24 inches by 16 inches square, and 28 inches

deep, will contain a barrel (5 bushels).

A box 24

inches square and 14 inches deep, will contain

half a barrel.

A box

26 inches by 15.2 inches square, and 8 inches

deep, will contain one bushel.

A box 12 inches by 11.2 inches square, and
will contain half a bushel.

3 inches deep,

by 8.4 inches square, and 8 inches deep, one peck. will contain
8 inches

A box A A

box

8 inches

by

8 inches square,

and 4.2 inches deep,

will contain

one gallon.

box 7 inches by 4 inches square, and 4.8 inches deep,

will contain half a gallon.

4 inches by 4 inches square, and 4.1 inches deep, will contain one quart.
4*

A box

CAPACITY OF WAGON-BEDS.

Wagon-Beds.
f

In most of the
cities
all

Eastern

and many of

the Western
use of their

market-men and

traders,

who make

wagon-beds as measures, are required to have them gauged and their capacity stamped on them by an officer appointed
for that purpose.

The wagon-makers
in bushels on, each

in the

country should

stamp the contents
it

bed they make before be neglected, the following rule will enable every farmer to measure the contents in
leaves the shop.

Should

it

bushels of his wagon-bed for himself:

To find
KULE.

the contents

of wagon-beds.

If the opposite sides are parallel, multiply the

length inside in inches, by the breadth inside in inches,

and that again by the depth

inside in inches,

and divide

CAPACITY OF WAGON-BEDS.
the product by 2150.42 (the

83
inches in a

number of cubic

bushel), and the quotient will be the capacity in bushels.

EXAMPLE.
long,

What

is

the capacity of a wagon-bed 10 feet
I

4

feet wide,

and 15 inches deep

SOLUTION.
inches, depth,

120 inches, length, x 48 inches, width, x 15

= 86400-^2150.42=40

bushels.

Ans.

RULE

2.

Should the head and

tail

boards, or either of

add the top and bottom Jengths together and divide by 2 for the mean length, and proceed by the foregoing rule. Should the sides be sloping, add
them, be
set in bevelling,

the top and bottom widths, and divide by 2 for the width, and proceed by the foregoing
rule.

mean

Should the contents be required in cubic feet, divide the product by 1T28 (the number of cubic inches in a cubic
foot), instead of

2154.42, and the quotient will be the con-

tents in cubic feet.

FALSE BALANCES.

To

detect false balances, scales, &c.

After weighing the article transpose the weight and the article weighed, and if the latter is too light the

RULE.

weight will preponderate;
preponderate.

if

too

heavy the

article

will

To find
RULE.

the true weight.

After transposing them as above, find the additional weight that will produce an equilibrium weigh it
:

with the article by the same balances: multiply the two false weights thus found, together, and the square root of
the product will be the true weight.

EXAMPLE.
transposed
it

An
is

article

found

too light,

weighs 7 Ibs. by a false balance and requires an additional
:

weight to produce a counterpoise: this additional weight is found by the same balances to have a false weight o
Ibs.

What

is

the true weight of the article?

FALSE BALANCES.
SOLUTION.
the weight.

85
is

9| x 7=64, the square root of which Ans.
2.

8 Ibs.,

EXAMPLE
found

An

article

weighs 7

Ibs.

:

transposed

it is

too heavy,
is

weighing only 5|
?

Ibs.

by the

same

scales.

What

the true weight

SOLUTION.

7x

5^=36, the square
Ans.

root of

which

is

6

Ibs.,

the true weight.

NOTE.

In the 1st example the additional weight

is

added

to the article to

produce the equilibrium
is

:

in

the

second example the deficiency

taken from the weight to

produce the counterpoise.

CISTEKNS.
To find
cisterns.

the

number of gallons in square or oblong square

Multiply the length in inches by the width in inches, and that by the depth in inches, and divide the proThe quotient will be the number of gallons. duct by 231.

RULE.

EXAMPLE.
and 4
feet

Given, a cistern 6
;

feet

long by 3 feet wide
it

deep

how many

gallons will

contain

?

SOLUTION.
inches, depth,

72 inches, length, x 36 inches, width,

x48

= 1244164- 231 =538.59
c

galls.

Ans.
cisterns.

To Jmd

tJie

number of gallons in triangular
/is

RULE.

Multiply the base a b in inches, by the perpen-

dicular height c
in

d

in inches,

and half that sum by the depth

inches,

and divide the product by 231.

The quotient

will

be the number of gallons.
Given, a triangular cistern 8 feet at the base

EXAMPLE.

or longest side, 7 feet in perpendicular height, 4 feet deep.

How many

gallons will

it

contain

?

CISTERNS.

87
84,

SOLUTION.

96 inches, base,

x

perpendicular height

88

CISTERNS.

To find
RULE.

the

number of

gallons in tub-shaped cisterns.

Find the cubes of the top and bottom diameters divide the in inches, by means of the table on page the difference of the difference between those cubes by
diameters in inches, and multiply this quotient by .7854, and again by J of the depth in inches, and divide the proThe quotient will be the number of gallons. 231. duct

by

EXAMPLE.

Given, a tub-shaped cistern of a top diameter
feet,

of 10 feet, a bottom diameter of 8

and 6

feet

deep.

How many
SOLUTION.

gallons will

it

contain
"

?

Cube of 120
"
96

inches, the top diameter,

"

bottom

"

1728000 884736

Difference between cubes of diameters,

843264
.35136

Divided by 24, difference of diameters, gives
Multiplied by .7854, gives

27595.8144

"

again by 24,

the depth in inches, gives

662299.5456
2867.09

Divided by 231, cubic inches in a gallon, gives ATM. galls.

the top and bottom diameters in inches and divide by 2 for the mean diameter. Find the area in means of the table square inches of the mean diameter by or by the rule given on page on page Multiply

RULE

2.

Add

the area by the depth in inches, and divide the product by number of gallons. 231, and the quotient will be the

EXAMPLE.

What

are the contents in gallons of a cistern

8 feet diameter at the top, 6 feet at the bottom, and 4 feet

deep

?

CISTERNS.

89

SOLUTION.

96 inches

-f

72 inches

= 168-7-2=84
mean
gallons.
falls

inches,

mean

diameter; then 5541.77, area of

diameter, x 48

inches, depth, =266004.96
ISToTE.

^231 = 1151.53

Ans.

The quantity
is

of water which

upon most

farm buildings

sufficient to afford

an ample supply for
other supplies
fail,

the domestic animals of the farm,

when
it

were cisterns large enough to hold

provided.

The

aver-

age amount of rain that falls in the latitude of the Northern O States during the year, is about 3 feet per year, or 3 inches per month. Every inch in depth that falls upon a roof a yields 2 barrels for each ten feet square, and 72 barrels

barn 30 by 40 feet year are yielded by 3 feet of rain. supplies annually from its roof 864 barrels, which is more
than 2 barrels per day, the year round.

A

The
tended

size of

cisterns should vary according to their in-

use.

If they are to furnish a daily

supply of water,

they need not be so large as for saving supplies against

summer and
The
of a

droughts.

size of the cistern in daily use

need not exceed that

body

of water

on the whole roof of the building, 7
fall

inches deep, or two months' greatest

of rain.

Cisterns

intended to save the water to draw from in time of drought,
should be about three times as large.

To

ascertain the size of cisterns adapted to roofs, <&c.

RULE.

Multiply the length of the roof in inches by the
fall

breadth in inches, and that by the depth of the

of rain

required to be saved, and divide the product by 231, and

CISTERNS.

the

quotient will be the
of gallons by

number
it

of gallons.
will give the

Divide the

number
barrels.

31, and

number of

be the capacity of a cistern to contain the water running from a roof 40 feet long by 30
wide, for 2 months
:

EXAMPLE.

What must

estimated

fall

of rain 7 inches

?

480 inches, length, x 360 inches, width, x 7 = 8266f galls. Ana. inches, depth of rain, = 1909600-^- 231
SOLUTION.

NOTE.
tern

To

ascertain the necessary dimensions of a cisto contain

large

enough

foregoing table.
feet in

It will

8266f gallons, consult the there be found that a cistern 13

depth.

diameter contains 827 gallons for each 10 inches in To give the cistern 10 times that depth, or 100
(8-J-

inches

feet) will

make

it

contain 8270 gallons.
8-J-

Hence
be large

a cistern 13 feet in diameter, and

feet deep, will

enough.

To

further aid the inquirer in ascertaining the requisite

diameters of cisterns for the above purposes,

we

subjoin

an additional

TABLE, showing the contents of circular cisterns in barrels

for each foot in
5 feet " 6

depth.

7
8

9

10

" " " "

4.66 6.74 9.13 11.93 15.10 18.65

CISTERN 8.

91

.

cut represents the sectional view of a filtered cistern, with a brick wall partition in the middle and the
at the

The above

box of charcoal and sand
of each.

bottom, with alternate layers

The pipe

at the left leads

from the

roof,

and the

one

at the right connects

with the pump.

With

this style

of cistern properly constructed, no one need be in want of

pure wholesome water.

To

construct a filtering cistern

to

furnish pure water

for domestic use.
Divide the cistern into two equal compartments by a wall of brick or stone, open at the bottom to the height of about six inches, and water-tight thence to the

RULE.

top.

Let one compartment be for receiving the water, and the other for containing it when filtered and ready for

use.

Put

alternate layers, 6 inches deep, of gravel, sand,

92

CISTERNS.

and pounded charcoal at the bottom of the former, and sand and gravel at the bottom of the latter. The former
will receive the water from the pipe, in the latter.

and

it

will rise filtered

ANOTHER MODE.

Divide

the

cistern

as

above by a

double open wall of stone or brick, with an interspace of
about six inches between the walls.
Fill the interspace

with sand and pounded charcoal.
receive the water, and
it

Let one compartment

will pass

through the

filter

into

the other ready for use.

HYDEAULICS.
The
science of hydraulics treats of the motion of non;

hydrodynamics, of the force of that motion and hydrostatics, of the pressure, weight, and equilibrium.
elastic fluids

;

THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF HYDRAULICS,
1.

&c.

Descending water

is

governed by the same laws as

falling bodies.
2.

Water

will fall 1 foot in | of a second,
so

4

feet in

a

second, and 9 feet in f of a second, and
ratio.
3.

on in the same

The

velocity of a fluid propelled through an orifice

by a head of water in a cistern or reservoir, is the same that a body would acquire by falling perpendicularly
through a space equal to that between the top of the head and the centre of the opening, lets the friction which, in
pipes, drains,
velocity.
4.

and

sluices, increases as the

square of the

The mean

velocity of water
1 foot is
all

propelled through an

opening by a head of
5.

5f

feet per second.

Fluids press equally in

directions.
is

6.

The

of a vessel pressure of a fluid on the bottom

as

94:

HYDRAULICS.

the base and perpendicular height, whatever
figure of the vessel.
7.

may

be the

The

pressure of a fluid on any kind of surface, hori-

zontal, vertical, or oblique, is equal to the weight of the

column

of the fluid, the

base of which

is

equal to the area
is

of the surface pressed, and the height of which
the distance from the surface of the fluid to
gravity, on the surface pressed.
8.

equal to

its

centre of

The

side

of

a vessel filled with water sustains

a

pressure equal to the area of the side multiplied by half

the depth, whether the sides be vertical, oblique, or horizontal.
9.

If the vessel be tub-shaped, or in the form of an in-

verted frustum of a cone or pyramid, the bottom sustains a pressure equal to the area of the bottom and the depth
of the fluid.

10.

The quantity
slit

of water that will flow out of a per-

pendicular
its

or aperture from the surface of the head to

base, is but two-thirds of

what would flow out of a
it

slit

of the

same dimensions were

horizontal at the level of

the base.
11.

A

circular pipe of the

same area

as a square^ trian-

gular, or irregular one, will discharge
time.
12.

more water in a given

The

greater the length of the discharging pipe, the

less the discharge, unless

the pipe be perpendicular.

HYDJJAULIC8.
13.

95

A

pipe that

is

inclined will discharge

more water

in

a given time than a horizontal pipe of the same dimensions.

14.

The

friction of

a fluid

is

greater in small than in

large pipes,
15.

when

equal quantities are discharged.

In perpendicular pipes, the discharge being governed

by the law of gravitation, the greater the length of the
pipe, the greater the discharge.
16.

When

a prismatic vessel empties itself through an

aperture, twice the quantity would be discharged in the

same time
17.

if it

were kept

full.

In a stream,

sluice,

or

ditch,

the velocity

is

the

greatest at the surface
18.

and

in the middle of the current.

The time occupied by
and with equal In a straight
:

a given

quantity of water

passing through pipes or sewers of equal apertures and
lengths,
falls,
is

in the following propor-

tions, viz.

line, as

90

;

in a regular curve, as

100

;

and

in passing a right angle, as 140.
the velocity

To find
of water.
KULE.

of a stream issuing from a head

and the square root of the product
feet

Multiply the height of the head in feet by 64.33, will be the velocity in

per second.

EXAMPLE.

What

is

the velocity of a stream projected
feet
?

through an opening by a head of 12

96
SOLUTION.
is

HYDRAULICS.

27.780 feet

12x64.33=771.96, the square root of which per second. Ans.

To find
RULE.

the head, the velocity being given.
it

Square the velocity and divide the quotient will be the head in feet.

by 64.33, and

EXAMPLE.
stream

What
2

is

the head of water that projects a

27.780 feet per

second

?

SOLUTION.

27.780 =771.96-7-64.33=12

feet.
is

Ans.

NOTE.
friction,

In the above results no allowance

made

for

which should be made
results.

in order to ascertain

the

practical
orifices,

The

friction of

water passing out of
is,

and not through

pipes, sluices, or sewers,

how-

ever, very small.

To find
given.

the quantity

opening, the

of water that will issue from an dimensions of the opening and the head being

Find the velocity of the jet or stream by the foregoing rule, and multiply it by the area of the orifice in feet, and the product will be the number of cubic feet

RULE.

per second the orifice will discharge.

EXAMPLE.

How much

water will an

orifice

of an area

of 2 square feet discharge per second under a head of 12
feet?

SOLUTION.
is

12x64.33=771.96, the square root of which
feet,

27.780 feet velocity; then, 27.780x2

cubic feet per second.

Ans.

HYDRAULICS.

97

To find
RULE.
in

the velocity

of currents in drains,

ditches.t

sluices, brooks, or rivers.

Find the velocity of the surface of the current the middle of the stream by taking the number of inches
it

a floating body passes over
This, for
cient.
all

in one second.
suffi-

ordinary practical purposes, will be

But

to find the

mean

or average velocity, take the

square root of the velocity so found J double it, and deduct it from the velocity at the top, and add one to the remainder,

and the

result will

be the velocity

at the

bottom.

Add

the

top and bottom

velocities,

and divide them by two

for the

mean

velocity.

EXAMPLE.
velocity

What

is

the

mean

velocity of a current, the

of which
is

at the

surface, in
?

the middle of the

stream,

36 inches per second

SOLUTION.-

4/86=6 x

2

= 236 = 24 +
]

1=25,

velocity

5

98
at

HYDRAULICS.

bottom; then, 36 + 25
velocity.
the

61-^2=30.5 inches per second,

mean

Ans.
sluices,

To fond

brooks, <&c.,

volume of water discharged by drains, of given dimensions, in a given time.

RULE.
in feet,

Multiply the velocity of the current per second

by the area of the transverse section of the drain or sluice, in feet, and the product will be the quantity discharged per second, in cubic
feet.

EXAMPLE.
wide and 3

What volume

of water will a drain 2 feet

deep discharge in one hour, the mean velocity of the current being 30 inches per second ?
feet

SOLUTION.
city, =15

2x3=6

sq.

ft.,

area of section x 2 J-

ft.,

velo-

cubic feet discharged per second; then,

15 x

3600 seconds (one Ans.
NOTE.

hour) =54,000

cubic feet per hour.

The standard
foot contains foot

gallon contains 231 cubic inches,

and a cubic
a

1728 cubic inches.

Accordingly,

cubic
if

of water contains 7.476 standard gallons.

Hence,
it

we

multiply the

number of cubic
gallons.

feet *by 7.476,

will give the

number of

For instance, the drain

in

the

above example discharges 54,000 cubic feet per

hour, which, multiplied by 7.476, gives 403,704 gallons

discharged per hour.

To find
RULE.

the velocity

of water running through pipes.
;

Multiply the height of the head in feet by 2500

divide this product

by a divisor obtained as follows

:

Di-

HYDRAULICS.

99

vide 13.88 by the diameter of the pipe in inches, and multiply the quotient

by the length of the pipe
aforesaid.

in

feet,

and
first

the result will be the divisor

Divide the

product by

this

sum, and the square root of the quotient

will be the velocity in feet per second of the current in the

pipe.

EXAMPLE.

What

is

the velocity of water in a pipe 5

inches diameter and 100 feet long, and under a head of 2
feet?

SOLUTION.

13. 88 -r- 5 =2. 776

x 100=277.6

and 2500x2
is

=5000;
4.24
feet.

then, 5000-7-277.6=18, the sq. root of which

Ans.
the quantity

To find
RULE.

of water discharged through pipes.

Multiply the velocity of the current per second in feet by the area of the transverse section of the pipe in feet, and the product will be the quantity discharged in
cubic feet per second.

quantity of water will a pipe 6 inches diameter and 100 feet long discharge per hour under a

EXAMPLE.

What
?

head of 2

feet

SOLUTION.

By

the preceding rule, find the velocity of
:

the current in the pipe, thus

2500x2

feet,

head, =5000,

13.88H-6 inches, the diameter of the
feet,

pipe, = 2.313

x 100

length of the pipe,

=

231.3, divisor;
is

50004-231.3=

24.34, the square root of

which

4.80 feet, velocity per
feet,

second.

Then, 4.80 x .1963 square

area of pipe,=

100

HYDRAULICS.
.942 x 3600 seconds

.942 cubic feet discharged pei second.

(one hour) =3391 cubic

ft.

discharged per hour.

Ans.
vessel,

To find

the pressure

of a fluid on the bottom of a

cistern, or reservoir

Multiply the area of the base in square feet by the height of the fluid in feet, and their product by the

RULE.

weight of a cubic foot of the

fluid.

EXAMPLE.
cistern

What

is

the pressure on the bottom of a
filled

10 feet in diameter and 8 feet deep,

with

water ?
SOLUTION.
78.54, area of bottom,

x 8=628.32 x 62
Ibs.

Ibs.,

the weight of a cubic foot of water, =39. 370

Ans.

To find
RULE.
depth
fluid.

the pressure

on

the side

of a

vessel.
its

Multiply the area of the side in feet by half

in feet,

and that by the

Ibs.

per cubic foot of the

EXAMPLE.
of a

What
10
2

is

the pressure upon the sloping side

pond 10

feet square

by 8

feet

deep ?
Ibs.,

SOLUTION.

=100x4,

half the depth, =400x62
Ibs.

the weight of a cubic foot of water, =25000

Ans.

NOTE.

It is

proper to remark that

all

of these rules,

while they are theoretically correct, do not pretend to embrace a variety of circumstances which affect the flow of

water through apertures, and which should be taken into These circumstances cannot be consideration in all cases.

HYDliAULICS.

101

measured by rules, and the just estimate of their influence must depend on experience.
1.

Water

will flow

more rapidly from an aperture
outside.

in a

widening trough This prevents, so to speak, the intercrossing of the currents as they flow over
be attached to
it

vessel if a funnel-shaped tun or a rapidly

on the

the sides of the aperture
reason of
its

;

instead of obstructing

itself,

by

tendency to cross the centre of the opening,

the water follows the sides of the funnel or trough, and
allows the full area of the opening to discharge freely.

The be made
2.

ease with
to pa'ss

which a given quantity of water can

through a pipe depends (other things being equal) upon the proportion between the area of the opening and st circumference the latter being a source of friction. (See Nos. 14 and 11 above.)
3.

The

ease

of the flow

depends on the perfect uni-

formity of the channel.
ity in the side of a

A

lump

or any other inequal-

pipe will disturb the current and cause
itself.

the water to obstruct

Perfect form

is

more import-

ant than a smooth surface.
4.

The same

principle operates in the case of deflections
line.

from a straight

If the water
is

is

turned out of
it

its

course the evenness of the flow

disturbed, and

becomes

more

difficult

(see

No. 18 above).

The

influence of a

"regular curve" is in proportion to its radius; more water will flow through a pipe which turns in a large circle

than in one which turns more abruptly.

This cut

is

intended to illustrate the use of the

Hani ; representing one operated by the water, from a spring near which it is located, and forcing the water through suitable leading and
Hydraulic
discharge pipe, to a considerable elevation (either perpendicular or upon an inclined plane) to a trough,

which may be placed in any convenient locality for watering farm stock of every description, affording
It a constant supply of fresh water the year round. used to supply a cistern or a water-tank may also be
in the house.

THE HYDKAULIC KAM.
The hydraulic ram
is

a machine for forcing a portion

of a brook or stream to any required elevation and distance,

when
is

the requisite head or pressure can be obtained.
large spring or a limited but constant stream
fall

Wherever a
at hand,

by which a

of four or five feet

may

be pro-

duced, by building a

dam

or otherwise, a portion of the

water of such spring or stream may be raised to a perpendicular height of more than 100 feet by its own power, through the agency of the water-ram. Thus, a stream in
a deep valley, or a rivulet or brook situated some distance

below a point where it is desired to have a cistern or reservoir, may be made to raise a part of its water by one of these machines. From such a cistern or reservoir the

water

may

afterwards be conveyed to any part of the preit,

mises below

and applied

for the

purpose of irrigation,

watering of stock, manufactories, or domestic or ornamental
use.

The power
tion to the
tained.

of the ram, and the height to which

it

will

raise the water, as also the quantity raised, are in propor-

volume

of the stream

and the head or

fall ob-

The ram

is

applicable where no

more than 18 inches

fall

can be obtained.

104

THE HYDRAULIC KAM.
distance which the water has to be conveyed, and

The

the consequent length of pipe, have also a bearing upon

the quantity raised and

its

elevation, as the larger the pipe

friction to

through which the water has to be forced, the greater the be overcome, and the more the power consumed
in the operation.

The ram can be
from 100
feet.

to

applied to convey water a distance of 200 rods, and to elevations of from 100 to 200

A fall
feet

of 10 feet from the spring or brook to the

ram

is

sufficient to force the

water to any elevation not over 150 above the ram, and in distance not over 150 rods
it.

from

Although the same fall greater elevation, and force
creased.

will
it

raise

water to

a

much

to a greater distance, yet the

quantity will diminish as the height and distance are in-

When
quate

a sufficient quantity of water
the
fall

is

raised

by an adeits

fall

should not be increased, as by so doing

the strain upon the
durability lessened.

ram

is

unnecessarily increased, and

The proportion which
raised,

the height to which the water
raised, bear to the fall

is

and the quantity

and

to the

volume of the spring or stream, is about five times the height of the fall, and \ of the volume of the stream forced
a distance of 50 rods

allowing for the friction in both the

supply and discharging pipes.

THE HYDRAULIC RAM.
Thus,
if

105
fall

the rain be placed under a

of 5 feet, for

every 7 gallons drawn from the spring, 1 gallon
raised 25 feet, or J a gallon 50 feet,

may

be

and forced a distance
one gallon

of 50 rods.

If the

fall

be 10

feet, it will raise

50

feet, or J

a gallon 100

feet, for every 7 gallons disfall
it

charged by the stream. If the ume of the stream be doubled,
feet,

be 10

feet,

and the

vol-

will raise 1 gallon

100

and

so

on in the same

ratio.

the

The pipe leading from the spring ram is called the supply pipe.
the

or head of the

fall to

The pipe leading from
is

ram

to the reservoir or cistern

called the discharging pipe.

The

shorter and straighter the supply pipe, the better.
is

Hence, unless the supply pipe
spring,
it
is

laid to

the head of a
its

better to

dam

the stream at the head of

greatest

fall,

and

after inserting the

supply pipe at the base

of the dam, let

it

follow the depression of the bed of the

stream to the ram at the lowest point.

The
ter
;

shorter and straighter the discharging pipe the betis

there

less friction to

be overcome.
let

be necessary to curve either pipe, of the curve be as large as possible.
it

Should

the radius

To
which
water

ascertain
it

the

quantity of water

and

the height to

may

be elevated by

a given fall and volume of

discharging pipe not over 50 rods.
Find, by means of a
;

RULE.

common

level, the fall

of
it

your spring or stream

then find the quantity of water
5*

106

THE HYDRAULIC BAM.

means of the rule given discharges per minute or hour, by then multiply the height of for that purpose on page 98
;

the

fall

by

5, for the elevation,

and divide the number of
7,

gallons

discharged by the stream by

for the quantity

of water raised.

Given, a spring with a fall of 8 feet, disHow high and how charging 28 gallons per minute. much water will it raise per minute by means of a ram-

EXAMPLE.

discharging pipe not exceeding 50 rods
SOLUTION.

?

8x5=40

feet elevation.

28-^7=4

gals,

per

minute.

Ans.
In the same
ratio, it will raise

NOTE.

2 gallons 80 feet

and so on. per minute, or 1 gallon 160 feet per minute,

rams now in following working results of water actual use, will enable the inquirer to ascertain the elevat-

The

with various falls and volume of ing capacity of springs, Co.'s Premium The rams used are " B-umsey water.

&

Hydraulic Rams," Seneca

Falls,

K Y.

Fall from surface of water in spring to ram 1. Length of supply pipe, inside diameter 1 inch Volume of water discharged by spring in 10 minutes Length of discharging pipe, inner diameter f inch, curved

4

feet.

60 25 gallons.
in

three places to a semicircle Elevation of discharging pipe from Discharged every ten minutes
2.

ram

to cistern

ISO feet. 19 3^ gallons.
10
feet.

Fall from surface of

Length of supply

water in spring to ram 1 inches pipe, inside diameter

Volume

of water discharged
pipe,

by spring per minute

Length of discharging

inch inside diameter Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern Discharged per minute

40 20 gallons. 50 rods.
85 feet. 2 * gallons.

THE HYDRAULIC RAM.
3 Fall from surface of water in spring to ram Length of supply pipe, inside diameter 1 inches

107
3$ feet. " 30 not given. 30 rods.
35 feet.

of water discharged by spring Length of discharging pipe inside diameter inch Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern Discharged a constant stream ^ inch diameter.
4. Fall from surface of water in spring Length of supply pipe, inside diameter 1^ inches Volume of water discharged by spring Length of discharging pipe, inside diameter inch Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern at barn.

Volume

...

12 feet. 32 " not given. 14 rods. 35 feet.

inch diameter, at barn, affordDischarged a constant stream ing more than a supply for 52 head of cattle.
5. Fall from surface of water in spring to ram Length of supply pipe, inside diameter one inch Volume of water discharged by spring Length of discharging pipe inside diameter inch Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern

9

feet.

50 " not given. 100 feet.
35

"

Discharges a constant stream, ^ inch diameter, into a cistern at house and after supplying water for the domestic use of a large family, passes off to the cattle yard 20 rods further, affording an abundant supply for a large herd of cattle.
6Fall from surface of water in spring to ram Length of supply pipe, inside diameter 1 \ inches Volume of water discharged by spring Length of discharging pipe, \ inch inside diameter Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern Delivers a good supply of running water at house and barn,

8 feet.

not given. "
70 rods. 80 feet.

sufficient for all necessary purposes.

Fall of water from surface of spring to ram pipe, inside diameter 1^ inches Volume of water discharged by spring. Length of discharging pipe. \ inch inside diameter Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern Delivers a constant stream of \ inch diameter.
7.

10

feet.

Length of supply

not given. "
76 rods. 110 foe*,

8. Fall from surface of spring to ram 6 \ feet. Length of supply pipe, inside diameter \\ inches 60 rods. Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern 60 feet. Discharges sufficient water in barn yard to supply 30 head of cattle.
9. Fall from surface of spring to ram Size of supply pipe, inside diameter 2 inches, length Length of discharging pipe, inside diameter inch

9 feet.

not given. 150 rods.

Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern 130 feet. Delivers an abundant supply of water for house, barn, barn-yard and hog- pen.

108

THE HYDRAULIC RAM.
7 feet.

Fall from surface of dam to ram 10. Length and size of supply pipe Volume of water discharged by stream Length of discharging pipe, (size not given) Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern Discharges 25 barrels of water in 24 hours.
11. Fall from spring to ram Size of supply pipe, 2 inches calibre length inch calibre Length of discharging pipe,
;

not given.
"

126 rods. 75 feet.
11 feet.

42

"

Elevation of discharging pipe from ram to cistern Discharges over 30 barrels of water per day.

75 rods. 98 feet.

and weight of the supply and discharging pipes must be in proportion to the head or pressure on them. They are proportioned and adjusted to
NOTE.
size, strength,

The

the capacity of the

ram by

the manufacturer, and are gen-

erally sold with the machine.

When
ume and

a very large supply of water

is

required for

manu-

facturing or other purposes, and a stream of sufficient volfall is

obtained,

it

is

better to set

two or three

rams of a smaller
pipe, than to
set

size, all playing into one discharging one large ram. If one ram becomes dis-

abled, the others supply the

demand.

and volume of one stream or spring not supply enough water, and at the required elevation, and there be other springs near by, set a ram in each, all meetShould the
fall

ing in one discharging pipe. Their combined power will increase the elevation and the quantity raised.

The
tect

pipes can be so laid, and the
frost

ram

so set, as to pro-

them from the
fall

during the winter.

The

of one spring or stream

may

be used to raise the

water of another and better spring or stream, whose
fall is

own

not sufficient.

THE HYDRAULIC RAM.

109

Mr. H. L. Emery, of Albany, in a communication to the " The result of a water ram is Country Gentleman, says
:

calculated
raise a

upon the principle that a pound of force will

to a greater height,

pound of water an equal height, and a less quantity which height is limited only by the

strength of the pipes themselves. " To enable any one to select the size
to

ram

it is

necessary

compute the elevation to be overcome, and the greatest
fall
first

amount of
divide the

which can be conveniently obtained, and by the last, and the quotient will be the

proportion of the water (passing through the drive-pipe)

however, deducting for waste of power and friction say \ of the amount thus, with ten feet fall and one hundred feet elevation, one-tenth of the
will
;

which

be raised

first,

;

water would be raised, if there were no friction or loss; but deducting, say one-quarter for loss, and 7J gallons for
each 100 gallons would be raised, all the balance of the water being required or wasted to accomplish this result."

THE HYDRAULIC PRESS.

The Hydraulic
Its construction

or Hydrostatic Press

is

a machine

by

which a small force may be made

to exert a great pressure.

may be

understood by the above cut.

Two

and B, of different sizes, are joined metallic cylinders, In the small cylinder there is a together by a tube K. be moved up and down by the handle piston p which can

A

THE HYDRAULIC PRESS.

Ill

M.
its

In the large cylinder there is also a piston P, having at upper end a large iron plate, which moves freely up and
in a strong

down

frame-work Q.

Between the
to

iron plate
is

and the top of
placed.

this

framework the body
the small piston
is

be pressed

Now, when
it

raised, the cylinder

A

is

filled

and when

with water drawn from the reservoir H, below, is pushed down this water is forced into the

large cylinder through the pipe K.

There

is

a valve in this

tube which prevents the water from returning, so that each stroke of the small piston pushes an additional quantity of water into the large cylinder. By this means the large
piston
is

pushed up against the body
that the force acting

to

be pressed.

culate the pressure exerted by the large piston

To calwe must
A,
will

remember

upon the piston be exerted upon every equal amount of surface
illustrate this
:

in

in B.

To

times the area of the small one

suppose the area of the large piston to be 10 then one pound at will
;

A

produce a pressure of ten pounds
creases the advantage
still

at P.

The handle

M inBy
in-

more,

according to the principle

of the lever to be explained in a future chapter.

creasing the size of the large cylinder, and diminishing the
size of the small one, the pressure exerted

will

be increased proportionately.

by a given power The weight of a man's

hand might thus be made to lift a ship with all its cargo. The only limit to the increase of power would be the strength
of the material of which the machine
is

made.

WEIGHT OF LEAD
to

PIPE.

TABLE, showing the weight of lead pipe per yard,

from %

4^ indies diameter.

FUEL.
The
following
table,

abridged

from

Browne's Sylva

Americana, ing them to form an estimate of the comparative value of fire woods in a seasoned state, or when burnt to charcoal.

will be found valuable to housekeepers in aid-

TABLE, showing the Comparative Values of Fire Woods.
^3

WOODS.

1

V
Common
Shellbark Hickory,

Walnut, White Oak
Thick Shellbark Hickory, White Ash, Scrub Oak,
.

Witch Hazel,
Apple Tree, Red Oak, B'ack Gum, Black Walnut,

White Beech, Black Birch Yellow Oak Sugar Maple,
White Elm,
Holly, Wild Cherry,

Yellow Pine, Sycamore, or Button wood,
Chestnut, Spanish Oak,
Poplar,

Butternut, White Birch, Jergey Pine, Pitch Pine, White Pine

Lombardy

Poplar,

114:

FUEL.
It will

be remarked that shellbark hickory is made the standard in the above table, not only of the fuel

NOTE.

but also of the specific gravity, the value and specific gravity of the other woods being determined by the proportion

they severally bear to this standard.
to

The

table

has a further use, namely,

determine the price that

should be paid per cord for other woods, taking the price

paid for shellbark hickory as the standard.

should shellbark be selling for
is

For instance, $6.00 per cord, white oak
:

worth $4.86

;

for, as

100, the value of shellbark,
:

$6.00,
price;

its price, ::

81, the value of white oak,

$4.86,

its

and other kinds

in the
is

same proportion.
128 cubic feet; the sticks or billets feet high and 4 feet wide
;

A cord

of

wood

are cut 4 feet long

and piled 4
a cord.

8 feet in length

making The wood-cutter has a measure

of two feet marked on his

axe handle with which he measures the length of each stick, making due allowance for the carf, or the bevel of the cut.
All fuel should, however, be sold by weight.

When

the weights

of different woods
will,

are

equal, that

which contains the most hydrogen
ferable to oak,

during combustion,

give out the greatest amount of heat.

Hence, pine
coal.

is

pre-

and bituminous to anthracite
it

"When

w ood
r

its

should be thoroughly dried, as in green and ordinary state it contains 25 per cent, of
is
;

used as fuel

water

the heat to evaporate which
it

is

necessarily lost.

To

kiln-dry

adds 12 per cent, to

its

value over seasoned wood.

FUEL.

115

Coal Mining in Pennsylvania.

TABLE, showing
Designation.

the weights

per cubic foot of
Designation.

the different

kinds of Coal.
Weight
in Ibs.

Weight
"

in Ibs.

Anthracite,

Bituminous Cumberland,
Virginia, (bitum.)

50 to 55 45 to 55
53

Western, (bitum.)
English, Charcoal, (hard wood) do. (soft or pine wood).

49

.

.

47 50 18 18

NOTE. Soft coals are usually purchased at the rate of 28 bushels of 5 pecks each, to a ton of 43.56 cubic feet. Anthracite, 20 bushels to the ton

To prepare
Charcoal
is

charcoal.

prepared by clearing off the top

soil

from a
bil-

circular space of the required dimensions,

and piling

116
lets

FUEL.
of

wood

in

it

into

a pyramidal heap, with several

formed through the pile. Chips and brushwood are put into those below, and the whole is so
spiracles or flues

constructed as to kindle through in a very short time. It must then be covered all over with clay or earth beaten
close, leaving

openings at

all

the spiracles or

flues.

The

pile

then ignited, and carefully watched and kept from bursting into a flame, by instantly closing the flues should
is

such happen.

Whenever

the white watery smoke issuing

from the

flues is

observed to be succeeded by a thin, blue,

and transparent smoke, the holes must be immediately
being the indication that all the watery vapor is gone, and the burning of the true coaly matter comThus a strong red heat is raised throughout the mencing.
stopped
;

this

whole mass, and all the volatile matters are dissipated by The holes and nothing now remains but the charcoal. it,
being
is

stopped in succession as this change of the smoke The pile is observed, the fire goes out for want of air.
all

now

allowed to cool, which requires

many

days, for char-

long remains red hot in the centre, and if opened in this state Even when it is would instantly burn with great fury.
opened, the heat retained by some of the larger pieces often ignites it, to guard against which water should be

coal being a very bad conductor of heat, the pile

provided to instantly extinguish

it

when

observed.

PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL.
Although charcoal
is

so combustible,

it

is,

in

some

re-

FUEL.
spects, a very

117

unchangeable substance, resisting the action

of a great variety of other substances

upon

it.

Hence

posts

are often charred before being put into the ground.

Grain

has been found in the excavations at Herculaneum, which

was charred

at the

time of the destruction of that

city,

eighteen .hundred years ago, and yet the shape is perfectly preserved, so that you can distinguish between the different

it

kinds of grain. While charcoal is itself so unchangeable, Hence meat preserves other substances from change.

and vegetables are packed in charcoal for long voyages, and the water is kept in casks which are charred on the
inside.

Tainted meat can be made sweet by being covered

with

it.

bad

taste

Foul and stagnant water can be deprived of its by being filtered through it. Charcoal is a great

decolorizer.

of their color,

Ale and porter filtered through it are deprived and sugar-refiners decolorize their brown

syrups by means of charcoal, and thus

make white

sugar.

Animal

charcoal, or bone-black,

is
it

the best for such puris

poses, although only one-tenth of

really charcoal, the

other nine-tenths being the mineral portion of the bone.

Charcoal will absorb, of some gases, from eighty to ninety As every point of its surface is a times its own bulk.
point of attraction,
it

is

supposed to account for the enor-

mous accumulation
But
in

of gases in the spaces of the charcoal.

this accounts for it

only in part.

There must be some

peculiar

power

the charcoal to change, in some way,
it

the condition of a gas of which

absorbs ninety times

its

own

bulk.

Hooker.

118
NOTES.

FUEL.

The

best quality of charcoal

is

made from

oak,

maple, beech, and chestnut.

Wood

will furnish,

when

about 20 per properly charred,

cent, of coal.

A bushel of coal from hard wood weighs 30 Ibs. A bushel of coal from pine weighs 29 Ibs.
TABLE, showing the number of parts of charcoal afforded wood. ly 100 parts of different kinds of
Woods,
Parts charcoal.
Color.

Lignum Mahogany Laburnum
Chestnut

Vitse

afforded. " "

"

Oak
Black beech
1Io ll
"

Sycamore

Walnut
Beech
jy{ apl e

"
"

Em
l

Norway Pine
Sallow

"
"

Scottish Pine

"

26.8 25.4 24.5 23.2 22.6 21.4 19.9 19-7 20.6 19 9 19.9 19.2 19.2 18.4 17.9 17.4 16.4
-

Grayish.

Brown.
Velvet black.
Glossy black. Black.

Fine black. Dull black.

me Du

black.

back. Dul1 black. Dull black.

Shining black. Fine black. Velvet blac k

Shining black. Velvet black. Brownish.

COKE.
Sixty bushels ol
bushels of coke.

Newcastle lump

coal, will

make 92

Newcastle slack, or fine coal, will Sixty bushels of
85 bushels of coke.

make

FUEL.

119

Sixty bushels Pictou or Virginia Coal, will made 75 bushels coke of an inferior quality compared with the above. bushel of the best coke weighs 32 Ibs.

A

The production of coke by weight is about |- that of coal. Coal furnishes 60 to TO per cent, of coke by weight. 1 Ib. of coke will evaporate in a common locomotive boiler
74 o
Ibs.

of water at 212

into steam.

TABLE, showing the weights, evaporative powers per weight, ~bulk and character of Fml.

DESIGNATION.

120

FUEL.

N. B.
use
let a

The above
deduction of

are the extreme effects
-|-

;

for practical

be made from the above.

Combustible matter of fuel.

The quantity

of combustible matter of fuel, if the weight

and other circumstances be equal, may be learnt from the For example, ashes, or residuum, left after the combustion.
good Newcastle coal contains a greater portion of combustible matter than Nova Scotia coal, and leaves behind a
smaller

amount of earthy and incombustible substance.
value, of different kinds
is

The heating power, and consequent
of fuel,
affected

by

this circumstance,

though by no means

dependent on it. The fitness of fuel for various purposes is furthermore affected by the facility with which it gives off a part of its combustible matter in the form of vapor or
gas, which, being burnt in that state, produces flame.

For

example, the bituminous coals abound in volatile matter,
which,

when
3

ignited, supports a powerful blaze.

On

the

other hand, the Lehisrh and "

Khode Island
little

coals are destitute
It
is

of bitumen, and yield but
causes that dry pine
its

flame.

from similar

wood produces

a powerful blaze, while

charcoal yields comparatively

little.

A blaze

is

of great

service

where heat

is

required to be applied to an extensive

surface, as in reverberating furnaces, ovens, glass-houses, &c.

But when an equable, condensed, or lasting fire is wanted, the more solid fuels, which blaze less, are to be preferred.

FUEL.

121

TABLE, showing the heating power of different combustibles.
Designation.
Lbs. of water heated 1< by 1 Ib. of substance.
1 1,000 14,500 14,000 15,000 4,600 5,960 5,466

Designation.

Lbs. of water heated 1 by 1 Ib. of substance.
9,

Alcohol
Olive Oil

Coal, "

Newcastle

230

Welsh
Anthracite Cannel

Beeswax
Tallow
Oak, seasoned.
kiln-dried Pine, seasoned
"

" "

11,840 9, 560
9,000 9,110 3,250

Coke Peat

TABLE, showing the
Designation.

effects

of heat upon certain
Designation.

bodies.
Fahrenheit.

Fahrenheit.

1983 Tin melts 1850" Water boils Silver 2160 Alcohol " Copper " Brass 190<> Ether 3 1077 Heat of human blood Iron, red hot in daylight 884 Water freezes twilight Common fire 790 Strong wine freezes Zinc melts 740 Brandy " boils 630 Mercury Quicksilver " Linseed Oil 600 Greatest cold ev^er produced*. Lead melts 694 Snow and salt, equal parts Bismuth melts 476 Acetous fermentation begins... Tin and Bismuth, equal parts, ends.... melts.. 283 Phosphorus burns
" "
:

Gold melts

421 212 175 93 98 32 20
7

'

.

39 220
78 88 68

?

TABLE, showing

the relative value

of

the following fuels by

weight.
Designation.

Value.

Designation.

Value.

Seasoned oak
Oak, kiln-dried

Hickory

White pine Yellow pine

Good Coke.

.

.

125 140 137 137 145 285

Charcoal

Peat

Welsh
Newcastle
Anthracite

coal

"
"'

285 115 312 309 ... 250

* The lowest temperature hitherto attained, 220, is produced by evaporating in vacuo a mixture of solid (condensed) protoxide of nitrogen, carbonic acid, and bisulphide of carbon.

6

122

FUEL.
the

TABLE, showing

number of gallons of water which may
consumption of 112
Ibs.

be lifted to various heights by the

of

coal, the

pumping apparatus
of
the

being good,

and adapted
Gallons.

to the power
Height.
1

steam engine.
Gallons.

Height.

foot
;<
.

2

1,600,000 800,000 533,333

9 feet

400,000 320,000 266,666 228,571 200,000

177,777 160,000 145,454 133,333 123,076 114,444 106,666 100,000

NOTES.

The evaporative power of
is

1 Ib. of bituminous
to 9 Ibs. fresh

coal applied to a steam boiler,
in the boiler,

from 6

water

under a pressure of 30

Ibs. to

the square inch,

evaporated into steam. Cumberland coal being the strongest, and Scotch coal the weakest.

The evaporative power
is

of anthracite coal, aided by a blast,

from 7J

to 9

Ibs.

of fresh water evaporated into steam

for 1 Ib. of coal.

In practical evaporating power 2J to 2} Ibs. of wood equivalent to 1 Ib. of bituminous or anthracite coal.

is

One One
to 1

cord of the ordinary seasoned

fire-

wood

is

equal in

evaporating power to 12 bushels (960
ton of Cumberland coal
is

Ibs.) of

Pittsburgh coal.

equal in evaporating

power

tons of anthracite coal, and equal to 2.12 cords of dry

pine wood.

One
wood.

ton of anthracite coal

is

equal to If cords of dry pine

Each cubic

foot of

water evaporated in a boiler

at the

FUEL.

123

pressure of the atmosphere, will heat 2,000 cubic feet of inclosed air to an average temperature of

75.

Each square

foot of surface steam-pipe will

warm 200

cubic feet of space.

One pound
melt 5 to 10

of anthracite coal in a cupola furnace will

Ibs.

of cast iron.
air

80 bushels of bituminous coal in an
10 tons of cast iron.

furnace will melt

Small or
coal of the

fine coal produces

about } the

effect of large

same kind.
cer-

TASLE, showing the price of parts of a cord of wood, at
tain rates per cord.
FEK1
1

$1.75
01 01 02

$2.00
01 03 04 06 08 09
11 12

$2.25
02 03 05
17 09 11 12

$2.50
02 04
06 08
10 12 14 16 31

$2.75
02 04 06 09
11 13 15 18 35

$3.00
02 05 07

$3.25

2 3 4 5
6 7 8

02 03
05 06 07

04 06 07 08
10 11 22

09 12
14 16 19

02 05 07 10 13
15 17

08
(.9

16 24 32

19

40 48 56 64 72 80
84

88 92 96 104
112 120 128

28 38 47 56 61 75 84 94 98 03 03 13 22
31

33 44 55 66 77 88 98

25 37

050
63 75 88 00 13 25 31 38

14 28 42 56

70 84 98

1

1 1 1 1 1

47 63 78 94 09 25
41

52
69 86

37 56
75 94 12 31

20 40
61 81 1 02 1 22 1 42 1 62
1

03 20
38 55 72 81 89 98 06 23 41 58 75

50
69

1
1

1 1

44 50 63

56 G4 72 80 88
2 03 2 19 2 34 2 50 2 2 2 2

88 97 06 15 2 25 2 44
2 62 2 81 3 00

41 50

75 1 88 2 CO

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

83 03 13 23

33 44 64 84 05

2 25

3 25

124
EXPLANATION.

FUEL.

Find the number of
;

feet in the left-hand

column of the table
and trace the
find the
line

then the price at the top of the page,
until they meet,
cents.

and column
and

and you

will

amount

in dollars

EXAMPLE.
lars

If a load of

wood
first

contains 98 feet, at

two

dolfeet,

which

and a half per cord is $1.88; and then add the value of 2
find the

amount of 96

feet (4 cents),

making

$1.92.

So of

all

similar examples.

Should the price per cord exceed the amount in the preceding table, the price of the parts may be found by adding
or doubling, as per example, for $3.50 double $1.75
;

for
for

$3.75 add $2.00 and $1.75

;

for $4.00 double $2.00

;

$5.00 double $2.50, &c.

FENCES.

In the newer portions of the country, where land is cheap and timber abundant, the old-fashioned zig-zag, or " Virginia
the

worm fence" still prevails. It does not cost one-third amount required for good post or board fence. Some
down

are constructed altogether of rails, without any bracing or

support at the corners, and are, of course, easily thrown

by
in

cattle

and the wind.

They
:

are,

however, usually braced

one of the following modes
1.

By

stakes

and

riders

either single or double riders.

126
2.

FENCES.

By

upright stakes, opposite each other, and placed in

the obtuse corners, driven into the ground, and tied at the

top by a wire or withe.
3.

By

into the ground,
4.

upright stakes placed in the acute corners, driven and tied at the top as above described.

By wedging
By

one end of a
rest

rail into

the acute corner,

and letting the other end
5.

on the ground.

placing the riders, or long poles, in a straight line
at the centre of the fence,

on the top and

upright stakes in each inner corner, between the rider

and then placing and

the fence, the lower end resting on the ground and the other

wedged

tightly

between the top and the

rider.

The

rails for this species

of fence are cut different lengths

in different sections of the country, and, indeed, in the
section.

same

Much

much
laid.

also

depends upon the nature of the timber, and on the kind of ground on which the fence is to be
are cut 12 feet,

Some
feet.

some

14,

and some even 16

feet or 1 rod in length.

The

usual lengths, however, are 12

and 14

The
feet,

rails are laid at different
7,

angles

;

some
line.

deflecting 6

some

and some 8

feet

from a right

The more

they deflect, or in other words, the crookeder they are laid, the firmer the fence will be but more rails will be required and more space occupied. The deflection for a 12 foot rail
;

is

usually 6 feet
8 feet.

;

for a

14 foot

rail,

7 feet
at

;

and

for a rod

rail,

A foot is generally allowed

each end for the

lap.

FENCES.

127

Some

fences are built 5 rails high,

some

6,

and some 7

making an additional rail high. The height, as well as the spaces between the rails, are mostly regulated by
the rider
statute in the different States.

The majority

of these stat-

utes require the fence to be not less than 5 feet high, with

interspaces between the rails of not

more than 4

inches, to

a height of 4

feet.

The number
certain

of

rails, stakes,

and riders required to build a

amount

of fence has hitherto been pretty

much guess-

and often the farmer, before he can finish his fence, has to quit it, and go and split more rails, or gear up and

work

;

haul a few more loads.

It is

hoped that the following

tables

will obviate that necessity,

by enabling him

to tell within a

few

rails

how many
the

will be required to build a given

amount

of fence.

TABLE, showing

number of

rails, stakes,

and

riders re-

quired for each 10 rods of fence.
Length
of
rail.

128

FENCES.
rail fence.

Post and
Post and
in the

rail is

a

more

costly fence, but

much

better,

and

end more economical.

There

is

not such a waste of

either timber or land.

The

rails are also

cut of different lengths
16^- feet, or 1 rod.

;

some

10,

some

Formerly, about 12, some 14, and some 6 inches at each end were allowed for the lap, but more recently a foot has been allowed, as the longer the lap the
are from 5 to 8 rails

stronger and firmer the fence.

They

high

;

posts set in the

ground from 2

to 3 feet.

TABLE, showing the number of rails and posts required for each 10 rods of post and rail fence.
Length of
rail
feet.

FENCES.
fourth and fifth 5 inches wide.

129

They may be wider or nardictate.

rower, as costj taste, or use

may

boards are joined on one post, first, third, and the second and fourth joined on the next post.
fifth

The

and

number of feet of boards required for each rod of post and board fence.
the

To find

RULE.
together,

Add

the different widths of the boards, in inches,
for the

and divide the sum by 12

width in

feet

;

then multiply the width by 16 J, and the product will be the number of feet, board measure, required for each rod of
fence.

EXAMPLE.

Required, the number of

feet,

board measure,

for each rod of fence, 5 boards high, the various widths of

the boards being 10,

8, 7,

6 and 5 inches

?

SOLUTION.
feet.

10+8 + 7 + 6 + 5

= 36-^12=3

ft.

x!6|=49J

Ans.
length

To find the number of posts required for a given of post and board fence.
RULE.

by multiplying and divide the product by the number of feet the by 16J, posts are set apart the quotient will be the number of posts
;

Reduce the number of rods

to feet

required.

EXAMPLE.

Required, the number of posts for a post and

board fence 160 rods long; posts set 8 feet apart?
SOLUTION.

160 x

16^=2640-8=330.

Ans.

HEDGE PLANTS.
The
following, for the cultivation of hedges,
is

the con-

densed experience of the most successful and practical hedgegrowers in the United States, and especially in the West.
Directions for
Setting.

During the summer or

fall

deep as possible a strip from five to eight feet wide, leave a dead furrow in the line where the hedge is to be set. In the following
thoroughly manure, plough as
spring back furrow to the hedge-line, then harrow down smooth. Stake the ground, and by means of a line make a
plain mark, then with a spade placed at right angles across

the mark, push the blade in the

soil to its full

angle of about forty-five degrees.

length at an Let an assistant place the

plants under the back of the spade on the line of the mark,

about one inch below the depth they stood in the nursery, Pack the ground firmly and about eight inches apart.

around the plants, and mulch the ground to keep moist.
Cultivate until the
first

of August.

Before frost in the

fall,

back furrow and cover with coarse manure or straw, and in the spring uncover and cultivate as before. Replace all
missing or feeble plants with strong ones.

Trimming.
three years old,

The hedge should not be trimmed until when one-half or two-thirds should be cut

HEDGE PLANTS.
nearly off close to the ground and laid
thirty degrees

131

down

at

an angle of
in July,

from the ground.

Trim once a year

and do noc allow the hedge

to exceed

The fourth year
branches a
little

in the spring, before the
last

twenty inches broad. buds start, take oft'

Leave the lower year's growth. than the top, and aim to give the longer some regular uniform shape. The hedge should be hedge allowed to gain from eight to twelve inches annually, until
about one-half the
it

has reached the desired height.

To Preserve Plants during
in a

the Winter.

Cut a trench

dry piece of ground at an angle of forty-five degrees, place the bundles in the trench, and cover with dirt from a

new

trench from six to eight inches in front, and so continue

until all are trenched.

Cover the plants two inches deep,

firmly packing the ground around them.

After the ground is frozen two inches deep, cover the whole with straw from twelve to eighteen inches after which cover the whole bed
;

with dirt about a foot thick.

Encircle with a ditch so that

no water can reach the
cellar,

plants.

Plants can also be kept in a

well covered in sand, but be careful not to expose to

the sun or dry wind, in setting in the spring.
Setting Evergreens.

Cultivate and set as before, but the

ground should not be manured within six months of setting the plants. Chip-dirt or rotten leaves are preferable for a
mulch.

Hedge Plants.

Osage

Orange.

The Osage Orange
It is

stands at the head of the

list

of hedge plants.

much

132

HEDGE PLANTS.
is

planted where fencing timber

scarce, in the latitude of
It is

the Middle and Southern States.
vigorously,

hardy and grows

and

its

thorns are absolute proof against the de-

predations of domestic animals, and even boys retreat from

contact with them.

It

makes a

beautiful hedge

when

prop-

erly pruned, but when neglected it gets beyond all control. In the Northern and Eastern States, it is liable to be killed

by the

frost.

This thorny, vigorous, and hardy plant has no superior as a farm hedge. It requires two annual primings, in June and September, to keep it within control.

Honey

Locust.

It flourishes as far north as Canada,

and

for the

Middle and
It is

Southern States

it

yields only to the

Osage Orange.

easily propagated by setting the plants about six inches apart. Some prefer sowing the seed on the line of the proposed

hedge.

Buckthorn.

This plant

is

a native of America, and
it

would be one of the best hedge plants did
ply of thorns.

not lack a sup-

This thornless shrub is easily propagated from and thickens well when set in a hedge. Its foliage cuttings, is rich, and in the spring it is decorated with an abundance

Primt.

of beautiful small white flowers.

It

cannot be successfully

cultivated north of the latitude of Philadelphia.

Hawthorn.

The hawthorn,

so

common

in England, does

not thrive so well in our climate.

HEDGE PLANTS.
Evergreen Hedges. Norway Spruce. beautiful tree should be set about four or

133

A

hedge of

this

five inches apart,

and the plants not over four feet high. The side branches should be pruned, and the leaders cut out. Afterwards it
should be trimmed the same as other hedges. should be kept rich to insure a vigorous growth.

The

soil

Arbor

common
seded
yet
it

In consequence of the cheapness of the Arbor Yitse, for an ornamental hedge, it has superVitce.

all others.

Though

inferior to the Siberian species,
it

will be a long

time before
flourish

will yield

its

place to

it.

Being hardy and sure to
it is

under ordinary treatment,

a valuable hedge plant.

Hemlock.
thick

The hemlock, when properly pruned, makes a and beautiful hedge. With a foliage ever of the richest
all

green, and adapted to

the northern latitudes, as a hedge

plant

it

has no superior if an equal.'
difficult to transplant.
is

Although hardy,

it is

somewhat
the ground

Select a rainy day

when

wet, being careful not to expose the roots to
air.

the light or

As

soon as planted mulch with coarse

manure

or chip-dirt.

WIRE FENCES.
Wire
fences
:

fences have this advantage over hedges and other they take up but little space, with no exhaustion of are not

the

blown about by the wind; are durable, and make a good protection against cattle, economical, For enclosing lawns and garsheep, and other animals. dens, many of the designs offered in market are very desirsoil,

able and ornamental.

For a farm

fence, such as
size

can put up, annealed wire of the
ferable
for
;

any farmer No. 6 or 8* is pre;

for the protection of cattle five wires are sufficient

sheep and lambs, seven should be used. In building the fence a post six inches square or larger should be set at each end, and securely braced, from which
to stretch the wire;

from

eight to ten feet apart.

the intervening posts should be set Through these holes should
dis-

be bored with a ^-inch brace-bit, and at appropriate
tances apart, according to the protection required.

Instead

of putting the wires through the posts, they are often fastened by means of staples made of the same material. In

putting up the wires they should be stretched as tightly as be well possible, care being taken in splicing that they
secured, which can be best done
smith's tongs.

by means of narrow black-

Suitable wire can be bought for 8 or 10 cents per pound,

making a fence of
this does
*

six wires cost

about 40 cents per rod

;

not include posts and labor of setting.
wire
is

The

size of

graded from No.

1,

and upwards.

No. 9

is

the com-

mon

telegraph wire.

HUMAN
The force
of TO

STKENGTH.
equivalent to the raising

of a single man, unaided by machinery, and
is

working to the best advantage,
Ibs. 1 foot

The

per second for ten hours in a day. maximum power of a strong man, exerted for 2J min-

utes, is equivalent to 18,000 Ibs. raised

one foot in a minute.

A

man

of ordinary strength exerts a force of 30 Ibs. for

10 hours in a day with a velocity of 2^- feet in a second, which is about equal to 4500 Ibs. raised 1 foot in a minute.

The average weight of men

is

150

Ibs. each.

A

man

travels,

without a load, on level ground, for 8J
miles

hours a day, at the rate of 3^ miles an hour, or 31 per day. He can carry 111 Ibs. 11 miles in a day.

going short distances, and returning unloaded, He can carry, in a wheelcarries 135 Ibs. 7 miles in a day.
barrow, 150
Ibs.

A porter

10 miles a day.

An

average strong

man

will, for a short period, exert a

force with a
Ibs.
Ibs.

equal to 100 Pincers, compression An auger, both hands 100 hand-plane 84 A hand-saw screw-driver, 1 hand. 72 thumb- vice bench-vice, handle. . . .

Drawing

knife

.

.

.

I

A
A

equal to 60 50
"

A A A chisel, vertical pressure A windlass
.

!

A

72

"

brace-bit, revolving

36 45 16

60

HOESE POWER.
Before the invention and improvement of the steam-engine, the force of horses was very extensively used as a

motive power

;

and although

its

application to machinery

is

now much

less frequent, it is

still resorted to, especially in

places where

fuel is expensive.

For ordinary farm

labor,

it

will probably never be superseded.

The following

are

some

of the

more important
:

facts relating to the horse

and horse-

power

-

The ordinary work of
The

a horse

is

taken at 22,500

Ibs.

raised

1 foot in a minute, for 8 hours a day.

strength of a horse

is

equivalent to that of 5 men.
Ibs.

A draught-horse
level road,

can draw 1600

23 miles a day on a
second

weight of carriage included. In a horse-mill, he moves at the rate of 3
feet diameter,

feet per

on a track 25

and with the machine exerts the

power of 4J

horses.
4|- feet

He
feet.

occupies in a stall a front of

and a depth of 10
each.
;

The average weight
yards, at

of horses
at
;

is

1000

Ibs.

A horse travels 400 yards,
a
trot,

in 2 minutes

a walk, in 4|- minutes 400 and 400 yards, at a galtop,

in 1 minute.

A horse will

carry 250

Ibs.

25 miles a day of 8 hours.

HORSE POWER.

137

A

horse will live 25 days without solid food, merely drink-

ing water.
drinking.

He will live IT days without either eating or He will live only 5 days when eating solid food,
growth in
5 years,

without drinking.

He

attains his full
life is

and will

live 25.

His average

16 years.

Horse-power gines and waterfalls was

as applied to the
first

measurement of steam-en-

applied by

James Watt, the
suf-

inventor of the steam-engine.

From

a series of experiments

he ascertained that the average strength of a horse was ficient to raise 33,000 Ibs. one foot per minute,* and
general measure of power.

this

unit has been adopted in this country and in England as a

A

waterfall
Ibs.

is

thus said to have a horse-power for every

33,000

of water passing a given point per minute for
fall.

each foot of the
fall is

To compute

the power of a water-

given the following

Divide the continued product of the width, the depth, the velocity of the water per minute, the height of the fall, and the weight of a cubic foot of water (62J Ibs.)

RULE.

by 33,000.
EXAMPLE.
is

The flume of a
is

mill

3 feet deep, the velocity

10 feet wide, the water 100 feet per minute, and the
is

fall

11

feet.

What

is

the horse-power of the

fall

?

OPERATION.
horse-power.
* This

(10 x 3 x 100 x 11

x62

.)'-*-

33,000

= 62J-

is

done by means of compound pulleys.

138

HORSE POWER.
is

The power of a steam-engine
RULE.
piston in inches, the

estimated by the following

Divide the continued product of the area of the

mean

pressure per square inch

in

pounds, the length of the stroke in feet, and the
strokes per minute

number

of

by

33,000.
is

EXAMPLE.

The
3

area of the piston of a steam-engine
is

40

inches, the pressure

60

Ibs.
it

per square inch, the length of

the stroke

is

feet,

and
?

makes 30 strokes per minute.

What

is

the horse-power
(40

OPERATION.
(nearly).

x 60 x 3 x 30) -7- 33,000 =<o% horse-power

Water-wheels lose from 10 to 50 per cent, of the power, and
the actual power of the steam-engine
is

less

than that

indi-

cated by the horse-power, owing to a loss by friction, the

amount of which depends upon the arrangement of the
gine and the perfection of the workmanship.

en-

TABLE, showing
different rates

the labor one horse is able to

perform

at

of speed on canals, railroads, and turnpikes.
Ibs.

Drawing
Speed per hour. ?
Miles.

force, 83-J

HOUSE POWEK.

139

TABLE, shovnng how much one team and plough will perform in a day, in acres and tenths.
Width of furrow in
inches.

FKEIGHTS QUANTITY OF GOODS WHICH

COMPOSE A TON IN SHIPPING.

Wharf Scene

in

New

York.

From By-laws
Resolved, That

of the

New

York Chamber of Commerce.

when

vessels are freighted

no special agreement is vessel and freighter of the goods, respecting the proportion of tonnage which each particular article shall be computed
at,

by the ton, and made between the owner of the

the following regulation shall be the standard of compu:

tation

FREIGHTS.

14:1

That the

articles,

the bulk of which shall compose a ton,
shall

to equal a ton of

lows
Ibs.

:

1568

Ibs.

be in weight as folof coffee in casks, 1830 Ibs. in bags j 1120

heavy materials,

of cocoa in casks, 1307 Ibs. in bags.
Ibs.

952

pimento

in casks,
flour,

1110 in bags.
Ibs.

Eight barrels of

196

each.
fish, pitch, tar,

Six barrels of beef, pork, tallow, pickled

and turpentine.

Twenty hundred pounds
woods,
rice,

of pig and bar iron, potashes,

sugar, logwood, fustic, Nicaragua wood,

and

all

heavy dye-

honey, copper ore,

and

all

other heavy goods.

Sixteen hundred pounds of coffee, cocoa, and dried codfish, in

bulk, and twelve hundred pounds of dried codfish in
size.

casks of any

Six hundred pounds of ship bread in casks, seven hundred
in bags,

and eight hundred

in bulk.

Two hundred
liquors.

gallons (wine-measure), reckoning the full
oil,

contents of the casks,

wine, brandy, or any kind of

Twenty-two bushels of

grain, peas, or beans, in casks.

Thirty-six bushels of grain in bulk.
Thirty-six bushels of

European

salt.

Thirty-one bushels of salt from the "West Indies.

Twenty -nine

bushels of sea-coal.

Forty feet (cubic measure) of mahogany, square timber.

142

FREIGHTS.
peltry, bees-

oak plank, pine, and other boards, beavers, furs, wax, cotton, wool, and bale goods of all kinds.

One hogshead
hides.

of tobacco, and ten hundred pounds of dry

Eight hundred pounds of China raw pounds of net bohea, and 800 green tea.

silk,

ten hundred

KELATIYE MINT ^ALUE OF FOREIGN COIN.
Names
of Coins.

-^ $

ct

UNITED STATES. Eagle, coined before July 31, 1834 (shares in prop.) 10 66 8 AUSTRIAN DOMINIONS. Souverein 3 37 7 Double Ducat 4 53 9 2 29 6 Hungarian Ducat BAVARIA. Carolin 4 95 7

m

Max d'or,
Ducat
BERNE.

or Maximillian

Ducat, (double in proportion) Pistole BRAZIL. Johannes, ( in proportion)

3 31 8 2 27 5 1 9& 6

4 54 2
17 6 4 32 70 6 17 30 1 6 55 7 63 5

Dobraon Dobra
Moidore, ( J in proportion) Crusade

BRUNSWICK. Pistole, (double in proportion) Ducat COLOGNE. Ducat COLOMBIA. Doubloons DENMARK. Ducat, Current
Ducat, Specie Christian d'or

4548
2 23 2 26 7 15 53 5 1 81 2 2 26 7 4 02 1 7 09 6 7 11 1 79 8

EAST

INDIES. Rupee, Bombay, 1818 Eupee, Madras, 1818 Pagoda,8tar %t..t.ttt ENOLAND. Guinea, (J in proportion)

t

Sovereign, ( in proportion) Seven Shilling piece FRANCE. Double Louis, coined before 1786 Louis, do Double Louis, coined since 1786
do. do Double Napoleon, or 40 francs Napoleon, or 20 francs FRANKFOBT ON THE MAIN. Ducat GENEVA. Pistole, old

5 07 5 4 84 6
1 69 8 9 69 7 4 84 6 9 15 3

Louis,

4576
7 70 2 3 85 1 2 27 9 3 98 5

Pistole,

new

3 44 4
2 2 7 2 1

Sequin HAMBURGH Ducat, (double in proportion) HANOVER. Double George d'or, (single in proportion)

GENOA.

30 2 27 9
87 9 29 6 67

Ducat Gold Florin, (double in proportion) HOLLAND. Double Ryder Ryder Ducat

Ten Guilder
MALTA.
Louis

piece, (5 do. in proportion)

Double Louis

DemiLouis
MEXICO. Doubloons, (fractions in proportion) MILAN. Sequin
Doppia, or Pistole. Forty Livre Piece, 1808 NAPLES.-SIX Ducat Piece, 1783.
or Sequin, 1762, Three do., or Oncetta, 1818 NBTHERLANDS Gold Lion, or Fourteen Florin Piece Ten Florin Piece, 1820 ,
do., '

:

Two

12 20 6 04 2 27 4 03 9 27 4 85 2 33 15 53 2 29 3 80 7 74 5 24 1 59

5 5 5 4 8
2 6

5 7 2

9
1

2 49
5 04 6 4 01 9

144:

RELATIVE MINT VALUE OF FOBEIGN COINS.
Names of Coins. f
......
eta.

m

Quadruple Pistole, (double in proportion) Pistole, or Doppia, 1787, 1796 do. do., Maria Theresa, 1818 PIERMONT. Pistole, coined since 1785, ( in proportion)

PARMA.

16 62 8 4 19 4 4 13 5

3861
5 41 2 28 27 34 3 66 2 27 32 70
1

Sequin, (* in proportion) Carlino, coined since 1785, ( in proportion) Piece of Twenty Francs, called Marengo

4
5

POLAND. Ducat PORTUGAL. Dobraon

&

Dobra Johannes
Moidore, (A in proportion) Piece of 16 Testoons, or 1600 Bees Old Crusado, of 400 Bees New do., 480 do Milree, coined in 1775 PRUSSIA. 1748 Ducat, Ducat, 1787 Frederick, double, 1769 1800 do. do. do. single, 1778 1800 do. do. BOMB Sequin, coined since 1760

17301
17 06 4 6 55 7 2 12 1

85 5

635
2 2 7 7 3 3 2 15 2 2

Scudo of Bepublic
Ducat, 1796 Ducat, 1763 Gold Euble, 1756 1799 do. Gold Poltin, 1777 1801 Imperial, 1801 Half do., SARDINIA. Carlino, (half in proportion) SAXONY. Ducat, J784 Ducat, 1797 Augustus, 1754 1784 do., SICILY. Ounce, 1751 Double Ounce, 1758
BTJBSIA.

78 27 9 26 7 95 5 95 1 99 7 97 5 25 1 81 1 29 7 26 7 96 7

737
35 5 7 82 9
,

3933
.

SPAIN.

Doubloon, 1772, (double and fractions in proportion)

9 2 2 3 3 2 6 16

47 26 27 92 97 50 04 02

2

7
9

5 4 4

4
8 5 4 3 5

Doubloon
Pistole

15 53 3 88

Coronilla, Gold Dollar, or Vintern, 1801 SWEDEN. Ducat SWITZERLAND. Pistole of Helvetic Bepublic, 1800 TREVES. Ducat TURKEY. Sequin Fonducili, or Constantinople, 1773
do.,

93
2 23

4560
2 26 7 1 86 8 1 84 8

1789

Half Misseir, 1818 Sequin Fonducili Yeermeerblekblek TUSCANY Zechino, or Sequin Buspone of the kingdom of Etruria
Zechino, or Sequin, (fractions in proportion) WIRTEMBURG. Carolin

52

1

1 83 3 02 8 2 31 8

6938
2 31

VENICE.

4 89 8
2 23

Ducat
ZURICH.
Ducat, (double and half in proportion)

&

2267

UNITED STATES

Oil

FEDERAL MONEY.

Stamping Coin

at the United States Mint.

Money

is

value, or the representative of value, used for

the purposes of exchange.
ferent times, various
articles

In different countries, at difhave been used for money,

such as oxen, pieces of leather stamped, shells, wampum, Gold and silver, at present, are used iron, nails, &c.
almost exclusively for money.
metals.

They

are called precious

Paper money is a substitute for coin. Uncoined gold and silver is called bullion.
Coin
is

a piece of metal of
is

known weight used
it.

for

money >

the value of which

stamped on

146

UNITED STATES OK FEDEKAL, MONEY.

Currency is the money of circulation. Tokens are coins whose intrinsic value
assigned
billion.

is

below that

them by law.

Such coins are

said to be coins in

United States or Federal money

is

a decimal currency.

TABLE. 10 mills
1 cent (in.) 1 dime 10 cents
1 dollar
ct.

d.

10 dimes 10 dollars
COINS.

$

100 1000

mills.

1 eagle E.

10000

"

100 cents. 1000 cents 100 dimes.
|

The gold

coins are the double-eagle, eagle, halfthree-dollar piece,

eagle, quarter-eagle,

and

dollar.

NOTES.

1.

The

fifty-dollar piece is

not a legal coin.

The

UNITED STATES OB FEDERAL MONEY.

147
is

copper half-cent com.
2.

is

no longer coined.

The

mill

not a

Gold coins contain 9 parts of gold and alloy of silver and copper.
3.

1 part of an

The
,

silver coins are the dollar, half-dollar, quarter-

dollar Jime, half-dime, and three-cent piece.

4.

Silver coins contain 9 parts

silver

and
is

1

part cop-

per, except the three-cent piece, which

3 parts silver

and 1 part copper.
5.

The

nickel coins are the cent, the

new

three-cent,

and

new

five-cent pieces.

148
6.

UNITED STATES OK FEDERAL MONEY.

The

nickel cent contains 88 parts copper and 12 parts

nickel.
7.

The copper

coins are the cent

and two-cent

pieces.

8.

The two-cent and cent
dollar

pieces are

made

of nickel and

copper.

The term
"

is

supposed to be derived from the
ta-ler.

German thaler," pronounced The term dime means ten,
thousand.

cent a hundred,

and mitt a

The

origin of the dollar-mark
S.,

is

uncertain
it is

;

some think

it

the combination of U.

others that

an imitation of

the dollars and
1

scroll

on the "

pillar-dollar."

eagle (gold) weighs 258 troy grains. " " 412.5 " " 1 cent (copper) 168
1 dollar (silver)

23.2 grains of pure gold =$1.00.

Gold coin of the United
of

States, prior to 1834, like that

England, = 88. 8
its

cents per dwt.

By

act of Congress of

1834,

value was

made

94.8 cents per dwt.

The
is

old

United States Eagle, coined previous to 1834,
$10.66-8.

worth

ENGLISH MONEY.
English or Sterling
Britain.

Money

is

the

currency of Great

TABLE.
4 farthings
12 pence
(far.

or qr.)

make
"

1

penny,

marked

d.

20 shillings
21 shillings
COINS.

"
"

s. 1 shilling, sov. 1 pound or sovereign, 1 guinea, marked guin.
,

The gold

coins are the sovereign (1), and the

half-sovereign (10s.).

The

silver

coins

are
(2s.),

the crown

(5s.),

the half-crown

(2s. 6d.),

the flvrin

the shilling (12d.), sixpenny-piece
(3d.).

(6d.),

and threepenny-piece

150

ENGLISH MONEY.
coins are the penny, half-penny, and farthing.

The bronze

a penny, Farthings are generally written as fractions of

thus:

1 far.

= Jd.

;

2 far.=} or J; 3 far.=|.

Canadian currency

is

decimal, and the denominations are

the same as Federal money.

The

franc

is

the unit of the French decimal currency,

ENGLISH MONEY.

151
are

and

is

worth $0.186.

The denominations

francs and

centimes.

NOTES.
a pound
qr. for
2.
;

1.
s.

The symbol

<

stands for the Latin
;

word

libra,
;

for

solidw, a shilling

d, for denarius,

a penny

quadrans, a quarter.
sterling
is

The term

supposed to be derived from
to the early

Easterling, a
traders.
3.

name formerly given
is

German

The term farthing

" four things," dederived from

noting the divisions on the old English penny.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.

Avoirdupois weight

is

used for

all

ordinary purposes.

TABLE.
16 drams
(dr.)

1 ounce,
1

marked
"
"

oz.
Ib.

16 25

oz.
Ib.

pound, hundredweight,

1 quarter,
1

qr.

4qr. 20 cwt.

cwt.

1 ton,
1 cental.

100

Ib.

"

c.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.
T.
cwt.
qr.
Ib.

153
dr.

Ib.

oz.

gr.*

1

= 20=80=2000
1= 4= 1=
100
25

1

= 16=256=7000
1= 16=437^
l

NOTES.

1.

The

gross ton of 2240 Ibs.

common
States
2.

use, but

is

now seldom used
at the

was formerly in except at the United

Custom House and
is

Pennsylvania coal mines.

Butter

usually packed for market in pails or firkins,
to

which hold from 50

100 pounds,

3. The term avoirdupois is derived from the French " avoir du Cwt. is formed poids," meaning goods of weight.

from
4.

<?.,

centum^ wt., weight.

Most of the States have adopted the following

TABLE OF MISCELLANEOUS WEIGHTS.
196 200 280 32 48
56
Ibs.

make
" "

1 barrel

of

flour.

"

1
1

"
"

beef, pork, or fish.
salt at

N. Y. Salt Works.

1 bushel of oats.
1

"
barley.

"

" "

1
1 1

60

"
"

corn or rye. wheat.
beans.

60
14

" "
"

"
" "

1
1
1

" " "
blue-grass-seed. castor-beans. clover-seed.
flax-seed.

46
60
56

1
1

44
*

hemp-seed.
is

NOTE

The exact weight of an avoirdupois dram
7*

27^

troy grains.

154

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT ILLUSTRATED.

1

firkin.

1

barrel.

1 barrel.

I

barrel

1

bushel.

1

bushel.

1

bushel.

1

bushel.

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.

155

60
60 45

Ibs.

make
"

"

"
"
"
"

" " "
"
is

barrel of peas. " 1 potatoes. " 1
1

timothy-seed.
onions.

57 28 50

1 1 1

" u

apples or peaches (dried).
salt.

u

A
308

sack of wool
Ibs.

22 stone, that

is,

14

Ibs. to

the stone,

A
A
Ibs.

pack of wool
truss

is

17 stone 2

Ibs.

=240

Ibs.

a pack load

for a horse.

A

new, 60 Ibs. load of hay is 36 trusses.

of hay

is,

;

old,

50

Ibs.

;

straw, 40
is

A

hale
Ibs.

of hay

300 Ibs.

A firkin of
A
hale

hutter

was formerly 56

in different of cotton is 400 Ibs., but it is put up Sea Island cotton is States varying from 280 to 720 ibs.

put up in sacks of 300

Ibs.

TROY WEIGHT.

Troy weight is used in weighing gold, and in philosophical experiments.
TABLE.
24 grains 20 pwt. 12 oz.
(gr.)

silver,

and jewels,

make
" "

1

pennyweight,

marked pwt.
"
"
oz.
Ib.

1 ounce, 1
1

grans

"

pound, " carat (diamond wt.)

k.

SCALE OF COMPARISON.
lb.

oz.

dwt.

gr.

1

=

12
1

= =

240 20
1

Ik.

= = = =

5760 480 24
3

TROY WEIGHT.

157

24 grs.

480 gra.

5760 grs.

NOTES.

1.

A

carat

is

a

and

is is

used by jewellers to weigh diamonds.
also used to denote the fineness of gold.

weight of about 3.2 grains, The term

carat

When
is

gold
usu-

contains 18 parts pure gold and 6 parts alloy, which
ally silver

and copper,

it is

said to be 18 carats fine.

Gold

14 carats fine contains 14 parts pure gold and 10 parts
alloy,
2.

&c.

The term Troy
first

is

derived from Troyes, where the

weight was
century.

introduced into Europe, about the 12th

The term pennyweight is derived from the weight of The term grain is derived from the the old silver penny.
3.

custom of using the grains of wheat, 24 of which were taken to determine the weight of a pennyweight.
4.

The symbol
;

oz. is

derived from the Spanish word onza,
libra, a
is

an ounce
5.

Ib. is

from the Latin

pound.
the troy pound.
It

The standard

unit of weight
in.

equals the weight of 22. 79 -feu.

of distilled water at the

temperature of 39

S3' F., the barometer being at 30 in.

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.

Apothecaries' weight

is

used in preparing prescriptions,

but drugs arid medicines are bought and sold by avoirdupois
weight.

TABLE.
20 grains
(gr.)

1 scruple,

marked
"
"

sc.

or ^.
3
3
.

3 scruples
8

1 drachm,
1 ounce,
1

dr. or
oz. or
Ib.

drachms

.

12 ounces

"

pound,

or

ft>.

APOTHECARIES

FLUID MEASURE.

159

SCALE OF COMPARISON.
fi>

I

3

3

gr.

= 8=
1=

24=
3

480
60

=

1=

20

APOTHECARIES' FLUID MEASURE.
Apothecaries' fluid measure
is

used for measuring liquids

in preparing medical prescriptions.

TABLE.
60 minims
8 fluid
1 fluid
1. fluid

drachm,
ounce,

marked
"
"

f 3 f 1

,

drachms

.

16 fluid ounces
8 pints

1 pint,
1 gallon

O.

(wine meas.)

Cong.

NOTE.

1.

The pound,

ounce, and grain are the same as

in troy weight, the
2.

ounce being differently subdivided.

The symbols

are supposed to be derived from the in-

scriptions
3.

upon the ancient monuments of Egypt.
equals one drop.

One minim

LIQUID OK WINE MEASURE.

Liquid measure

is.

of course, used in measuring liquids.

TABLE.

4

gills (gi.)

LIQUID OR

WINE MEASURE.

161

SCALE OF COMPARISON.

Wine Measure.
gal.
qt.
pt.
gi.

Dry
bu. pk.
qt.

Measure.
pt.

cu. in.

cu. in.

1=4=8=32=231

1=4=32=64=21501

nearly.

1=2= 8=57} 1= 4=28

1= 8=16= 1= 2=

u
537J-

NOTE.

1.

The denominations

barrel

and hogshead are

used in estimating the capacity of cisterns, reservoirs, vats, &c.
2.

The

barrel, hogshead, tierce, pipe, butt

and tun, are the

names of

casks,

which are usually gauged, having the num-

ber of gallons they hold marked on them.
3.

beer,
4.

Ale or beer measure, formerly used ale, and milk, is now seldom used.
1 gallon of pure water weighs nearly
8-J-

in

measuring

Ib.

avoirdupois,

hence a pint weighs about a pound.
5.

The standard

unit of wine measure

is

the gallon, which

contains 231 cubic inches.

The
inches.

Imperial, or British gallon, contains 277.274 cubic

DRY MEASURE.

Dry measure
not
fluid.

is

used in measuring vegetables and articles
1 quart, 1 peck,
1 bushel,

2 pints (pt.) 8 quarts

qt.

pt
bu.
cald.

4 pecks 36 bushels

1 chaldron,

NOTES.

The standard bushel
its

is

the Winchester, which
Ibs.

contains 2150.42 cubic inches, or 77.627
distilled

avoirdupois of

water at

maximum

density.

Its

dimensions are 18

inches diameter inside, 19

inches

DRY MEASURE.
and 8 inches deep, and when heaped inches high, contains 2748 cubic inches.
outside,
to a

163
cone 6

The Imperial

or

British

bushel contains 2218 cubic

inches, so that 32 of their bushels are equal to 38 of ours.

Heaping Measure.
and
in

Potatoes, turnips and esculent roots,

apples and other fruits, meal and bran, corn on the ear,

some

States, oats, are sold

by the heaping bushel

measure.

TABLE OF COMPARISON OF THE MEASURES OF CAPACITY.
1

gallon or 4 pk. or 4 qt.

qt.

1 gallon or

4

qt.

1 bushel

wine measure contains 231 cubic inches. " " dry measure 268| beer measure 282 " " 2150 dry measure
measures are

In England the following weights and sometimes used
:

WEIGHT.
3
7

DRY MEASURE.
2

pounds = 1 stone, butchers' meat. pounds =1 clove.

2
2 2

clove s=l stone common articles. 1 tod of wool. stone " 1 6^ tods wey
2
2 2

=

strikes = 1 coom. cooms=:l quarter.
1 load. quarters bushels =1 sack. 1 chaldron. bushels

quarts bushels

1
\

pottle. strike,

weys^rl sack
sacks

"

12

240

pounds = 1 pack

=

5 3

1

last

"
"

36

=

WINE MEASURE.
18

CLOTH MEASTTRE.
2

25

42
2

inches
nails =

=
1

U. S gal =1 runlet. Eng. gal. or) _, ,. U. S. gal.
tierces

1

nail.

=1

puncheon.

4 4
3 5

quarters = quarters =

quarter.
1 1

yard.

Flemish elL

2

quarters =1 English ell. 6 quarters 1 French ell. 1 Scotch elL 4-fr quarters

hogsheads =1
pipes =1 tun.

pipe.

2

=

7

Eng.

gal.

=

l

firkin of beer.

4

firkins

=1

barrel

"

164

DRY MEASURE.

TABLE OF THE COMPARISON OF WEIGHTS, &c.
U. S. pound Troy=5760 grs. Troy. " " Eng. pound Troy =5760 " " =5760 1 pouud Apoth. " 1 U. S. pound Av. =7000 " " 1 Eng. pound Av. =7000 =1751b. 144 pounds Av. 1 French gramme =15.433 grs. Troy. =36 inches. 1 U. S. yard
I
1
1
1

English yard; :36 niches.

French metre; 39.368 + inches.
:

1
1
1 1 1

U.

S.

bushel
"

:

:

2150.4 2

+ cu.
"

in.

Eng. U. S. gallon " Eng.

:

:2218.19+
:231.

:

:

1

French litre French are

:

:

:277.26 " :61.533 :119.664 sq. yds.

+ +

SQUARE MEASURE.

used in calculating areas or surfaces, as of land, lumber, painting, paving, &c.
is

Square measure

TABLE.
144
9

square inches
square feet square yards square rods roods
acres

(sq. in.)

make
"

1
1

square

foot,

marked
"
"

sq.

ft.

square yard,

sq. yd.
sq. rd., P.

30

1

square rod,
rood, or qr. acre,
acre,

40
4
640

1
1

" "

R.

A.
sq. m., sec.

1 sq.

mile or section,

"

166

SQUARE MEASURE.

SCALE OF COMPARISON.
A.

R

P.

sq. yds.

sq. ft.

sq. in.

1=4=160=4840 =43560 =6272640.

1= 40=1210 =10890 =1568160. 1= 30 J = 272J= 39204.
1

=

9
1

= =

1296.
144.
their

NOTE.

Artificers

usually

estimate

work

1.

In

2. In paintglazing and stone-cutting, by the square foot. the square yard. ing, plastering, paper-hanging, &c., by

3.

4.

In flooring, roofing, slating, &c., by the 100 square feet. In bricklaying, by the thousand bricks, by the square

yard, and 100 feet.

The painting

of mouldings, cornices, &c.,

is

estimated by

measuring the entire surface.

When
work
is

bricklaying

is

estimated by square measure, the

understood to be 12 inches thick.
is

Surveyor's square measure
land.

used in finding the area of

TABLE.
625 square links (sq.
16 sq. rods 10 sq. chains
1.)

make
" "

1 sq, rod,
1
1

marked
"

sq. rd.
sq. ch.

sq. chain,

acre,

A
"
sq. mi.

640 acres

"
"

1

sq. mile,

36

sq. miles (six miles square)

1

township,

"

Tp.

LONG MEASURE.

Long measure

is

used for distances, &c.

TABLE.
12 lines or 3 Parley-corns 12 inches
3
ft.
1

inch,

1 foot,

marked
"
"

ft.

1

yard,

.yd-

5} yd. 40 rd.
8 fur.

1 rod,
1

rd.

"
furlong,

fur.

1 mile,

"

mi.

SCALE OF COMPARISON.
mi.
fur.

rod.

yd.

ft.

in.

1

= 8=320=1760
1= 40= 1=
220
1

=5280 =63360

=
=

660
3
1

=

7920
198
36
12

5$=

16$=

= =

SURVEYORS' MEASURE.
Gunter's chain
is used by land surveyors. and contains 100 links.

It is

4 rods or

66 feet

long.,

TABLE.
25 links
(li.)

1 rod,
1 chain,
1

rd.

4 rods

ch.

80 chains

mile,

mi.

TABLE OF MISCELLANEOUS LINEAR MEASURE.
3 inches 4 inches 9 inches 3 feet 3.28 feet
6 feet
1 1

palm. hand.

8

{S

^Ci

a 8 u ringtheheightof horses der

1 span. 1 pace or step. 1 metre.
1
^

fathom.
!

)
/

880 fathoms
3 geographical miles U A " 1 69 Statute
(

r,r,r\

f

^1

Used

in

1 mile.
1
)
/

measuring depths

at sea.

(

league.
rloncvoo ut! lt;t;

1

S

5
\

Of

latitude

Of longitude en the equator.

NOTE.

A hair's breadth is the 48th
is

part of an inch.

A

ship's cable

or 720 feet long, hence the term

a chain, usually about 120 fathoms " " cable length in nautical

language denotes about that distance.
is a nautical or geographical mile. " thirteen knots an hour," means thirteen Thus, the phrase,

NOTES.

1.

A

knot

geographical miles an hour.

CLOTH MEASURE.
2.

169

1

English mile equals 5280

feet,

and

1 nautical, or

geographical mile, equals 6086
3.

feet.

the

The geographic mile equals about 1.15 English miles; German short mile, about 3.9 English miles the Ger;

long mile, about 5.75 English miles the Prussian mile about 4.7 English miles the Spanish common league, about
;
;

man

4.2 miles
4.

;

and the Spanish judicial league about 2.6 miles.
first

Measures of length were at

derived from the

dif-

ferent parts of the body, as the finger, liand, the span, or

the length of the

thumb and middle
;

finger extended

;

cubit,

or the length of the forearm of the two arms extended.

and the fathom, or the length

CLOTH MEASURE.
Cloth measure
ribbons, laces, &c.
is

used by merchants in the sale of cloth,

TABLE.
2 sixteenths (16th) 2 eighths
2 quarters
1 eighth, 1 quarter,
1 half,
1

marked
"

8th,
qr.,

yd.

"
hlf.,

yd.

4 quarters or 2 halves NOTE.
used.

yard,

"
yd.
is

% yd.

The
it

old system of measuring cloth
is

not

now

By

each yard

divided into 4 quarters, and each

3 quarters make quarter into 4 nails, a nail being 2J- inches. a Flemish ell, 5 quarters an and 6 quarters a English ell,

French

ell.

8

CUBIC MEASURE.

TABLE.
1728 cubic inches
(cu. in.)
) 1

27 cubic feet 40 cubic ft. of round timber or 50 cubic feet of hewn timber 16 cubic feet 8 cord feet or / 128 cubic feet f

1

cubic foot, cubic yard,

marked
''

cu.

ft.

cu. yd.

1
J

ton or load,

T.
cd.
ft.

1

cord foot, cord of wood,
(

1

"

Cd.

perch
stone,

24* cubic feet

1

<

or or

Pch.

(

masonry.
;

Cubic measure

is

used in estimating the contents of solids

as wood, stone, capacity of cisterns, &c.

CUBIC MEASURE.

171

Cubic

foot.

Cubic yard.

To find
RULE.

ike ciibic contents

of any solid body.

Multiply the length by the breadth, and that pro-

duct by the thickness.

NOTES.

1.

A

load of earth contains a cubic yard, and
Ibs.

weighs about 3250
2.

Railway and transportation companies estimate light

freight by the
freight
3.
is

number

of cubic feet

it

occupies

;

but heavy

estimated by weight.

A pile of wood
1

contains

4 feet wide, 4 feet high, and 8 feet long, cord; and a cord foot is 1 foot in length of such

a pile.

perch of stone or masonry is 16 feet long, 1 wide, and 1 foot high, and contains 24f cubic feet.
4.
5.

A

feet

A brick
;

is

usually 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and 2
foot.

inches thick
6.

hence 27 bricks make a cubic

Joiners, painters,
tfec.

and masons make no allowance

for

windows, doors,

Masons make no allowance

for the

corners of the walls of houses or of cellars.

The

size of a

172
cellar is estimated

CUBIC MEASURE.

of the by the measurement of the outside

wall.

Ton weight and

ton measure.

A

ton of hay, or any
is

other coarse bulky article usually sold by that measure,

20 gross hundreds, that is 2240 Ibs. But in many places it has become the custom to count only 2000 Ibs. for a ton.

In freighting ships, 42 cubic feet are allowed to a ton in the measurement of timber, 40 solid feet if round, and 50
;

if

square

make

a ton.

THE METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND
MEASURES.*
The metric system of weights and measures had
in
its

origin

France during the Revolution in the year 1790. The following year a commission of scientific men was appointed

by the government
earth's quadrant

to select an appropriate unit,

and

as the

result of their investigations the ten-millionth part of the

was chosen and

called a Metre.

To

deter-

mine the unit of weight a cube of pure water at its greatest density, each edge of which is one-hundredth of a metre, was
taken and called a

Gramme

(anglicized gram).

The multo the deci-

tiples and subdivisions were made to correspond mal scale, hence its great simplicity.

This system was declared obligatory in France after Nov. but no penalty was attached to non-conformity 2, 1801; until after Jan. 1, 1841. The system has since been adopted

wholly or in part by Spain, Belgium, Portugal, Holland, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Mexico,

Guatemala, Venezuela, Ecuador, U. S. of Columbia, Brazil, In 1866 Chili, San Salvador, and the Argentine Republic.
* The following
article

on the Metric System of Weights and Measures was

prepared for this work by S. A. Felter, A.M., author of a well-known series of mathematical text-books.

174

METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Congress authorized the metric system in the United States

by passing the following

bill

:

AN ACT TO AUTHORIZE THE USE OF THE METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Be

it

enacted by the Senate

of the United States That from and after the passage of this act, it shall be lawful throughout the United States of America to employ the
weights and measures of the metric system
;

and House of Representatives of America in Congress assembled,

and no contract

or dealing, or pleading in any court, shall be

deemed

invalid

or liable to objection, because the weights or measures ex-

pressed or referred to therein are weights or measures of the

metric system.

further enacted, That the tables in the schedule hereto annexed, shall be recognized in the construcSEC. 2.
be it

And

tion of contracts, and in

all

legal proceedings, as establish-

ing, in terms of the weights

and measures now

in use in the

United States, the equivalents of the weights and measures
expressed therein in terms of the metric system
tables
;

and said

may be

expressing, in

lawfully used for computing, determining, and customary weights and measures, the weights

and measures of the metric system.

The

utility of the

metric system
it

commends

itself,

even

at a glance,

and hence

becomes important that
it.

all

should
in-

become acquainted with
and measure.

It will

doubtless soon come

to general use to the exclusion of all other systems of weight

The following

is

a brief and condensed view

METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

175

of the system, so clear and simple that a child can under-

stand

it:

The Metric System of weights and measures is formed upon the decimal scale, and has for its base an invariable
unit derived from nature,

and

called a

METRE

;

and upon

this unit all the units of weight

and measure are based.

The Metre

is

the ten-millionth part of the distance from
;

the equator to the pole

and

is

the principal unit of linear

measure.

Are

is

a square whose side

is

ten metres.

It

is

the

principal unit of superficial measure.

The Stere

is

a cube whose edge

is

a metre.

It

is

the prin-

cipal unit of solid or cubic measure.
Tfie Litre is a

It is the principal unit of all

cube whose edge is the tenth of a metre. measures of capacity.
its

The

Gram

is

the weight of a cube of pure water at

greatest density,

whose edge

is

the hundredth part of a
It is the prin-

metre.

A

litre

of water weighs 1,000 grams.

cipal unit of weight.

The names of the derivative denominations are formed by joining a Latin or Greek prefix to the principal units.
There are seven of these
(

prefixes, derived as follows

:

Latin.

<
(

MILLI, from MilUsimus, a thousandth. CENTI, from Centesimus, a hundredth. from Decimu-s, a tenth. DECI,

176

METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
r
i
i

Q.

" 1
[

DECA, ten. HECTO, from Hecaton, KILO, from Chilioi, MYRIA, from Myrioi,

one hundred. one thousand.
ten tliousand.

The formation
the following:

of the tables can be seen at a glance by

Milli
Centi

Deci
-

Deca
Hecto Kilo

METRE.

>

ARE.*

STERE.

LITRE.

GRAM.

Myria
NAMES.

METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

177

LINEAR MEASURE.
Illustration.

NOTE.

By

the accompanyit

ing illustration

will be seen

that one-tenth of a metre,
ten centimetres,
oc

or

equals about
short of 4 in.

3|f

in.,

or a

trifle

This measure, as well as the other measures and weights,
is

written

as

whole numbers

and decimals.
g 10

The decimal
m.

point

is

placed at the right of
thus, 4.167

=

jj

the unit

may

be written 416.7 cm.

To make

a metric rule, cut a piece of

wood, paper, or tape, 39| in. Divide it into ten equal long.
parts,

and each part into ten
;

other equal parts parts
is

each of these

1 centimetre.

Divide

each centimetre into ten equal parts, and each part is a millimetre.

The diameter
centimetres, and

of the nickel live cent piece of 1866
its

is

2

weight
is

is

5 grams.

The Centimetre

the unit generally used for measure8*'

ITS

METKIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
less

ments

than a metre.

For

its

length in

common measure

see illustration.

The Metre
equals 3
ft.

is

the unit

commonly

'used

by

artisans.

It

3|- in. (nearly).
is

The Kilometre
in

the unit
Its

commonly used by surveyors
length
is

measuring distances.

198

rd.

13

ft.

10

in.

TABLE.*
Full.

Contracted.
1

10 millimetres 10 centimetres 10 decimetres

10 metres 10 decametres 10 hectometres 10 kilometres

= = = = = =

1
1

centimetre. decimetre.
Metre.

10 millimetres 100 centimetres 100 metres

= = =

1 1

centimetre.
metre.

1

kilometre.

1 1
1

decametre. hectometre.
kilometre.

1

myriametre.

SQUARE MEASURE.
The square Metre
ft.

is

the unit

commonly used by
It contains

artisans

in specifying surfaces of small extent.
sq.

about 10

110

sq. in.
is

The Are
less

the unit

than the

Jiectare.
is

commonly used to express quantities 100 ares make one hectare.
unit
is

The Hectare
* NOTE.

the

commonly used by surveyors
divided into ten equal parts, designated The tenths are divided into ten other
;

The

unit of each table
;

by prefixing

deci (tenth)

as,

decigram.

The equal parts, designated by prefixing centi (hundredth) as, centigram. kundredths are subdivided in the same manner, and are designated by prefixing milli (thousandth) ; as, milligram. The contracted table is the most convenient for common use.

METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
in

179
2.471

estimating the contents

of

land.

It

contains

acres.

TABLE.
Full.

Contracted.

10 10 10 10

milliares

1

centiare.

centiares declares ares

1
1

declare.

Are.
hectare.
kilare.

1 decare.
1
1

10 decares
10 hectares 10 kilares

100 sq. millimetres =1 sq. centimetre. 100 sq. centimetres = 1 sq. decimetre. 1 sq. metre. 100 sq. decimetres =1 are. 100 sq. metres =1 hectare. 100 ares

1

myriare.

CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURE.
T/ie cubic

Metre or Stere

is

the unit

commonly used by
embankments,

engineers in estimating the solid contents of
cellars, walls,
<fec.

It equals 1.308 cu. yards.

TABLE.
FuU.
Contracted.

10 millisteres
10 10 10 10 10 10
centisteres decisteres steres

=

1 centistere.
1 decistere.
1 Stere.

=

= =
-

1000 cu. centimetres 1000 litres 1000 steres

=
=

1

litre.

1 stere. 1 kilostere.

decasteres hectosteres =
kilosteres

= =
=

decastere. 1 hectostere.
1
1 Icilostere.

1

myriastere,

DRY AND LIQUID MEASURE.
The
roots,

unit

commonly used
by the

in the
is

measurement of

grain,

and
gal.

liquids

barrel

the hectolitre.

It equals

26.417

wine measure, or 2.839 bu. dry measure.

The

unit

commonly used by grocers

is

the

litre.

It equals

180
1.056

METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
qt.

wine measure, or .908
quart.

qt.

dry measure, or a

trifle

more than a wine
Full.

TABLE.
Contracted.
1 centilitre. 1 decilitre.

10 10 10 10 10 10 10

millilitres

centilitres decilitres
litres

1 Litre. 1 decalitre.

100 centilitres 100 litres 1000 litres

= = =

1 litre.

1

hectolitre.

1 kilolitre.

decalitres
hectolitres
kilolitres

hectolitre. 1 kilolitre.
1

1

myrialitre.

WEIGHT.
The
unit

commonly used
is

in philosophical experiments,

by jewellers and druggists
gr. troy.

the gram. Its weight

is

15.432

The
monly

unit

commonly used by grocers
It is the
Ibs.,

is

the kilogram, com-

contracted kilo.

water, and equals 2.2046

weight of a litre of pure or about 2 Ibs. avoirdupois.

The

unit

commonly used

in

weighing heavy bodies,
is

as
It

coal, iron,
is

marble, R. R. freight, &c.,

the tonneau.

the weight of a cubic metre of pure water, and equals
Ibs.

2204.6

avoirdupois.

TABLE.
Full.

Contracted.

10 10 10 10 10
1

milligrams centigrams

= =

1
1
1
1

centigram. decigram.

decigrams

Gram.
decagram. hectogram.
kilogram.

100 centigrams 1000 grams 1000 kilograms

= = =

1 1

1

gram. kilogram. tonneau.

grams decagrams
hectograms

10 kilograms 10 myriagrams
1

quintals

= = = =

1
1

1

myriagram.

1 quintal. 1 tonneau.

METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

181

MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES.
In the centesimal or French method the right angle
is

divided into 100 equal parts called grades, the grade into

100 equal parts called minutes, the minute into 100 equal
parts called seconds.

TABLE.
100 seconds 100 minutes 100 grades
(")

= =

1

1
1

minute (') grade (gr.)
right angle
(r. a.)

NOTE.

Since the signs for both the

common and

centesi-

utes

mal methods are the same, to prevent confusion when minand seconds are expressed in the centesimal method,
annex the abbreviation
cen.
;

thus, 3'

46"

cen.

CURRENCY.
SCALE.
m CD r <j 2 g g s | t*; g
'

TABLE.
10 millimes 10 centimes 10 decimes

~

'

r

= = =

1
1 1

centime. decime. Franc.

o.

o o o

LINEAR MEASURE.
Table* of equivalents.
1 in.

=: 25

1 ft.
1

yd.

1 rd.

= = =

mm. (nearly). mm. (nearly). 914 mm. 5029 mm.
305

1

mi.

1
1

cm. m.

1

= 1609.35 m. = .3937=f in. (nearly). = 39.3*7 in. = 1.093 yd. km. = .62137 mi. = 198 rd.,
10
in.

12

ft.,

Authorized by Act of Congress, July

27, 1866.

182

SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

183
it
;

on

it,

and when

it

thus, iron will float

weighs less than air, it will rise in in melted lead, gas will rise in the

air,

and wood will

float

on water.

The weight
avoirdupois,
gravities.
is
it

of a cubic foot of water being 1000 ounces

has been adopted as the standard of specific

Hence the specific gravity of a body or substance
its

the proportion

weight bears to

this standard.

To find
RULE.

the specific gravity

of a

liody.

Weigh
air,

it first

in air

and then
;

in water,

and take
is

the difference of these weights

then as the difference

to

the weight in

so

is

1000 to the

specific gravity of the

body.

EXAMPLE.
ing 20
Ibs.,

What

is

the specific gravity of a stone weighIbs.
?

but in water only 15

SOLUTION.
4000.

20

15=5

difference;

then 5

:

20:: 1000

:

Ans.

When

the

body

is lighter

than water.

184

SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

RULE.

Attach
;

to

it

a piece of metal sufficient to sink

it

in the water

both in
in

weigh the piece added and the body separately, and out of the water, and find how much each loses
its

water by subtracting in air, and subtract the
greater
light
;

weight

in

water from

its

weight

less

of these differences from the
is

then as the remainder
in air, so
is

to

the weight of the

body

1000 to the

specific gravity of the

body.

Required the specific gravity of a piece of wood which weighs 20 Ibs. in air attached to it is a piece
;

EXAMPLE.

of metal, which weighs 30

Ibs. in air

and 25

Ibs. in

water,
?

and the two pieces together weighing in water 10
SOLUTION.

Ibs.

20 4- 30

1

= 40
5

30-25=

35

:

20:: 1000

:

571.44. Ans.

To reduce
Ibs.

the specific gravity

of a body

to its

weight in

per cubic

foot.

RULE.
is

Divide the

specific gravity
Ibs.

by

16,

and the quotient

the weight of a cubic foot in

Required the weight of a cubic foot of a substance the specific gravity of which is 4.800 ?

EXAMPLE.

SOLUTION.

4.800-i-16=300

Ibs.

Ans.

^ UNIVERSITY

-V

OF THE

*

J B^^
SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

185

TABLE, showing

the specific gravities

of various substances.

186

SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

NOTE.
lar

To

find the

number of cubic

inches in any irregu-

body, weigh a vessel containing sufficient rain water to cover the solid, then immerse the solid in the water by

means of a

string or wire held in the hand, being careful

not to touch the vessel.

While the
;

solid

is

immersed,

weigh the water and vessel again

the difference will be

the weight of the water displaced by the solid.

Multiply the weight of the water in ounces by 1728, and divide by 1000, the result will be the contents in

RULE.

I.

cubic inches.
II.

To

find the weight, multiply the weight of the water

displaced in ounces by the weight of a cubic foot of the
substance, and divide the product by 1000, and the result
will be the
I

weight

in

pounds.

have a pattern of a lock that will displace 20 ounces of water how much will 1000 copies of cast iron weigh ?
;

How much

will they cost
oz.

me

at 9 cents per

pound

?

OPERATION.

20x450 JH- 1000= 9.01
lb.

Ib.

9.01 x 1000 x 6.09=$810.90.
I

Ans.

have a lead pattern of a wheel that displaces 15 ounces of water what will 500 copies in brass cost me at 40 cents
;

per pound

?

oz.

OPERATION.

15 x504f ^-1000=7.571

lb.

7.571 x 500 x $.40 =$15 14. 20.

Ans.

VELOCITY.

187

TABLE, showing the weight of a cubic foot of different
substances.
Avoir.

1 cubic foot of Brass

"

"
"

Brick

Copper
Clay Coal (anthracite) Coal (bituminous)
Granite
Iron (wrought) Iron (cast)

"

u
"

"
"

" "

u " " " " "
" " "
"

weighs 504 j " 125 " 555 " 135 " 54 " 50 " 165
" "

Ib.

" "
"

"
"

" "

"
"

" "

Lead Marble

"
" "

486} " 450| " 708}
171
"

"
" "

(common) Sand
Tallow

Soil

124
95 59
62J-

" "
"

"
"
(pure)

"
u

Water Water

"

"
(sea)

" " " "

"

"
"
"

Wood Wood Wood

"
(oak)

64J
55

"

" " "

" (yellow pine) " " " "
.

"
"

"
"

(white pine) Charcoal (hard wood) ....

42 30
18 J 18 15

"
"

Charcoal (pine wood) ....

Cork

"

VELOCITY.*
The average
the following
Parker's Philosophy.

velocities of different objects are

found in

188

SOLID

MATTER AND

A man walks

WEIGHTS OF GRAIN, SEEDS, &C.

189

WEIGHTS OF GRAIN, SEEDS,
TABLE, showing the weight of grain, seeds
,

&o.

dke.,_per bushel,

as established by the Legislatures of the following States.

The

letter in indicates sold

ly measure.

ARTICLES.

190

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CERTAIN CROPS.

PROPORTION OF ALCOHOL IN LIQUORS. TABLE, showing the ^oportion of'alcohol in WO parts, each,
of
Designation.

the

following liquors.
Designation.

Parts in 100

Parts in

100.

Scotch Whiskey
Irish

Bum

Whiskey

Brandy Gin
Port....

54.32 53.9 53.68 53.39 51.6 22.9
22 27
.

Sherry
Claret

Champagne
Gooseberry Elder Ale
Porter..
.
,

Madeira Currant
Teneriffe

19.17 15.1 13.8 11.84 8.79 6.87 4.2

20.55 19.79

9.8to5.!
Prof. Brande.

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CERTAIN CROPS.
If

we suppose an

acre to yield the following quantities of

the usually cultivated crops, the weight of dry starch and gum, of gluten, albumen, casein, &c., of oil or fat, and of
saline matter, reaped in each

crop, will
:

be represented

nearly by the following numbers

DESIGNATION.

QUANTITY OF SEED REQUIRED.

191

appears that the acre with wheat, would yield a given weight which, by cropping
it

NOTE.

From

the above table

of starch, sugar, and gum, would,
ley or oats, yield one-fourth
potatoes, about

when cropped with

bar-

more of these substances

with

four times as much, and with turnips eight times the same quantity. In other words, the piece of ground

when sown with wheat, will maintain one man, would support one and a quarter if sown with barley or in so far oats, four with potatoes, and eight with turnips as the nutritive power of these crops depends on the starch,
which,
sugar,

and gum

they contain.

PERCENTAGE OF OIL IN
Oil per cent, in different
Oil per cent.
',

SEEDS, GRAIN, &(
grain, &c.
Oil per cent.

Linseed

11 to 22 say 17

Hempseed
Rapeseed.

14

White mustard. Sweet almond.
Bitter almond.
.

25 70 38

19 55
37

Oats Indian corn Wheat bran
Potatoes,
turnips,

5to8
" 5 9 3 " 5

say
7

4

Turnip seed.

.

.

Wheat flour
Barley

54 46 50 4

47 37 45
3

and cabbage
Wheat-straw. Oat-straw
2

"
" "

H
3|
5
5 3

4
2
3

Meadow hay
Clover hay

2*

QUANTITIES OF SEED REQUIRED TO THE
ACRE,
TABLE, showing
Designation.

&o.
seeds required, to

the quantity

of garden plant a given space.

Space and quantity of seeds.
1

produces 1000 plants, and requires a bod 12 Roots 1000 plant a bed 4 feet wide 225 feet long. Dwarf Beans 1 quart plants from 100 to ISO feet of row. Eng. " French 250 or 350 feet of row. 100 hills. Beans, pole, large " small 300 hills, or 250 feet of row.

Asparagus

.

oz.

ft.

sq.

.

.

192
Designation.

QUANTITY OF SEED REQUIRED.
Space and quantity of seeds.
;

1 oz plants 150 feet of row. 10 Ibs. to the acre Beets Broccoli and Kale I oz. plants 2,500 plants, and requires 40 sq. ft. of ground. Early sorts same as brocoli, and require 60 &q. ft. ground. Cabbage. Ihe same as cabbage. Cauliflower [ oz. to 15u of row. Carrot I oz. gives 7000 plants, and requires 8 eq. feet of ground. Celery I 02. for 150 hills. Cucumber I oz. sows a bed 16 feet square. Cress I oz. gives 2000 plants. Egg Plant 1 oz. gives 3000 Endive plants, and requires 80 feet of ground. I oz. gives 20(>0 plants, and requires 60 feet of Leek ground. " I oz. 7000 and requires eeed bed of 120 feet, Lettuce i oz. for 120 hills. Melon 1 oz. BOWS 25 feet of row. Nasturtium loz. " 200 " Onion " " 200 " I oz.
'

Okra

Parsley Parsnip

I

oz.

loz.
I

Peppers Peas

1
1

Pumpkin
Radish
Salsify

1 1 1
I

Spinage Squash

Tomato
Turnip

I

1 1

Water Melon
TABLE, showing
resignation.

" 200 " " 250 " oz. gives 2500 plants. quart sows 120 feet of row. oz. to 50 hills. oz. to 100 feet. oz. to 150 feet of row. oz. to 200 feet of row. oz. to 75 bills. oz gives 2500 plants, requiring seed bed of 80 oz. to 2000 feet. oz. to 50 hills.
" "

feet.

the quantity
1

of seed required

to (he acre.
Quantity of seed.

Quantity of seed.

Wheat
Barley Oats

Designation.

J to 2 l| to 2
to 4 1 to 2 f to 1
2
1

bush Broom Corn
Potatoes

Timothy
Mustard

Rye Buckwheat
Millet

.

Herd Grass
Flat Turnip

tol

Corn Beans
Peas

Hemp
Flax
Rice

1 to 2 2 to 3 2 } to H 1 to 1$

Red Clover White Clover
Blue Graps Orchard Grass
Carrots

*to2
2

to 2 }

Parsnips

bush. 1 to 1 15 to 20 12 to 24 quarts 8 to 20 " 12 to 16 2 to 3 Ibs. 10 to 16 3 to 4 10 to 15 20 to 30 4 to 5 C to 8
driUs.

TABLE, showing Broom Corn
Beans. Peas

the quantity
1

per acre when planted in rows or
bush.
" "

to 1 1| to 2 1^ to 2

(Onions Carrots
iParsnips IBeets
.

.

.

4 to 5 Ibs. 2 to 2J " 4 to 5 " 4 to 6 "

PROPORTIONS OF WEIGHT TO BULK.

193

DEPTH OF SOWING WHEAT.
Wheat may be sowed
too shallow as well as too deep.
soil.

The depth must vary with the
gravelly, and sandy.

A

thinner covering

is

required in a close, thick, heavy

soil,

than in one

light,

Experiments, made with wheat
:

give

the following results

Seeds sown to the depth of

^ inch.

Appeared above ground in 1 1 days. 12 IS

No. of plants
that

came up.
all.

20
21

22 23

PROPORTIONS OF WEIGHT TO BULK.
TABLE, showing the weight per cubic foot of various substances, and the number of cubic feet required to make a ton of each.
Material.

CORN PORK.
According to the Patent Office Reports, and the results numerous experiments, 1 bushel of corn weighing 56 Ibs.
produce 10 J
Ibs.

of

will

of pork.
Ibs.

Throwing

off

to

come

at

the net weight, gives 8|

of pork as the product of 1
Ibs.

bushel of corn, or 1
corn.

Ib.

of pork as the product of 6f
Ib.

of

3

Ibs.

of cooked corn-meal makes 1
it

of pork.
1 Ib. of

Assuming

that

requires 6f

Ibs.

of corn to

make

pork (exclusive of the labor of feeding and taking care of to that hogs), the relation which the price of corn bears
of pork
is

exhibited in the following
the price

TABLE, showing

of pork per

Ib.

at different prices

per bushel for
Corn per bosh.
Cents.

corn.
Pork per pound.
Cents.

Pork per pound.
Cents.

Corn per bush.
Cents,

12 15 17 20

1.50 1.78
2.

38

22 25 30 33 35

2.38 2.62 2.96
3.57 3.92
4.

40 42 45 50 55 60 65
70

4.52 4.76
5.

5.35
"5.95

6.54 7.14 7.74
8.57

By

reversing the above table

we have
Ib. for

the price of corn

per bushel at different prices per
the above table
is

pork.

The

use of

obvious.

For example, should corn be

CORN
selling for
lb., it

POKK.

195

50 cents per bushel and pork for only 5 cents per would be most profitable to sell the corn but should
;

corn be selling for 40 cents per bushel and pork for 6 cents

per

lb., it

would be most
sell

profitable to reduce the corn to

pork, and

the latter.

To find
HULE.

the price

per bushel as

the

ofpork per datum.

lb.,

taking the price of corn

Divide the price of a bushel of corn by 8.40 (the
of pork produced by a bushel of corn), and the

number of Ibs.

quotient will be the answer.

EXAMPLE.

When corn is
lb.

20 cents per bushel, what should
?

be the price of pork per
SOLUTION.

20.00 cents, ^-8.40

Ibs.,

=2.38

cents.

Ans.

To find
pork per
RULE.

the price

lb.

as

tJie

of corn per bushel, taking datum.
lb.

the price

of

Multiply the price of a
Ibs.

of pork by 8.40 (the

number of

of pork produced by a bushel of corn), and

the product will be the answer.

EXAMPLE.

when pork
NOTE.

is

should be the price of corn per bushel selling at 4 cents per lb.
4.50 cents, x 8.40
table
Ibs.

What

SOLUTION.

,37.8
but

cents.

Ans.

The foregoing

and rules must not be taken
little

as invariably correct.
satisfy the

It requires

reflection to

farmer that the proportions and results exhibited

by them must be influenced by many conditions and causes, such as the sample of corn used, the constitution and breed

196

CORN

PORK.

as well as the age of the animal, its condition,

powers of

di-

gestion, habits, health,

c.

The very nature

of the subject

precludes the possibility of exactly defining the results and
proportions.

At

best

we

age results and rules.
oral average.

can only have some general^ averThe foregoing is deemed a safe gen-

LIFE

AND INCREASE OF ANIMALS.

To keep hens in
Provide
1.

winter.

A
A

comfortable roost

;

2.
3.

Plenty of sand, gravel and ashes, dry, to play box of lime
;

in

;

4.

Boiled meat, chopped

fine,

every two or three days

;

198
5.
6.

LIFE
oats,

AND INCREASE OF ANIMALS.
which
will be best
if

Corn and

boiled tender

;

All the crumbs and potato parings

;

7.

Water, neither cold nor blood- warm.

This treatment has proved quite successful in a great many cases where the formula has been strictly adhered to,

and hens which without
laid

it gave no eggs, with it immediately one each, on an average, every two days.

TABLE, showing

the

period of reproduction and gestation of
domestic animals.

DESIGNATION.

LIFE

AND INCREASE OF ANIMALS.

199

Growth and
Man

life

of animals.
for 20 years,

grows

and

lives

The Camel The Horse The Ox The Lion The Dog The Cat The Hare The Guinea pig

90 or 100 years.

8

40
25 15 to

5

4 4
2

20
14 10
7

20
12 to 9 or

1* 7 months, and lives

6 or

A

TABLE showing
out the year.

at one

mew when Forty Weeks
expire, from

(the period

of gestation in a cow) will

any day through-

Jan.

Oct.

200

LIFE

AND INCREASE OF ANIMALS.

Table continued.

AGE OF ANIMALS.
To fold
The
colt

the age
is

of a horse.

born with 12 grinders.

When

4 front teeth

have made their appearance the colt is 12 days old, and when the next 4 appear it is four weeks old. When the
corner teeth appear
latter
old.
it

is

eight months old, and

when

the

have attained the height of the front teeth it is a year The two year old colt has the kernel (the dark sub-

stance in the middle of the tooth's crown) ground or

worn

out of

all

the front teeth.

In the third year the middle

front teeth are being shifted,

and when three years old these
In the fourth year the

are substituted for the horse teeth.

next 4 are shifted, and in the
shifted.

fifth

In the sixth year the kernel

year the corner teeth are is worn out of the middle
their full

front teeth,

and the bridle teeth have now attained
years a

growth. corner teeth of the upper jaw
at the

At seven

hook has been formed on the
:

the kernel of the teeth next

out, and the bridle teeth begin to wear At eight years of age the kernel is worn out of all the off. lower front teeth, and begins to decrease in the 'middle up-

middle

is

worn

In the ninth year the kernel has wholly disappeared from the upper middle front teeth, the hook on the corner teeth has increased in size, and the bridle teeth loose
per fronts.

202
their point.

AGE OF ANIMALS.
In the tenth year the kernel has worn out of

the teeth next to the middle fronts of the upper jaw, and
in the eleventh year the kernel

has entirely disappeared from

the corner teeth of the same jaw.

At twel ve years the crowns

of

all

the front teeth in the lower

and the bridle teeth are

jaw have become triangular, much worn down. As the horse

advances in age the gums shrink away from the teeth, which

appear long and narrow, and the kernels become changed into darkish points. Gray hairs increase in the forehead

and the chin becomes angular.

A

modification of the foregoing,

much more
is

scientific or

systematic, and probably quite as reliable,

the classifica-

tion of Pessina, a distinguished veterinary surgeon of Ger-

many.
Its principles

may be
cuts,

distinctly understood

by reference

to the

accompaning

A, B, C, and D.
;

A, represents the corner tooth of a young horse

the oth-

FIG. A.

er nippers' vary very little
tion

from

this

one

in their construc-

and form.'
of the tooth
is

The top

is

long from side to
to rear.

side,

and the exin

treme lower end

long from front

The manner

AGE OF ANIMALS.
which the shape changes
sections are shown.
as

we go

farther

down the

tooth

is

represented in figure B, where cross sections at different

Fie. B.

The

horse's tooth

is

worn away by

use,

and

its

upper sur-

face assumes the form
tively,

of these different sections consecu-

Of

according to the extent to which it has been worn off! course, this only forms a general rule by which to judge
Cribbiters, horses feeding chiefly
grit,

of the age of a horse.

on

very old dry hay, and oats mixed with
are continually

and horses which
have their teeth

gnawing

their mangers, will

worn away

faster

than will those which are fed on grass and
feed,

moistened, cut,
to themselves

and ground

and which keep their teeth
correct for the

when they

are not eating.
is

Pessina's table of indications of age

average of horses, and in
eral purposes.

all

cases

is

sufficiently so for gen-

We
keepers " At

quote the following from Herbert's hints to horse:

five years the corners are

teeth; the
pers,

mark

is

entirely

up even with the other wrrn out from the middle nip(fig.

and partly worn from the next pair

C).

204

AGE OF ANIMALS.

FIG. C.

"

At At

six years the

mark
mark

is

almost gone from the second
is

pair,

and the outer edge of the corner teeth
seven years the
is

worn down.

"

entirely gone from the second

pair,
flat.

and the edges of the corner teeth are worn somewhat
eight years the teeth of the lower

"

At

jaw

are

worn enof them.
oval,
is

tirely flat, the

The form of the

mark having disappeared from all surface of the tooth has become
is

and

the central enamel

long from side to

side,

and

near to

the front of the tooth. " At nine years the middle nippers are rounded on the

inner side, the oval of the second pair and of the corner

becomes broader, the central enamel is nearer to the inner side, and the marks have disappeared from the teeth
teeth

of the upper jaw. " At ten years the second pair are rounded on the inner
side,

and the central enamel

is

very near to the inner

side.

AGE OF ANIMALS.
"

205

At

eleven years the corner teeth are rounded,

and the

central

enamel becomes very narrow.
twelve years the nippers are
all

"
tral

At

rounded, and the cen;

enamel has entirely disappeared from the lower jaw but it may still be seen in the upper jaw.

middle nippers commence to assume a triangular form in the lower jaw, and the central enamel has entirely disappeared from the corner teeth of the
thirteen years the

"At

upper jaw.
"

At fourteen

years the middle nippers have become
;

tri-

gular, and the second pair are assuming that form the central enamel has diminished in the middle nippers of the up-

per jaw.
"
(fig.

At
D)

fifteen years the second pair
;

have become triangular

the central enamel

is still

visible in the

upper jaw.

FIG. D.

"

At

sixteen years all of the teeth in the lower

jaw have

become
"

triangular, and the central enamel

is

entirely re-

moved from

the second pair in the upper jaw.

At

seventeen years the sides of the triangle of the mid;

same length the central enamel has entirely disappeared from the upper teeth.
dle nippers are all of the

206
"

AGE OF ANIMALS.

At At

eighteen years the sides of the triangle of the middle

nippers are longer at the sides of the teeth than in front.
"

nineteen years the middle nippers

become

flattened

from side to side and long from front to rear. " At twenty years the second pair assume the same form.
"

At

twenty-one years

all

of the teeth of the lower
;

jaw
in

have become flattened from side to side
ter

the greatest diamit

having become exactly the reverse of what

was

youth."

TO FIND THE AGE OF CATTLE.
In the cow the horn
is

often regarded as affording, by the

number

of

its

rings, a criterion of the

animaFs

age.

The

horn of a heifer remains smooth or unprotuberant till the A circle of thicker expiration of the second year of its life.
matter, or sort of horny button then begins to be formed,

which

completed in another year or button moves from the head, or
is

;

the next year this circle

is

impelled by the cylin-

dric

growth of the horn, and another circle or button begins

to be formed,

which

after another

twelve-month

is

also imlife

pelled outward, and so on year after year of the whole

of the animal, so that by counting the

number of

rings on
its

the cow's horns, and adding 2 to their number,
arrived
at.

age

is

The
he
is

rings on the ~buWs horns do not begin to appear until

five years old, so that to arrive at his

age

we must add
is

5 to the

number

of rings.

The horn

of the ox

so very

AGE OF ANIMALS.

207

strongly modified by his peculiar condition, as to be totally unlike that of the bull, the rings scarcely appearing at
all.

The above

rule

would enable one

to tell the age of the ani-

mal with unerring certainty, were the growth of the horns in each animal uniform and the rings distinct, which is not
always the case; the rings often being confused and indisin different anitinct, and the growth of the horns varying
mals.

Besides, knavish cattle dealers often rasp off several

of the rings of old and unsalable cows, and so smooth the
rest of the

horns as to

make them

look in keeping with

their pretensions.

A safer rule
the second
third

is

afforded by the teeth.

At

birth the
;

two cenend of

tre teeth (front)

protrude through the

gum
;

at the

week the second

pair appear

at the

end of the

week the

third pair, and at the end of the fourth

week

the fourth and last pair.

The wearing of
all

these teeth

now

constitutes the only guide for the next three months, at the

expiration of which " milk teeth
")

time

these (which are called the

begin to diminish in size and shrink away from each other, which process continues until the animal is

two years old, when the new teeth begin to push out the At the end slender remnants of the old and shrunken ones.
of the second year the
first

two permanent teeth appear

in

front; at three years the second pair are well up: at four

the third pair, and at five years the fourth and last pair,

have appeared, and the central pair are beginning

to
:

become
at

worn down

:

at six years the last pair are full sized

seven

208

AGE OF ANIMALS.
all

years the dark line with bony boundery appears in
teeth,

the

and a broad

circular

pair

:

at eight years this

mark appears within the central mark appears in all the teeth at
:

nine years a process of absorption and shrinkage, similar to
that

which reduced the
;

first teeth,
it

begins to take place in
;

the central pair

at ten

begins with the second pair

at

eleven with the third pair, at twelve with the fourth pair.

The age of the animal, after this period is attained, is mined by the degree of shrinkage and wearing away
year,

deter-

of

all

the teeth in the order of their appearance, until the lifteenth

when

scarcely

any teeth remain.

To

ascertain the age of sheep.

The age

of sheep

may

be

known by
first

the front teeth, which

are 8 in number, and appear the

year

all

of a

size.

In

the second year the two middle ones

fall

out and are supplant-

ed by two appears on each
six in large,

large ones.
side.

During
fifth

the third year a small tooth

In the fourth year the large teeth are
year
all

number.

In the

the front teeth are
to get worn.

and in the sixth year the whole begin
tell

To

the age

of

goats.

The age of goats is ascertained by their teeth in the same manner that of the sheep is, and by the annular rings on
their horns.

COMPUTE WEIGHT OF CATTLE.

For

cattle of a girth of

from 5 to 7

feet,

allow 23

Ibs. to

the

superficial foot.
-

For

cattle of a girth of

from 7

to 9 feet, allow

31

Ibs. to

the

superficial foot.

For small
allow 16

cattle

and calves of a girth of from 3 to 5 and
all cattle

feet,

Ibs. to

the superficial foot.

For

pigs, sheep,
Ibs.

measuring

less

than 3 feet

girth, allow 11

to the superficial foot.

RULE.
ers,

Ascertain the girth in inches back of the shouldand the length in inches from the square of the buttock to

a point even with the point of the shoulder-blade.

Multiply

the girth by the length, and divide the product by 144 for the superficial feet, and then multiply the superficial feet by

210
the

COMPUTE WEIGHT OF CATTLE.

number of

Ibs.

allowed as above for cattle of different
will be the

girths,

and the product

number of
of Ibs.

Ibs.

of beef,

veal, or

pork in the four quarters of the animal.
of stone divide the

To
14.

find

the

number

number

by

EXAMPLE.
steer,

What

is is

whose girth
?

the computed weight of beef in a 6 feet 4 inches, and length 5 feet 3

inches

SOLUTION.

76 inches, girth, x 63 inches, length,
feet,

= 4788 -H
Ana.

144=33}
NOTE.
of 14
Ibs.

square

x 23=764
is

Ibs., or 54-f stone.

When
if

the animal

but half fattened a deduction

in every 280, or one stone in every 20

must be

made; and
added.

very

fat,

one stone for every 20 must be

and great numbers of cattle are annually bought sold under circumstances that forbid ascertaining their

Where

weight with positive accuracy, the compute weight may be thus taken with approximate exactness at least with as

much
stock.

accuracy as

is

necessary in the aggregate valuation of

No

rules or tables can, however,

be at

all

times im-

as there are plicitly relied on,

many circumstances connected
its

with the build of the animal, the mode of fattening,
dition, breed, &c., that will influence the

con-

measurement, and

consequently the weight.

A

person skilled in taking the

compute weight of stock soon learns, however, to
allowances for
all

make

these circumstances.

COMPUTE

FOOD OF ANIMALS.

TABLE, showing the comparative difference between good hay and the substances mentioned below, as food for stock
being the results of experiments.
10
Ibs.

of hay are equal to

10

Ibs.

of

hay are equal to

8 to 10 45 to 50

Ibs.

"
'

clover hay.

green clover.

40 to 50 20 to 40
20 to 40
10 to 15 20 to 25 25 to 30 40 to 45

wheat straw.
barley straw. oat straw. pea straw.
potatoes. carrots (red). " (white).

30 to 35 45 to 50 20 to 30
3 to 5 to 5 to

Ibs.

mangold wurtzel.
turnips.

'

'

'

5 6 6
7
7

peas arid beans. wheat.
barley.
oats.

'

4 to
5 to 2 to

'

Indian corn.
oil

4

cake.

FOOD OF ANIMALS.

213

NOTE.
will

In the use of the above table much of course

depend 'upon the quality of the sample, the age and constitution of the animal, and the form in which the food
is

administered.

Much

also

depends upon a change offood,
different kinds.

and a due admixture of the

TABLE, showing the comparative difference between good hay and the articles mentioned lelow, as food for stock being
the

mean of experiment and
100
Ibs.

theory.
100
Ibs.

hay are equal to 275 Ibs. green Indian corn. 442 rye straw, "
of

of hay are equal to

360 164 180
153 200 201 175 339

wheat
oats

"
' :

barley

54 46 59 45 64
57

Ibs.

rye.

wheat.
oats.

peas and beans mixed.

buckwheat.
Indian corn,
acorns.

pea

"

buckwheat straw, raw potatoes,
boiled
turnips,
carrots.

"

68 105 109
167

wheat bran.
rye wheat, pea, and oat chaff. rye and barley, mixed.

mangold wurtzeL

504 300

179

NOTE.

It

must be borne

in

mind that the

nutritive effects

of food upon the animal are varied by numberless causes,

such as the animal's power of digestion and appropriation,
its

condition, shelter, air, water, exercise, &c.

But

all else

being equal, the nutritive qualities of the articles mentioned
are in the above proportions.

The
Ibs.

results of

numerous experiments, reported by

indivi-

duals and Agricultural Associations, show, that each 100 of live weight of the animal requires of hay or
:

its

equivalent, per day, as follows
Working horses
oxen

...

3.08 Ibs. " 2.40

214
Fatting oxen
" "

FOOD OF

ATJTMAT.fi.

when

fat

5.00 Ibs. 4.00

Milch cows

from 2.25 to 2.40
cattle

Dry
Steers

"

Young growing
Pigs

Sheep Elephant*

2.42 3.08 2.84 3.00 3.00 3.12

In the ox, the daily

loss of

muscle or tissue requires that

he should consume 20 to 24 ounces of gluten or albumen, which will be supplied by any of the following weights of
vegetable food
:

Meadow hay
Clover hay Oat straw Pea straw Potatoes
Carrots..

20
16 110 12 60 70

Ibs.

" " " " "

Turnips

Cabbage
other white grain. Beans or peas

120 70
11
ft

Ibs.

"
" " "

Wheat or

Oilcake..

4

Or

instead of any one of these, a mixture of several

may

be given with the best results. But if the due proportion of nitrogenous food be not given, the ox will lose his muscular strength

and

will generally

fail.

So with growing and
the proportion of each

fattening stock of every description
of the kinds of food required
tice,

;

by the animal must, in pracit is fed.

be adjusted to the purpose for which

It is not strictly correct that this or that
is

more

fitted to sustain

animal

life

kind of vegetable simply because of the
it

large proportion of nitrogen or gluten

contains

;

it

is

wisely provided, however, that, along with this nitrogen, all
* Mr. Barnum's elephant, weighing 4700 of hay and 1 bushel of oats per day.
Ibs.,

was found

to

consume 100

Ibs.

FOOD OF ANIMALS.
plants contain a certain proportion of starch or sugar,

215

and

of saline or earthy matter

all

of which are required in a

mixture which will most easily sustain an animal in a healthy so that the proportion of nitrogen in a substance condition
;

may be considered as a rough practical index of the proportion of the more important saline and earthy ingredients
also.

TABLE, showing the

effects

produced by an equal quantity
Increased weight of
living animal in

of
Lbs.

the

following substances, as food for sheep.
Produced Produced
Tallow. Lbs.

WooL
Lbs.

Designation.

Lbs.

1000 potatoes, raw with salt " u without salt
mangel-wurtzel, raw
.

46

6

44 38|
155 146 136 134 133 90 129 120

wheat
oats
barley.

6| 5J 14
10

peas
rye, "

11| 14|
14 12 13 10

with salt without salt

12 11| G| 59 42 60 41 35

43
17

" "

corn meal, wet

buckwheat

83

NOTE.

The above

are the results of

numerous experi-

ments by

De Kaumer.

DECEEASE AND EXPECTATION OF

LIFE.

HUMAN
of
life

LIFE.

217

out of a given

number

born, and the expectation of

reaching a certain age deduced from that decrease as the

datum.

Among
it is

the

many

similar tables that have been
It received

constructed,

perhaps the most accurate.

the cautious scrutiny and revision of the
Massachusetts, and was adopted by
it

Supreme Court of
Easterbrook
vs.

(see

Hopgood, 10 Mass. Reports, 313) as the rule in estimating
the value of
life estates.

EXPLANATION. Opposite the age of the individual, under " the column headed Expectation of Life, &c.," will be found
the additional
live.

number

of years he

Thus a

man

40 years of age

may reasonably expect to may reasonably expect

to live 26.04 years longer.

For the purpose of comparison with observations in Europe, St. Maur's Table is subjoined, taken from observations in Paris

and the country around
ST.

it.

MAUR'S TABLE.
9,544 attain to 30 years. "35 8,770 "40 7,729 " 45 7,008 " 50 6,197 "55 5,375 "60 4,564 " 65 3,450 " 70 2,544 "75 1,507 " 80 807

Of 24,000 born
17,540 attain to 2 years. 3 15,162 4 14,177 5 13,477 6 12,968 7 12,562 8 12,255 9 12,015 10 11,861 15 11,405 " 20 10,909 "25 10,259
10

291

"85

218
103 attain to " " 71 " " 63 " " 47 " " 40 " " 33

COMPOUND INTEREST.
90 years.
91
" " " " "

92 93 94 95

23 attain to 96 years. 18 97 " 98 16 " 99 8 " 100 6 or 7

EXPLANATION.
probability there
to

To
is

ascertain

by the above table what
of a given age will attain
latter age

that a

man

any other age, make the number opposite the

the numerator and the

number

opposite the former age the

denominator, and the fraction will express the probability

sought

for.

EXAMPLE.

What

probability
?

is

there that a

man

of 30

will attain the age of 70 years

SOLUTION.

Opposite 70 find 2,544= 318
"

30

"

9,544=1193

Ans.

That

is

to say,

he has 318 chances out of 1193 of living to 70.

COMPOUND INTEREST.
TABLE, showing
the

from
Years

1 to 24, at 5

amount of $1 for any number of years and 6 per cent., compound interest.

ANNUITIES.

219
of years in

EXPLANATION.

Opposite the

number

the

column under the
of $1, with the

rate per cent., will be found the

amount

compound

interest included for the time

Should the amount of any given sum with the given. compound interest at a given rate per cent, for a given time
be required, multiply the amount found in the column under the given rate per cent., and opposite the given time,

by the sum
answer.

at interest so given,

and the product
at

will be the

EXAMPLE.

What will be the amount of $150
1.62889 x 150=$244.33.35.

compound

interest at the rate of 5 per cent, for 10 years'?

SOLUTION.

Am.

ANNUITIES.
TABLE, showing
the present

per
Year.

cent,
1 to

compound
34-.

interest

worth of $1 annuity at 5 and 6 for any number of years

from

220

INTEREST TABLE.

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column,

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months

3
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PQ

H

INTEEEST.

05

to

by
one

s \"~
come

to
then

CO

I

O

;
i

r-i

you
dollar

I

tf

Oiir iCMCMCOCOCO-rprrCilOt CMCOC;>OOiCO ?Ct--OCC>~ir5O
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until

month

one

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figures

from

to

of
days

Ike

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nt

amounts

03

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ount

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H
CQ

g

then
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as
have

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?0

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ti

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column

you
months

oo
i

..-.nd
^-" ^-i t-l

nd

y
ma as

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OO

ha
head left

3

C<l(MTj<<OtOS'-ICOOOOO
I

the the

of

i-HC^cOOIr-COO^COiO^

at

S

*

in
days
interest

of
the
amount

PH

OOOOOO"

the

li

Ii-Hi (CSICSICO>*

number

have

the
Find

you

^rH'-CMCOCOCO"*OO
T-H

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giving

PQ

^ H
EXPLANATION

together,

column

the

adding

hundred.

224

TABLE OF WAGES.

10

oooooooooooooooooooooooooo p 10 5 o 5 o o e o 2S o o o o 55 o 25 o S
c> a>
Iff

10

10

Ok

500>r-iCO^=GOOCOir. t^OC<|Tti^;05ir

m

i

00 99

^

^ *4( l

O CO

O Oi >O

TABLE OF WAGES.
Table continued.
R
<3

225

226

TABLE OF WAGES.

For a fraction of a day, take an equal part of the one day, and for rates less than $3 per month, half what is shown for twice the amount.
month.

amount

for

be desired to ascertain the wages per day for any given sum per month above $25, it can be done by adding to Thus for $30 per month, or doubling the above amounts.

Should

it

take 20 and 10 in the above table and add

them

;

for

$37

per month, take 20 and 10 and
take
triple

7,

and add them

;

for $50,

25 and double
it,

it; for

$75 per month, take 25 and

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
Blank account books, designed for keeping simple ledger accounts, are generally of two kinds, viz. Those in which the
:

those in which they are on opposite pages.

Dr. and Or. sides of the account are on the same page, and We give below

samples of each, with the mode of keeping the account.
Page
in
1-2

WILLIAM WILSON.

Dr.

Cr.

228

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.

of a Bill of the foregoing. WILLIAM WILSON, Dr. IN ACCOUNT WITH THOMAS 1861. To 18 bus. potatoes, at 50 cts January 12,
20,

Form

BUNN,

Gr.

February
"

7,

" 1 ton hay, at $8 " 1 steers

yoke

$9 00 8 00 80 00
9 00

20,

March June
1861

5, 7,

" 30 bus. oats, at 30 cts " 40 bus. corn, at 50 cts " 3 cords 50 at

20 00
7 50

wood,
Or.

$2

$133 50
at

January Feb'y
April u

25,
15,

By
" "

cash on account 2000 ft. lumber,

$10

M
.

3,

"
10,

1 pair boots for Sam 50 Ibs. sugar, at 8 cts

$10 00 20 00 4 00
4 00
1 50

May
June
July

"
12,

10

Ibs. coffee, at

15

cts.

"
20,
1,

cash on account

50 00

89 50

To balance

$44 00

NOTE.

upon

Since the whole science of book-keeping rests charges and credits, if you, once for all, get what is a

and charge and what is a credit clearly fixed in your mind, when you ought to charge and when you fully understand
ou^ht to
credit,

you

will

have

little difficulty

in keeping

your accounts

straight, simple,
let

and

satisfactory.

When

you

your neighbor, or he with

whom you

deal,

have anything from you, it is a charge against him, and you must charge him with it on the debit side of the account
;

but whenever you receive anything from him, it is a credit, and you must credit him with it on the credit side of the

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
account. " "
credit

229
give,

Thus you " charge " for what you receive.

for

what you
with

and
deal

He

whom you

charging you with what he gives you, and with what he receives from you. Hence his crediting you charges against you will correspond with your credits to
does likewise

him, and his credits to you will correspond with your charges against him.

In like manner, should
with a certain
field,

it

be desired to keep an account

meadow, or cow, the name is entered at the top of the page and in the index, just as an individual's, and what you give to it, the labor it costs you,
or
&c.,

you charge

to

it,

and what

it

yields

you you

credit to

it.

In this
fields

way

a farmer can keep an account with each of his

or altogether, with each of his cows or with the herd, with each of his pigs or altogether, with each of his sheep or

with the whole

flock,

&c.

The word
debit
;

"

To

"

the word

"

By

prefixed to an entry indicates a charge or " indicates a credit.

Each entry should be made on the day the transaction
took place.

The account should be
every six months, and
if

cast

and balanced

at least

once

not settled the balance brought

down,

as above,

when

the account

may

be continued.

BOOK-KEEPING BY DOUBLE ENTRY.
Book-keeping by double entry is that form of keeping accounts in which two entries are made in the Ledger for

230

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
;

every one in the Day-Book
other a credit.
receives

one a charge, or

debit,

and the

Thus you not only charge the party who

your

from you, but you credit that department of business from which, whatever it is, is received.
an account with as

You keep

many

different departments of

A farmer might your business as you deem necessary. an account with his herd, with wheat, rye, corn, grass, keep
hay, and other crops, or different " Farm." ther, under the head of
tields,

separately or toge-

Where

the time required

be spared, we think it desirable to keep accounts by double entry with every department of a business, down to a
can
detail, because where books are kept by this can turn to any account and ascertain at a system, you glance its condition that is, how much money you have

very minute

;

spent on

it,

and how much
it.

it

has returned you, and what
to

balance

is

for or against

The books necessary

be used

in keeping accounts

by

this

and Ledger.

A

third, called a Journal,

system are two, the Day- Book is sometimes used
;

intermediary between the Day-Book and Ledger but we consider it much more trouble than benefit, and therefore
think best entirely to dispense with
it.

The Day-Book is ruled with two dollar and cent columns on the right hand side, and one column on the left hand
side, in

which the page of the Ledger
is

is

entered

when the

account

transferred to the Ledger.
as in the

The Ledger is generally ruled, below the name of the account is
;

example given

written across the top of

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
the page, and
if

231

the transactions will probably be numerous

other pages following

may be
page

reserved to continue the acis full.

count upon when the
It is

first

customary with a person keeping books by this method to have an account with u Cash," with his family, and
if

he takes and gives

notes, with

" Bills Receivable," and

" Bills Payable."
tions entered in
I sold,

below a sample of transacthe Day- Book and carried to the Ledger. If
will give

We

John Brown, twenty bushels of apples, at 75 cents per bushel, and was to deliver them to him for $1, and on October 5th, bought of him five barrels of flour,
October
1st, to

for family use, at
gratis,

$4 per

barrel,

which he was

to deliver

my entries

in

the Day-Book would be

as follows, sup:

posing I kept accounts with the
CENTEBVILLE, OCT.

departments mentioned
1st, 1861.

Pagel.

5

6 7

10

5

232

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
Page
7.

Dr.

TEAMING.

Cr.

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
cessary in this connection, to
to charge,

233
to credit

show what

and what

under certain circumstances.

If

you give a man
his account

a note for the balance of his account,

you debit
If

and credit

Bills

Payable.

When you
credit the

pay the note,

you

debit Bills Payable

and

credit Cash.

you
is

receive a note

for balance of account,

you

man's account and
paid,

debit Bills Receivable.
Bills Receivable

When

the note

you

credit

and debit Cash.

In the

first entry in the

above example,
to the

it

may

be well to say, you do not give credit

man who drives the wagon, or to the wagon for its use. At the These are legitimate charges against Teaming. proper time you credit the man his wages, and charge or
debit

Teaming

for

it

(or that portion of his time in

which

he has been engaged teaming), &c.

Some

businesses require an Interest account to be kept

;

of course, from our previous remarks, any one

who

finds- it

necessary will see the proper
It is necessary,

way

to

keep

it.

in connection with the

Day-Book and

Ledger, to

keep a Cash-Book and Bill-Books, where a person

does a credit business.

The Cash-Book,

to

keep a record of

the receipts and disbursements of cash, which should be

balanced every night (if any cash has been spent or received during the day), and the money counted the balance on
v

;

hand and the balance shown by the book should correspond
if

;

they do not, something has been omitted.
calls for,

on hand more than the balance

you have have received you
If

money which has

not been entered on the debit side of the

234

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
for

If you have too little, you have spent money account. which the account has not been credited.

The Bill-Books
notes paid out.

are to keep a record of notes received
Bills

and

The

ing facts

:

The date of the

Payable book records the follownote, the time it is to run, the
it

date of falling due, to

whom

was given,

in

whose favor

it

was made, and the amount it was made Receivable book records: Who made the
favor

for.

The

Bills

note, in

whose

it was made, how long it has to run, when it is due, and the amount it is for. When notes are paid or received,

these facts should, of course, be properly noted in the Day-

Book.

When

accounts are

first

opened

it

is

best to take an in-

ventory of property of all kinds on hand, charging each department with which you intend to keep an account with
that portion which
it

the same which shall

and crediting an account for " Stock in Trade." represent all your
requires,

This account

is

usually called

"

Stock."

Then,

at the

time

you wish to close up your accounts to ascertain your profits and losses, you take another inventory, and give your departmental accounts credit for what property they have on hand, charging the general stock account for the same the
;

balance of this account

(i.

e.,

the difference between the

footing of the debit and credit columns) then shows

much more

or less property
business.

how you have on hand than when
exceeds the
if

you commenced
debit, of course

If the credit side
;

you have more property

and

the debit

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
exceeds the credit, of course you have less than
began.

235

when you
(all

Then

the balance of each departmental account
its

proper charges having been entered, and
erty on
lost.

share of prop-

hand credited) will show how much it has made or These balances are then usually carried to a general
"
;

" Profit and Loss account, called

those having a credit
is

balance are charged that amount, and Profit and Loss
credited
;

and those having a debit balance are credited that and Profit and Loss is charged for it. This being amount, done with the Departmental accounts and the General Stock
accounts, with the Cash accounts, and the Bills Payable and
Bills Receivable accounts,
also

charged for having been credited therefor

and Profit and Loss having been bad debts and the parties owing them
the balance of that account

shows the Profit and Loss of the business.
not credit the accounts of persons charge Profit arid Loss
Loss account, draw
for
;

Some parties do who owe bad debts, and
Profit

but, after

making up the

and

them there.

on a sheet of paper, and account Others open an account called " Suspense,"
it oft'

which they credit the amount of the several bad debts (specifying them in the Day-Book), and charge Profit and This method prevents the accounts of bad debtors Loss.
to

appearing closed on your Ledger. After you have made up your books as directed, it is best to make a balance sheet,

which

will

show

at a glance

money, what
this,

lost,

what departments have made who owes you, and who you owe. After

the several departments should be charged back again

236

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.

with the property with which they are to commence the next year's business, and the stock account credited therefor,

and you are ready

to begin again.

Trial balances of the Ledger should be made, say monthly. To make a trial balance, you foot up all the columns of
figures in your Ledger,

draw

off the debits

on one side of a

sheet and add

them

together,

and the

credits

on the other

side of the sheet

and add them together. If the footings of the debit and credit columns thus obtained are the same, or, in other words, balance, your Ledger balances and is all
right
;

but

if

they do not balance but
it

differ,

in error,

and you must go over

your Ledger is and find where the
,

mistake

is.

Of
unless

course there must be no entry
it is also

made

in

your Ledger,

made

in your

Day-Book.

The wording of
and express
all

the

Day-Book must be
book-keepers,

as simple as possible

the facts.

Some

when they

enter from the

Day-Book
of

into the Ledger, write in the Ledger between the date col-

umn and

the column of the

Day-Book page the name

the account in the Ledger which receives the corresponding

entry or entries
write thus
:

;

thus, in the entry

above given they would

Page
Dr.
1861.

5.

JOHN BROWN.

Or.

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
This

237
it

we

think of no advantage, and

increases

the

labor and trouble.

When you render a bill from the account,

you must necessarily turn to the Day-Book to ascertain the particulars, and the mere page of the Day-Book is sufficient
for
this

purpose.

The

less

accounts are complicated the
less

easier they are kept,

and the

liable are mistakes to

be

made.

No

erasures, scratching out, or interlineations should be

suffered.

If a
let it

wrong entry be made, or an entry made
be explained by a counter entry on the other or overscored in such a manner that

wrongly,

side of the account,

the mistake can be seen.

All erasures, blotting out, scratch-

ing, &c., tend to throw suspicion upon the honesty of the

account.

Books of " Original Entries " are only an aid of the memory, and he who keeps them should be able to swear
that the entries were

made on

the day they purport to have

been.

He may
was

not be able to recollect the various entries,

but

if it

his invariable

custom to make them on the day

of the transaction, they stand in place of his

memory

they

are not, however, evidence of the delivery of the goods.

form

of a Receipt in full.

NEW
in full of all accounts

YORK, July

1st,

1861.
dollars,

Received of Thomas Brown the sum of forty-four

up

to this date.

$44

00.

WILLIAM WILSON.

238

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
a Check.

Form of
$150
00.

NEW

YORK, July

1st,

1861.

Please pay William Wilson, or order, one hundred and fifty dollars, and charge to the account of

THOMAS ANDERSON.

To

the Southold Savings Bank.

Form

of a Due-Bill.

NEW
Due William
one hundred and
Wilson,
or.

YORK, July

1st,

1861. day,

order, on settlement

this

fifty dollars.

$150

00.

THOMAS ANDERSON.

Form of a Promissory Note.
YORK, July 1st, 1861. Four months afterdate I promise to pay William Wilson, or order, one hundred and fifty dollars value received.
;

NEW

$150

00.

THOMAS ANDERSON.

Another form.

NEW
On
$150
son, or order, one
00.

YORK, July

1st, 1.861.

the 1st day of April next, 1 promise to pay William Wil-

hundred and

fifty dollars

;

value received.

THOMAS ANDERSON.
a Promissory Note with Surety.

Form of

NEW
William Wilson, or
value received.
order, one

YORK, July

1st,

1861.

Sixty days after date, we, or either of us, promise to pay

hundred and

fifty dollars

\

$150

00.

THOMAS ANDERSON, (Principal.) JOHN JONES, (Surety.)

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.

239

Form of
$150
00.

a,

Draft or Bill of Exchange.

BUFFALO, July 1st, 1861. Ten days after sight, pay William Wilson, or order, one hundred and fifty dollars, value received, and charge the

same

to

account of
Yours, &c.,

THOMAS ANDERSON.

To William Allen,
NOTES.

New

York.

A

due-bill bears interest
it is

from

its

date

;

a prom-

issory note not until after
its face.

due, unless so expressed on

NEGOTIABILITY.
necessary to
bill

The words,

" or " or order," bearer," are

make

a check, a due-bill, a promissory note, a
;

of exchange, &c., negotiable
it

that

is,

to enable the

holder of

When

and pass it to another. the words " or bearer" are introduced, the instruto trade
to hand, like a bank-bill, but when the words " or order " are

ment may then pass from hand
without endorsement
used, the instrument
;

must be endorsed by the

original holder

of

it.

ENDORSEMENT.
across the

back of

Endorsing a note is writing your name it. Endorsements are of two kinds, an

endorsement in blank or general endorsement, and a special
endorsement.

An

endorsement in

Hank

is

the original holder's simply
it.

writing his
holders of

name
it

across the back of

The succeeding
it.

may

or

may

not, also, endorse

If each or

240

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
do, they also

any of them
payment.

become severally bound

for its

A special endorsement is made by writing across the back of
it,

before endorsing

of party to of
it

to

Pay to the order of [name which limits the payment passed]," that party, or his orders, and so forth.
it,

the words, "

whom

it is

AocEFrANCE.;

When
it

a draft or

bill

of exchange

is

made
is

upon a third party (as in the above form), the latter
in

not

any way bound by
it is

until

he accepts

it,

which he does

when

presented to
it

the face of

for acceptance, by writing across the word " accepted" with the date, and sign-

him

ing his

name
for its

thereunder.

He is then a party

to the bill,

and

bound

payment
Protest
is

at maturity.

PROTEST.

the notice required by law to be

given to the endorsers of promissory notes, and the makers

and endorsers of
is,

bills

of exchange, of their dishonor, that

of their non-acceptance or non-payment.
If the drawee, or person to

directed, refuses to accept

it

whom a bill of exchange is on presentation, notice must be

immediately given to the maker of it. If he accepts it, and afterwards fails to pay it at maturity, notice must immediately be given to the maker.
If the
turity,

maker of a promissory note fails to pay it at manotice must immediately be given to all the enis

dorsers.

A

check

a draft at sight, and

if

not paid, must be

protested.

KEEPING ACCOUNTS.
It
is

241

a general rule that

all

guarantors of commercial pa-

per must be immediately notified of its dishonor. It is, of course, not necessary to protest a due-bill, or a

promissory note, which
it

is still

held by the person to

whom

was

originally given.

When
sary to

a note a

make

made payable " on demand" it is necesdemand before it will bear interest or can be
is

sued

for.

U.
Interest
is

S.

BONDS.

calculated on U. S. bonds and on the public
is

debt at 365 days to the year, and

England
legal rate

interest is calculated in
is

due semi-annually. In the same way, and the

5 per cent.
is

meant the 6 per cent, gold-bearing bonds of the United States, which are to mature in 20 years,

By

Five-Twenties

but which the Government, by giving due notice, can pay in gold any time after five years from the date of issue.

The old
date

five-twenties
1,

were the

first

issued.

They bear
1,

May

1862, and are redeemable after

May

1867,

and payable
issued Nov.

May
1,

1,

1882.
1,

The new

"five-twenties" were
1,

1864, July

1865, and Nov.

1865.

By Ten-Forties is meant
which are
to

the 5 per cent, gold-bearing bonds

mature in 40 years, but which may be paid by the Government at any time after 10 years.

By

Seven-Thirties

is

meant a currency

loan,

which mafor the

tures in 3 years, at

which time they may be changed
it

five-twenty 7 per cent, bonds, bearing interest in gold.

The

name
cent.

is

derived from the rate of interest,

being 7.3 per

The "First series" bear date Aug. 15,1864. The " Second series " bear date June 15, 1865, and are convertiThe " Third series " bear date July 5, ble June 15, 1868.
1865.

On

this issue the

Government

reserves the right to

RELATIVE VALUE OF GOLD AND CUEEENCY.

243

pay the

interest at 6 per cent, in gold, instead of 7.30 per

cent, in currency.

meant the 6 per cent, goldbearing bonds which cannot be redeemed by Government,

By

Six per cents, of '81

is

except by purchase, until after maturity.

RELATIVE VALUE OF GOLD AND CURRENCY.
To
ascertain the value in gold of a

"

"

greenback

dollar
:

or National currency, at the different quotations of gold

Divide $1 by the quoted value of $1 in gold the result will be the value of a dollar in currency.

RULE.

;

EXAMPLE.
is

When

gold

is

33 per cent, premium what
?

the value of $1 in currency

$1.004-$1.33=.T522.

In the following table the decimals are carried to mills and tenths of a mill.
NOTE.

TABLE, showing the greenback value of $1 at the different
quotations of gold.
.01 pr. ct. prem. a greenback .99 dollar is worth
.
j

When

gold

is at

.02
.03

M
.05 .06

.07 .08
.09

.10
.11.

9803 9708 9615 9523 9433 9355 9259 9174 909
.9009

.12 pr. ct. prem. a greenback dollar is worth.. .8929 885 .13 8771 .14 8695 .15 862 .16 8564 .17 8474 .18 8403 .19 8333 .20 8264 .21 ... .8279 .22..

244

ENGLISH BONDS AND CONSOLS.
.37 pr. ct. prem. a greenback dollar is worth. .7308 .38 7246
.

.23 pr. ct. prem. a greenback dollar is worth .813
.

.24
.25

8064
80

.39

.26

.27 .28
.29

.30
.31

.32
.33

.34...
.35

7928 7874 7812 7751 7692 7633 7575 7522 7462 7409
.7353

.40
.41

.42 .43

.44
.45

.46...
.47 .48
.49

7194 7142 7092 7042 6993 6944 6896 6849 2162 6758 6716
.6666

.36..

.50..

NOTE.

The

highest quotation of gold at the

New York

A

Stock Exchange during the war was 285, July llth, 1864. Gold in Richdollar currency was then worth 35 cents.

mond, Ya., reached 4400, Feb. 4th, 1865. federate currency was worth .02J, cents.

A dollar in

Con-

ENGLISH BONDS AND CONSOLS.
Exchequer Bills are English bonds, similar to those of the U. S. The rates of interest vary from 5 to 3 per cent., and
while the Government pays the interest, quired to refund the principal.
7

it

cannot be

re-

*

Consols are several English securities consolidated by act
of Parliament.

The

rate of interest
is

The Stock Exchange
buying and

is 3 per cent. an association for the purpose of

selling stocks.

STOCK QUOTATIONS.

245

A

Broker

is

a person

who

executes orders for those

who

are not

members of the exchange.
"
stag,"
is

A Jobber deals in stock on his own account. A
or

"
outsider,"

a broker

who

is

not a

member

of the ex-

change. Bull

A
A

is

one

who buys

stock to be delivered to
it,

him

at a

future time, with the intention of selling
time, at a higher price before

in the

meanit.

he

is

obliged to receive

Bear

is

one

who

sells

stock that he does not own, to be

delivered at a future date, hoping in the " " it at a is
less price.

meantime

to

buy

A

lame duck
is

one

who

is

unable to

fulfil his

contracts,

and hence
"
is

expelled from the exchange.

"

Selling Short

applied to sales of stock which the

seller does

not own, deliverable at a future time, generally

not exceeding 60 days.

The

"bears

usually "sell short."

The buyer pays
''Seller's

interest for over 3 days.
seller the privilege of deliv-

Option" gives the

ering the stock at any time before the time specified for delivery.

gives the purchaser the privilege of Buyer's Option claiming the delivery of the stock at any time before the

"

"

time specified for delivery.

STOCK QUOTATIONS.
From N.
Sales.

Y.

Herald.

12000

Am.
S.

G
cou
'62

143^
112% 78
104><f
\
(

12000 U.

S. 6's. '81

10000 U.

5-20 Reg.

$12000 gold at 43)^ per cent, premium. S 6 P e ent C UP n b nds matUr" S 1 200 J ing 1881, at 12% per cent, premium. TJ. S. 5-20 Registered Bonds isued in 1862.
.

?^

"

'

'

246
40000 Tr'y. N. 7-30 3d s
100 N. Y. Cen. Ts, '65-'76

SUCCESS IN BUSINESS.
107 120
.... 101
..

Treasury notes at 7.3 per cent,

interest, sec-

ond

series.

100 Shares of

500 Hud. R. Ts 1st

M .......
S.

cent, 1876.

RR. 7 per bonds issued in 1865, and maturing in
Central

New York

200
100 100

"

"

2d M.
d's.
. .

F..

104

Hudson R. 7 per cent, first mortgage bonds. Hudson R. 7 per cent, second mortgage sinking fund. Erie RR. sold at 2 days' credit at 51 cents per dollar. Erie RR. to be delivered before 5 days without notice. Camden and Amboy 6 per cent, maturing in

K

RR. 2
"

%

b.

5 w. n
6's, '89

51

1000 C. and

Am.

1889.

100 Mich. 0.

6's, b.

15 and int .....
int.

107%

100 U. S. Tr. 7-30 1000 Erie pref.
s.,

F.

& A .....
88

w. n .............

100 Penn.

6's, int. off.

............. 104

500E.RR.b.o ..................
300

23

"

s.

o...

.31

Mich. Cent. RR. Stock to be delivered before 15 days with interest. U. S. Treasury notes 7.3 per cent, interest paid in February and August. Erie Preferred Stock without notice. Pennsylvania 6 per cent, stock, the last interest of which has been paid. Erie RR. stock, "Buyer's Option," when to for the stock. Erie RR. stock, " Seller's Option," when to deliver the stock.

SUCCESS IN BUSINESS.
SHORT CREDITS.
Short credit has
in business.
will

much

to

do with the amount of

profits

The

difference between long and short
table,

credits

be seen by the following
years.

showing the amount of

$100 in ten

Am't

at

Am't at

Am't

at

Am't

at

SUCCESS IN BUSINESS.

247
and long

small profits are
credits.
profits,

more

desirable than large profits

must be considered, however, before reducing whether the sales can be increased so as to compenIt

sate for the reduction of profits.

ECONOMY

IN EXPENSE.

a young man in business fails to succeed, owing want of economy in expense. All expense must le deducted from the profits. "Fortunes are spent by trifles."

Many

to a

"

A penny saved
2 cents per

is

worth two earned."
amount
"
to

day
"

5

in ten years will "

$100.85 at 252.14
1260.71

7 p. c.

compound
"
"

int.

"

25 50
100

"
"

" "

" " "

"

2521.42
5042.84
10085.68

"
"
"

"

"

"

" "

$2

"

"

MARKING GOODS.
It is

to denote the cost

customary among merchants to use a private mark and selling price of goods. Any word or
is

phrase containing ten different letters " White to as
represent figures,

selected,

and used

"

sugar,"

Misfortune," &c.,

thus:

white sugar 12345 67890
extra letter called a " repeater "
is

An

generally used to
;

prevent the repetition of a figure, as a?, y, or z, &c. thus 388 would be represented by igz, using z as a repeater, instead of igg.

The

object

is

to prevent a clue

being given to

248
the key-word.

SUCCESS IN BUSINESS.

Any mark

or character

resent a figure instead of a letter.

may be used to repFractions may be writ-

ten

thus,

473f:=m

;

or by an arbitrary mark, thus,

o

may
mark
thus,

represent f, then
is

473f=^'o.

Sometimes the

cost
;

written below a line, and the selling price above
4.62
3.24

tsh sell. pr.

iht cost.

AS

A.F3PL.IBID

THE OTIS PATENT LIGHTNING ROD, TO THE TT. STATE A
1ST.

M. WELLS,

Electrician, 112

Broadway, N. Y.

LIGHTOTNG-KODS.
The humid gases, generated by the heating and sweating of the hay, which immediately follows its accumulation in closely-packed masses, offers a strong attraction to electricity, just at

the time

when

it is

most abundant.

It is

an

object of peculiar importance to the farmer to guard his
buildings, at such times, with properly constructed light-

ning-rods
fire

;

from

this cause, as the

and they are a cheap mode of insurance against expense is trifling and the security
of the

great.

As an example
show
in the

more

elaborate style of rods,

we

accompanying cut the

manner

in

which

Otis'

Patent Lightning-Rods have been applied to the
State Arsenal.

New York

To

construct

a lightning-rod.
or square soft iron
;

Take round

f-

of an inch in diameter,
split-

in pieces of convenient length

connect the pieces by

ting one end and flattening and inserting the other, and fasten with a rivet or screw, so that the rod preserves its

uniform thickness throughout. Or, the pieces may be connected in a more perfect manner, although not often so convenient,

by having a male screw
is

cut* on

one end of the pieces

and a female screw on the other, and simply screwing them
together as the rod
raised; care being taken that the

252

LIGHTNING-RODS.

pieces are brought in contact at the outer edge, so as to

form a united surface.
corners with a single
tervals of

If a square rod

is

used, notch the

downward
inches.

stroke of a cold chisel, at in-

two or three

No

part of the rod should

be painted, as

its efficiency

would be greatly impaired.

Let

the upper extremity consist of one iinely drawn point of

copper or silver, or well gilded iron, to prevent rusting. Let the lower part of the rod, at the surface of the ground, terminate in two or three flattened divergent branches, leading several feet outwardly from the building, and buried at
a depth which reaches perpetual moisture, in a bed of charcoal.

Attach the rod to the building by clasps protruding three or four inches and containing glass rings or funnels

for the rod to pass through.

The rod must not touch
;

the

building nor the iron clasps, but only the glass
latter

because, the

being a non-conductor of electricity, in the event of

the rods being struck

by

lightning, the charge

is

conducted

harmlessly to the ground, having no point of contact with a conductor by which it might be led into the building. Upon

reaching the top of the building the rod should be conducted to the centre of the ridge, and the end should then be raised
to a height equal to one-half of the distance to the

end of

the ridge.

If the roof is irregular in height, of course judgin fixing the point

ment must be used

where the end of the

rod rises above the roof, bearing in mind this important consideration that the rod protects objects at twice the
distance of
lar to its
its

height above any point in a line perpendicu-

upper termination.

LIGHTNING-RODS.

253

surfaces.

The conducting power of bodies is in the ratio of their Hence a bundle of wires, ribbons, or tubes of metal, are more efficient than an equal quantity of solid,
The conductors
of electricity in the order of their

round, or square rods.

power

charare, copper, silver, gold, iron, tin, lead, zinc, platinum,
coal,

black lead, strong acids, soot and lampblack, metallic

ores, metallic oxides, dilute acids, saline solutions,
fluids, sea-water, fresh

animal

water,

ice,

living vegetables, living
gases, salts, rarified

animals, flame, smoke, vapor and humid air, dry earth and massive minerals.

The non-conductors
resins, sulphur,

in their order are, shellac, amber,

raw

silk,

wax, asphalt um, glass, all vitrified bodies, bleached silk, dyed silk, wool, hair, feathers, dry

paper, parchment and leather, baked
bles.

wood and dry

vegeta-

question of the utility of lightning-rods is not clearly decided ; and certainly very grave doubts exist as to the usefulness of the various complicated patent devices

The

which are

hawked about
testimonials.

the country, under the sanction of splendid

Dr. Franklin's theory was,
it

and he claimed

by having drawn the
not in
its

electricity

proved from a cloud harmlessly
but in the fact

to have

over his kite-string,
consists,

that the value of the lightning-rod

ability to receive shocks,

that

it

taps the surcharged clouds and conveys the electricity

quietly to the earth.

254
Based upon
this

LIGHTNING-KODS.
theory, there has recently been advanced
sensible.

an idea that seems

It

is

to substitute a piece of

galvanized telegraph wire for the kite-string, a pointed rod of iron at the top of the building for the kite, and another
rod driven into the ground for the key in Dr. Franklin's hand.

The

iron at the top should project five or six feet above
if

the roof, and

the ridge-pole

is

more than twenty
these, all to

feet

long, there should be

two or more of

be con-

nected with each other and with the rod in the ground by
simple wire.

This plan has the great merit of being cheap and within
the reach of
all
is

and, so far as anything
as

is

actually

known

of the subject,
sive ones.

good

as the

more elaborate and expen-

PEESSURE OF EARTH AGAINST WALLS.
To find the
pressure of the different kinds of earths,
it is

filling,

&c., against walls,

necessary

first to

ascertain the line or

angle of rupture, or natural slope, the earth would assume

but for the resistance of the wall.

This natural slope differs

with the different kinds of earths.
is

Assuming

that the earth

level with the top of the wall, the line of rupture for the
:

different kinds of earths, filling, &c., will be as follows

A bank of vegetable earth will rupture on the surface
of the wall.

at a

distance from the top of the wall of three-fifths the height

A

bank of sand

will rupture at two-thirds the height of

the wall.

A bank of
wall.

unhewn

stone, at one-seventh the height of the

A bank of rubble at two-fifths the height of the wall. A bank of brick, with a bank of vegetable earth behind
it,

will rupture at a distance of

about one-sixth the height
will rupture at a distance

of the wall.

A bank of
The

clay, well

rammed,

of three-sixteenths the height of the wall.
strongest horizontal stress against the wall
is

at half

the angle which the natural slope

makes with

it

;

hence

:

256

PRESSURE OF EARTH AGAINST WALLS.
greatest pressure for a

The

bank of vegetable earth

will be

at three-tenths the height of the wall

from the bottom.

For a bank of sand, at one-third the height of the wall. For a bank of rubble, at one-fifth the height of the wall.
For a bank of unhewn
of the wall.
stone, at one-fourteenth the height

For a bank of ~brick,

at one-twelfth the height of the wall.

For a bank of
the wall.

clay, at three-thirty-seconds the height of

Walls should therefore be

built proportionably strong to

these heights to sustain the different pressures.
is

If the

bank

liable to

be saturated with water the wall should be

doubled in strength.

FRACTIONS DECIMALS.

A
mals,

fraction

is

one or more parts of a unit, and
,

is

ex-

pressed by fractional characters, thus,
thus, .5, .25, .75.

J,

j-

;

or

by

deci-

When expressed
is

called the numerator, because

by fractional characters, the upper figure it numbers or gives value

to the fraction,

number
number

into

by showing how many parts of the whole which the unit is divided is taken and the
;

lower figure

is

called the denominator, because
is

it

names the
Thus, f

of parts into which the unit
is

divided.

means that the unit

divided into 8 parts, and that 3

out of the 8 are taken, &c.

"When expressed by a decimal, the decimal number shows
that so

many

parts of the unit are taken, the unit itself

being impliedly divided into as many parts as will correspond with the decimal number, and still retain its ratio to
it.

Thus,

.5

means

-f$,

.25
to

means T^, .125 means \\\, &c.
decimals.

To reduce fractions
as required.

Divide the numerator by the denominator, adding cyphers

EXAMPLE.
SOLUTION.

What

are the decimals of

J-,

f and
,

-5 ?

10^2=.5, 300-:-4=.75, 7000 -r- 8 =.875. Ans.

To add

decimals.

Add

as in

common

addition, setting the

whole numbers

258
or integers

FRACTIONS
directly under

DECIMALS.

each other from the decimal

point to the left,

and the decimals from the decimal point

to the right, as in the following

example

:

12.75 24.027
14.5

16.1278
67.4048

To

subtract decimals.

Set the whole numbers and decimals under each other, as
directed above, and proceed as in
in the following

common

subtraction, as

example

:

75.15 28.875

46.275

To multiply
and point

decimals.

Set the figures and multiply as in
off in the

common multiplication,
decimals as there are

product as

many

decimal places in the multiplier and multiplicand, as in the following example
:

23.25 22.15

11625 2325 4650 4650
514.9875

FRACTIONS

-DECIMALS.
and point

259

To

divide decimals.
division,
off to the right

Proceed as in common
in the quotient as

many
:

decimals as the decimal places in

the dividend exceed the decimal places in the divisor, as in

the following example

2.48] 129.952 [52.4

1240

595 496

Useful decimals.

A

FACTS ABOUT PRINTING AND BOOKMAKING.
The following are
the different styles

of type ordinarily

used in book-printing :
PICA.

Springs are weakened by use, but recover their
strength
if

laid by.

SMALL

PICA.

Metals have five degrees of lustre
glistening, glimmering,

splendent,

shining,

and

dull.

LONG PRIMER.
The hardness of metals
Silver, Gold, Tin, Lead.
is

as follows

:

Iron, Platinum, Copper,

BOURGEOIS.

A

fall

of 1-10 of an inch a mile will produce a current in rivers.

BREVIER.
Melted snow produces about 1-8 of
its

bulk of water.

MINION.
Silica is the basis of the mineral world,

and carbon of the organized.

NONPAREIL.
Sound passes
perature of 33.
in water at a velocity of 4708 feet per second,

and

in air 1100 feet, at a

tem-

AGATE.
At the depth, of 45 feet, the temperature
of the earth
is

uniform throughout the year.

PEARL.
The weight of a cubic
foot of air
is

527.04 grains, or

1

205 ounces, avoirdupoii.

NOTE.

Diamond

is

smaller than pearl

Emerald

still

smaller.

FACTS ABOUT PRINTING AND BOOK-MAKING.

261

do not apologize for giving the above and the few following facts about printing, because that art has become so
universally used

We

by

all classes

that

it is

of practical imporit.

tance to disseminate information in regard to

The specimens given above

are called

Roman

;

CAPIthis

TALS
style.

and SMALL CAPITALS belong legitimately with
Italics are cast to

accompany

it,

to give

emphasis to
Italic

certain parts of the matter being composed, or set up.
figures

and small

capitals of italic are not made.

Many
Church

other styles of type, such as Black Letter, Script,

Text, Clarendon, Title, Ionic, Full Face, &c., are cast, and
are ordinarily used to display certain lines in

Job Printing,

and are consequently called job type.
Printers generally charge for the setting of type, or, as

they technically term it, the composition of matter, by the number of ems it contains. An em is the square of the body of the type they measure the matter composed by
;

multiplying the

number of ems

or lines

it is

in length
is

by the

number of ems or
size in

lines it is in width.

Nonpareil
Pearl

half the

body of Pica, consequently 4 ems of Nonpareil equal

1 of Pica.

Agate

is

half Small Pica.

is

half

Long

Primer.

In

1 square inch there are

36 50
56

ems Pica.
"

" "
"

"

Small Pica.

"
"

" "
"
"

"
"

Long Primer.
Bourgeois.
Brevier.

"

" "

72J " 87
113}

"

"

Minion.

262

FACTS ABOUT FEINTING AND BOOK-MAKING.

In 1 square inch there are
"

144 ems Nonpareil.

"

"

200$
225

u "

Agate.
Pearl.

"

"
is

according to the type in the office where this book is printed ; different founders vary the sizes of type slightly, so that the above is not a perfectly accurate guide in measur-

That

ing the number of ems in a page or book
so

;

still it is

sufficiently

to give a very close approximation to

In using the above to contents of a page or book, be particular to calculate square
inches, not inches square.

would measure.

what any printer calculate in ems the

The price

of type-setting in

New

York
for

varies with the different printers.

Generally the price

book composition is from 80c. to $1.00 per 1000 ems. Much figure- work is charged extra, so also is an extra charge

made where a very narrow column
extra on account of
plain matter.
its

is set.

Pearl

is

charged
is

smallness.

The

price given

for

Presswortc

is

charged for by the token, which
Prices vary so

is

250 im-

per token, according to the quality of the work and the number of impressions, that it is next to impossible to give an idea of it
that will benefit the reader.

pressions of the press.

much

Plain book-work, in editions

of 1000 to 2000 copies,

is

charged usually at 50c. to $1.00

per token.

SIZES OF BOOKS.

The

various sizes of books were

named from

the

number

of folds that were

made

of a sheet of paper 19 inches by 24,

FACTS ABOUT PRINTING AND BOOK-MAKING.

^Ou

which, at the time the sizes of books acquired their names,

was the

largest sheet manufactured.

Thus, a sheet of that

size folded once,
folio
;

making 2 leaves or 4 pages, was called a

volume folded twice, making 4 leaves or 8 pages, was folded four times, making 8 leaves called a quarto volume
;

or 16 pages,

was

called an octavo

;

folded six times,

making

12 leaves or 24 pages, was called a duodecimo, &c. are written thus 2fo., 4to, 8vo, 16mo, &c.
:

They

Afterwards,

when

the sheets came to be manufactured

larger, books continued to be designated as above, but were distinguished from the above sizes by giving the new sheets names, and prefixing the name of the sheet to the above. " Thus, a sheet 22 inches by 28 was called Royal," and hence

books printed on royal octavo, &c.

it

were called royal

folio,

royal quarto,

TABLE, showing the number of lewes and pages from the
folding of a
Folds.

2fo

4to

8vo
12rno

4

248
sheet.
Leaves.
Pages.

1

2

4

8

16

16mo 18mo 24mo ^32mo
NOTE.

6 8 9

12 16

12 16 18 24 32

24 32 36 48 64

The

foldings, leaves,
as the above,

and pages

of the royal sheet,

&c., are the

same

but the sheet being larger of

course the leaves and pages are larger.

STEENGTH OF MATERIALS.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.

265

To find
RULE.
inches,

the tensile strength.

Multiply the area of the transverse section in
table,

by the weight given in the preceding
be the strength in
Ibs.

and the

product will

EXAMPLE.

What

is

the tensile strength of a seasoned
?

white oak scantling 2 inches by 3
SOLUTION.

2x3=6,
Ana.

area of transverse section,

x 13,600

= 81,600

Ibs.

EXAMPLE SECOND.
round poplar
SOLUTION.
of
circles),

What

is

the tensile strength of a
?

stick 3 inches in

diameter

7.068, area of circle (vide table of the areas
Ibs.

x 7,000=49,476

Ans.
strength of the best
?

EXAMPLE THIRD.

What is the tensile

bar iron, 2 inches broad by 1 inch thick
SOLUTION.

2x1=2,
Ans.

area of transverse section,

x 72,000

=144,000
NOTE.

Ibs.

The above

gives the

'maximum
But
is

tensile strength of

the materials, or the utmost strain they are capable of sustaining

when drawn

lengthwise.

it

is

to be borne in

mind
above.

that the practical value

about one-fourth of the

12

266

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.

268

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.

HEMPEN
Hempen
Diameter.

'CORDS.

cords

when

twisted will support the following
:

weights to the square inch of their section
Lbs.

Diameter.

Lbs.

to 1 inch 1 to 3 inches

.

.

.

8746 3 to 5 inches 6800 5 to 7 inches.
of

.

.

5345 4860

NOTE.

A

square inch
Ibs.

hemp

fibres will

support a

weight of 9200

The ma&imum
half this strain.

strength of a good

hemp

rope

is

6400

Ibs.

to the square inch.

Impractical value not more than one1,

and

its

Before breaking it stretches from % to diameter diminishes from ^ to ^-.
is

The

strength of manilla

about

that of

hemp.

White

ropes are ^

more durable.

LATERAL OR TRANSVERSE STRENGTH.
TABLE, showing
long
the transverse strength
:

of timber, 1 foot

and

1

inch square

Weight suspended from one end.

Materials.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.

269

TABLE, showing the transverse strength of iron square bar, 2 inches by 12 inches long : Weight suspended from
one end.
Material.

Cast iron

1

270

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.

NOTE.
its

When

the

beam

is

loaded uniformly throughout

length the result must be doubled.

When
RULE.

the bar or

beam

is fixed at both

ends and the weight

applied in the middle.

Multiply the value in the preceding table by six

times the breadth, and the square of the depth in inches,

and divide the product by the length

in feet.

"What weight will an ash beam 8 inches deep 10 broad and 10 feet long sustain in the middle, when by fixed at the ends ?

EXAMPLE.

SOLUTION.

2 77 x 60 x 8 =295680-^10=29568

Ibs.

An*.

EXAMPLE
square and

2d.

What weight
feet

will a cast iron bar 2 inches

4

long

support,
?

when

applied

in

the

middle, the ends being fixed
SOLUTION.

400 x

12, six times breadth,

x 2 8 =:19200-T-4=

4800

Ibs.

Ans.

NOTE.

When

the weight

is

equally distributed along

its

entire length, the above results

must be doubled.

is supported at both ends in the middle. weight applied

WJien the bar or beam

and

the

RULE.

Multiply the value in the preceding table by the

square of the depth, and four times the breadth in inches,

and divide the product by the length in

feet.

EXAMPLE.

What weight

will a white pine

beam

8 inches

broad by 6 deep and 6 feet long carry when applied in the middle, the ends being supported ?

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
SOLUTION.

271

64 x 6 x 32 =24576 -=-6 =4129 -fibs.
2d.

2

Ans.

EXAMPLE

What

weight will a cast iron bar 2 inches

square and 60 inches between the supports carry ?
SOLUTION.

400 x 2 a x 8=12800^-5

feet

=2560

Ibs.

Ans.

TABLE, showing the resistance of materials
Designation.

to crushing.

Crushing weight per square inch.
In lbs
.

WOODS.

In tons of 2 00

lbs

Ash
Birch,
(

Beech, well seasoned, " "
'edar,

Elder,

8,6*3 19,363 11,663 5,863 9.973
10.331
6

Elm, well seasoned,
Fir. (spruce,)

819

Mahogany,

Oak
Pine, pitch yellow, Poplar,
'

8.198 5,982 6.790

5445
5.124 12, 101 7,227 6,128 10.304 98,000
4' i.OOO

4.3 9.6 5.8 2.9 4.9 5.1 3.4 4.09 2.9 3.3 2.7 2.5
6.

Sycamore, highly seasoned, Walnut, Willow,
METALS.
Brass, yellow Iron, cast,

3.6 3.06

5.15
49. 20.
16.

" "

har
boilerplate MINERALS.

32,000

Brick,

"

common,
fire,

800
1,700 612

Brickwork,

Chalk
Granite

334
11,000

0.40 C.85 0.306 0.16 5.50

STRENGTH OF
Ice 2 inches thick will bear " 4 "

ICE.
foot.

men on

horseback.

272

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.

Ice 6 inches thick will bear cattle and teams with light
loads.

"

8 " 10

"

"
"

"

teams with heavy loads.

"

will sustain a pressure of 1000 Ibs. per

square foot.

This supposes the ice to be sound throughout thickness, without "snow-ice."

its

whole

WEIGHT OF SQUAEE EOLLED IKOK

From
Sine i inchei

-fa

inch

to

12 inches, and 1 foot in length.

274
EXAMPLE.

WEIGHT OF SQUARE ROLLED

IRON.

What

is

the weight of a bar of rolled iron 1 J

inches square and 12 inches long?

In column 1st find

1, and
4

opposite to
Ib.

it is

7.604 pounds,

which

is

7

Ibs.
is

and y^o ^ of a

If the lesser denominais

tion of ounces

required, the result

obtained as follows

:

Multiply the remainder by 16, pointing off the decimals as
in multiplication of decimals,

and the figures remaining on

the

left

of the point indicate the

number of
-

ounces.

Thus, ^V<r of a lb

=

-

16
9.664 ounces.

The weight,

then,

is

7

Ibs. O.y6

^ ^ ounces.
4

If the weight for less than a foot in length

was required,

the readiest operation

is this

:

EXAMPLE.

What

is

the weight of a bar 6J inches square

and 9f inches long ?
In column 5th, opposite to 6J,
is

132.040, which

is

the

weight for a foot in length.

6^x12
6. 3.

inches "
isj-

=132.040

=
of

66.020

" "
"

4
.J

6= is of 3= isof J=
is I-J

33.010
6.5016

2.7508
Pounds.

9-*

=108.-A^V

WEIGHT OF BOUND

MASONRY.

A perch of
wall,

stone

is

24.75 cubic feet

;

when

built in the
feet

22 cubic

feet

make

1 perch, 2| cubic
filling.

being

allowed for the mortar and

Three pecks of lime and four bushels of sand to a perch
of wall.

To find
RULE.

the

number of perches of

stone in walls.
feet,

in Multiply the length in feet by the height

and that by the thickness in feet, and divide the product by 22, and the quotient will be the number of perches of stone
in the wall.

MASONRY.

277

EXAMPLE.
wall
4:0

perches of stone contained in a feet long, 20 feet high, and 18 inches thick ?
40
feet, length,

How many

SOLUTION.

x 20

ft.,

height,

x

1

feet,

thick,=1200-r-22=:54.54 perches.

Ans.
of masonry, divide

NOTE.

To

find the

number of perches
by

the product, as above,

24.75, instead of 22.

Brick-work.

The dimensions of common

bricks are from 7f to 8 inches

long, by 41 wide, and 2J thick. long, by 4^- wide, and 2J thick.

Front bricks are 8 J inches
9& inches long, by 4f wide,

The usual
by 2|
thick.

size of fire bricks is

Twenty common

bricks to a cubic foot

common

bricks to a foot of 8-inch wall
the

when when laid.
in a wall.

laid

;

15

To find
RULE.

number of common

~bricks

Multiply the length of the wall in feet by the

height in feet,
again by 20,
in the wall.

and that by its thickness in feet, and that and the product will be the number of bricks

EXAMPLE.
long by 20

How many common
40
ft.,

bricks in a wall 40 feet
?

feet

high and 12 inches thick
length,

SOLUTION.

x 20

ft.,

height,

x

1

ft.,

thick,

x 20=16000.
NOTE.

Ans.
ins. thick,

For walls 8
feet,

multiply the length in feet
15,

by the height in

and that by

and the product will

be the number of bricks in the wall.

278

MASONRY.
the wall
is

When

or perforated by doors and windows,

of their cubic feet by severally and widths and thicknesses in feet multiplying their lengths the whole from the cubic contents together, and deducting

other openings, find the

sum

of the wall, including the openings, before multiplying by

20 or 15,
Laths.

as above.

Laths are 1J to 1
set

inches wide by 4 feet long, are usually

J inch apart, and a bundle contains 100.

THE MECHANICAL POWEKS.
The mechanical powers
wheel and the axle
is

are three in number,

namely
is

:

the LEVER, the INCLINED PLANE, and the PULLEY.
a revolving lever
is
;

The
a

the

wedge

double inclined plane, and the screw
plane.

a revolving inclined

THE LEVER.
To find
weight
the length

of the longest

arm of

the lever ; the

to be raised, the

power

to oe applied,

and

the length

of

the shortest

arm of

the lever "being given.
its

KULE.

Multiply the weight by

distance from the ful-

is

crum and divide the product by the power, and the quotient the distance from the fulcrum the power must be applied,
the longest

or,

arm of the

lever.

Given, a weight of 900 Ibs., distant 2 feet from the fulcrum, to be raised by a force or power of 75 Ibs. re-

EXAMPLE.

;

quired, the length of the longest

arm

of the lever.

SOLUTION.

900

Ibs.,

the weight, x 2 feet, distance from

fulcrum, =1800 -^75

Ibs.,

the power, =24
the shortest
to
"be

feet.

Ans.

To find
weight
to

the length
"be

of

arm of

the lever ; the

raised, the

power

applied^

and

the length

of

the longest

arm of

the lever being given.

280

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.

Multiply the power by its distance from the fulcrum, and divide the product by the weight, and the quotient is the distance the weight must be placed from the

RULE.

fulcrum, or, the shortest

arm of the

lever.

What distance must a weight of 800 Ibs. be from the fulcrum, to be raised by a power of 150 Ibs. placed placed 8 feet from the fulcrum ?
EXAMPLE.
SOLUTION.

150

Ibs.,

the power, x 96 inches,
-r-

its

distance

from the fulcrum, = 14400

800

Ibs.,

the weight,=18 inches.

Ans.

To find
distances

power required to raise a given weight / the of the weight and the power from the fulcrum
the

being given.

RULE.

Multiply the weight by

its

distance from the ful-

crum and divide the product by the
from the fulcrum.

distance of the

power

"What power will raise a weight of 600 20 inches from the fulcrum, applied 8 feet from the

EXAMPLE.

Ibs.

ful-

crum ?
600 Ibs., weight, x 20 inches, distance of weight from fulcrum, 12000-^-96 inches, distance of power from
SOLUTION. fulcrum, =125
Ibs.

Ans.
,

To find the weight at a given distance from the fulcrum, a given power at a given distance from the fulcrum will
raise.

RULE.

Multiply the power by

its

distance from the ful-

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.

281

crum and divide the product by the
from the fulcrum.

distance of the weight

What weight will a power of 250 Ibs. 10 from the fulcrum raise, the weight placed 20 inches from the fulcrum ?
EXAMPLE.
feet

SOLUTION.

250

Ibs.,

the power,

x 120

inches, its distance

from the fulcrum, 30000 -=-20 inches, distance of weight from fulcrum, =1500 Ibs. Ans.

The GENERAL RULE,
tion of

therefore, for ascertaining the relais
:

power

to weight in a lever,
its

the power applied,
is

multiplied

by

distance from the fulcrum,
its

equal to the

weight multiplied by

distance from the fulcrum.

The

pressure

upon the fulcrum equals the sum of the

weight and power.

NOTE.

It

must be remembered

that,

according to the
force are

foregoing rules

and examples, the weight and
to get at their practical value,

made
either

by the introduction of the lever
other.

to equal or balance each

Hence,

we must

shorten the short arm, or lengthen the long

arm

of the lever,

add to the power, or deduct from the weight, to such an extent as each may judge for himself expedient under the
circumstances.

282

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.

THE INCLINED PLANE.

To find

the power or force required to raise

a>

given weight
height.
is

up an

inclined plane of a given length

and

KULE.

As

the length of the plane

is

to its height, so

the weight to the power.

1500 Required the power necessary to raise Ibs. up an inclined plane 20 feet long and 8 feet high ? Ans. SOLUTION. As 20 8 :: 1500 600 Ibs.

EXAMPLE.

:

:

To find the height of an inclined plane wlien and base are given.
RULE.

its

length

of the length,
height.

Subtract the square of the base from the square and the square root of the remainder is the

EXAMPLE.
is

Given an inclined plane, the length of which
:

40

feet

and base 38

required,

its

height

?

SOLUTION.
base,

1600, square

of length,

1444,

square of

=

|/

156

= 12.49

feet.

Ans.

To find

the length

when

its ~base

and

height are given.

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.
RULE.

283

Add

the squares of the height and the base, and

the square root of their

sum

will be the length.

EXAMPLE.
base of which

What
is

is

the length of an inclined plane the
its

20 feet and

height 12

1

SOLUTION.

400, square of base,

+

144, square of height,

=

y 544

= 23.32 feet. Am.
base

To fond the
RULE.

when

the length

and

height are given.

Subtract the square of the height from the square of the length, and the square root of the remainder will be
the base.

EXAMPLE.
height
is

What
feet,

is

the base of an inclined plane, whose
?

10

and length 25
square
of

SOLUTION.

625,

length,

100,

square of

= y 525 = 22.91 feet. height,
raised by
its

Ans.

To find tJie pressure of a weight on an inclined plane when
equivalent power.

RULE.

As

the length

is

to the weight, so is the base to

the pressure.

EXAMPLE.

What
80

is

the pressure of 1000

Ibs.

on an

in?

clined plane, the length of

which
:

is

80 feet and the base 70
Ibs.,
::

SOLUTION.
:

feet, length,

1000

70

feet, base,

875

Ibs.

Ans.

NOTES.
allel

When

the line of direction of the power

is

par-

to

the plane,

the power

is

least

and the pressure

least.

284:

THE MECHANICAL POWEKS.
does not run parallel to the plane, draw

When the power

a line perpendicular to the direction of the power's action from the end of the base line (at the back of the plane), and
the intersection of this line on the length will determine the

length and height of the base.

THE WHEEL AND THE AXLE.
The power
to the

multiplied

by the radius of the wheel

is

equal

weight multiplied by the radius of the axle.
is

As
is

the radius of the wheel

to the radius of the axle, so

the effect to the power.

weight a given tractile force or power will move on a wheel and axle of given radii.
the

To find

KULE.

Multiply the

tractile or

drawing force by the

radius of the wheel, and divide the product

by the radius of

the axle.

EXAMPLE.

What
?

weight will a

tractile force of
:

250

Ibs.

draw on a wheel
axle

(or wheels) of a radius of 3 feet

radius of

4 inches

SOLUTION.

250

Ibs.,

tractile

force,

x 36

inches, radius

of wheel, = 9000-^-4 inches, radius of axle,

2250 Ibs. Ans.

To find

the tractile force

required

to

move a gi/ven weight

on a wheel and axle of given radii.

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.
RULE.

285

Multiply the weight by the radius of the axle and divide the product by the radius of the wheel.

EXAMPLE.
2000
Ibs.
?

Required, the tractile force necessary to draw
2-J-

on a wheel of

feet radius,

and axle of 3 inches

radius

SOLUTION.
axle,

2000

Ibs.,

weight, x

3

inches,

radius of

= 60004-30 inches,

radius of wheel,

= 200 Ibs.

Ans.

To find the radius required for a wheel to move a given weight by a given force on a given radius of axle.
RULE. Multiply the weight by the radius of the axle and divide the product by the force.

EXAMPLE.
of whose axle

What
is
?

radius

must a wheel have, the radius
Ibs.

4 inches, to move a weight of 1320

by a

force of 220 Ibs

SOLUTION.

1320

Ibs.,

weight, x 4 inches, radius of axle,

= 5280 -h220 Ibs.,
To find
weight
~by

tractile force,

=

24 inches.

Ans.

the radius of an axle required to move a given a given force, on a wheel of a given radius.

RULE.

Multiply the force by the radius of the wheel and

divide the product

by the weight.
of 1200
Ibs.
is

EXAMPLE.

A weight
?

to
:

be moved on a

wheel of 4 feet radius by a force of 150 Ibs.
the radius of the axle

What must be

SOLUTION.

150
Ibs.

Ibs., force,

x 48
Ans.

inches, radius of wheel,

=

7200-^-1200

=6

inches.

286

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.
It will

NOTE.

be observed

that, according to the

above

the power or rules, illustrated by the foregoing examples, force of traction and the weight or load are equivalents ;
that
is

to say, the one

is,

by the

interposition of the

wheel

and

axle,

made

to counterpoise the other.

To

find their
to

the weight, or add easy practical value, deduct J from

the tractile force.

THE WEDGE.

To jmd

the force necessary to separate two bodies
to the ~back

from

one another in a direction parallel

of

ike wedge.
its

KULE.
is

As

the length of the

wedge

is

to half

back, so

the resistance to the force.

EXAMPLE.
6 inches, and

The length
its

of the back of a double

wedge

is

length through the middle 12 inches.

Re-

a quired, the force necessary to separate a substance having
resistance of 200 Ibs.
?

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.
SOLUTION.
resistance,
:

287
: :

12 inches, length, 50 Ibs. Ans.
requisite force

:

3 inches, back,

200

Ibs.,

To find the
movable.

when only one of

the bodies is

RULE.

As

the length of the

wedge

is

to its back, so is

the resistance to the force.

EXAMPLE.
will raise a

What power

applied to the back of a wedge

weight of 20,000 Ibs.; the wedge being 6 inches and 100 long on its base ? deep
SOLUTION.

000

Ibs.,

100 inches, length, 6 inches, depth, 1200 Ibs. Ans. weight,
: :

::

20,-

NOTE.

The power

of the

wedge

increases as its length

increases, or as the thickness of its

back decreases.

288

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.

THE SCREW.

The screw is a revolving inclined plane, or an inclined plane wound round a cylinder. Hence, when its length and
its

pitch, or height, are

ascertained, the

same

rules that

govern the inclined plane apply to the screw.

To find
RULE.

the length

of the inclined plane of a screw.

Add

the square of the circumference of the screw

to the square of the pitch, or distance

between the threads, and take the square root of the same, which will be the

length of the plane.

The height

is

the distance between

the consecutive threads.

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.
EXAMPLE.

289

What
2

is

the length of the inclined plane of a
?

screw of 12 inches circumference and 1 inch pitch
SOLUTION.

12

+ 1 =145
2

and

^ 145 =12.04159

inches.

Ans.
be observed that the length of the plane as of only one turning given in the above example is the length of the screw, or the length of once round the circumference,
It will
is which, in ascertaining the power of a screw, is all that entire length of necessary to be known of the length. The

N OTE>

the plane and the entire height of the screw have nothing
to

do with

its

power.

A

single section, comprising one
is

revolution of the plane or the cylinder,

enough.

To find the power required to raise a given weight by means of a screw of given dimensions.
the length of the inclined plane is to the is the weight to the power. pitch, or height of it. so

KULE.

As

EXAMPLE.

What
15'

is

the power requisite to raise 9000

Ibs.
?

by a screw 15 inches circumference, and 1 J inches pitch
SOLUTION.

+ 1 =227

2

and 4/227^=15.62
:

inches,
:

length, then 15.62 inches, length, 864.27 Ibs. Ans. Ibs., weight,
:

1J-

inches, pitch,

:

9000

NOTE.

When

a wheel or capstan
is

is

applied to turn the

screw, the length of the lever

the radius of the circle
bar,

described

by the handle of the wheel or capstan
is is

and

half the diameter of the screw

the radius of the axle.

When

the screw

turned by a wheel, a crank, or capstan,
13

290
find the

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.

power of the wheel, crank, or capstan by means of " The Wheel and the the rules given under Axle," and dethe screw in raising the weight alone.
force required to raise the weight

duct the force thus acquired from the force necessary to drive The remainder is the

by the combined power

of the screw and

the lever.

THE PULLEY.

"When only one cord or rope

is

used.

To find
RULE.

the

force necessary

to raise

a given weight by
sheaves, &c.

means of a pulley of a given number of

Divide the weight to be raised by the number of parts of the rope engaged in supporting the lower or movable block.

THE MECHANICAL POWERS.
EXAMPLE.

291
Ibs.

What

is

the force required to raise 600
six

by means of a lower block containing
fastened to the upper block?

sheaves

:

rope

SOLUTION.

2 x
2d.
?

6=12
What

;

then, 600-7-12=50 Ibs.

Ans.
fastened to

EXAMPLE

force

when

the rope

is

the lower block

SOLUTION.

6x2 + 1=13;

then 600 -r 13=46.16

Ibs.

Ans.

than one rope is used. In a Spanish Burton, where there are two ropes, two movable pulleys, and one fixed and one stationary pulley, with the ends of one rope fastened to the support and upper movable pulley, and the. ends of oe other fastened
to the

When more

lower block and the power, the weight
as 5 to 1.

is

to

the

power

In one where the ends of one rope are fastened to the support and the power, and the ends of the other to the

lower and upper blocks, the weight

is

to the

power

as

4 to

1.

DEFINITIONS OF MATHEMATICAL FOEMS.
FlG
-

*

Parallel

Lines
;

are

C

D

equally distant

as,

AB

everywhere and C D.

An
tion
as,

Angle is the between two
E.

difference of direclines

which meet
of meeting

;

AD

The point
is

is

called the vertex of the angle,

and when

B

the angle

named

the letter at the
;

vertex

is

placed second
is

as,

C

D

E.

A

Right Angle

formed when a

V
FIG 4

straight line meeting another

makes

two equal angles

;

as,

A D C and C D B.
is

An An
D

Acute Angle
;

one

less
3.

than a

right angle

as,

EB

D, Fig.
*
is

Obtuse Angle
;

one greater
4.

A A
Fig.

than a right angle E, Fig. has two dimensions length and breadth. Surface
Triangle
5.
FIG 5
-

as, A D

is

a figure having three sides

;

as,

A B

C,

The Altitude

of a triangle

is

the per-

of the vertex from pendicular distance the line of the base as, B C is the
;

altitude of the triangle

ABC,

Fig.

5.

A Right- Angle Triangle
*
less,

is

a triangle having aright angle

;

As

the right angle contains 90, it follows that the acute angle contains and the obtuse angle more, than 90.

DEFINITIONS OF MATHEMATICAL FORMS.
as,

293
is

A C B, Fig. 5.
;

The side
as,

opposite the right angle

called

the hypothenuse

A B.

A Parallelogram is a four-sided figure whose opposite sides are parallel ;
as,

Fig.

6.
is

A

Rectangle

a

parallelogram
;

FtG

-

whose angles are right angles
Fig. 7.

as,

A

Square

is

a rectangle the sides of which
8.

FlG

.

s.

are equal.

A

Fig.
is

r~

B

A

~]
|Q

Trapezoid
its

a four-sided figure having but
;

two of

sides parallel

as,

A B C D,
is

jj

Fig.

9.

The Altitude of
the

a Parallelogram, a

FIG. 9.

Rectangle, a Square or a Trapezoid

A
c

^

B
~~7

perpendicular distance between

the base and the line of the parallel side

E

D

opposite the base

;

as,

E

F, Fig. 9.
line,

A
as,

Circle

is

a plane surface bounded by a

every point
;

of which

is

equally distant
Fig. 10.

from a point called the centre

AB

C D,

The Circumference of a circle is the line by which it is bounded as, A B C D, Fig. 10. The Diameter of a circle is a straight line
;

passing through the centre and terminating in the circumference E B, Fig. 10. ; as,

D

The Radius of a
the circumference
;

circle is the distance
as,

from the centre to

E

F.

294
FIG. 11.

DEFINITIONS OF MATHEMATICAL FORMS.

^

Solid has three dimensions
;

length,

breadth, and thickness

as, Fig. 11.

A Prism
FIG. 12.

is

a solid whose sides are paral-

lelograms, and whose ends are equal and
similar
;

as,

Fig. 12.

When
Fia. 13.

the ends of a prism are triangular,

it is

called a triangular prism / as, Fig. 12.

When
FIG. 14.

the ends of a prism are square,

it

is

called a square

prism ;

as,

Fig. 13.

When
FIG. 15.

the ends of a prism are hexagonal,,
;

it is

called a hexagonal prism

as,

Fig. 14.
it

When
is
FIG.
1(5.

the ends of a prism are circular,

called a cylinder ;* as, Fig. 15.

When

all

are square,
FIG. 17.

it is

the sides of a rectangular prism called a cube ; as, Fig. 16.

A Pyramid is a solid, the base of which is a
plane rectilinear figure, and having sides which are triangles whose vertices meet at a point at
the top called the vertex of the pyramid. Fig. IT.

The Altitude
FIG. IS.

of a pyramid or a cone

is

the

perpendicular distance from the vertex to the

plane of the base

;

as,

Fig. IT.
is
?,

A

Cone is a

solid,

the base of which

circle,

and which tapers uniformly
called a vertex.

to a point at the top

Fig. 18.

A cylinder is a regular polygon, or prism, with an infinite number of sides.

DEFHSnTIONS OF MATHEMATICAL FOKMS.

295
FIG. 19

A Frustum
(part that

of a pyramid or a cone

is

the

remains after cutting off the top by a plane parallel to the base. Fig. 19 represents the frustum of a pyramid.
Fig. 20 represents the frustum of a cone.
FIG. 20.

An Ellipse is a plane curve such that the
<of

sums

the distances of any points in the bounding

line from

two points within called the

foci are

.-always equal.

The

line

A B passing through the foci
major diameter
;

FIG. 81.

is

-called the

and the diameat its centre
is
FIG. 22.

ter perpendicular to

AB

called the

minor diameter.

A Sphere is a solid, bounded by a convex surevery point of which is equally distant from a point within called the centre as, Fig. 22.
face,
;

A Spheroid is a solid, generated by the
lution of an ellipse about one of
its

revo-

diameters.

If the ellipse revolves about

its

the spheroid is called prolate. nor diameter the spheroid is called

major diameter If about its mioblate.

Fig. 23 represents & prolate spheroid. Fig. 24 represents an oblate spheroid.

CIRCLES.
To find RULE 1.
the circumference

of a

circle.

Multiply the diameter by 3.1416, and the pro-

duct will be the circumference.

RULE

2.

Or, as 7

is

to

22 so

is

the diameter to the

cir-

cumference.

EXAMPLE.
diameter
is

What
25
?

is

the circumference of a circle whose

SOLUTION.
22:: 25
:

25x3.1416=78.54:. Ans.

By Rule

2.

7

:

78.5.

Ans.

To find the diameter of a circle. RULE 1. Divide the circumference by
quotient will be the diameter.

3.1416, and the-

RULE

2.

Or, as 22

is

to 7, so

is

the circumference to the

diameter.

EXAMPLE.
cumference
SOLUTION.
7:: 69.11
:

What
is

is
?

the diameter of a circle whose

cir-

69.11

69.11-7-3.1416=22. Ans.

By Rule

2.

22

:

22.

Ans.
of a
circle.

To find

the area

RULE

1.

Multiply the square of the diameter by .7854,

or the square of the circumference

by .07958, and the pro-

duct will be the area.

CIRCLES.

297

EULE
RULE
RULC

2.

Or, multiply half the circumference by half

the diameter.
3.

Or, as 14

is

to 11, so

is

the square of the diam-

eter to the area.
4.

Or, as 88

is

to 7, so

is

the square of the circum-

ference to the area.

To find
RULE.

the side

of an equal square containing

the

same

area as a given

circle.

Take the square
the solidity

root of the area,

which will be

the side of the equal square.

To find
RULE.

of a sphere.

Multiply the cube of the diameter by .5236, and
is

the product

the solidity.

EXPLANATION AND USE OF THE FOLLOWING TABLE.
In the
left

hand column

will be found the diameter of the
its

circle; in

the next column to the right will be found
;

corresponding circumference in the third to the right will be found the area, and in the right hand column will be

found the length of the side of an equal square containing
the same area.
*

the side of a square having the same area as a circle of 64J inches diameter ?
is

EXAMPLE.

What

in the left-hand column, and oppounder the heading " Side of Equal Square," will be found 57.101, the length of the side. Ana.
site
it

SOLUTION.

Find 64

to the right,

13*

298

CIRCLES.

CIRCLES.

299

300

CIRCLES.

CIRCLES.

301

302

CIRCLES.

SQUAKES, CUBES,

AND

KOOTS.

304

SQUARES, CUBES, ANt) ROOTS.

SQUARES, CUBES, AND ROOTS.

305

306

SQUARES, CUBES, AND KOOTS.

SQUABES, CUBES,

AND

BOOTS.

307

308

SQUARES, CUBES, AND ROOTS.

SQUARES, CUBES,

AND

BOOTS.

309

310

SQUARES, CUBES, AND ROOTS.

THE
The
soil is

SOIL.

made up

of decomposed rocks and decayed or

decaying organic matter.
ter is small

The proportion of organic matnot averaging in fertile soils more than five
soil is

per cent.

All of the rest of the

of a mineral origin,

and has

at

some period formed a part of the rocky crust of
and heat, and frost, and the friction water, and the movement of rocks

the earth.

By

the action of

air,

of running and falling and stones in moving water, these substances have been sufficiently pulverized to form the foundation material of our

present

soil.

During uncounted ages these processes have been going on, and they are still active; and, in addition to these,
the chemical changes which result from the exposure of pulverized mineral matter to the action of air and moisture,

and the successive growth and decay of plants, have operated, and are still operating, to ripen the soil to our uses.
In the early ages, when perhaps the composition of the

atmosphere was different from what
soil

it is

now

(and

when

the

was surely very

different),

only plants of a low order,
all.

such as are

now

extinct, could grow at

These absorbed

certain matters

from the atmosphere, and, on their decay,
soil,

gave them to the

thus helping to

fit it

for the

growth

312

THE

SOIL.

of a higher order of plants, which were in time succeeded

by

others,

and those by others,

until, finally, the

changes

effected in the soil

by the action of the chemical forces, and
it

by the deposit of vegetable matter, have enabled duce the vegetation required for the uses of man.
Classification

to pro-

of

soils.

Some now lie

soils

were formed mainly of the rocks on which they

as those of the granite region of

New

England

and these take
limestone
soil,

their

names from these
soil,

rocks, as granitic soil,

sandstone

&c.

Others have been formed by the deposit, by means of
great floods, or the gradual silting of rivers.

The

latter

of these (as the

flat
;

lands of the Mississippi Yalley) are

and the former (comprising those soils of varied composition in which occur clay, gravel, boulders,
called alluvial soils

&c.) are called diluvial

soils.

Another
following
1.
:

classification,

which

is

much more definite,

is

the

PURE CLAY
cent,

consists of about 60 per cent, of silica

and

40 per

of alumina and oxide of iron, usually chemi-

cally combined.
2.

STRONGEST CLAY SOIL

consists

of pure clay, mixed

with 5 to 15 per cent, of silicious sand.
3.

CLAY LOAM

consists of

pure clay, mixed with 15 to 30

per cent, of fine sand.
4.

LOAMY

SOIL deposits from 30 to 60 per cent, of sand.

THE
5.
6.

SOIL.

313

SANDY LOAM

deposits from 60 to 90 per cent, of sand.

SANDY SOIL

contains no

more than 10 per

cent, of

pure

clay.

To analyze

the above soils with

a view

to classifying them.

RULE. Weigh a portion of the soil and spread it thinly on writing paper, and dry it for an hour or two in an oven, the heat of which is not great enough to discolor the paper
the loss of weight
is

the quantity of water

it

contained.

Weigh and then

boil another equal portion,

and when

thoroughly incorporated with the water, pour it into a vessel, and allow the sandy parts to deposit until the fine clay is
also

beginning to

settle

sand, dry

as before,
it

then pour off the water, collect the and again weigh, which will give the
;

per cent, of sand

contained.

The above

classification

and analysis of

soils

have

refer-

ence only to the water, clay, and sand which they contain, while lime is also an important constituent, of which they
are rarely entirely destitute.
classification.
7.

This gives

rise to

a further

MARLY
5,

more than
8.

which the proportion of lime is and not over 20 per cent, of the whole weight.
SOIL
is

one

in

CALCAREOUS

SOIL, in

which the lime exceeds 20 per

cent.

To analyze marly and calcareous
their classification as above.

soils,

with a view

to

RULE.

Mix 100

grains of the dry soil with half a pint
14

314

THE

SOIL.

of water, and add half a wine-glassful of muriatic acid
stir it

;

thoroughly during the day, and

let it

stand and settle

over night.

Pour

off the clear liquid in the
stir

again

fill

the vessel with water and

morning, and thoroughly, and

when clear again pour it off; dry the soil and weigh it. The loss is the quantity of lime the soil contained. If it
exceeds 5
grs., class as

a marly soil ;

if

more than 20

grs.,

class as a calcareous soil.
9.

VEGETABLE MOULDS, which

are of various kinds, con-

taining from 15 to 60 or TO per cent, of organic matter.

To analyze

vegetable moulds, with

a view

to their classifi-

cation as above.
E-ULE.

Dry

the soil well in an oven, and weigh

it

;

then

heat

it

to a dull redness, over a
is

lamp or bright

fire,

until the

combustible matter

weigh

it,

burned away and evaporated. Again and the loss is the quantity of organic matter it

contained.

Besides the foregoing ingredients, every

soil

must contain

more

or less of all the elements which enter into the com-

position of vegetation.
to
its

They must
silex,

hold, in a form adapted

growth and support,

alumina, carbonate of lime,

sulphate of lime, potash, soda, magnesia, sulphur, phos-

phorus, oxide of iron, manganese, chlorine, and, probably, u iodine. They are called the inorganic or earthy parts of
soil,"

and constitute from one-half of one per
all

cent, to over
is

ten per cent, of

vegetables.

Their analysis

too

diffi-

THE
cult

SOIL.

315

and complicated

to

be attempted by any but a practical

agricultural chemist.

The value of
careful

soil analysis,

even

when made by
very

the most

and

skilful chemists, is practically
is

little.

The

quantity of matter which
plants
is

capable of affording food to

so very small, in proportion to the

whole bulk of

the
is

soil,

even in those of the most

fertile character, that it

questionable whether a sample to be analyzed could be so carefully prepared as to represent the average character of
field.

the whole

Then, again,

if

we were
until

to procure a cor-

rect analysis of a very fertile soil,
for a series

and then were
it

to crop

it

of years without manure

refused to pro-

duce paying crops, and were to have it analyzed again, it is not likely that the chemist would detect any change in its
composition.
Ibs.

In like manner,

if

we were

to

add to

it

500

to the acre of

bone

abundantly,

analysis

dust, enough to make it produce would fail to detect the small quantity

of phosphate of lime that

we had added

in the bones.

Another argument against the value of the analysis of the is found in the fact that the fersoil, and a very strong one,
of the soil depends less on the quantity of plant food The roots of plants that it contains than on its condition.
tility

cannot feed on the inside of a pebble they can only apply their pumps to its surface and take in so much of what is
;

there exposed as can be dissolved in the moisture which goes Neither can roots travel about in the to form their
sap.
soil
;

they grow into certain places, and there they remain.

316
If an inch

THE

SOIL.

away from them there is a mass of rich food, they cannot make use of it save by sending out new shoots to embrace it but must remain content with the poorer tract
in

which they

lie.

Consequently, the uniform distribution.
its solubility,

of the plant food,

and

its

exposure on the sur-

faces of the particles of the soil are quite as important as
its

quantity.

Chemical analysis teaches us none of those things at least it does not teach them so definitely as we would need
to

know them

to be able to

make any
must

its practical use of

assistance.

In addition

to these, fertile soils

also contain carbon,

which are called the organic oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen,
parts of

from their great preponderance in vegetables and animals, of which they constitute from 90 to over 99
soils,

per cent.

General results of analytical examinations of
1.

soils.

A due admixture of
of a
soil.

organic matter

is

favorable to the

fertility
2.

This organic matter

is

the more valuable in proportion
it

to the quantity of nitrogen
3.

holds in combination.

all those part of the soil must contain met with in the ash of the plant, and substances which are

The mineral

in such a state of chemical combination that the roots of

take plants can readily
tions.

them up

in the requisite propor-

THE

SOIL.

317

TABLE, showing the composition, in 1000 parts, of different kinds of soil.

318

THE

SOIL.

The above had remained

a long time in pasture, and the
its

second was remarkable for the fattening qualities of

grass

when

fed to cattle.

The

following are arable lands of great fertility
From
Soil

:

Ohio.
Subsoil.

Soil

from Moravia.

Soil.

from Belgium.

and Alumina
Silica

fine

Sand

Oxides of Iron Oxide of Manganese
Lime.

.77.209 8.514 6.592 1.520
0.927

87.143 5.666 2.220 0.360
0.564
0.312
.120 .025
)

94.261 1.376 2.336 1.200
0.243

64.517 4.810 8.316 0.800

Garb of
Lime.

9.403

Magnesia
Potash, chiefly combined with
Silica

1.160

0.310

10.361

Soda, ditto
.
.

0.140 0.640

0.240
j"

100
0.013
1.221

Phosphoric Acid, combined 0.651 with Lime and Ox. of Iron 0.011 Sulphuric Acid and Gypsum.
.

0.010 Chlorine in common Salt Carbonic Acid united to the

0.060 0.027 0.036 0.080 1.304 1.072
1.011

trace

0.034
trace

0.009 0.003

Lime

Humic Acid
Insoluble

Humus

0.978 0.540

0.447

Organic Substances containing 1.108 Nitrogen

"

Of

these

successively,

had been cropped without either manure or naked
soils,

the

first

for

160 years

fallow.

The

second was a virgin

soil,

and celebrated

for its fertility.

The
last

third

had been unmanured
it

for twelve years, during the

nine of which

potatoes,

had been cropped with beans, winter barley and red clover, clover, winter

barley,

barley,

wheat, oats,

naked fallow."
soil
its

Johnston,

Depth of
inches deep,
follows
:

importance.

If 50 be assumed as the value of a given soil
its

when it is six

value

when

of different depths will be as

THE
If

SOIL.
If 8 inches deep, " " 9 " " 10 " " 11 " u 12
it

319
is

4

3 inches deep, " " " " 5 " " fi " "
7

it
'

is

worth
" " " "

38 42

I

worth
" " " "

" "

"

46 50 54

" " " "

58 62 66 70

I

74

Hence each farmer may make an estimate

for himself,

with regard to every variety of his soil, whether the cost of increasing its depth will equal or exceed its value after the
task
is

performed.
is

This, of course, supposes that the soil

of the same quality

throughout
cal

its

whole depth, and
Thefll are

it

refers only to its

chemi-

composition.

other considerations

which

make
out
if

the depth of the soil more important even than the
If a soil
is

above table will indicate.
its

equally rich through-

whole depth,
;

it

would be of more than double value
and

of double depth

for its ability to withstand drought,

its

great capacity to absorb the water of heavy

rains (withirrespective

out being

made
soils

too wet)

would made
it

it better,

of the elements of fertility that
again,

some

might contain. Then which are of apparently no value may be

made

quite fertile

by being ploughed a

little

deeper than

has been done.

TABLE, showing the weight per cubic foot of the different kinds of earth.
Loose earth or sand
95
Ibs.

Common
Strong Chalk

soil

124
1

"

Clay Clay and stones
Brick..
.

soil

27
'

135 160 125

Ibs.

"

174

NOTE. 17 cubic

23 cubic feet of sand, 18 cubic feet of earth, or
feet of clay,

make

a ton.

Eighteen cubic feet of

320

EXHAUSTION OF

SOILS.

gravel or earth, before digging,

make 27

cubic feet

when
or-

dug.

As

a rough estimate,
soil

it

may

be stated that an acre of

dinary

weighs 100 tons for every inch of its depth.

EXHAUSTION OF
Each crop taken from a

SOILS.
the ex-

field exhausts the soil to

tent of the inorganic or earthy substances that are found in

the totality of the crop removed.

Unless, therefore, these

elements are returned to the
loses its fertility,

soil in

some shape

it

gradually

and

finally refuses to

produce altogether.

Hence the
soil,

necessity for manuring, irrigating, or resting the

that

it

may
it

again,

by accumulating these elements,
returning a crop in toto to the

re-

cover

its fertility.

By

soil,

by ploughing
with
it,

in or leaving it to decay

and mingle again

it

by the substances thus returned to

accumulates in mass and grows in fertility, not eleit, but by fertilizing

ments gathered in or combined from the atmosphere, by rains and dews descending on it, and by capillary attraction from
beneath.

the composition of the subtracted crops and the added manures, the farmer can keep a debit and credit

By knowing

account with his
to enable

fields,

which

will

be

sufficiently accurate

him always

to keep his land improving.

To enable
remove

him

to ascertain approximately
soil,

what

his various crops

from the

we

introduce the following tables, &c.

To

EXHAUSTION OF
ascertain

SOILS.

321

what

will replace this subtraction, let

him

consult

the section on manures.

TABLE, showing the organic substances removed from the soil in 1000 Ibs. each of the following crops when perfectly dry.
Carbon.
Ibs.

Hydrogen.
Ibs.

Oxygen.
Ibs.

Nitrogen.
Ibs.

Ash.
Ibs.

Hay ............................ Red Clover Hay .................
Potatoes ........................ Wheat-... ...................... Wheat straw .................... Oats ........................... Oat-straw.......................

458 474 440 461 484 507
501

50 50 58 58 53 64 54

387 378 447

434 389*
367 390

15 21 15 23

90 77

40
23 70

3* 22 4
Johnston.

40
51

NOTE.

Of

all the vegetable

productions which are gath-

ered as food for

man

or beast in their

dry

state

Carbon forms nearly one-half by weight. Oxygen rather more than one-third.

Hydrogen

little

more than

five per cent.

Nitrogen from 1 J- to 4 per cent. Earthy matter from 1 to 20 per

cent.

TABLE, showing the quantity of inorganic matter removed from the soil in 1000 Ibs. each of the following crops in
their ordinary state

of dryness.
Ibs.

"Wheat ................... about 20 Wheat-straw. ............. Barley ................... Barley-straw.............. Oats ...................... Oat-straw ................

Eye-straw
Indian Corn Indian Corn stalk, &c

322

EXHAUSTION OF

EXHAUSTION OF

SOILS.

323

inorganic substances should exist in the soil, but that they be also found in a form adapted to the wants of the growing crop.

ANALYSIS OF THE ASH OF THE HOP, showing the elements it removes from the soil.
In 100 parts there are of
Vine
Silica

& Blossom.
. .

Blossom.

Blossom.

13.24 Chloride of Sodium. 7.73 Potassium. 3.77 S-da 0.13 Potash 21.49 ..34.79 Lime...

21.05

4.09 4.63 Sulphuric Acid " ...... 6.34 Phosphoric 3.79 Phosphate of Iron

5.77 5.41

9.08 7.45
1.67

25.18 15.98

Chloride of Potassium.

Alumina

a trace

#21

EXHAUSTION OF
tables, extracted

SOILS.

The following
putations

from Waring's Elements

of Agriculture, will be found convenient for ordinary com:

Amount of Inorganic Matter removed from
bushels of grain, <&c.,
their production

the soil by ten

and by

the straw, <&c., required in
:

estimated- in pounds

EXHAUSTION OF

SOILS.

325

326

EXHAUSTION OF

SOILS.

MANURES,

In order to restore to the

soil

the matters which have been
its

taken from

it

by the removal of
to produce
to

produce, as well as to

add

to its

power

from growing poorer manures.
This term
is

make it richer, or to keep it we make use of what are known as
is

a very comprehensive one, and

taken to

mean
which

all

substances

whatever their character or origin
eifect of

will

have the

causing a larger growth of

vegetation.

Manures may be

either mechanical or chemical in their

328

MANURES.
of action, or they

mode

may

partake of both of these chais

racters.

For instance, barn-yard manure
in its effect.
its

both mechanical

and chemical

By

reason of

bulk and

its

coarseness

it

loosens the soil
;

it more porous when mixed with it when it is used as a top-dressing it shades the ground, and protects it in a measure against the effect of frost and of too great heat

and makes

;

being a very active absorbent of moisture,
effect of

it

modifies the

raises the

decomposition produces heat, and temperature of the soil. All of these are mechanical effects.

drought;

its

On

the other hand,

it

affords to the roots of plants sub-

stances which enter directly into their structures, as chemical
constituents
;

it

also yields various acids, alkalies,

and

salts

which enter into combination with the constituent parts of the soil, and in one way or another make them more
available as plant food.

These are chemical

effects.

The use of Manures.
In the use of manures the farmer should be guided not only by the effect that will be produced on the immediate
crop although this is, of course, the first consideration but quite as much by the condition in which the soil will be
left for

the production of future crops.
find that, while

Unless he does this
benefit,

he

may

he has

inflicted a lasting injury

he has reaped a temporary on his fields.

It will

be remembered that in our account of the

soil it

MANURES.

329
is

was shown that the amount of mineral plant food that
actually present in the soil
in an available form

limited.

is extremely In a state of nature, our fields would produce only such crops as could be fed by the small amount of this

plant food which

rendered available from year to year, and there would be no diminution of production. On the
is

contrary, the decay of the crop of one year

add to the supply available

for

would probably The removal the next year.
soil, is

of
is

the crop

lyy

man, not
its

the

production of a crop which on

decay returns

what impoverishes what makes the use of manure vitally necessary on all but
elements to the

virgin lands.

The The
land

larger the crop
fertility of

provided
is

it

decays on the land

the

more the

the soil

increased.
it is

larger the crop

provided

removed from
diminished.

the

the more the fertility of the
is

soil is

If the crop

made

larger

removed from the land, amount of mineral plant food
the

by the use of manure, and is the manure has caused a larger
to

be taken away.

But

if

manure

itself

contains the full equivalent of what enters

into the crop, and so

makes up

for its drain
If,

upon the

soil,

there will be no impoverishment.

on the other hand, the
of the ash-constituit

manure does not contain the equivalent
supply from the
the injury
is

ents of the crop, but has only stimulated
soil,

to take

an extra

obvious.

produce 10 bushels of wheat 25 bushels if dressed with 100 without manure will produce

In some

cases, a soil that will

330
Ibs.

MANURES.
of sulphate of ammonia.

The

extra 15 bushels con-

tain about 18 Ibs. of mineral matter more,

plied

by the manure, and
is

this

is

equal to

which was supone and a half

year's supply

for the natural crop of the land.

The
its

effect

of this sort of farming

that the soil

is

made

to produce

more than

it

can

afford to in

one year, and has

supply of
its

mineral plant food exhausted to the detriment of
productiveness.

future

Twenty

years ago, the wheat lands of Delaware, which

had been producing very small crops, were made, by the use of very small doses of Peruvian guano, to double, triple,
even quadruple their yield. The farmers were immensely elated. They had found a sort of philosopher's stone, and
a few years would

make

their fortune.

Alas for their hopes

a very few years demonstrated the fact that the guano had been a curse rather than a blessing. Their lands were poorer

were powerless
dard.

than ever, and even largely increased doses of the specific to bring them up even to their old stan-

Had
and
all

the wheat and straw been

consumed on the farm,
soil,

of their mineral constituents returned to the

the guano would have been a means of great permanent

improvement.
Or, had the same increase of production been effected by the use of a manure containing the full equivalent of what

the crop was to take from the

soil,

the impoverishment of

the land would have been prevented.

MANURES.

331

The foregoing is intended to convey the fundamental ideas which we should bear in mind in deciding what manures we
are to use,
establish
all cases,
1.

and

in

any

set

what quantity. It is quite impossible to of rules which shall be an exact guide for
:

but the following are always a safe guide
the

Apply in

manure

the full quantity

of

the different

ash ingredients of the crops that will be produced before

manure
2.

will be applied again.

Procure from abroad manure containing the full quantity of the different ash ingredients of all produce sold from the farm, mid allow none to he wasted at home.

A
good

close adherence to these

cultivation,

two rules, accompanied by and the draining of such land as needs
rich

draining, will

make any farmer

who

exercises ordi-

nary judgment and prudence in the management of his
affairs.

scientific accuracy, it is not necessary to return quite all that the take away. crops

To speak with
processes

The
still

by which
is

soils

were originally formed being

in operation, there

a constant fresh development of

plant-food in the ground, and this will, in greater or less
degree, compensate for the loss

by the removal of crops.

Practically, however, it is best to place this development of fresh matter to the account of improvement, and, by making up the full amount of all removals, to make sure

that the land

is

constantly growing better instead of worse.
forbids a

As want of space

more

full discussion

of the

332

MAOTRES.

established theories concerning the use of manure, the attention of the reader
is

called to the following

:

Classification

and

description of manures.
as are of

Manures naturally divide themselves into such mineral, of vegetable, and of animal origin.
Mineral manures are such
as

originate from
is

various

mineral substances, such as lime, which

the product of

limestone, marble, chalk, or marl, after the carbonic acid

has been expelled by an intense heat marls, which are composed of carbonate of lime, mixed with clay, sand, or loam; shell sand, calcareous sand, green sand marl, gyp;

sum, phosphate of lime, &c.
Vegetable

salt,

and

salts

of various kinds,

manures

are such

as are

produced from de-

composed vegetable matters, which
inorganic or mineral substances.

also contain

some of the

Animal manures consist

chiefly of the flesh, blood, bones,
solid

horns, and hair of sea and land animals, and of the and liquid excrements of land animals and birds,
tain

and

also con-

some

of the inorganic or mineral matters.

Analysis of Fish Guano.
Water expelled by 212 heat. Sand
Oil
.

8.06 0.33 2.40

Sulphate of Magnesia
"

Potash Soda

Organic Matter Super-Phosphate of Lime Sulphate of Lime, Hydrated.

.

.

50.72 9.85 19.62

Chloride of Sodium Sulphate of Ammonia.

0.71 2.05 2.42 1.12 2.72

Dr. Apjohn.

MANURES.
Analysis of Peruvian, Guano. In every 100 parts there are of
Organic Matter, containing Nitrogen, including Urate of Ammonia, and capable of affording from 8 to It per cent, of Ammonia, by slow change in the soil
J
>

333

50.
11
.

)

Water Phosphate of Lime

25
)
,

.

Ammonia, Phosphate of Magnesia, Phosphate of Ammonia and Oxalate of Ammonia, containing from 4 to 9 per cent, of Ammonia
Silicious

f 1
.

matter from the crops of birds Dr. Ure.

Another analysis.
Water
Organic Matter, containing Ammonia Common Salt and Sulphate of Soda Carbonate of Lime
13.09
53.1*7

Phosphate of Lime and Magnesia Silicious Matter or Sand

4.63 4.18 23.54 1.39
Johnston.

Professor S.

Johnson publishes the following table Analysis of Peruvian Guano.
L

W.

:

H

ILL
-

fv"
70

Water
Organic Matter

)

12 63 12
-

7

I f

f
.

66.3265.18
5.82
5-JJ5

52.2751.46
16>0 3 15.98

fi 68 on 00
'

fift

Ammonia,

potential...

17.8618.85

16.32

Phosphoric Acid soluble 4.69 3.64 in water T^l !Ill Phosphoric Acid insoluble 10.0510.50 in water Sand, &c., insoluble in acids 1.69 1.52 Phosphate of Lime, i 21 .28 equivalent to total Y Av.
1

2.45
.

2.<

31 69

Phosphoric Acid

.

)

Analysis of Bolivian Guano.
Water
Organic Matter containing Ammonia Common Salt and Sulphate of Soda Carbonate of Lime
6.91

55.52
6.31

3-87

Phosphate of Lime and Magnesia Silicious Matter or Sand

25.68
1.71

334
NOTE.
per cent,

MANURES.

The guano
less

of the Lobos Islands

is

from 25 to 33

valuable than the above.

How
1.

to select

a good

article

of guano.
is less

The

drier the better

there

water to pay for and

transport.
2.

The

lighter the color the better

it

is

the less com-

pletely dissolved.
3.

If

it

has not a strong ammoniacal smell,

give off such a smell

when

a spoonful of

it is

ought to mixed with a
it

spoonful of slaked lime in a wine-glass.

put into a tumbler with water and stirred well, and the water and fine matter poured off, it ought to leave but little sand or stones.
4.
5.

When

When
all

heated to redness over a
is

fire or

bright flame,

until the

animal matter

burned away, the ash should

nearly
6.

dissolve in dilute muriatic acid.
at the printed analysis

(which almost all dealers furnish), see that the per cent, of water is small that the organic matter containing ammonia approaches to
;

In looking

50 or 60 per cent. that the phosphates do not exceed 20 per cent., and the common salt and sulphate of soda do not ex;

ceed 5 or 6 per cent.

Johnston.

How
more

to

Apply Guano.

From 200
it

to

500

Ibs.

per acre

is

a proper dressing, the largest quantity being required for the
sterile soils.

Mix

thoroughly for a few days with

five times its

bulk of vegetable mould or loam and some

MANURES.

335

charcoal or gypsum, after breaking the lumps and sifting in
alternate layers.

Avoid the use of ashes or

lime, as they

tend to expel the ammonia. Keep it under cover, beyond It may then be the reach of water or rains, until used.
scattered broadcast

upon meadows or
in the
hill.

grain, or placed near

the seeds or

young plants

Analysis of lone (crushed) manure.
In 100 parts, there are of 3.75 Lime 55.5 Carbonate of Lime 3. Fluoride of Calcium 2. Phosphate of Magnesia 2.5 Gelatine (the substance of horn) 33.25 Soda and Common Salt.
.

TABLE, showing tJie comparative value of animal manures, with farm-yard manure as the standard.
100
125
73 91

Ibs.

farm-yard manure
excrements of the cow. horse.
cow.
horse.

is

equal to

Ibs. solid

16 98 54 36 64

liquid "

mixed

cow.
horse.

sheep.
pig.

3 Ibs. Dry Flesh. 5 Pigeon's Dung. 15 Liquid Blood. 4 Dry Blood. 3 Feathers. 3 Cow Hair. 3 Horn Shavings.

Dry Woollen Rags.
Johnston.

The most powerful substances in the above table, woollen rags, horn shavings, cow hair, feathers, &c., viz., dry hold little or no water, and contain the fertilizing elements
NOTE.
of the others in very compact forms.

They show

less

im-

mediate sensible
being so dry
continue to

effect upon the crop than the others, because, and compact, they are long decomposing, but evolve fertilizing matter long after the softer and

more

fluid

manures have spent

their force.

336

MANURES.

Decomposed vegetables as manure. The characteristic distinction between animal and vegetable manures lies in the fact of the former containing a

much

larger proportion of nitrogen than the latter.

There are two grounds upon which the relative values of different vegetable substances as manures may be estimated.
First) from the quantity

and kind of inorganic matter they

contain.
in each.

Second, from the proportion of nitrogen present

TABLE, showing the relative values of decomposed vegetables as manures, from the inorganic matter they contain.
Inorganic Matter.
Ibs.

Ibs.

1 ton

Wheat Straw made
Oat

into

manure returns

to the soil

70 to 360
.100 .100 .100 .100 .100 50 . .400 .370 .120 .180 .560
to 180

Hay
Pea Bean
"

to 200

to 120 to 110
to 130 to 100

Rye Dry Potato-tops Dry Turnip-tops Rape Cake
Malt Dust Dried Seaweed

Johnston.

TABLE, showing
100
130 150 180 85 45 50 80 75
Ibs.

the relative values

of decomposed
equal to
Fresh Seaweed
Dried
"

vegetables

as manures,
Ibs.

from

the nitrogen they contain.
is

of farm-yard
" "

manure

"Wheat Straw Manure. Oat
Barley B'kwh't

80 20 26
13
8

Manure.

Pea

Wheat

Chaff

Green Grass Potato Tops

250 180 25

Bran of Wheat or Corn Malt Dust Rape Cake Pine Sawdust

Oak
Coal Soot
Boussinga^dt.

MANURES.
NOTES.

337

The immediate

effect of vegetable

manures

in

hastening the growth of plants is measure, upon the quantity of nitrogen they contain, which
is

dependent, in a great

given off chiefly in the form of ammonia during their decay in the soil, and may be nearly exhausted in a single
season.

Their permanent

effect

and value

is

to

be estimated by

the quantity and quality of inorganic matter they contain,
or ash they leave
for several years.

when burned, and may not be exhausted

Besides inorganic matters and nitrogen, there are other
ingredients in vegetable manures which are necessary to the

sustenance and growth of plants.

Each of the elements present
is

in decayed or decaying plants
to,

capable either of ministering
still alive.

or preparing food for such

as are

All refuse vegetable or animal matter on a farm, such as
straw, leaves, vegetable tops, chips, sawdust, ashes,

dead

animals, bones, horns, hoofs, entrails, &c., &c., should be
carefully saved

and composted, or otherwise made into

manure

for the use of the farm.

Analysis of a manure heap in the condition usually applied
to the field.
Fresh.
j

Dried at 212.
,.

Water.. Organic Matter
Inorganic Salts

64.96 24.71 10.33

Carbon..

.

.

Hydrogen Oxygen
Nitrogen

37.40 5.27 25.52
1.76 30.05

Ashes (inorganic matter)
15

338
Inorganic matters.
Soluble in Muriatic Acid.

MANURES.

Soluble in Water.

Silica

Phosphate of Lime
" "

Magnesia, Iron

Carbonate of Lime.

.......

Magnesia

Sand Carbon Alkali and

27.01 7.11 2.26 4.68 9.34 1.63 30.99

Potash Soda

Lime Magnesia
Sulphuric Acid
Chlorine...
Silica
f

3.22 2.73 0.34 0.26 3.27 3.15 0.04
13.01 86.99

83
loss

3.14

86.99

Richardson.

100.00

Analysis of other specimens of fresh farm-yard manures.

MANURES.

339
66.17

Water
* Soluble organic matter Soluble inorganic matter (ash)
Soluble silica
(silicic

2 AS

acid)

Phosphate of lime

Lime
Magnesia Potash
Chloride of sodium Carbonic acid and loss

237 299 066 Oil 573 030 218
1.54

f Insoluble organic matter Insoluble inorganic matter (ash)
silica

25.76

Soluble Insoluble silica

silieic
{
(

acid

)
)

967 06!
.596

Oxide of

iron, alumina,

with phosphates.
.386)

(Containing phosphoric acid, .178)

(Equal to bone earth,

Lime
Magnesia
Potash

1.120

Soda
Sulphuric acid Carbonic acid and loss

143 099 019 061 484
4.05

100.00
*

Containing nitrogen

149
.181

Equal
f

to

ammonia
494

Containing nitrogen
in a free state

Equal to ammonia The whole manure contains ammonia
" "
"

-599
.034

in the form of salts

088

340

MANURES.
this analysis

According to

one ton (2000

Ibs.)

farm-yard

manure contains
Soluble silica
(silicic acid)

24

Ibs.

(actual or potential) Phosphate of lime

Ammonia
Lime

15f

"

13^ 23 TV

"
" "

Magnesia Potash Soda

3^
13J If
salt

" " "
" "

Common
Water

&
2J-

Sulphuric acid

Woody

fibre,

&c
of farm-yard

1323f 579

"

Of course no two samples
actly of the

manure

are ex-

same composition.

That analyzed by Dr.
care, as representing a

Yoelcker was selected with much
fair average.

GREEN SAND MARL (OF NEW JERSEY).
Protoxide of iron
15.5
6.9

Alumina Lime
Magnesia Potash
Soluble silica
Insoluble silica and sand

5.3

1.6

4.8

32.4
19.8
-6

Sulphuric acid

Phosphoric acid

Water
Carbonic acid,

8.0

&c

3.8

100.0

MANURES.
This
is

34:1

an average of three analyses copied from Prof. Geo. EL Cook's Eeport of the Geology of New Jersey. According to this estimate one ton (2000 Ibs.) of green
sand marl contains

Lime
Magnesia Potash
.

106 32 96

Ibs.

"

"

acid. 648 Ibs. 12 " acid Sulphuric " Phosphoric acid* ... 26

Soluble

silicic

give a better idea of the formation and composition " of stable manure, the following is copied from Waring's

To

" Elements of Agriculture

:

"DIGESTION AND
" Let us suppose that

ITS PRODUCTS.

we have

a full-grown ox, which

is

not increasing in any of his parts, but only consumes food to keep up his respiration, and to supply the natural wastes
of his body.

hay which contains organic matter, with and without nitrogen, and Now let us try soluble and insoluble earthy substances.
this

To

ox

we

will feed a ton of

to follow the food

through

its

changes in the animal, and

see

what becomes of

of food
stove,

it. Liebig compares the consumption animals to the imperfect burning of wood in a by

where a portion of the
(that
is
is, it

fuel is resolved into gases

and ashes
portion,

is

completely burned), and another
soot.

which

not thoroughly burned, passes off as
food

In the animal action in question, the
changes which are similar
part of the food
*
is

undergoes

to this

burning of wood.

A

digested and taken
to

up by the
Ibs.

blood,

Equal

phosphate of lime 56^

342

MANURES.

while another portion remains undigested, and passes the bowels as solid dung corresponding to the soot of combustion.

This part of the dung, then,

we
is

see

is

merely so

much

of the food as passes through the system without,
Its

being materially changed.
It contains organic

nature

easily understood.

and mineral matters in nearly the condition in which they existed in the hay. They have been
finer

rendered

and

softer,
is

but their chemical character

(their composition)

not materially altered.

The dung
which
intestines.

also contains small quantities of nitrogenous matter,

has leaked out, as

it

were, from the stomach and

The
three

digested food,

how ever, undergoes
r

further changes

which

affect its character,
i. e.,

and

it

escapes from the body in

ways

through the lungs and skin, through the
the bowels.
It will

bladder, and through

be recollected

from the

first

section of this book, p. 20, that the carbon in

the blood of animals unites with the oxygen of the air

drawn

into the lungs,

and

is

thrown

off in the breath as

carbonic acid.

The hydrogen and oxygen

unite to form

a part of the water which constitutes the moisture of the
breath.

" That portion of the atmospheric part of the hay which has been taken up by the blood of the ox, and which does

not contain nitrogen,

is

emitted through the lungs.

It con-

sists, as will be recollected, of carbon, hydrogen,

and oxy-

gen, and these assume, acid and water.

in respiration, the

form of carbonic

MANURES.
"

343

The atmospheric matter
it

of

the digested hay, in the

blood,

where

which does contain nitrogen, goes to the bladder, assumes the form of urea a constituent of urine

or liquid manure. "

We have now

disposed of the imperfectly digested food

(the dung), and of the atmospheric matter which was taken up by the blood. All that remains to be examined is the

earthy matter in the blood, which would have become ashes
if the

hay had been burned.

The

readily soluble part of

this earthy

matter passes into the bladder, and forms the

earthy parts of urine.

The more

insoluble part passes the

bowels, in connection with the dung. " If any of the food taken up by the blood
as above stated, it goes to

is

not returned

form
;

fat,

muscle, hair, bones, or
as

some other part of the animal and

he

is

not growing

(not increasing in weight), an equivalent

amount of the

body of the animal goes to the manure to take the place of
the part retained.* " now have our

We

subject in a form to be readily under-

stood.

We learn that when

food
is

not put out of existence, but

given to animals it is merely changed in form
is

and that in the impurities of the breath we have a Iarg6 portion of those parts of the food which plants obtain from
air

and from water

;

while the solid and liquid excrements
is

* This account of digestion
point of view, but
it is

not, perhaps, strictly accurate in a physiological

sufficiently so to give

an elementary understanding of

the character of excrement as manure.

344
contain
all

MANURES.
that

was taken by the plants from the

soil

and

from manures.
" The SOLID
food, the

DUNG

contains the undigested parts of the

more

insoluble parts of the ash,

and the

nitro-

genous matters which have escaped from
organs. " The

the digestive

LIQUID

MANURE

contains the nitrogenous parts of

soluble parts of the ash. the digested food, " The BREATH contains those parts of the fully digested

and the

food which contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but no
nitrogen, or at least a very inconsiderable quantity of it."

LIQUID MANURE.
no system of enriching the land for small gardens, with a view to perfection of crops, so truly economical and so easily available as that of using liquid
believe there
is

We

manure.

We

occasionally hear of a gardener, or an ama-

teur grower of some special plant or crop, that has practised

only occasionally yet the and a searching inquiry into any extra production of fruit, flower, or plant almost invariably gives watering with liquid manure as the cause.
it is
;

enriching with liquids, but
is

result of every record

in its favor,

There

is

in almost every family a waste of liquids,

which usuroad,

ally go into the sewer or drain, or possibly

upon the

where they are of no avail, but ed to a tank, would enrich the

if

saved by being conduct-

entire garden spot of vege-

MANURES.
tables, small fruits, furnish stimulus to the rose

345

and other

flower borders, and keep the grass-plot green and fresh even
in the hottest

and

driest

weather of midsummer.

The use

little plaster (gypsum) occasionally, thrown in and around the tank, would always keep it sweet and clean. By the use and practice of liquid manuring no delay need ever

of a

occur in planting-time because of the manure not being on hand, or not being in a sufficiently rotted condition ; but
planting could proceed, and the application of

manure be

made

at leisure.

Horticulturist.

Value of liquid manures. The urine voided from a cow during one year contains 900 Ibs. solid matter, and compared with Peruvian guano

$50 per ton is worth $20. It will manure 1J- acres of land, and is more valuable than its dung, in the ratio, by Dana. bulk, of 7 to 6, and in intrinsic value as 2 to 1.
at

The Urine
"
" " "

of the Cow contains of water " " u Horse " " "

94.

92.6 per cent. "
96.

Sheep

" " "

"
"

Hog Human
is

"
"

"
"

92.6

93.3

The remainder

composed of salts and rich food for vegetables.

Sprengel

Poudrette and Urate.
Poudrette
after
is

the

name given

to the

human excrement

being mixed with charcoal dust or charred peat, to

disinfect it of its effluvia,

and when dried becomes con-

venient for use or transportation.

Urate

is

the

name given

to urine after
15*

mixing with

it

-J

346
or

MANURES.
its

weight of ground gypsum, and allowing it to stand several days. The urine combines with a portion
of the ammonia, after which the liquid
the remainder dried.
Allen.
soil.
is

i of

poured

off

anH

Analysis of night

The excrement
Water Albumen
Bile.
.

of a healthy
733.
9.

man

yielded in 1000 parts
.

9.

Mucilage, fat, and animal matter Saline matters Undecomposed food

1 67.

12.

70.

Man's urine yielded
Water Urea
Uric acid Free acetic acid, lactate of ammonia, and animal matter

in

1000 parts
Phosphate of ammonia
"

933. 30.1
1.

1.6

soda
salt
)

Sal

ammoniac

Common
17.1

2.9 1.5 4.5
1.1
[

Mucus
"

of the bladder Sulphate of potash

Phosphate of lime and maguesia, with a trace of silica and fluoride of calcium

)

soda

1000.
Berzelius.

Urea
Carbon.
.

is

a solid product of urine, and gives in 100 parts
19.99 26.63
I

Hydrogen
Nitrogen
.

6.65
.
.
,

Oxygen

.

46 65
Prout.

I

THE DKY EARTH SYSTEM.
It has

way

to

problem to decide in what dispose of human excrement so as to make use of its
long been a
difficult

invaluable ingredients as manure, and, at the same time,
to avoid the often siveness

which attends
all

its

management
it is

in

China and Japan, and in
applied to the soil.

countries where

habitually

This problem has at

last

the invention of the Rev.
ton, Dorsetshire,

found a satisfactory solution in Henry Moule, Vicar of Fording-

England. is based on the power of common soil, when dried and sifted, to absorb, not only the moisture of
This invention

human

excrement, but

its

odor as well.

This power of absorbing odors is due to both the clay and the decomposed organic matter in the soil. It was
first

discovered, or at least

first satisfactorily

explained,

by

Royal Agricultural Society of whose interesting experiments on the subject are England,
detailed in the Society's Journal.
It is

Prof.

Way, chemist

to the

odd that

this easy

means of

arresting the offensive

exhalations of

human excrement was
have a practical

not long ago generally
of this use of

adopted.

We

illustration

earth in the case of animals of the feline race, whose dejections are extremely offensive.

They turn and
it is

carefully

cover these with earth.

In the adhesion of the world to
strange that

many

of"

the tenets of the Mosaic law,

we

have overlooked the sound advice given in the 12th and

348

MANURES

THE DRY EARTH SYSTEM.

13th verses of the xxiii. chap, of Dent., where we read, " Thou shalt have a place also without the camp whither

thou shalt go forth abroad and thou shalt have a paddle upon thy weapon and it shall be when thou shalt ease thy; ;

thou shalt dig therewith and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee."
self abroad,

Mr. Moule's invention

is

susceptible of many modifications.
devised,

The apparatus which he has

and which

is

coming

into quite general use in England, especially in detached

country houses and cottages, where there

is

no supply of

water for water-closets, consists of a hopper-shaped reservoir behind and above the ordinary water-closet seatf or holding
the supply of dry earth,
vessel or vault
for
this
; /

forms a back

;

a water-tight

under the seat

and a mechanical arrangement O

measuring out the proper quantity of earth (about a pint and a half) and throwing it forward upon the evacuation, which it entirely covers while it absorbs all the moisture.

This apparatus is simple, inexpensive, not liable to get out of order, and cannot be obstructed by frost.

A modification of the same,
equally effective, though much

still

more

simple, cheap, and

less

convenient, consists of a

tub or box
a

(filled

common

tin scoop

with dry earth) at the side of the seat, and with which to throw the earth upon the
is

deposit.

This plan

being generally adopted in the prisons

and workhouses of England and the British colonies. In fact, any vessel containing two inches or more of
sifted,

dry earth, and a second vessel containing a supply

MANURES

THE DRY EARTH SYSTEM.
it,

349
will

of earth and a scoop or cup with which to handle

answer a good purpose on emergency, and will enable the poorest person not merely to mitigate but to absolutely

overcome the most offensive accompaniment of sickness.* While this invention offers relief from untold misery and

annoyance to

all

who cannot

conveniently establish water-

closets in their houses, its agricultural

importance makes

it

especially interesting to farmers.
It is a fact too well

known

to

need discussion in our limat
all its

ited space, that of all

manures none are
growth of
its

once so powerful
" crops as night-

and

so well adapted to the

soil,"

or

human

excrement, though

highly offensive

character has generally prevented

use,

and has associated

with

an idea of degradation. In most parts of the country farm-hands would leave their places rather than to have anything to do with the stuff; and where it is commonly
it

used,

it is

By

made a nuisance to wide neighborhoods. the aid of the dry earth system every real and fanits

cied objection to earth and " soil,"

use

is

done away with.

The mixed

when

dried and pulverized, are absolutely

without other smell than that of freshly turned earth ; and, although every atom of fertilizing matter has been retained
in a

most available form, there
its

either appearance or odor,

nothing by w^hich, from character could be suspected.
is
is,

The most remarkable
*

part of the whole matter

that
a

For more particular information on

this subject, the reader is referred to

pamphlet entitled "Earth Closets, how to make and lished by the N. Y. Tribune Association.

how

to

use them," pub-

350

MANURES
the ordure
is

THE DRY EARTH SYSTEM.

when

mately mixed with the

once decomposed and (by sifting) intiearth, it has the same quality as any
i. e., it

other decomposed organic matter,
zer.

acts as a deodori-

Consequently, the same earth (by drying and sifting) be used over and over again, always (at least up to the may eighth or tenth time of using) being inodorous and as good
a disinfectant as fresh earth
;

therefore the quantity of earth

which
large,

it is

necessary to prepare and store need not be very
it

and

may be made
its effect

so rich as to be equal to Peru-

vian guano in

on vegetation.

In short, in the opinion of the writer, who has had per" sickness sonal experience in the use ot the apparatus, in

and in

health.'' the adoption of the dry earth system " the coming reform."
~by

is

TABLE, showing the comparative increase of corn
fertilizers.
~e

different

MANURES.

351

All tables showing the comparative effect of different

manures are of very problematical value. There are so many circumstances and conditions of soil, climate, exposure, moisture, previous
all

treatment of the land, &c., &c.
or less strongly, the
(in

of which affect,
that
it

more

amount of the
still

crop

is

never possible

the light of our

imperfect knowledge concerning the growth of plants, and

any increase or decrease may be due to the manure used, and how far to
their relations to the soil) to decide
far

how

other causes.

TABLE, showing the

upon the quantity of the crop ly equal quantities of different manures applied to the same soil) sown with an equal quantity of the same
effect produced

seed.
Manure
applied.

Return in bushels from each bushel of seed. Oats. Wheat. Rye. Barlej'.

Blood
Night-soil

14

16 13

12 14

14
13J 13
11
9

Sheep-dung Horse-dung Pigeon-dung

12
10

16 13

14
14

10
7

12
16 13
5

Cow-dung
Vegetable manure Without manure

11

9 6

3

'...

7 4

4

Moisture absorbed by different manures.

1000 parts horse-dung, dried in a temperature of 100
Fahrenheit, absorbed by exposure to the air at a temperature of 62 Fahrenheit, moisture, parts 145 u 1000 parts cow-dung, under same circumstances, 130

352

MANURES.
EXPLANATION.
In the
left

353
are placed the dis-

hand column

tances of the rows and the heaps in each

row

(i. e.,

the dis-

tances between the heaps in each direction), and at the top

of the columns will be noticed the
to be

number

of heaps intended

made

of each load; the point where the two meet
loads per acre

gives the

number of

which

will be required

for that purpose.

Required the number of loads necessary to manure an acre, dividing each load into six heaps, and pla-

EXAMPLE

1.

cing them 4^ yards apart
SOLUTION.

2

In the

left

hand column
it

find

of the heaps apart), and opposite
(the

to the right,

4| (the distance under 6

number of heaps

in each load), will be found 39f.

Ans.

EXAMPLE

2.

A

farmer has a

field

containing

5J- acres,

over which he wishes to spread 82 loads of manure.

Now,

82 divided by
to the table
it

15 loads per acre, and by referring 5J- gives will be seen that the desired object can be at-

tained

by making 4 heaps of each

yards apart, or by 9 heaps at

and placing them 9 6 yards apart, as may be
load,

thought most advisable.
NOTES.

A
Ibs.
;

cubic foot of
if

half- rotten stable

manure

will

weigh 56

coarse or dry, 48 Ibs.
first

load of manure is about 36 cubic feet, and of the quality will weigh 2016 Ibs. of the second, 1728 Ibs.
;

A

Eight loads of the

first

kind spread over an acre will give

354:

ARTIFICIAL MANURES.
Ibs. to

108

each square rod, and about 3

Ibs. to

each square

yard.

Five loads will give 63

Ibs. to

each square rod.
to the

To find
acre, foi*

the number of loads of manure required a given number of Ibs. per square foot.

KULE.

acre) by the

Multiply 43560 (the number of square feet in an number of Ibs. you wish to spread on each

square

foot,

tient will

and divide the product by 2016, and the quobe the number of loads required.
Required, the number of loads of manure to field, giving 2 Ibs. of manure to each square

EXAMPLE.
cover a 2-acre
foot?

SOLUTION.

43560 x 2 x 2

=

174240 -=-20 16

=

86.4 loads.

Ans.

ARTIFICIAL MANURES.
It is a self-evident truth that if

we

sell,

we must

buy, or

we must be

content to see our stock on hand reduced.

to the stock of mineral plant-food in the
all,

This principle applies nowhere else with more force than This is, after soil. " stock in trade " and wacarbonic our

ammonia,

acid,

ter

;

the sources of nearly ninety-nine-hundredths of our

can draw from the floating capital of the world, and, except in the case of ammonia, we need give ourselves
crops

we

but

little

trouble about them.
is

With

the mineral matters,
it is

however, the case

very different.

Some of them,

true,

ARTIFICIAL MANURES.
are so

355

abundant and so universally distributed that they do not demand much attention but some others, on the other
;

hand, have been distributed by nature with so sparing a hand, that our constant care should be given to keeping our

supply of them undiminished. They exist only in the soil the winds cannot waft them to us, nor do they come, as am;

monia

does, in every

summer shower.

They

are the hard

currency of our banking system, and our business will always

be limited by the amount we have in our vaults, and by the promptness with which we make good their loss when we

have put them in circulation.
This fact has created a demand for artificial manures* the theory of whose production is, that the phosphate of lime

which has found

its

way

into the bones of animals,

and ha&

thus become, for the moment, unavailable to the farmer,

be returned by some process which shall convert refuse bones into manure, or that it shall be replaced from some
shall

other source, as from the phosphatic guanos from which

superphosphate of lime is largely made; and that potash, lime, &c., shall be collected, in the form of ashes," <fec., <fec.,

and returned to the
If
all

soil.

manures that have been put into the market had been honestly made, the demand for them would
the
artificial

have been much greater even than

it

now

is.

But

the fact that their composition
careful chemical analysis,

can be ascertained

only by petent to make, has led to no end of fraud, and one never

which farmers are incom-

356

ARTIFICIAL MANURES.

knows, in purchasing a ton of superphosphate, poudrette, half a ton of guano, &c., whether he is or is not paying for
coal-ashes or other worthless dirt.

The consequence
little

of this

has been that

many

farmers have bought a

superphos-

phate as an experiment, have found no beneficial result from its use, and so have given it up as a bad job and pronounced
the whole system of artificial manuring a swindle. The example of each man has had its effect on his neighbors, and
there
is,

consequently, a wide-spread belief that

all artificial

manures are humbugs.

At

the same time, there are so

many who do

fully under-

stand the value of these

needs their aid,

fertilizers, and whose land absolutely that the manufacture and sale of such as

are of established good quality has reached enormous proportions.

On farms where large stocks
which are enriched by the

of cattle are fed, and for lands

raising of clover as a green crop,

the necessity for the use of foreign

manures
off,

is

much

less

than where the crops are mainly sold

and no recuperais

tive process (such as the use of green crops)

adopted.

There

is,

in all fertile lands, a large reserve stock of min-

not yet in a proper condition to be taken up by roots, and if the cropping is not too severe the produce being mainly consumed at home, and the maeral plant-food

which

is

nure economically used, or the frequent use of green crop

manuring being resorted

to

the gradual development, in

an available form, of these mineral matters will maintain

ARTIFICIAL MANURES.

357

the land in a fair state of

fertility for

a very long time, and
obvious than in other

here the use of mineral manures
cases. It is a fallacy,

is less

however, to suppose that these lands do not

need mineral manuring. By the system pursued, we are simply drawing on the capital stock, and, sooner or later, we

enough now, but at must pay the penalty some future day we or our successors of our improvidence by finding that the land will no longer
shall touch bottom.
It all looks fair

produce good crops without the use of more purchased manure than can profitably be applied to them.

The only
are in duty
to those

safe rule (the only honest course,

when we

con-

sider the fact that

we

are only life-tenants of our farms, and

bound

to leave them, unimpaired if not improved,

who

are to

come

after us)

is

to bring

back on to the

farm, every year, as

vegetable ashes as
milk, grain, or

much of the more valuable elements of we have sold off from it, whether in meat hay. In this way only can we be sure that
is

our land and our crops will each year improve.

The

great deficiency of our older soils

in the items of

phosphoric acid and potash. (Lime is more often needed as an agent for the development of matters already contained
in the soil

than as a direct food for plants.)
classed

While ammonia has been
elements of manure,
able that
it
is,

among

the non-essential
is

its

action as a stimulant

so remark-

commercially considered, the most valuable

of

all.

358
Professor S.

ARTIFICIAL MANURES.

W.

Johnson of the Sheffield Scientific School,
gives the

Yale College

the highest authority in America

Superphosphate of Lime that ever came under his examination
following as the analysis of the best
:

Analysis of Mapes^ Improved /Superphosphate of Lime.

Manufacture of 1852.

Water
Organic and volatile matter Sand and matters insoluble in acids
Soluble phosphoric acid " " Insoluble

,

4.54

22.96
1.48

10.65

10.17
2.78
. . .

Ammonia
Phosphate of lime equivalent to phosphoric acid.

45.11

The following

is also

from Johnson

:

Analysis of Cods Superphosphate. Manufacture of 1856. 38.02 Water, organic and volatile matters

Sand and matters

insoluble in acids

3.37 3.84

Soluble phosphoric acid " " Insoluble

17.84
3.04
.
.
.

Ammonia
Phosphate of lime, equivalent to phosphoric acid

46.47

Johnson

also gives the following analysis of bone-ash, or
:

the residue of burnt bones

Analysis of Deburg's Bone Meal.

Water
Organic and volatile matters, mostly charcoal Sand and insoluble matters ..

3.04

2.07

11.19

ARTIFICIAL MANURES.

359
42.17
35.42
1.23

Lime
Phosphoric Acid " Carbonic Magnesia and sulphuric
matters

acid, with undetermined

4.88

100.00

Also the following

:

Analysis of Bone Dust.

Water
Organic matter

.....
,

8.75

27.25
5.37

Sana
Earthy phosphates Carbonate of lime and
loss.
.

45.32
13.31

100.00

Ammonia.

.

2.98

Also the following

:

Analysis of Fisli Guano, or

the refuse

of Fish Oil Works.
9.67
67.78
2.05

Water
Organic (animal) matter

Sand

Lime
Soluble phosphoric acid
Insoluble
" "

3.76
3.38

81
8.36

Ammonia

yielded by animal matter

Purchasers of manures will find the following table

taken

360

ARTIFICIAL MANURES.

from Jndd's Agricultural Annual for 1868
as affording a

of great value,

good

general guide in determining the value
:

of manure by the use of an analysis

PRICES OF STANDARD FERTILIZERS, AND A STANDARD FOR
PRICES.

The
the

prices of

some of the standard

fertilizers offered in

New York

market simply

as such, in

December, 1867,

f

are as follows:
Peruvian Guano, in quantities of 50 tons, per long ton, (gold) $60.00 in smaller quantities the price varies with the premido do um on gold; with gold at 35 per cent, prem., per 2000 Ibs 85.00
Baker's or Jarvis' Island Guano
fic

a phosphatic Guano from the S. PaciOcean, which should contain equivalent to 60 to 70 per cent, of bone phosphate of lime, per 2000 Ibs Superphosphate of lime, per 2000 Ibs
bbls.,

45.00
55.00

Bone, fine ground, in 250 Ib. Flour of bone, per 2000 Ibs

per 2000 Ibs

45.00
60.00

Fine floated bone, per 2000 Ibs Fish manure, dry and finely ground, per 2000 Ibs do unground, per 2000 Ibs

65.00

45.00
30.00
. .

Gypsum
do

or plaster, sold in quantities of 7 bbls., per bbl. (250 Ibs).

1.75

Shell lime, in bulk, per bushel

10
1.50
2fc.

per bbl Sulphuric acid of 66 degrees, (oil of vitriol) per Ib do do of 60 degrees, (pan acid)

2Jc.

Carboys containing about 150 Ibs. of each, and may be returned when empty.

this

acid cost $3

by John B. Laws, of Rothampstead, England. The money values of the manure based on resulting from feeding the several substances are

The

following table was prepared

AETIFICIAL MANURES.

361

the English (gold) prices of

manure

;

they would be consi-

derably higher here, but this does not affect their relative
value.

Average Composition, per

cent,

and per

ton,
<&c.

of various

kinds of Agricultural Produce,

TILE DRAINING.
I have preferred to head this article as I have, rather than " " I to say simply draining or "under-draining," because

believe in the use of
is

tiles

under

all

circumstances

when

it

possible to procure them,
is

and because the making of stone

drains
that
is

understood by every farmer

who

lives in a region

blessed with wet land and stone.

At
tile

the same time, I would not be thought to undervalue

the usefulness of stone drains.

Neither the stone nor the

has any influence, in

itself,

on the

fertility

of the

soil.

Any

material by the use of which
the soil will
tlie

we can make

a passage-

way through
long as
it

make

a perfectly good drain, as

keeps

passage open.

The

question

is

to be decided simply
;

of cost and durability

by the consideration and here the tiles have an immense

advantage.

In the

first

place, they are very

much

cheaper than stone
is

;

and

in the second, the drain

which they make

very

much
is

more

likely to be permanent.

It will, I

am

aware, strike

many

farmers whose land

encumbered with

stones, as a singular proposition that

it is

cheaper to pay twenty-five or thirty dollars per acre for tiles, when there are stones on the place that it would be an ad-

vantage to get rid

of,

But

it is

a fact, nevertheless.

The

TILE DRAINING.
cost of collecting the stones, of breaking (or selecting
to a

363

proper

size,

of laying

them

in the drain,

them) and of pro-

tecting

them from the

rattling

down

of loose dirt

among

them, and from the burrowing down of field-mice, is very great, and in addition to this we have to calculate the cost
of digging the very
their use.

much wider

ditch that

is

required for

To

drain land in the best

manner

there are required about
fifty

sixty rods of drain four feet deep, and

cents a rod for
tile

the above items (which

is

the utmost that

should cost)

calculate the labor of teams

would not pay one-half of the actual cost of stones, if we and men at anything approaching their
full value.

As

to durability.

A tile drain, when properly laid,

is

pack-

ed closely in the most compact subsoil within our reach, has its joints (which are very close) encased in an earthen collar,
is

closed at

its

upper end by a

flat

stone against the
dirt

tile,

and

its
it

by a grating. and no vermin can use it up,
outlet secured

No
for a

can get in to stop

camping ground.

The

only thing (except in rare instances the roots of trees) that can enter it at all is the water that it is intended to carry

away.

Of
to

course I speak of a
is

tile

drain that

is

made
It
is

of good

materials and

made

in a proper

manner.

very easy
tiles,

make

a drain that will not be worth the cost of the
;

not worth anything

and many such drains are made by
who, seeing their uselessness,

careless or ignorant people,

364

TILE DRAINING.

are loud in the praise of stone drains, and never

want

to see

another draining

tile

so long as they live.

A
let, is

good

tile-drain,

made

of good clay and well burnt,

properly laid on a uniform descent,
practically as

and having a good
which

outit is

permanent

as the earth in

imbedded.

now, how to make such a drain. It would take much more than the few pages that can be here devoted to
the subject to
is
tell.

And

All that

my

space will allow

me

to

do

to give a

fice

few general rules and directions, which will sufto enable a farmer to understandingly decide for himself
his drains of stones or of tiles
;

whether he will make

and a

few arguments which may convince him that he cannot afford to let his wet land go undrained.

The draining
"

tile is

made

in several forms,

known
The
in

as the

round," the

"

" horse-shoe." sole," and the
first
it

last

men-

tioned represents the

step that

was taken

advance of

the use of stones, and
ferior article

has long been condemned as an in-

by

all

the other kinds.
fice,

who have had experience in the use of The sole-tile, which has an egg-shaped orilie

and has a
is

good, and
side
is

upon, is theoretically very The flat really very good, only not the best. a delusion, for the reason that it generally is not flat,

flat side to

being very liable to be warped out of shape in the burning, while the uneven drying of the clay before it is burnt, or
the friction of the die through which apt to so distort its shape as to
it is

moulded,
to

is

very

make

it difficult

make a

good

joint.

TILE DRAINING.

365
better, is practically

The round
perfect.

tile, if

well made,

is

much

A tile does not need
is

aflat side to lie upon, for in nine
is

cases out of ten the
as

bottom of the ditch
its place,

not flat, and as soon
it is

each piece

put in

and while
it

the tile-layer, a second
firmly.

man

covers

held there by sufficiently to hold it
fit

The

smaller sizes have collars or rings to

them,

and these keep the joints " in line " and prevent loose dirt from rattling into the wider openings. Another great advantage of the round
as

they don't fit each other can be turned over until the they they slight inequalities of the two ends will correspond.
tiles is that, if

are

first laid,

All of the larger tile makers now make the round tiles, and most of them make them very well. machine inCrosmann Clay and Manufacvented by Mr. Tiffany (of the

A

Company, "Woodbridge, New Jersey) moulds the tiles more smoothly, and presses them harder, than any other yet
turing

brought into use. Mr. C. W. Boynton, of "Woodbridge, however, seems to have brought more real talent to the

manufacture of

tiles

than any one else

who

has

under-

taken the business, and his pipes are probably the best now made, inasmuch as they are two feet long twice the usual

and are supplied with connecting pieces for admitting lateral drains into the main trunk lines. Heretofore it
length

has been the custom to pick a hole in the side of the

tile

of

the main drain, and to bring the end of the lateral against
it,

closing the irregular openings
tile

of broken

or small stones

;

by covering them with bits and it was nice work to

366

TILE DRAINING.

avoid breaking the pipe, and at the same time to

make the

joint so accurately as to neither retard the flow nor to admit

earth from the

filling.

Boynton's pipes, which are shown in the accompanying cuts, have a branch piece nicely fitted to the side of the

form a part of the main, the branch forming a part of the lateral. On the end of this branch a collar may be placed to receive the end of the lateral, making as
pipe that
is

to

good a joint at the junction
drain.

as at

any other part of the

Before this improvement was made, it was often necessary, where a tile came into the main, to make a silt-basin
to catch

any

silt

that might be deposited

by the more
its

slugsilt-

gish flow of the water at that point. basins

By

aid these

may

be, in nearly all cases, dispensed with, as the
its

lateral enters in an oblique direction, and the velocity of

flow will be imparted to that of the main.

FIG.

1.

FIG.

2.

FIG. 3.

Fig. 1 shows the

round
;

tile

;

Fig. 2, the collar

;

Fig. 3, the

manner of laying

these

Fig. 4, the connecting joint of the

TILE DRAINING.

367
;

main with a branch

to receive the lateral

and Fig. 5 the

FIG.

4.

manner

of laying the tiles at the junction of a lateral drain

with the main.

FIG.

5.

Rules
1.

to

~be

observed in mciking Tile

Drains :

Every drain (unless there is some special reason to the contrary) should run directly down the steepest descent of the land
2.

not obliquely, but straight
possible, the

down

the

hill.

Wherever

drains should be four feet
is

deep, especially
3.

when the

subsoil

a

stiff

clay hard-pan.

When

the drains are four feet deep, they should be
If only three feet deep, they should be
;

forty feet apart.

only twenty feet apart and if more than four feet, they may safely be placed at greater distances than forty feet.

368
4.

TILE DRAINING.

The
as

rate of fall or inclination of a drain should not deit

crease as

approaches the
convenient.
faster,

outlet.

It
is.

may be

increased as

much

is

ning faster and

keep the water runrather than slower and slower, as it
rule
to

The

gets on in the drain.
5. it

The

outlet should always be clear

and

free

never, if

can possibly be avoided, so arranged as to be obstructed by mud or dead water.
6. The tiles should have no porous material of any kind over them, but should be imbedded (and firmly packed) in

the closest clay that
7.

is accessible.

In digging the ditch, always commence at the lower end and work toward the top in laying the tiles, commence
;

at the
8.

upper end, and continue toward the Never have tiles laid by the piece

outlet. (or rod),

but

al-

ways by the day, and by the most faithful and careful man that can be found if possible, do it yourself, and remem;

ber that the golden rule of draining link of a chain is the measure of

is

that, as the weakest

its

strength, so is the

worst laid

tile

of a drain

the

measure of its goodness.*
it

If the drains are laid at distances of forty feet
just about one thousand feet of
tiles to
it

will take

drain an acre.

As

to the sizes of tiles required,
fall is

will

make
to

a difference
all

whether the

rapid or slight

;

but under

ordinary
of,

circumstances, where there are no springs

be disposed

only the natural drainage of the land itself
*

(its

accumulated

Talpa, or the Chronicles of a Clay Farm.

TILE DRAINING.
rain-fall),

369

the

first

drain or several laterals,
tiles

1500 feet in length, whether it be a single may be made of the smallest sized
this

(1

inch).

Beyond

amount and up

to

5000

feet,

2-inch
incli,

tiles will suffice.

From 5000

to 10,000 feet use 3-

and from 10,000 to 20,000
sizes

feet use 4r-inch.

These
of
all

would not

suffice for the

immediate removal
it is

the water of a very heavy rain-fall, but

to be reit

membered
filter

that before the water can get to the tiles
soil,

must

slowly through four feet of
it

and could reach the

drain but slowly, were

ever so large.

Then

again,

it

is

not important that the water of a heavy rain be removed within an hour of its falling it does no harm to have it
;

away, and does not stand to be evaporated from the surface, nor to flow off over it and it is desirable that the drains should
settle

slowly away, so long as

it

really does settle

;

occasionally run "more than

full," so that

a strong flow of

water

may wash

out any obstructions that

may have

accu-

mulated in them.

The question should not
necessary
to

be so

carry the water, as

water (after Jieavy rains) he able

muck how large a tile is how large a tile will the to flush and keep clean.

In the foregoing. I have simply stated rules and principles

which have been proven by long experience to be correct. The evidences of their truth and reliability, and the arguments on which they are founded, could not be set forth in the limited space which has been allowed for the subject in
this book.

The

object here

is

to set forth rules

and

to give

16*

370

TILE DRAINING.

FIG.

6.

Tools used in laying drain

tile.

TILE DRAINING.
directions.
will

371

Those who are desirous of investigating reasons find them stated in other works which are devoted to

the fuller discussion of the various topics here touched upon.

The

ditches are usually dug, in this country, with the or-

dinary pick, spade, and shovel, with the single addition of a

narrow scoop to work in the narrow bottoms of the drains. Such a scoop may be made by cutting a common, roundpointed, long-handled shovel down to a width of four or five
inches.

where much more extensive operations of drainage are carried on than are known in this country, sets
In Europe,

of tools especially adapted for
are used.

all

the different operations
in Fig. 0.

One

set of these is

shown

FIG.

7.

The

position of the

workman

in

cutting a narrow ditch

372

TILE DRAINING.

for a tile, or rather in finishing the

bottom of the ditch with

the scoop,

is

shown

in Fig. 7.

FIG.

8.

The manner of securing

the outlet so as to keep out ver-

Fio. 9.

min, and, at the
in about the

same time,

to

prevent the earth from caving
is

end of the drain,

shown

in Fig. 8.

WHY SHOULD LAND

BE DRAINED?

373

The manner in which draining tiles are moulded from moist
clay

may be

learned from Fig.
filled

9,

which represents a strong

wooden box

with clay, which, by the pressure of a

lever, is forced out

the outside of the

through holes which have the shape of tile. plug stands in the middle of

A

each hole (supported from within, so that the clay can entirely surround it as it comes out), which makes the bore of
the
tile.

WHY SHOULD LAND
There
for the
is

BE DRAINED?
the most favorable
that
is

one condition of
all

soil that is

growth of nearly

agricultural plants

a

condition of porousness, moisture, warmth, and

aeration.

The

roots of plants
l>y

rounded

need to be in a dark place, to be surmoisture (this is very different from being

soaked in water), and to be sufficiently supplied with air. There are other conditions of fertility, such as richness
in plant-food, &c.,

w hich, although
r

of the utmost impor-

tance, are apart from our present subject.

What we have
soil,

now

to

do with

is

the mechanical state of the

as

dis-

tinguished from its chemical composition and action that is to say, with its moisture, its temperature, the ease with

which

roots can penetrate

it

in search of nutriment,

and the

air to their opportunity for the admission of atmospheric

vicinity.

The
the

effects of

drainage on the chemical constitution of
its

soil,

and on the chemical action of

ingredients as

374:

WHY

SHOULD LAND BE DRAINED?
is

affecting vegetation,

very great

;

but

it is

not necessary to

the strength of the argument that they should be detailed
here,

and

their sufficient discussion

would require too much

space.

Moisture.

By
then

the moisture of the soil

we mean

a condition resem-

bling that of a sponge which has been dipped in water and
lifted

out and allowed to drain.
all

While

in the water

it

was saturated that is, pores were filled with water but on being removed the water all runs out from its
of
its

pores, except the small

amount

that adheres (by capillary

attraction) to its substance.

In like manner the undrained
saturated.

soil, after

a heavy rain,

is

All of the spaces between its particles are filled with water. After draining, this water all passes away,
except the small amount which adheres to the surfaces of the particles, and that which fills the more minute pores
of these particles.

There

is

enough water
so

in the soil in this
;

condition to supply the demands of plants
as there

but there

is

not

was before draining

much

as to interfere with

their healthy growth.

Not

the least beneficial effect of draining
its

is

that which

is

the result of the admission of air to

lower and cooler

parts, causing a deposit of moisture in
is

sufficient

to

supply the needs of vegetation,
if it

dry weather, which and to

greatly mitigate,

does not even entirely overcome, the

effects of drought.

WHY

SHOULD LAND BE DRAINED?

375

That land should be made damper by being made more dry, that under-draining should be one of the best predrought this is the apparently anomalous proposition on which one of the strongest arguill

ventives of the

effects of

ments

in favor of draining

is

based.

When we

see a field baked to the consistence of a brick,

gaping open in wide cracks, and covered with a stunted growth of parched and thirsty plants, it seems hard to believe that the simple laying of

hollow

tiles,

four feet deep,

in the dried-up mass,

would do anything
condition
it
;

at all

toward the
season
it

improvement of

its

for the present

would

not, but for the next

would, and for every season

thereafter,

and

in increasing degree, so long as the tiles

continued to act as effective drainage.

The baking and
ration.

cracking, and the unfertile condition of

the soil are the result of a previous condition of entire satu-

Clay cannot be moulded into bricks, nor can
it is first

it

be

dried into lumps unless
or only

damp

clay, once made
it is first

lumpy, unless

wet. Dry, can never again be made fine, made thoroughly wet, and is pressed

made soaking

Neither can a consitogether while in its wet condition. derable heap of pulverized clay, kept covered from the rain,
but exposed to the sun and air, ever become even apparently After dry, except within a few inches of its surface.
under-draining has had time to bring the
of two or three
it

soil,

to a depth

feet, to
it

a

thoroughly drained condition,

will equally prevent

from being baked into lumps, or

376

WHY
for

SHOULD LAND BE DRAINED? any considerable depth below the
In the
rains, instead of

from becoming,
face, too

surfirst

dry for the purposes of vegetation.

place, the water of heavy spring

lying

soaking in the soil until the rapid drying of
it

summer bakes

into coherent lumps, settles away and leaves the clay, within a few hours after the rain ceases, and before rapid evaporation commences, too much dried to crack into

lumps.

The

other direct effect of under-draining
if

is

to

remove

from below, water which, porated from the surface.

not so removed, would be eva-

The formation
is in

of a crust on the surface of the ground

direct

proportion to the

quantity of water that

is

removed by evaporation, and the crust
against the admission of
air.

constitutes a barrier

Consequently the larger the
drains, the smaller
air.

quantity of water that
is

is

removed by the

the obstacle offered to the entrance of

The more

from exconstantly the lower parts of the soil are relieved cess of water and supplied with air, the more deeply will
roots descend

lower

soil

and the more frequently will the air in the be changed, the easier its communication with
;

the atmosphere.

two principles depends the immunity from drought which under-draining helps us to secure. In dry weather the soil gets its moisture from the deposit of dew,
these

On

on the surface during the night, and on the surfaces of the and night. particles of the lower soil constantly, day

WHY SHOULD LAND BE
Temperature.

DRAINED?

377

The temperature
consequence.

of the

soil

is

a matter of the utmost

Seeds cannot germinate, and plants cannot grow without there being a certain amount of heat in the means by which this heat is so much soil, and there is no

and
from

so constantly reduced as
its

surface.

by the evaporation of water In proportion as we remove by the means

of under-draining the water which would, if not so removed, remain to be evaporated, we allow the soil to attain a higher temperature, and so to become more productive.

The penetration of
In a
soil

roots.

that

is

usually too wet, the roots of plants con-

line their operations to the

few inches of dry

soil

at the

surface, as they will not
soil.
it

to

push removes the water from the subsoil, allows Draining become sweet and warm and loose, and fit for the

into a cold, compact,

wet sub-

entrance of roots, which are thereby enabled to seek farther
for a greater quantity

and a greater variety of food.

The circulation of air.
Atmospheric air, if not absolutely necessary to the life and action of the roots of plants, greatly favors their growth
and their absorption of food.
moisture to the

Aside from

its

direct supply
it

of carbonic acid to the feeding parts of the roots,
soil

brings

by which they are surrounded, and aids

in preparing its nutrient constituents for assimilation.

ROTATION OF CROPS.
The
experience of practical farmers very early demon-

strated the necessity for adopting a system of changes in

the crops

grown on

the same

soil.

Thus,

we

find in the

writings of Columella, Varro, Theophrastus, and others
in ancient times

who

rules laid

down

wrote on the subject of agriculture, distinct as to the course of cultivation to be pur-

sued in order to prevent the exhaustion of the soil, or, rather, to prevent it from failing to produce a particular crop so long as it was fertile for anything, and to enable it to make
full

use of whatever manures were applied to

it.

In more modern times, the reasons

why

rotations are ne-

cessary have been, in a measure, explained by the aid of chemistry, but we have not materially improved on the

practice of those

who

cultivated the soil 2000 years ago.

The
soil,

various crops appropriate different elements from the

or the

same elements

in

different proportions.
after year

Of

course,

by

raising the

same crop year

from the

same
ate,

field, its

quantity and quality not only yearly deterior-

but the

soil

becomes exhausted of the
to support the

special ingredi-

ents

which go
it

growth of that particular

product, while
to

accumulates the elements especially adapted

some other

crop.

ROTATION OF CROPS.

379
readi-

The

principle on

which rotations are based may be
:

ly understood from the following illustration

What are known

as the root crops contain, in their ashes,

a very large proportion of potash. The average amount of this substance contained in the ash of potatoes, turnips,
beets,
is,

and

carrots,

is

fully fifty

per

cent,

of the whole

;

that
all

they contain as

much

of this single ingredient as of

the other mineral ingredients combined.

Wheat, rye, oats, and barley, on the other hand, contain an average of only
cent.,

twenty -five per
all

or only one-half as

much

of this as of

the other ingredients.

If

we examine

their content of phosphoric acid, however,

we

shall find the case quite different.

For instance, the

four root crops above

named

contain an average of only

about thirteen per

cent,

of this element, while the four

grain crops contain an average of about thirty-seven per
cent.

Again, lime forms but about three per cent, of the ash of most root crops, while it exists in clover and most of the
fodder plants to the extent of about thirty-five per cent, of
their ash.

If

we were

to follow through the

whole range of the
should find similar
different

mineral constituents of our crops,
variations in the

we

amounts appropriated by the plants which are commonly grown on our fields.

Now, suppose
that wheat or

that on a field of average quality
to advantage.

we

find

some other grain grows

Stimu-

380
lated

ROTATION OF CROPS.

by the
is

profits of the cultivation of this grain,
it

we

con-

tinue to grow
result

year after year, without intermission.

The
reason

that

sooner or later, often within two or three

years
for this

we
is

find the yield steadily diminishing.

One

that

we have been

constantly robbing the

soil

of

undue amounts of phosphoric acid, and (without rendering it unfertile for some other crops, such as potatoes) we have
seriously impaired
If,
its

capacity for the production of wheat.

instead of raising wheat the second year,

we had

raised

potatoes, or clover, or

character from wheat,

we

some plant of an entirely different should have drawn more evenly
and should have
postits

on

all of the resources of the land,

poned the exhaustion of
acid.

stock of available phosphoric

Here then comes
is

in play, also, another

element which
:

it

necessary for the farmer to consider, namely

there are

constantly going on in the soil (which may be considered a natural chemical laboratory) certain chemical and mechanical processes,

whose

effect

is

to continually set free

from

other combinations and prepare for the use of plants the
various minerals which constitute their ashes.
if

Therefore,

we

bring a grain crop into the rotation only once in four,
the simple action of these processes will,

five, or six years,

in the intervening time, set free

enough phosphoric acid

for

a second crop.

Soils differ, not only in their composition,
;

but in the rapidity with which their elements are set free consequently we find some soils on which the same crop may

ROTATION OF CROPS.
safely

381

be tried every second or third year, and others on
interval.

which we must allow a much longer

good also with These almost always contain various regard to manures. matters which go to feed plants, and we must study to so
rule that applies to the soil holds

The same

arrange our crops as to

make

profitable use of all that they

they are of a sort to need time and the action of the chemical and mechanical influence of the at-

can yield

;

and,

if

mosphere and of the
all

soil for

the complete development of
adjust our crops, so far as

of their constituents,

we must

possible, to take

up

these constituents as they are prepared

for use.

The
tions.

foregoing

is

the basis of the chemical theory of rota-

In addition to

this,

we must

consider the influence exerted
left in

on the

soil
is

by

the roots which are

the ground

when
same
is

the crop

removed.

This element of the influence which

plants exert on plants which are to follow
soil
is

them

in the

especially important in the case of clover,
it

which

so active in its fertilizing effect, that

may be assumed that

we have overcome our great difficulty in bringing up a poor soil when we have enabled it to grow a good crop of clover. One especial virtue of this plant is that it sends its roots far
and thus appropriates, by means of its vigorous feeding powers, useful materials which were out of the reach of the roots of plants of other species. These materials
into the subsoil,

are deposited in the substance of the plant, and (on

its

decay

382

ROTATION OF CROPS.
in,

when ploughed
in a

or on the decay of
soil)

its

roots

when

these

alone are left in the

they are presented to the

new

crop

most acceptable form. The raising of other green crops to be ploughed in for manure, is advantageous for the same
reasons.

most valuable accessions to the rotation of crops will be found in the root crops, and in green forage crops to be
either cured for winter use or fed to animals kept on the " " To these crops the richest animal masystem. soiling

Two

nures

may be profitably applied, and, while they will make " of the a most luxuriant growth, they will " draw the fire manure, and leave the land in the best condition for the
crops.

growth of grain

" When it was discovered that roots of Copeland says :* all kinds were not only good food, but the best food for cattle,
those farmers

who believed

in the discovery cultivated roots,

and found, not only that

their value as food

was inestimable,

but that, with a given expenditure in manure and labor, roots gave a larger return in value than any other crop.

This was the turning point, the rising
ing agriculture.

tide- wave of

improvin

The new crop was an improvement
It restored fertility better

every respect.

than the fallow,

gave an immense amount of fodder, and insured a corresponding increase in manure, from the greater number of
cattle

which could be fed from the farm.
old system
*

"

Under the

the same pursued in
Life,

New

Eng-

Country

page 435.

ROTATION OF CROPS.
land at the present day

383

there was a large and a small white

crop, one large yield of hay, then smaller

and smaller, then

good pasture, then poor.
need be no
better to worse. "

This rotation gave a change from The new practice demonstrated that there
It

worse."

showed that a root crop should
;

follow the sod and should be followed by grain
;

that again

by grain or grass and clover that by pasture and roots. At first it was made a point that a white crop should never be
taken two years in succession, and after going through roots and grass it was found, on returning to the white crop, that
the ground was so

much

richer than before, that a

number

of bushels was taken previously unheard of in the neigh-

borhood."

The succession of crops in rotation is almade dependent upon the cereals the preceding crops ways
Liebig says
:*
;

"

are selected of such a kind that their cultivation will not
injure, but rather

improve the succeeding corn crop.
is

The

selection of the particular kind, however,

always governed

by the condition of the and leaf constituents, it

soil.
is

abounding in stalk often found useful to have wheat
field

In a

preceded by tobacco or rape, rye by turnips or potatoes, since these plants, by drawing from the soil a large amount
of leaf and stalk constituents, serve to restore a

more

suitable

proportion between the straw and corn constituents for the
future cereal crop, and, at the same time, to diminish in the
arable soil those conditions which favor the growth of weeds.
*

The Natural Laws of Husbandry, page

227.

384
Prof.

ROTATION OF CROPS,

James

F.

W.

Johnston says

:*

"

Two practical
which they

rules

are suggested by the fact that different plants require differ-

ent substances to abound in a

soil in

shall

be

capable of flourishing. " 1. To grow alternately as

many
time.

different classes

or

families of plants as possible, repeating each class at the
greatest

convenient distance of

(England) we grow,
for seed

chiefly, root crops

In this country corn plants refined

leguminous plants, sometimes for seed (peas and and sometimes for hay or fodder (clover and tares), beans), and grasses and these in alternate years.
;

"

Every

four, five, or six years, therefore, the

same

class

of plants comes round again, and a

demand

is

made upon

the soil for the same kinds of food in the same proportion. * * * * * perfect rotation would include all those

^

classes of plants

which the

soil,

climate, and other circum-

stances allow to be cultivated with a profit. " second rule is, to repeat the same species of plants 2. * * * * * at the greatest convenient distance of time. " Instead, therefore, of a constant repetition of the turnip

A

every four years, theory says,
take
its

make

the carrot or the potato
clover,

place

now and

then, and instead of perpetual

let tares, or peas, or

beans occasionally succeed to your crops

of corn.f
*
f

Agricultural Chemistry, page 493.
"

Corn, in English agricultural writing,

is

a general term corresponding to

our grain."

ROTATION OF CROPS.
"

385
it

The land

loves a change of crop because

is

better

prepared with that food which the new crop will relish than with such as the plant it has long fed before continues to
require.

u

It is

for this reason

that

new

species of crop or

new

varieties,

when

first

time, and give great

introduced, succeed remarkably for a * * * * and returns.

encouraging

" It
1

is

constant variety of crops which, with rich
so productive,

manuit is

ring makes our market gardens
,

and

the

possibility of

growing

in the fields

many

different crops in

succession that gives the fertility of a garden to parts of
Italy, Flanders,

and China."

The

rotation to be adopted

may be

best selected

by each

farmer for himself

keeping in mind the foregoing principles
soil,

with reference to his

his market, his climate, the ex-

price and supply of labor in his neighborhood, and the tent to which he can accumulate manure.

The
farm
is

rotation

which the writer has adopted
:

for his

own

the following
:

First year
vious

Indian corn, on sod land, manured the preentire accumulation of
left in

autumn with the
cellar,

manure in the

barn

then ploughed and
frost,

the rough furrow for

the fullest exposure to

harrowing thoroughly before

planting time.

After the crop

is

taken off in the
left in

fall,

the land to be

ploughed and again

the rough furrow to winter.
17

386

ROTATION OF CROPS.

Second year : Roots, the ground being properly divided between carrots, mangel wurzel, turnips, and parsnips.

For

this crop the

land

is

cross-ploughed in the spring,

dressed with one-half of the winter's accumulation of
in the cellar,

manure

and from 100 to 250

Ibs.

of superphosphate of

lime, both sowed broadcast on the furrow and thoroughly

harrowed

in.
:

Third year
mainly oats

Green forage crops

for

"
soiling

"

cattle

and Indian corn

in successive sowings.

These crops receive the balance of the winter's manure,
and a good portion of the land
winter rye to be sown.
is

cleared off in time for

Fourth year : The winter rye is cut green, very early in " the season, for " soiling the cattle, and on the land not
occupied with
it

a crop of green fodder
1st.

is

grown

that can be

got off by August

seeded

In the early autumn the land to be sown to wheat, and down with timothy and clover.

Fifth year

:

The grain harvested and
left

the growth of

grass and clover

on the land.
cuttings of hay to be taken
off,

Sixth year

:

Two

and

the land to be

manured and ploughed

in the fall for the suc-

ceeding crop of corn, with which the rotation recommences.

PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF MILK, BUTTER, <fec.
Composition of Milk in 1000 parts.

Water
Casein
Milk-sugar
Butter, or
oil...

840 40 45

40
17 4
9
2 3

Phosphate of lime Phosphate of magnesia
Chloride of potassium

Common
Free soda

salt

1000
NOTE.

Milk

is

heavier than water in the proportion of

103 to 100.

The

rapidity with

which cream

rises to the
it is

surface de-

pends upon the temperature to which

exposed.

New

milk,

set aside,

will cream in
air is

36

hrs. if the

24 "
18 to 20 "
10 to 12
"

" " "

temperature of the
"

50 Fahrenheit. 55
68
"

"

"

"
to

77

At

a temperature of 34

37,

it

may

be kept two to

388

PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF MILK, BUTTER,

&C.

three weeks without throwing up any noticeable

amount

of

cream.

Cream

contains the greater part of the fatty matter of the

milk, a small portion of the curd, and considerable water.

Good cream, when
one-fourth of
its.

skilfully

churned, will yield about

The temperature
nomically
is

weight of butter. at which milk can be churned most ecoFahrenheit.
at

65

The temperature
economically
is

which cream can be churned most

at

58

Fahrenheit.
less of all

Butter contains more or
milk.
Essentially
it

the ingredients of the

consists of the fat of milk

mixed with

about one-eighth of its weight of water, a small quantity of casein or curd (cheesy matter), and of saline matter.

The

casein

seldom

exceeds two per cent, of

the whole

weight.

The fat of butter, when
is

solidified

by pressing out the

oil,

identical with the solid fat of the

human

body.

The

oil

of butter

is

a peculiar kind of fat not hitherto

detected in any other substance.

These two ingredients vary considerably with different samples hence the different degrees of hardness which dif;

ferent samples present.

The
in

solid fat

abounds more
in

in

winter

;

the liquid fat

more

summer. They are
:

about

the following proportions in 100 parts
Solid fat

Summer.

Winter.

40
60

65 35

Oil of butter...

PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF MILK, BUTTER,

&C.

389

The main cause of
'

butter becoming rancid

is

the chemi-

cal decomposition

which the casein or curd

it

contains un-

dergoes by

exposure to the air.

This chemical change in

the cheesy matter
1st,

may be

prevented

thoroughly washing and salting before the cheesy has had time to become altered by exposure to the matter

By

air

;

taking care that any water that may remain in or around the butter be kept perfectly saturated with salt
2d,

By

;

3d,

By carefully
is

excluding the

air

from the vessel in which

the butter

packed.

About

half a

pound of the

best

Ashton

salt

is

used to 10

pounds of butter. Milk contains a peculiar kind of sugar called milk-sugar,
which, being highly soluble in water, passes off in the whey and goes to fatten pigs. In some countries it is extracted

and made an

article of

commerce.
is

The main cause of milk becoming sour

the chemical

change which this sugar undergoes, without fermentation *and therefore without loss, into an acid called lactic acid.
This lactic acid
is

the cause of the curdling of the milk,

which may be hastened by hastening the change of the milksugar into lactic acid by the addition of any other acid, such
as vinegar or rennet.

Pure casein

is

nearly insoluble in pure water, either by

boiling or otherwise.

By

adding, however, a
to its

little

soda to
j

the water,

it

dissolves

and returns

milky condition

390

PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF MILK, BUTTER, &C.
(or lactic acid),
it

when, by adding some more milk-sugar
again curdles.

The milk of nearly all animals contains the same The best known varieties consist nearly of ents.
Woman.
Cow.
Ass.

ingredi-

Goat.

Ewe.

Casein

1.5

4.5
3.1

1.8 0.1
6.1

4.1
3.3 5.3

4.5

Butter

3.6

4.2
5.0

Milk-sugar.... 6.5 Saline matter.. 0.5

4.8
0.6

0.3

0.6

0.7

Water..

..87.9
100.

87.0
100.

91.7
100.

86.7
100.

85.6
100.
is

The
shown

butter

and cheese producing quality of milk

by the following
TABLE.

100 100

Ibs.

milk contains about 3
"
"

Ibs.

pure butter.
"
cheese.
butter.

Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. Ibs.

"

" "

7.8 Ibs. 3.5 Ibs.

100 100 100

"

averages "

common

" "

11.7

Ibs.

skim-milk yields

13.5 Ibs.

cheese " skim-milk

1 qt. wine measure weighs " " 1 qt. milk

35

oz.

41

oz.

The milk of different cows varies much in richness. We have known one from 65 Ibs. of whose milk were made 64
oz.

milk cheese contains about 33 per cent, of water, and a skim-milk cheese about 60 per cent. Butter at 50 cents per pound will yield about as much
of butter.
full

A

at 15 cents, profit as cheese

making no allowance

for the

value of skim-milk over whey.

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING.
The Sutler Dairy. The quality of butter doubtlessly depends more upon the manufacture than upon all other
causes combined, yet
food,
its
it is

true that the cows, the grass or

flavor

and the water, have much to do with the delicacy of and richness of its color. It is a notorious fact that
is

eight-tenths of the butter that

sold in the
less

from Jive done had

to fifteen cents
it

per pound

than

it

market brings would have

been properly manufactured. Factory cheese for the same reason brings from three to eight cents per

pound more than
article

dairy.

It costs

no morl to make a good

than an inferior one, and when this fact is fully appreciated, thousands of dollars will be saved annually to the

dairyman farmer.
Milk-room.

The

best milk-room

is

one through which

a stream of pure spring water flows, and a reservoir under the " pan rack " is very desirable. When this cannot be
had, select a

room

or building on the north side of the
fresh air can freely circulate.

house, through which

If a

cellar is chosen, it should

be dry and thoroughly ventilated
doors.

by

large latticed

windows and

No
it,

bles should be allowed to

remain in

as the

decaying vegetamilk and
cellars are

cream

easily

become

tainted.

Close and

damp

392

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING.

entirely unfitted for a milk-room,

and should not be

used.

The temperature
as possible,

of the milk-room should be as uniform

ranging from 55 to 65. When the weather is cold, a fire should be kept in a stove on which a basin of pure water is placed, to prevent the air from becoming so dry as to form a crust on the cream. "When too warm the
temperature can be reduced by hanging wet linen sheets near the doors and windows, the lower edges of which dip
into a vessel of water.

In every department of butter-making the utmost cleanliness should be observed. Milk and cream
Cleanliness.

rapidly absorb noxious gases, and are especially affected by the acids and gases which arise from the decomposition of

sour milk or cream.

Every

utensil used in connection with

the dairy should be

scalded every time used in boiling

water, in which, occasionally, a small piece of bicarbonate

of soda has been dissolved.

All traces of milk or cream

accidently spilled on the floor should be carefully removed.
Setting tha Milk.

As

soon as the milk

is

drawn from the

should be strained into the setting pans, to a depth of not over two inches. The complete raising of the cream,
it

cow

especially in

warm

weather,

is

thus greatly facilitated.

In

the temperature of the milk should be reduced as soon as possible to about 62. Powdered ice put into the
pail before straining
is

summer

best

;

setting the pail in cold spring

or well-water for a few minutes will answer.

A

small
acorn,

piece of crystallized soda about the size of a

common

BUTTER AND CHPJESE-MAKING.

393

dissolved in a little water, put into each pail of milk before
straining, to correct the acidity as
it is

formed, will increase

the quantity of cream, and improve the quality of the but-

kept at the proper temperature, need not stand over thirty-six hours. If the cream does not rise in that
ter.

Milk,

if

time, the quality of the butter will be impaired by the for-

mation of a

bitter acid,

which gives

to the butter a dis-

agreeable flavor.
increased, and
its

In winter the quantity of cream will be quality improved, by bringing the milk to
before setting.
is

a temperature of about 120

Cream.

As

soon as the cream

taken from the milk

it

should be placed in stone jars or tin pails and set in a cool
place.

Sprinkle a small handful of fine salt over the top of
it

the cream, and let

stand until churned.

Should there

be any milk at the bottom of the jar it should be separated from the cream, for the cheesy particles of the sour

milk become mixed with the butter during the process of churning, and give it the white cheesy appearance which
is

sometimes observed when the butter " comes white." The
air,

cheese decomposes upon exposure to the

and renders

the butter rancid.

with the good, for

Such butter should never be packed " a it will little surely spoil the whole
;

leaven will leaven the whole lump."

Churning. The proper temperature at which to churn cream is from 55 to 60, and care should be taken that the

cream be " washed down " so that

all will

granulate at the
"
to the size of

same

time.

When

the butter u has
17*

come

394
peas,

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING.

draw or pour

off the buttermilk,

and pour into the

churn a pail of cool water, and thoroughly " gather " by the " aid of the " dasher the butter into a compact mass after
;

which remove
washed
ness,

it

to the butter-bowl.

It should

be again

until the water is free
salted.

from the least trace of milkibest

and then

Use the

Ashton

salt,

and

if free

from water one-half pound of
of butter.

salt is sufficient for

10 pounds
it

Common

salt

should never be used, for

con-

tains impurities
salt in this case is

which injure the butter. The cheapest While certainly not the most economical.

being worked in, if too soft let it stand in a cool place not over three or four hours, then work again and While working, absorb all the moisture from the pack.
the salt
is

butter with a sponge covered by a linen cloth, previously

moistened
brine
is

in cold water,

absorbed.

No

remain in the butter,

and continue to work until all the * milky brine should be allowed to for it decomposes and injures it.

During the process of working the temperature of the butter should not be higher than 55 or 58. When it becomes

warmer than

this it looses its waxy, granular appearance, and becomes sticky and greasy. When the salt is not thoroughly worked in, the butter will have a streaked or

marbled appearance.
Packing.
* "We have

Place no undissolved
those

salt in the

bottom of the

known

who would
it is

not

work the brine out of the butter

"because," say they, "it will weigh less;" mistaken shrewdness, to gain a

penny they lose a pound. That " " keep it is a great mistake.

necessary to leave brine in the butter to

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING.
tub or
pail, unless

395

covered with a cloth so the butter cannot
it.

come

in contact with

If this caution

is

not observed

when

sold, four or five pounds of butter

comparatively worthless. with the good butter, thinking it will not be found out.
sale of

thus rendered " Never pack a poor " churning
is

The

many

a good firkin of butter

is

spoiled by a few

pounds of poor butter becoming rancid in the centre or bottom, which taints the whole package. If there is any butter that is

even suspicious put
in

it

by

itself.

Select neat pails, tubs, or firkins

made

of white oak, and

cleanse

them by placing

each about a pound of the

common

bicarbonate of soda, and then filling with boiling

water, letting the water remain for twenty-four hours.

Great

care should be used in cleansing pails that are to be re-filled,*
as they are usually

bedaubed

to a greater or less extent

with

rancid butter.
great
loss.

A neglect of
and shipped

this precaution will often cause
first

Butter until the

of June should be packed

in pails or tubs

as soon as

made.

This butter

will

As soon as the keep sweet only a short time. weather becomes too warm to ship without risk, pack in
firkins,

being careful to exclude the air as far as possible while packing. When the firkin is filled to within an inch of the top, dissolve two tablespoonfuls of white coffee
sugar,

and a piece of
sufficient

saltpetre about the size of a

common

bean, in

strong

brine to cover the butter and

* Pails or tubs after being once used,
to

if

properly cleansed, are preferable

new

ones.

396
exclude the
disturb
it

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING.
air.

Place

it

in a cool dry cellar,

and do not
the butter

until ready to be shipped.

In the

fall

should be packed in pails or tubs and sold as fresh butter. An air-tight butter pail or tub is very desirable for ship-

ping spring and
Test of good

fall butter.
'butter.

Good

butter should have a granular,

waxy

consistency, and a rich yellow color, except in the

winter and spring,
nearly white.

when
cut

the color
it

is

of a pale yellow or
soil

When

should not

the polished

blade of the knife, and the cut surfaces should be free from a

dewy appearance.
from the slightest

The

free

and smell should be entirely trace of rancidity, for if not, however
taste

good otherwise, when exposed to the air for a few days it will become almost worthless. The flavor of butter is various,
generally depending upon the season, the water, the food

of the cows, &c.
choice.

The

preference

is

merely a matter of
is
it

If butter

upon being cut
it

or repacked

covered
has not
it

with small drops of milky brine,

shows that

been

sufficiently

washed and worked, and although sweet

will not remain so if exposed to the air.
for use it should

brine.

When

it

When opened be immediately covered with a strong is sticky or greasy, it shows that it was too
is

warm

while being churned and worked, or has been over-

heated since. soon as opened.
Setting-pan.

Such butter

rancid, or will

become

so as

To

insure a perfect separation of the cream

from the milk a setting-pan has been successfully used in

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING.

397

England. It consists of a large tin pan about four inches deep, holding from four to six pails of milk. It may either set

on a table or

float in a reservoir of

running spring water.

Where running water is not to be had, the proper temperaAt ture may be obtained by the dripping of melting ice.
one end
is

a tube covered with a fine strainer to prevent the
is

escape of the cream, through which the milk
off,

to

be drawn

leaving the cream

in the pan.

All the cream

may be

secured by rinsing the pan in a

little

warm

water.

The Cheese Dairy.
is

The

superiority of factory cheese

entirely due to the great care exercised in its manufacture.
little

But

cheese

is

now made by private
it is

dairies, for it

can be

better

and more economically manufactured

at the factory.

With proper management
do not
live

more

profitable for those

who

near a cheese factory to
all

make butter,

unless they

provide themselves with

the necessary apparatus.

Rich

Cheese.

The

richness of cheese varies in propor-

tion to the

amount

of the butter that remains entangled in
brief directions are from a practi-

the curd.
cal

The following
:

cheesemaker

two milkings are united, strain the evening's milk and cool by means of pieces of ice dropped into the
pails before straining.

"When

In the morning take

off all

the

cream, mix

it

with twice the quantity of
to raise
it

new

milk.

Add

warm water enough Hub annatto through

to the

a silk cloth sufficient to

temperature of 98. make the curd
to*

the color of rich cream.

Into this put rennet sufficient

398

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING.
Stir

curd in 35 minutes.

the whole into the milk pre-

The milk should viously raised to the temperature of 85. be warmed by means of a pail of hot water set into it, but never by putting it over the fire, for the least burning of
the milk will spoil the cheese.

While the curd

is

setting,

cover with a cloth to prevent the surface from cooling. The method of cutting, scalding, and pressing depends

upon the
of curd.

varieties of cheese to

be manufactured.
is

About J
20
Ibs.

of a pound of the best Ashton salt

sufficient for

Care should be taken that the whey be entirely

expressed."

The different varieties of cheese come to market under the names of Chedder, Cheshire, and Gloucester. These
are English cheese.

The Dutch cheese
Parmesan
best

is

The Dunlop cheese is from Scotland. made in the north of Holland. The
in Italy.

'cheese

is

made

Factory cheese

is

the

manufactured in

this country,

the English.
quality,

The

private dairy cheese

some of it being equal to is of every grade and

from the richest Chedder to that made of skim-milk.

In the butter and cheese dairy the thermometer should be a constant companion. Those who

Thermometer.

trust to sensations are not

aware how easily they may be Let a person put one hand in cold water, the other into warm, then both into another vessel, and it will
deceived.

feel

warm

to

one hand and cold to the other.
is

The only
trifle, it

certain guide
will save

the thermometer
dollars annually.

;

its

cost

is

but a

many

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING.
Ice-house.

399
is

Next

in

importance to the thermometer
farmers say

the ice-house.

Many
its cost
is

"I

can't

afford
it."

it."

" They should say I can't afford to be without

It will

save three times

every year.

The method of

build-

ing the following

so simple,

and involves so
an excuse.

trifling

an

expense that no

man need have

some building lay a twelve feet square on scantlings, one foot from the ground. Set firmly in the ground, near each corner, two
Select a place on the north side of
;

floor

posts,

feet long.

from four to six inches square, and about eight or ten When the weather becomes cold, place on the
depth of eight

floor saw-dust, tan-bark, or rye-straw, to the

or ten inches.
size,

On

the top, place another floor of the same

putting a curb inside the posts to keep the filling befloors in its place.
six inches deep,

tween the

Next make a curb ten

feet

square and

and fasten the corners with

common

gate-hooks.

On

a cold day place the curb on the

centre of the floor, put in two inches of tan-bark, and dash

water over the bottom until
not leak.
Fill the

it

forms a coat of ice that will
let it

curb with water and
boiling water

stand until
loose, raise

frozen solid.
it

With

thaw the curb
fill

to the top of the frozen mass,

and freeze

as before.

Continue so doing until the mass Place boards on the inside of the
;

is

of the desired height.

posts,

and

fill

the space

with tan-bark or rye-straw nail boards on the outside of the posts and fill the space with rye-straw cover the top
;

with tan-bark to the depth of ten inches.

Over the whole

400
put a

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING.
roof, to shield

from the sun and
Ice

rain.

Cut and take

the ice from the top.
season.

can be thus kept the entire If a stream of running water can be turned into

the curb, the labor of filling will be

much

lessened.

SOILING CATTLE.
This
is

a rather
clear than

unmeaning
is

expression,
its

and

its

origin
;

is it

no more

the fitness of

application
it is

still

has come into such general use that

now

too late to

change
It
is

it.

applied to the feeding of cattle in yards or in staand hauled to bles, with grass or other green fodder, cut

them.
This practice
localities
is

very rapidly growing in favor in
is

all

very high priced, where manure is largely used, where the finer class of animals are kept, and where for any reason it is desired to keep a large stock on

where land

a small place.

It is the best

foundation of what

is

called

High Farming.
It

has been found by experiment that

if

a field bearing

is divided into two equal parts, one half being used as pasture and the crop of the other being cut and fed in the stable as often as it grows to a suf-

luxuriant grass or clover

ficient

height, this latter half will support, for the

same

time, four times as

many animals of equal weight as will the depastured portion and while the usual, allowance of
;

pasture land is at the rate of two acres for each cow, the allowance of land in soiling, where the system is practised in the best manner, is at the rate of only one-half of an
acre for each cow.

402

SOILING CATTLE.
course, this

would not hold good on ordinary land which had been in no way prepared for the practice, but
one or two years' preparation by judicious use of the manure made by the animals fed, and by the aid of
after

Of

proper management, any fair land will support, on the system of soiling, four times as much stock as if they grazed

upon
It

it

constantly and voided
for a

upon

it all

of their manure.

long time questioned, and very naturally too, whether cattle would remain in good health if they were deprived of the exercise which they necessarily take

was

in getting their

own

food in the fields
if

;

but ample experi-

ence has proved that,

they are allowed

good yards

in.

which

to exercise for a short time, once or twice a day, they
less liable to disease

keep in better condition and are

than

when they are exposed
in the fields.
It is also

to the various changes of the weather

sometimes objected that this treatment is an unnatural or an artificial one. To this the reply is that our
domestic animals are
see
artificial

productions.

In nature

we

no working oxen, and no cows give during the whole year a tenth part of the quantity of milk that cows have
been forced to give
in a state of domestication.
is

With
theory.

the writer, the soiling of cattle

not a matter of

has adopted the system on his own farm, and has sufficient evidence in his own practice of its substantial
advantages.

He

Perhaps the most practical way to give an idea of the

SOILING CATTLE.

403
soiling system

manner

in

which stock

is

managed under the

will be to describe the operations as there carried out.*

The farmf comprises
is

sixty acres, lying in a nearly square

body, and all in one field.

Adjoining the main farm there
first

a small field in which to pasture calves during their
only, but
it is

summer

not intended that the older animals

shall ever feed except in their stalls.

In the centre of the farm there
four acres, within

is

an enclosure of about
all

which are concentrated
is

of the farm

buildings

;

outside of this there

nothing to interfere

with

cultivation

no interior

fences, rocks, nor trees.

The barn-yards occupy two

acres of

what was formerly

an apple-orchard, and in the middle of this stands the barn This has a cellar under the whole for the (40 ft. x 100 ft.).
accumulation of manure, and (one corner of it) for the storage
of roots.
is

The main

floor

the whole extent of the building

tral

occupied by two rows of stalls, the animals facing a cenpassage-way, through the entire length of which there

runs a railway with a car, for distributing the food.

The

next floor above

is

used for the storage of hay and grain and

of implements, and for the cutting and steaming of food
in winter.

Each

floor

and the

cellar

can be entered by

loaded teams.

On

the cattle floor there

is

a system of water-troughs
floor

which are constantly supplied from a tank on the

* To make this description more complete, a few improvements which are contemplated for the coming year are spoken of as though now in operation,
f

Ogden Farm, Newport, R.

I.

4:04:

SOILING CATTLE.

above,
spring.

which

is

filled

by a wind-mill, from
is

a running

By

this

means water

always kept within reach

every animal.

The

floor is divided into four principal parts, separated

from each other by bars which run (one on each side of the barn) from the rear of the stalls to the wall and each of
;

these divisions has

its

own

door,

communicating with a yard

nearly half an acre in
wall, and

orchard.

size, surrounded by a four-foot stone shaded by the remains of the former sufficiently Each set of animals has its own quarters and its

own ample
They
A.M.
for

exercising
is

ground,

so

that

all

danger from

over-crowding

avoided.

are turned out for exercise in pleasant weather at 8
at 2 P.M.,

and

and are kept out (by closing the doors)
If the doors are left open

about two hours each time.
stalls

they return to their

almost

immediately.

Being

abundantly
I

fed,

they show no disposition to

move

about, and

am

satisfied that
if

condition than

they give more milk and keep in better they were allowed the best pasture without

shelter, even in the

summer

time.

Five times a day they are given as much green fodder as they will eat. This is cut in the field, loaded on to a cart, and

hauled to the upper
the

floor of the barn,

where
it

it is is

dumped

through a trap-door into the car,
stalls.

by which

carried to

dropped through an open slatfloor, and through scuttles, into the cellar, whence it is drawn in wagons directly to the field, having been well
is

The manure

SOILING CATTLE.

405

worked over by hogs while

in the cellar.

Thus

it

will

be
is

seen that the labor of attending to a large stock of cattle

reduced to the lowest possible amount.

ARRANGEMENT OF CROPS FOR
The amount
of land that
it is

SOILING.

necessary to appropriate for

the supply of fodder for each animal must, of course, depend

on the quality of the land and on the degree
productiveness
is

to

which

its

forced.

Under

all

good heart and in good
full-grown milch

ordinary circumstances, one-half acre of land, in tilth, should be allowed for each

cow of the ordinary breeds (more for shortunder high cultivation, this will allow a considerhorns), but, able amount of the produce to be cut for winter use. The
regular soiling crops are the following
:

Winter Rye,
Cabbages,
Oats,
Clover,

Grass,

and

Indian corn.

Many

other crops are available, such as Hungarian grass

or millet, wheat,

Jerusalem artichoke, sainfoin, &c., but

the foregoing are the regular dependence of

American

far-

mere, and are the best

for

common

use.

The

best essay that has yet been written in this country

406

SOILING CATTLE.

on the subject of " soiling " was prepared for the Massachusetts Agricultural Society by the Hon. Josiah Quincy, and

was published in the Journal of that Society His recommendation is as follows
:

for 1820.

"1. As early in April as the state of the land will permit, which is usually between the 5th and the 10th, on properly
prepared land, sow oats at the rate of four bushels to the
acre.

"

2.

About the 20th of the same month, sow oats
same
rate per acre, in like quantity

or barley,

at the

and proportions.

"

3.

Early in May, sow, in like manner, either of the

above grains.
"
4.

Between the 10th and the 15th of May, sow Indian
flat

corn (the
"

els to the acre, in like quantity
5.

Southern being the best) in drills, three bushand proportions.
in like quantity

About the 25th of May sow corn

and

proportions. " 6. About the 5th of

June repeat the sowing of

corn.

"

7.

After the last-mentioned sowing, barley should be
in the above-mentioned quantity

sown

and proportions, in succession, on the 15th and 25th of June, and on the 1st
of,

or early in July

;

barley being the best qualified to resist

the early frosts."

Mr.

Quincy depended on the mowing of the best of

his grass land to carry his stock through the

month of June,

or from the earliest pasturing season to the 1st of July,

SOILING CATTLE.

407

when

lie

scythe.

expected his first sowing of oats to be ready for the After the first killing frost, he depended on the
twelve acres of root crops, for the use of

tops of about
fifteen cows.

The plan which
above, and
is

I have adopted

is

a modification of the
:

as follows (for twelve cows)

1. Early in the autumn sow three acres of winter rye, to be cut from May 15th to June 15th.
2.

Early in April, three acres
1st.

oats, to

be cut from June

15th to July
3.

Late in April, two acres oats or barley, to be cut from
1st to

July
4:.

July 15th.

Early in May, two acres oats or barley, to be cut from July 15th to August 10th.
5.

Middle of May, two acres corn,
1st.

to be cut

from August

10th to September
6.

Middle of June, the three acres from which rye has been cut to be sown with corn, to be cut from September
1st until
7.

September 20th.

Early in July, the first three acres sown with oats to be resown with barley, to be cut from September 20th until the
harvest of roots and cabbages furnishes a stock of green
refuse,

which
is

will suffice until winter feeding

commences.

an allowance of twelve acres for twelve cows, and assumes that the latter end of the season will be helped out

This

by root

tops, &c.

The reason for appropriating so much land

408
is

SOILING CATTLE.
is

that the soil

sure an ample supply from a

not yet in sufficiently good condition to inmuch smaller area. In a season

of extraordinary drought the whole of the product

may

be

consumed,

but in

would be
and
to

in excess, to be cured

any ordinary year a very large part of it and stored for winter use,

furnish a supply of dry food, with which occasion-

with the fresh fodder, to prevent the too great relaxation of the bowels which a free use of succulent food
ally to alternate

sometimes causes.
In September three acres of the four comprising Nos. 4 5 should be sown with winter rye for the following

and

spring's use,

and the rotation should follow

in regular order.

If

all

of the

manure made

in the soiling season

were to be
satisfied

used on these twelve acres year after year, I
that they might be

am

made

in

time to support, during the

whole of the usual pasturing season, thirty milch cows, or five COW S for each two acres.
T

In

my own

case, as

one of

my

reasons for adopting the

system of soiling has been that it is the best help in bringing up a worn-out farm, I shall each year raise my forage

on fresh land,
the treatment.

so as to give the

whole place the benefit of

Of course,
be

a rule which will apply in one region

may

not
for
sys-

the best for another,

and each farmer must decide
lie

himself the extent to which

can profitably adopt the

tem on

his farm,

and

also

what crops
case.

will best accomplish

the desired end in his

own

SOILING CATTLE.

409

Where
and grass

it is

desirable to plough as little as possible, clover

may with

advantage enter

much more largely into

the arrangement.

Two
States
1.

general principles, however,
all

cable to

be stated as appliof the more temperate regions of our Northern

may

The

earliest

abundant food will be secured by the use

of winter rye.
2.

The

best

and most abundant food
will

for the later

summer

and

earlier

autumn time

be secured by the use of Indian

corn.

ARGUMENTS
Mr. Quincy
tages of this system
"1st.

IN

FAVOR OF

SOILING.
advan-

states the following as the leading
:

" 2d.

The saving of land. The saving of fencing.
The economizing
of food.

" 3d.
" 4th.
cattle.

The
The

better condition

and greater comfort of the

" 5th. " 6th.

greater product of milk.

The attainment of manure."

On
says
:

the subject of the 3d item the economy of food he " There are six ways by which beasts destroy the arfood
1.

ticle destined for their
3.

By dunging

;

4.

By

staling 18

;

By eating 2. By walking 6. By 5. By lying down
;
;

;

410
breathing on
it.

SOILING CATTLE.

Of

these

six,

the

first

only

is

useful.

All

the others are wasteful."

The

other points he elucidates with equal force, but at

too great length for full quotation here.

The statement made above

that a milch

cow may be kept

during the ordinary pasturing season upon the produce of one-half acre of land, while of land of the same character at
least

is sufficient

two acres would be necessary on the pasturage system, Yet this stateto illustrate the saving of land.

ment, which will be supported by the testimony of all who practise the system on land of good quality, is far below the
estimate of many who have had a lifelong experience of soiling,
in Europe.
soiling as

Some

of

high

as 1 to 7.

them place the proportion in favor of Of course the amount of stock

which may be fed from the produce of a single acre depends very much on the manner in which that acre is cultivated,
and the question of the cost of labor must determine whether
it is

or

is

not profitable to force the production beyond a

given extent.

As

to fencing, it

farmer of his

own

only necessary to remind nearly every experience of the first cost of building,
is

and of the yearly cost of repairing the fences of his own farm, and to say that by the soiling system, when completely
carried out, all interior fences

may and

should be entirely

dispensed with.

Add

to the question of expense, the fact that useless headof,

lands and their nurseries of noxious weeds are got rid

SOILING CATTLE.

411
straight through

and that the plough can be driven,
from one side of the farm
needs no re-enforcement.

if desired,

to the other,

and the argument

Concerning the condition of the
stated by

cattle,

the following

is

One writer asserts that he has kept a Quincy herd for several years in this way, and during the large whole time he never had an animal essentially sick, had
:

"

'

never one
result

and had never one miscarry. " The general of the experience of hundreds of farmers in Europe,
1

die,

and of considerable experience
are really better
off'

in

America,

is,

that cattle

in every way, under the protection of

its ample and regularly supplied and with the advantage of daily currying and exerfood, cise, than when left to shift for themselves exposed to the

the soiling barn, with

vicissitudes of the weather.

The quantity of milk may never be
ring the flush weeks of June,
their

so large as

it is

du-

when

the cows are gorging
;

maiden appetites on
first

rich grass

but the consumption

of food from the

of

May

to the first of

November (and

consequently the yield of milk) will be much greater. " Last, but by no means the least," the question of manure
asserts its claim to the fullest consideration.

Were

it

not

for this item of the calculation the

arguments

in favor of

soiling

would

lose

more than half

their force.

The immense

superiority, both in quality and evenness of
soil,

distribution over the

of

manure which
is

is

made and kept
pas-

under cover, over that which

dropped

at

random on

412
ture lields
;

SOILING CATTLE.

when

\ve please,

and the advantage of being able to apply where we please, and in such quantities

it

as

we

please, are too well

known

to all

who have

to use

ma-

nure to produce paying crops, for any argument on the subThere is no way in which so much ject to be necessary. manure of such excellent quality can be landed on the farm
without a far greater outlay of money than
is

necessary to

pay

for all the labor required for ploughing, sowing, " tend-

ing," cutting, and

hauling the food, and for currying and

feeding the animals under the most complete soiling

man-

agement.

Of
of the

course the

manure argument does not hold

(nor

is

the system of soiling to be recommended) for those districts

West where
to get

the laughing harvest follows the ticklingis

hoe;

where straw

burned

in the fields,

and barns are

moved

away from the accumulated manure.
the
it

But

for

the older settled countries of the East and South (and for the future West " exhausted) ity

West with

its

"

inexhaustible

fertil-

does hold, and with such force that as

population grows more dense
alone, even if there

and farmers more wise
in

it

were no other advantage

the system,

must

in time

compel the rapid increase of the practice of

soiling.

STEAMING 'FOOD FOR STOCK.

A more recent
ing of
cattle,

improvement than soiling" in the keepfarms where it is important to make every on
tell

'

pound of food
is

with the

fullest effect in the
is

production
this not im-

of meat, muscle, or milk (and on what farm
portant?),

the steaming of food in winter.
this practice
soiling,

Although

has been the subject of
is,

much

less

experiment than
recognized as

and

consequently, less generally
is

worthy of adoption, enough

known

of

its

advantages, both by experience and from theory, to
its

make

brief discussion necessary to the completeness of this

book.

During the past year I have investigated the subject with some thoroughness, and have determined to adopt it on my

own farm

;

and I can hardly do better than to give here

some account of

my

investigations, in order that

my readers
reasons for

may

decide for themselves the soundness of

my

the determination.

My

serious attention

was

first

called to the matter

by an

article in the

1865, written by Mr. E.

Report of the Department of Agriculture for W. Stewart of North Evans, Y.

K

He

therein details his

own

experience of ten years in steam-

ing food for a large stock of cattle and horses, gives a succinct statement of the reasons

why

steaming

is

beneficial.

410

STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK.
his

and sustains

own

opinion by the concurrent testimony

of other practical farmers
ficial.

who have found the

practice bene-

The
"

following are the results of the operation as stated by

Mr. Stewart:
1.

It renders

mouldy hay,

straw, and corn-stalks per-

Animals seem to relish straw fectly sweet and palatable. taken from a stack which has been wet and badly damaged
for ordinary use
rot,'
;

and even

in

'

any condition, except

dry

keeping a large stock, we have often purchased stacks of straw which would have been worthless for feeding in the ordinary way,
steaming
will restore its sweetness.

When

and have been able

to detect

no

difference, after steaming,
it

in the smell or the relish

with which

was

eaten.

u

2.

It diffuses the

odor of the bran, corn-meal, oil-meal,
is

carrots, or

whatever
;

mixed with the

feed,

through the

whole mass
animal.

and thus

it

may cheaply be

flavored to suit the

tough fibre of the dry corn-stalk, ryestraw, and other hard material, rendering it almost like green succulent food, and easily masticated and digested by
3.

"

It softens the

the animal.

beans and peas agreeable food to horses, as well as other animals, and thus enables the feeder to com4.

"

It renders

bine more nitrogenous food in the diet of his animals.
u
5.

It enables the feeder to turn everything raised into

STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK.

417

food for his stock, without lessening the value of his manure.

Indeed, the manure

made from steamed

food decomposes

more

readily,

and

in a fresh state.

is therefore more when used Manure made from steamed food is always

valuable than

ready for use, and

much more
"

regarded by those who have used it as valuable, for the same bulk, than that made
is

from uncooked food.
6.

We have found

it

to cure incipient heaves in horses

;

and horses having a cough for several months have been cured in two weeks on steamed food.
remarkable
stipation.
effect

at pasture,
It has a

on horses with a sudden cold and
it it

in con-

Horses fed upon

seem much

less liable to disall

ease

;

in fact, in this respect,

seems to have

the good

appearance of produces the animal, at once causing the coat to become smooth and color of regulates the digestion, makes the animal
7.

the natural food of animals. qualities of grass, " a marked difference in the It

brighter

more contented and
keep up the animal
all

satisfied,

enables fattening stock to eat

their food with less labor (and consequently requires less to
heat), gives

working animals time

to eat
;

that

is

necessary for

them

in the intervals of labor

and

this is of

with horses. importance, especially fatten animals in one-third less time. enables the feeder to

much

It also

"

8.

It saves at least one-third of the food.

We have found

two bushels of cut and cooked hay to satisfy cows as well in the as three bushels of uncooked hay, and the manure
case of

the uncooked hay contained
18*

much more

fibrous

418

STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK.
This
is

matter unutilized by the animal. the case with horses."

more

particularly

art's estimate,

Other publications on the subject fully confirm Mr. Stewand we commend his essay, which is accessiall,

ble to
stock.

to the careful attention of every feeder of

farm

In January (1868) I visited the farm of Messrs.
their

S.

& D.

Wells, at Wethersfield, Conn., for the purpose of examining

cow

stable

and

its fixtures.

The leading

features of this establishment are a constant

water-supply, and apparatus for cutting and steaming food.* The latter was introduced at a cost of about $500. It comprises a three-horse steam-engine of very simple construction,

a tubular boiler of sufficient capacity to run the engine, a

strong power stalk-cutter, and a chest for steaming food.

There were about thirty cows in the stable. steamed food morning and night, and dry hay
stalks, cut to short lengths, sprinkled until

They receive at noon. The

steamed food consists of hay of poor quality, straw, or corn-

and then dusted with bran or meal, and steamed two hours.

thoroughly wet, for about

The engine has power enough
* The water

to cut in a couple of

hours

is brought from a living spring and flows through galvanized iron small iron troughs pipes which form the connections between the bottoms of standing at the head of the partitions which divide each pair of stalls. The last

trough overflows through a pipe near

its

top,

and the water wells up

to the

level of this overflow in each trough of the series.

By

this simple arrangein front of the

ment, a constantly changing supply of water
cattle.

is

kept always

STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK.
a supply sufficient for the whole week, and enough
at
is

419
steamed

one charge to last for three or four days. Steam is made only twice in each week (once for cutting and steaming,

and once

steaming only), and then only for a short time. The steaming box is about four feet square and eight feet
for

high.

The

materials are put into the box from the floor above

an extension, and are removed through a door in one of its sides on the feeding floor. Elevated a short distance above the bottom, there is a false
that of which the
stable
is

cow

bottom perforated with many holes. low this, and is thus allowed to
the whole mass.

The steam
rise

is let

in be-

evenly through the

The box

is

made

of two thicknesses of one-inch, matched

spruce boards (one set running up and down, and the other The doors are not made with any very great care across).
to prevent the escape of steam, nor does
it

seem

to be con-

sidered necessary to do

more than

to

have the box strong

enough to hold

its

burden of wet fodder.
given
re-

The
above

Messrs. Wells find that Mr. Stewart's opinion
is,

in all essential particulars, sustained

by the

sults of their experience.

They

think that steaming adds

one-half to the feeding value of fodder.
It

was what I saw on

which caused

me

to decide

own

practice.

My

more than anything else, on adopting the system in my apparatus is not yet completed, and I
their farm,

cannot, therefore, speak on the subject with the authority of

a successful experimenter

;

but from

all

that I can learn, I

420

STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK.
satisfied

am

that the advantages of steaming have hardly

been overrated.

The theory
and horses

of the process (in a nutshell)

is

this

:

Cattle

in a state of nature live the year

round on succu-

lent green herbage.

When
Man

the cold weather begins to cut
latitudes, they

short the supply in the

more northern
steps in

migrate

toward the south.
colder climate.

and keeps them in the

He

substitutes dried grass for fresh grass.

Steaming

will, in

a great measure, restore hay to the condiAlso,

tion of green grass.

many

constituents of hay, straw,

&c., are insoluble and indigestible.

By

the action of heat

and moisture they become soluble, or at least are reduced to a condition in which they are easily available to the digestive organs of animals.
authorities, are coated
to a great extent

Starch-grains, according to the best

with a layer or cuticle which

resists

the action of the juices of the stomach,

while

its

interior parts, could they
;

be directly exposed,

would readily be assimilated

therefore, as heat causes the

interior of the grains to swell

and burst their coating, ex-

posing themselves on the surface, as the interior parts of a kernel of corn do in " popping," the process of steaming
(or

any cooking) makes the starchy part of food more readily

available.

and uncooked food furnish
going opinion.

Examinations of the droppings of animals fed on cooked results which confirm the fore-

Carefully conducted experiments on animals

of equal

STEAMING FOOD FOK STOCK.
weight, arid of like condition in
all respects,

4-21

invariably

show
and

that those which are fed on cooked food take on

fat,

form bone and muscle more rapidly than those which get
only raw food.
If,

after a certain time, the food

is

changed

the cooked being given to the animal that has been receiving the uncooked, and vice versa
will

the rapidity of growth

change too. The trial has often been made, and the result has been invariably the same.
In
fact, in all

of the essays and opinions on the subject of

cooking food for domestic animals, in this country and in Europe,
I

have

failed to find the first

one that

is

not decid-

edly favorable.

Steaming, of course,

is

valuable only because
its
is

it is

a means

of cooking, and the arguments in
the subject ot boiling. use because of
its

favor bear equally on

Steaming

rapidly coming into

greater convenience and economy.

How to make a Steaming Apparatus. Any device by which steam may be generated under a very slight pressure barely sufficient to cause it to penetrate the mass to be
cooked
is

and conducted

to the vessel in

which the steaming
;

to be done, will accomplish the desired purpose

but, of
less

course, the

more convenient the arrangement, and the

the waste of steam (whether

by condensation or otherwise),

the more economically the process both time and fuel.

may be

performed, as to

Mr. Stewart suggests a plan which, from its cheapness, will answer a good purpose where the stock to be cooked

422
for
is

STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK.
small, or

where

it is

desired to experiment on a small

scale.

It

is

a box

made

of well jointed 2 inch pine, seven or

eight feet long, and about

two and a half

feet wide,

with a

bottom of No. 16 sheet

iron, nailed securely

on to the lower
little

edge of the sides and ends, and turned up a

outside of

them

say half an inch.

This box has a false bottom, of

wood

or iron, placed about three inches above the fast botholes,

tom, and perforated with many small
fitting cover over the top.

and a

closely-

It stands

out as

on brick walls which do not come quite so far At one end of the the wooden sides of the box.
fire-place,

chamber enclosed by these walls there is a wood and from the other end a chimney rises.

The space between
is

the bottom and the false bottom

is

partly filled with water, cut

hay mixed with meal or bran

put in the box above the false bottom, the cover is closed, and the fire is started. The steam rises through the perforations in the false bottom,
it.

and cooks the mass above

more complete apparatus for steaming, and in large practice a more economical one, comprises a boiler for generating the steam, a box in which to place the food, and
a wooden, or well protected steam-pipe to connect the two.

A much

The box should have

a perforated false bottom, and the steam
this, so that it

should be introduced beneath

may

diffuse

itself uniformly through the mass.

STEAMIXG FOOD FOK STOCK.

423
will

The

boiler

may. of course, be of any pattern that

secure the economical generation of steam.
engine-boiler will

A

discarded

answer every purpose

if it is

strong enough
to the inch

to bear a pressure of, say, five or ten
slight pressure being

pounds

a

necessary to force the

steam through

the mass of hay.

D. R. Prindle's Agricultural Boiler, which
the accompanying cut,
is

is

shown

in

admirably

adapted for this use.

FIG. 1.

Prindle's Agricultural Steamer and Cauldron (shown in
Figs. 1

and

2) is the invention of

Bethany,

New York,

and

is

Mr. D. R. Prindle, of East largely manufactured by Messrs.

Savery

&

Co. of Philadelphia.

Its popularity

seems to be rapidly increasing, and there
it is

is

no question that

the best steaming apparatus for the use

STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK.
of
all

farmers

who do

not employ steam-engines that has

yet been invented.
It consists of a cauldron set over a furnace arranged to

burn

either

wood

or coal, and furnished with a

closely over

it

and

is

keyed down so

as to

dome which fits make a steam-joint
it

It

is

provided with a test-cock to show when

needs the a

addition of water, a safety-valve which
valve, a funnel for
filling,

is also

vacuum

and one or more pipes

to convey

the steam to the cooking-boxes.

Aside from

its

use in steaming fodder for cattle,

it

may be

used to heat water to scald hogs, or for other purposes, to

warm
fowls,

buildings, to cook roots or

meal

for hogs or grain for

and

for a variety of other purposes for

which hot

air,

hot water, or steam are useful.

For farm

use, especially

quired, Prindle's
boiler, as it

when constant steam is not resteamer is much better than an engine-

works only at a very low pressure, and is consequently quite safe, and is much cheaper when we consider the cost of setting up the larger engine-boiler, and its more
expensive transportation.
Full particulars concerning the Prindle steamer may be obtained by application to the inventor. I have not determined, in my own case, what power to

adopt for the cutting of my long fodder. The question is about evenly balanced between a small steam-engine, a windmill,

cost will

and a railway horse-power, for final use but as the first be less, I shall commence with the horse-power
;

STEAMING FOOD FOB STOCK

425

belonging to a threshing machine, and a Prindle boiler,

changing to one, the engine or seems desirable.
It is

mill, at a future day, if it

hardly prudent to

make any

positive calculations in

advance of actual experiment, but I anticipate and I base my calculations on a very careful survey of the whole field
a saving of about forty per cent, in the cost of feeding

my

stock, over the present system of feeding only the best

hay uncut.
a

A part of
A

the saving will be due to the

more

digestible condition of the food,

and a part to the

fact that

much

cheaper quality of hay, or straw, or corn-stalks can
saving of very

be largely used.

much

less

than

this,

when from
The

thirty to forty
fair

be enough to make a

head are to be provided profit on the business.

for, will

various uses for which steam can be adapted seems

to be but little understood

sions, scalding, &c., as well as

Fear of exploby the masses. want of knowledge of its
its

great advantages, has thus far prevented
duction.

general intro-

The want of a

perfectly

safe

and

easily

managed low

pressure apparatus with which to accomplish all the requirements of domestic use, has also been a great drawback.

great advantages of cooking, heating, boiling, &c., by steam, are obvious when it is remembered that it can be
fuel, requiring but little care of the operator, and using wooden vessels (if desired) of any'

The

done with much

less

water arid

kind, size, or shape (a great desideratum).

By

its

use there

426
is

STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK.
re-filling
;

no

of kettles (the ordinary mode) to get a desired
stirring, or
;

quantity

no constant watching or

removal of

the substance while hot, to prevent burning
kettles for every separate job,

no cleaning of which can be done by steam.

By

the use of this powerful agent, large quantities
(if

may

be
at

boiled or steamed, or several vessels

need be) treated

the same time

;

and when desirable, the steam can be con-

veyed

in pipes or logs to

some

little distance,

using proper
;

care in protecting the same from condensation
ing, many times, danger from
fire,

thus avoiditself

and accommodating

to all the various purposes of domestic

economy, as well as

many compounds, when from burning or explosion is so common. By steam danger the clothes may be boiled at any point in the barrel or tub
in the manufacturing of
articles or
;

the bath-tub

may be warmed in an adjoining room the farm or stock-feeder could easily cook in quantities at a time, or
;

scald his hogs, steam his barrels, &c., &c.

We

believe that
is

when

a cheap, simple, and perfectly safe apparatus

once

introduced, that

the subject

(as it deserves)

will receive
as easily

much more

attention, as

by steam

all classes

might

be benefited.

ADVANTAGES OF COOKED FOOD.
"

The American Agriculturist for January, 1860, says: Experiments made by C. M. Clay, of Kentucky, showed

that one bushel of dry corn

made

5 Ibs. 10 oz. of pork

;

of boiled corn, 14

Ibs.

7

oz.,

and boiled meal, 16

to 18 Ibs."

STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK.

427

is

Morton's Cydopcedia of Agriculture (than which there " As to no higher authority in Europe) says steaming
:

abundant experience to recommend The process of cooking renders soluble that which would it. otherwise be imperfectly digested. It removes, in some
food for
cattle, there is

cases,

what would otherwise be unwholesome and
;

it

renders

savory what would otherwise be distasteful."
" UnLoudorts Encyclopaedia of Agriculture remarks less food be thoroughly deprived of its vegetative powers before it enters the stomach, the whole nourishment which
:

it is

capable of affording cannot be derived from it. most effectual mode of destroying the living principle
the application of heat,

The
is

by

by

steaming or boiling."

Society of Shakers, at Lebanon, N. Y., famous for " For fattening animals, swine particupork-raising, say

The

:

larly,

we

consider three of cooked equal to four of

raw

meal."

GARDENING FOR MARKET.

While market-gardening,
near a town

as

a systematic business,
is

is

quite distinct from farming, there

no farmer who

lives

who may

not

make

the raising of certain crops

on a small scale very

profitable.

Success in this branch of

the business of the farmer requires that the land to be devoted to its prosecution he dry, warmly situated, with a good
exposure, and rich and again rich.

The amount of manure which may be
to land intended for the

profitably applied

growth of market vegetables has
cartloads of good horse

hardly any limit.

One hundred

GARDENING FOR MARKET.

429

manure

to an acre, every year, will
;

will fifty loads

and

I

am inclined

to

pay more profit than believe that even two

hundred loads would pay better

still.

The

cultivation of vegetables entails, in

any

case, a

outlay for labor, seed, expenses of marketing, &c.,
are about the

heavy and these

same (except

in the
it

matter of marketing) for

a light as for a heavy crop

takes a certain

amount of
is

produce to pay the
profit.
it is

cost,

and up

to this point there

no

Beyond

this point, except the cost of the

manure,
exces-

nearly

all profit,

and the more we can stimulate

sive production the

more rapidly

will the ratio of profits

increase over the expenses.

farmer can hope to become really successful in raising vegetables for market until he is prepared to expend including the value of the manure used
ally

No

at least

$300 annu-

if his soil

on every acre of his ^garden land. With this outlay, is good and well placed, and his market is a
is the right

good one, and if he

man for

the business,

he

ought

to

make

a clear profit of $500 per acre.

The

character of the market should be well understood.
is

If there

a manufacturing town near by, or any town hav-

ing a population which includes a large proportion of laboring people, the case is a simple one.
It

should be well understood that

it

does not pay (at least
the rich.

so far as

gardening

is

concerned)

to feed

They

are like the black sheep of the flock, that don't eat so
as the white ones

much

there are not so

many

of them, and, as

430

GARDENING FOR MARKET.

another reason, they do not eat so largely of coarse vegetables. hearty Irish laborer, with a stout hardworking

A

wife and a table full of healthy children, will use up cabba-

ges and turnips in a

way to

delight the heart of a gardener

;

and the atmosphere of a manufacturing town
the

will evapo-

rate a farmer's load of these vegetables as the sun dries

up

morn ins: O

mists.
is

To any one who

disposed to venture an acre or two in

gardening, no better service can be done than to recommend him to read Peter Henderson's " Gardening for Profit,"

wherein are

laid

down

precise rules for the

management

of

every department of the business.

which

have here only space to give a few practical hints be chiefly of use to farmers who propose to devote a portion of their time to the simpler kind of gardenwill
ing.
It

We

may
it

be given as a general rule, that the only crops

that

will

are beets,

pay the farmer to cabbages (early and

raise, in his
late),

market garden,

sweet corn, cucumbers,

onions (rare-ripes), parsnips, radishes, spinach, and tomatoes.

The

We

arrangement, and equipment of the garden. will suppose a farmer to be about to embark in this busisize,

ness,

and that he
dollars.
less

is

willing to invest in

it

a capital of one

thousand
for a

Of course the same general rules will apply
extensive operation.
(if
it),

more or

He should
and
if

select

two

acres of light dry land

he has
if

it,

not he should

-thoroughly underdrain

possible with an exposure to

GARDENING FOR MARKET.
the east or south.
If
it

431

is

sheltered from the north and
trees, so

west by an orchard or by other

much

the better.

be more economically arranged if it lies in about a square body, and should be fenced on the north and
land

The

may

west sides with a tight board fence six or eight feet high. fence of the latter height, made in the best manner, of

A

pine boards, capped with a spruce rail, will cost in the vicinity of New York about $200 for 600 running feet. This
fence should set close to the ground, so that the

wind cannot

draw under

it,

and

it

will

have

the effect of

very materially

modifying the climate, and enabling the growing of
earlier vegetables.

much

Close in the northwest corner he should then set up two
parallel

rows of hemlock boards, nailed to 2x3 stakes, driv-

en into the ground. The back line of boarding should be 12 inches high, parallel to the fence and three feet distant

from

it.

The

other row should be 8 inches high, parallel to
first,

and 6

feet

and 2 inches distant from the

outside meas-

urement.

Both

to

the ends, and the ground enclosed by

be 187 feet long, with boards to close up them should be spaded
is

and manured.

This

the "cold frame," which

is

to be

covered by 50 sashes, each 3 feet 9 inches wide by 6 feet 2 inches long, having four rows of glass, each containing nine

8x10

lights set lengthwise across the space

the

rails

being

ten inches apart.

The

sashes to be

made

of If inch stuff

and strengthened by a flat rod of iron (1 inch by f\ inch) let in flush on the under side and screwed fast to the bars

432

GARDENING FOB MAKKET.
rails,

and

across the

middle of the

sash.

It

is

best

to

make

the sashes in the best manner, as they are a very im-

portant part of the permanent stock in trade of the garden.

They

will cost, at an outside price, $250.

The ground
upon
ed
it

of the garden should be deeply ploughed and

subsoiled in July or August,

and

if

the weeds that

grow

are likely to ripen their seeds, they should be
late in the fall.

mow-

down

Before winter sets

in,

the largest

amount of horse manure
to the rain

that can be bought for $200, deleft

livered, should be spread upon the surface, and

exposed

and melting snow of the winter.
in a well-prepared

About the middle of September, sow

seed-bed in an old garden, twelve ounces of the seed of Jersey Wakefield cabbage, and four ounces of Fottler's Im-

proved Brunswick.
feet of

At about

the

same time sow on three

one end of the cold frame, one ounce of black-seeded butter lettuce, and one ounce of early-curled Simpson lettuce,
feet.

giving to each about nine square

These are

to

remain

where they are sown during the winter.
will be large

The cabbage plants

enough

to transplant about six

time of sowing, when
cold frame

weeks from the " " they are to be pricked out in the
will give about

two inches apart each way, which
sash.

800 plants to a

These plants should be well watered,
light coating of air-slaked lime.

and sprinkled with a

They
them

will need to be protected

by the

glass until they are

firmly rooted (the sashes being tilted up at the back to give
air

whenever the sun

is

on them), and on frosty nights,

GARDENING FOK MARKET.

433
to the cold air, so

and they should be gradually accustomed
that they

may

be able to withstand the hard freezing that

all through the winter they they will get in the winter; should have air whenever the frost is thawed from the under

days the sashes should be stripped off from them altogether. The end where the lettuce plants are standing should have less air, and should have
side of the glass,

and on

fine

the protection at night of an old carpet thrown over the
sash.

Directly in front of the cold frame there should be a

second frame

made
it

of exactly the same size and character.

This should be

filled

with straw, leaves, or other rubbish
last

which

will

keep

from freezing, and about the

of Feb-

ruary or the

first

of

March

its

covering should be removed

and about three inches of well-rotted manure should be dug
into
it

not too deeply.

The

lettuce plants are

now

to be

transplanted to this frame, at distances of six

and

a-half or

seven inches each

way

(about seventy plants to a sash),

and

covered by the sashes which

may now

be taken entirely from

the hardened cabbage plants.

If light board shutters have
it

been provided to cover the cabbages during severe storms,
will be better, but they will stand
after their winter's training.

any amount of hardship

The

lettuce plants should have

plenty of air during fine weather (and some air whenever it is not freezing), should be abundantly watered if the
season
is

dry,

and should be forced by

as

much

heat as can

be given them without depriving them of air. They will be ready for market about the middle of May, when lettuce
19

4:34:

GARDENING FOR MARKET.
sells

usually
to 12c.

in

towns (not in the larger

cities) for

from

8c.

per head.
latter part of April, plant sixty three-inch

During the
and

a dozen seeds each of pots with half
ber,
set

them

in a
is

warm

light

White Spine cucumroom in the house. By

the time the lettuce

sold off these will be sturdy plants,
to three in each pot.

and they should be thinned holes a foot deep, and a

Kow

dig

foot

in

diameter,
fill

at

intervals

of three feet in the lettuce frame, and

them with very
it

thoroughly rotted and rich compost, covering
soil.

with a

little

On

each of these plant the contents of a pot, without

disturbing the roots of the plants, and cover closely with

the sashes.

Give a

little air

in the middle of the day, but

cover close from

weather

;

4: P.M. until 10 A.M., and during all chilly water copiously, and uncover to all wr arm rains.

By
from

the latter part of June the picking will
5c. to 30c. each),
is

commence

(at

and

it

may be

the price
certain

not

less

than

Ic. each.

continued as long as This crop is more unlettuce, but
it

and varying in its results than pays well, and is very inexpensive.

usually

Now

let

us

sum up

the probable income of 50 sashes,
:

managed

as directed

above

35,000 cabbage plants, at $10
3,500 lettuces, at 8c

$350 280
50

Cucumbers (from $25

to $100), say

$680
This
is

earned with a small investment, and the labor

is

GARDENING FOE MARKET.

435

mainly done in the fall and winter, when other work is and it has the great advantage of coming in early, slack
:

when
&c.

there

is

a

demand

for

ready

money

to

pay

for labor,

Five hundred tomato plants

maybe

started in the kitchen

window, or

in a small hot-bed,

and by the middle of April

they may be pricked out in one end of the lettuce frame. As early in May as the danger of frosts has passed, they should

be set out at intervals of

fifteen inches

along the foot of the
field, to

fence on the north and west sides of the

be trained
to single

up against

it

(tacked

fast),

and kept trimmed

At a height of six feet they should be pinched off stems. and their growth kept close. They should be planted in a
very rich
soil,

and well watered.

They can hardly
sell for

fail

to

to produce early crops, and ought

$75 to $100.
field crops.

Now we
If

come

to the

management of the

could only raise cabbages year after year on the same land, our business would be a very simple one. take two crops yearly (an early and a late one) of the

we

We

might most profitable and

easily raised vegetable

on our

list.

in two years is all we can But, unfortunately, one crop " club-foot " will the surely attack an reasonably hope for, as on the same ground, and our best succeeding crop

immediately
plan
is

to arrange to
this

can

making

as many cabbages as we safely our constant aim and to occupy point

grow

the land as profitably as possible the rest of the time.
into two equal parts, Therefore, the field should be divided

436

GARDENING FOR MARKET.
for

one side being prepared
bages the next year.

cabbages and the other for such

other crops as will not interfere with the

growth of cab-

The
acre.

first

operation

is

the preparation of the ground for

early cabbages, for which

we devote

a space of about one

The manure which was spread
lightly ploughed in

in

the

fall

should be

not deep enough to turn up the old sod

and a thousand pounds of Peruvian guano, two thousand pounds of fish guano, or fifteen hundred pounds of bonedust, should be evenly

harrowed

in.

sown over the ground, and thoroughly Either of these manures will cost about $40.
possible to get the

As

early as it

is

ground into proper con-

dition, as described above, the

frame should be

set out, in

cabbage plants in the cold rows two feet apart, and about
It will

16 inches apart in the rows.

probably be best to

plant three-fourths of the piece with the Jersey Wakefield,

and the remainder with the Brunswick, which will begin to be fit for market at about the time when the Wakefield is
all sold.

This amount of land will receive about 15,000 plants,
If leaving about 20,000 plants to be sold from the frame. the value of cold frame plants is understood in the vicinity,

they will be readily taken up at $10 per thousand.
If there
is

a good

summer market
to a

for lettuce, the Early

Curled Simpson

may be set out between the rows
marketable

of cabbage,

when

it

will

grow

size before the

whole

GARDENING FOE MARKET.

437

ground will be required by the main crop. In the neighborhood of small towns this will not be worth while, as
there
is

but

little

demand

for lettuce after

June
and

1st.

As

soon as the cabbages are planted
as in

this
is

may be
the

done even so early
in the
nips,

March,

if

the weather

fine

other half of the garden should be

manured and prepared

same manner, and planted with beets, onions, parsspinach, and radishes the first four in about equal
;
:

proportions, and in the following manner

Beets (of the Bassano and the early turnip-rooted blood variety) should be very thickly planted in rows 18 inches
apart
thickly, because the early frosts

may

cut off a part

and when they are fairly up, they should be out to intervals of about 4 inches in the rows. singled
of the crop

The onions should be
These

" sets " raised the previous year.

may

usually be bought for from $6 to $10 per bushel,

according to size

They

the smallest bearing the highest price. should be set in rows 9 inches apart, and at intervals

of 3 inches in the rows, being firmly pressed

down

in the

bottom of the

line

made by

the marker.

row should be omitted
crop,

to leave

room

to

Every seventh walk among the

and the

sets

should be entirely covered by raking the

beds evenly over.

den crop, and

Onions raised from the seed are rather a farm than a garwill not pay to raise on land so expensively
as that under consideration. Onions raised from " sets " are called Rare Ripes, and

manured

43S

GARDENING FOR MARKET.

they always meet a ready sale in any market where there is a market for any vegetables. Still, as it is considerable

work

them, it will be best not to raise more than onequarter of an acre of them.
to tie

Parsnips should be planted early in May on well prepared (deeply loosened) ground, in rows 27 inches apart, the
seed being strewn thickly in the rows, and the plants finally

thinned to intervals of six inches.
the rowr s so wide asunder
is

The reason
it

for putting

that

enables us to cultivate

the crop with the horse-hoe at a time

when

labor can be

ill

spared for hand-hoeing.

Spinach.
the spring
;

This crop, the

first

year,

must be planted

in

manured,

it

by planting very early, on ground so heavily will be in market ahead of green peas, and will
are

bring a good price, but after these

plenty

it

can

hardly be sold at any price.
is

The

cultivation of this crop

extremely simple. The seeds are sown pretty thickly (say 10 Ibs. per acre) in rows about 12 or 14 inches apart,

and the land kept clean until it is large enough to cut. For all subsequent years, spinach should be planted about
September 15th, on the ground from which the Brunswick cabbage has been taken, this being first well manured with
animal manure.
It will require (above the latitude of

New

York) a light covering of seaweed,
winter.

leaves, or straw
it

during

Coming very
barrel.

early into market,

often brings

four dollars a

Radishes are a stolen crop, and, to a limited extent, they

GARDENING FOR MARKET.

439

may be

very profitably grown.

It

is

best to raise both the

long scarlet and the short top turnip-rooted varieties

the
are

former for

common

trade,

and the

latter for those

who

more choice

in their taste, the proportion of each being

regulated according to the character of the market.

The seed may be sown,
between the rows of
seed
this

rather thinly, with a seed drill

beets.

No

cultivation

is

needed.

The

is the only cost except the preparation for market, and need be applied only to so much as there is a sale for the rest can be simply cut out with a push hoe, before the beets will require the whole ground.
;

have now provided for the planting of all the land, need to commence promptly to use the hoes, of which at least two should be kept going incessantly until

We

and

will

the crops are

all

firmly established, and are able to hold their

no time during the growth of the crops, until they are too large to be worked among without injury, should weeds be allowed to grow at all. If
against weeds.

own

In

fact, at

they once get started so that there must be a fight to get rid of them, we may as well say good-bye to all hope of profit,

they will require more labor than it will be pleasant to pay for, and the crops will be materially injured by them.
for
If,

on the other hand, every foot of the land be lightly hoed over (or even raked with a light iron rake until it becomes
kill,

too hard) once a week, there will be no weeds to

and

the plants themselves will be sufficiently benefited by the

operation to pay the cost.

440

GARDENING FOR MARKET.

Harvesting the crops, and preparing them for market.

The

first sales

will be of radishes

radishes are pulled, and tied in
into water.

and spinach. Long bunches, and then thrown

In a few minutes they are taken out by the tops, laid against a board which stands sloping into the water, and there washed clean with a wisp-broom.

The round
little

radishes

dirt

adheres to

grow at the top of the ground, and so them that they only require to be

soaked for a few minutes and then shaken in the water.

simply cut off at the top of the root and packed 40 Ibs. being a barrel. It is the easiest of (dry) in barrels all the crops, except cabbages, to prepare for market.

Spinach

is

every farmer knows, either left in the ground until spring, or taken up in the fall and stored like any other roots.

Parsnips

are, as

Beets are pulled

when about
washed

half

grown

;

the outside

leaves torn off so as to leave only

by

securely, the roots

clean,

enough and tied

to hold in

them

bunches of

four or

five, according to the varying

custom of different

markets.

Onions

(rare-ripes) are pulled

when the bulb has

a diameter

of three-quarters of an inch or thereabouts
better

the larger the

and, after the removal of the dead skin, are tied in
five or ten.

bunches of

For the

New York
is

market, they
not necessary.

must be washed.
It is quite

For Eastern markets this

an addition to the cost of preparation.

Cabbages (the early sorts) are simply cut off near the

GARDENING FOR MARKET.
ground, with nearly
shipped, are
will stand a
all their leaves,

and,

if

they are to be

packed

in barrels or crockery-crates.

They

good deal of rough treatment.

Prices of Early Vegetables. On this subject but little can be said that will be a criterion for different localities, except that in nearly
all

of the smaller towns they

sell for

from

50 to 100 per cent, above the New York quotations. The cause of this anomalous condition is that these towns are
nearly always supplied with early vegetables from the larger
cities.

Probably the following may be taken as a fair average of prices in towns of from 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants, during
a
series of years
:

Cabbages, 8 cents each. Onions (rare-ripes), 50 cents per dozen Isfinches of five
each.

Beets, 75 cents per dozen bunches of five each.

Radishes, 30 cents per dozen bunches of about ten each.

Spinach, $1.50 per barrel.

Second Crops. -We have now cleared all of the land exThis produces cept that which is occupied by the parsnips.
but one crop during the season, and

more

to expect

from the use of the land.

we have not very much Our profit must

have come mainly from the early crops. Still, enough may be expected to make a fair return for the labor of cultivation,

and
to

for the use of the land
its

and manure, and the land needs
sake.
19*

be cultivated for

own

The gardeners about

the

44:2

GARDENING FOE MARKET.
having a market for everything green that whole year, and for some crops,
salsify,

large cities,

they can

raise during the

such as celery and

which meet with no
;

sale in small

their second crops very profitable places, find

but, in our

are that case, the chances

we must be

content with small

returns from this source.

We
nips,

are debarred from raising rutabagas, or

French

tur-

and

late cabbages, for the reason that these

cannot
fol-

follow our crop of cabbages, and if they were made to low any of the other crops they would injure the land

for

the growth of early cabbages the next year. Celery is a good crop for land that is in good condition,

but

it is

hardly worth raising for small markets.

Horseradish, sweet herbs, mangel wurzel, sweet corn, and

common
these, the

turnips are about the only safe reliance.
first is

Of

the most profitable, as
cities.

it

finds a ready sale

among

the pickle-makers in

tion, the following is

Concerning its cultivacopied from an article furnished by

Peter Henderson for the Report of the Agricultural Department for 1865
:

"

The

culture

is

very simple, and so far very profitable.

plants or sets used are the pieces broken off from the main root in its preparation for market. These are cut into

The

lengths of about six inches, and are from one-quarter to onehalf inch in diameter. They are planted letween the rows

of cabbage or cauliflower as soon as these crops are planted in thx. Spring, and about the same distance apart between

GARDENING FOR MARKET.
the plants.

443

The set

or root

is

planted perpendicularly, three
is
is

inches under the surface.

There

no danger in planting
particularly tenacious
soil
it

the sets thus deep, for horseradish
of
life,

and will

start

and push through the

even

if

planted much
surface
is

deeper.

The motive

in planting

under the

to delay its starting, so as not to interfere with

the cabbage crop, which

may close over it without any whatever to the horseradish. It sometimes happens, injury however, either from planting too near the surface, or by
the sets being very strong, that the horseradish grows so
strongly as to interfere seriously with the cabbage crop.

In such cases
not injure
it

it

must be cut

off

by the

hoe, and this will

in the slightest degree.

We have often had to
It will
is

hoe

it

off twice before the
it is

cabbage crop was ready.

be borne in mind that

the root only of this crop that

wanted, and that, being grown mostly in the late summer and fall months, the removal of the leaves in June, or July
even, does not in any

way

affect the crop.

"

As

soon as the cabbages have been cut off the stumps are
so as to encourage the

dug up, and the ground deeply hoed,

growth of the horseradish crop. This rarely requires to be done more than once, the rapid growth of the leaves smothering all weeds. It attains its full growth of root by the end
of October,

when

it

may

be dug up

;

but, being an entirely
it

hardy plant,

we

usually defer lifting

until all our

more

tender vegetables are secured, so that the time of digging it up is usually in November and December. It is then placed

GARDENING FOR MARKET.
in pits adjacent to the vegetable house, so that it

can be got

at conveniently,
Its

and trimmed during leisure time in winter. preparation for market is very simple, being merely
off the small roots

(which are kept for next season's planting), washing, by rinsing them around in a large tub

trimming

;

weighing
rels.

for

it is all

sold

by weight

and packing

in bar-

"

The average weight per
last

acre

is

four tons, and for the past

five years it

has sold for $200 per ton, or $800 per acre.

During March of
I

year

it it

sold as high as

have always considered

the most safe

$250 per ton. and profitable

crop of our gardens."

Whether

these results could be obtained if the production
it
is

of horseradish were largely increased,

impossible to

say

;

but there

is

no doubt that

its

cultivation will remain

fairly remunerative.

/Sweet herbs are a safe crop to raise,

even at a distance

from market, as they can be dried and stowed away in a loft until the leisure time of winter allows them to be bunched

and packed

for shipment.

Henderson estimates the average

yield per acre at $500.

The

varieties usually

grown
is

for

commercial purposes are

thyme, sage,

summer

savory, and sweet marjoram.
precisely the same.

The

cultivation of all of these

The
fine
at

plants are raised from seed
rich seed-bed,
after

sown

in April in a very
in the field,

and

and they are planted out

any time

they are large enough up to the last of July,

GARDENING FOE MARKET.
in

4:4:5

rows about 12 inches apart, and

at

somewhat

less

than

They should be kept free from At this stage each weeds until they cover the ground. alternate row should be cut out, after which the crop will
this distance in the row.

and in very spread and occupy the whole ground again, favorable seasons it will sometimes close up after alternate
rows have been taken out a second time.
Mangel-wurzel (or field beet) is a safe crop for the farmer to raise, inasmuch as it is the best of all .'the roots for
cattle food
;

and, in rich ground,

it

produces enormously,

while

it

does not interfere with the growth of cabbages the

following year.

For a second crop the plants should be raised from seed planted very early in May, and it should be set out at distances of 30 inches by 15 inches.
It is a perfectly safe

and

easy crop to transplant, if care be only taken not to attempt the operation until the roots are at least as thick as the little
finger.

The

distances

recommended

as the best ones at

which

to

set the plants are larger

than are usual in this country, but

under consideration, the leaves will on cover the whole space, and the roots will grow to an enormous size, giving a larger yield than if more thickly set out.
land so rich as that

Sweet corn
tivation
is

is

a fair crop to raise for market, but
all

its

cul-

so well understood
it

to say here that

which are the

first

by only necessary should follow the spinach and the onions, out of the ground in June.
it is

that

446

GARDENING FOR MARKET.
turnips are the poorest paying of
for a
all

Common
cles

the

arti-

recommended

second crop, but they are also

raised with very little trouble,
at

and

as the seed

may

be sown

last

any removed of the

time in July, they are often available to follow the
first

crops, except the

Brunswick cab-

bages, and these will not usually be cleared off in time to

prepare the ground for anything but spinach for the following spring.

hardly a safe subject for estimate; so much depends on the land, the situation, the man, and the market, that one will gain where another would lose, and the
Profits.
is

This

ratio of profits will

amount.

vary from zero to an almost fabulous However, under any favorable circumstances, a

man

tolerably well qualified for the business, provided he

will use

manure with what he may think a wasteful hand,
table, for

might expect about the results of the following an average of ten years.*
Expenses Kent and taxes, say Interest on cost of improvements and say on $800, at 7 per cent
:

$30
tools,

"Wear and tear

Manure

(2 acres)

Labor (equal to two- men Seeds and plants
Total
*
first

56 100 160 for the whole year) 1000 50
$1,396

The year, the outlay for manure will be more, and, owing to the crude condition of the soil, the returns will be less.

GARDENING FOK MARKET.
Receipts
:

447

From

use of 50 sashes, as per previous

estimate

$680 00
vines on the fences

From 450 tomato

(say 25c. each) 1 acre, 10,000 cabbages at 8c 3 tons horseradish (2d crop)

acre beets, 300 dozen bunches at 75c " onions, 500 dozen bunches at 50c. " spinach, 50 barrels, at $2 J " parsnips, 200 bushels at 75c J Kadishes from among beets and cab.

112 800 500 225 250 100 150

50 00

00 00 00 00 00

J
J-

bages, say acre sweet herbs (2d crop) " sweet corn (2d crop) " say 250 bushels

100 00 100 00 25 00
100 00 25 00
$2,487 50 1,396 00
$1,091 50

mangel-wurzel,
,

at40c
"

common

turnips

Total

Deduct expenses

Net

profits

Of
less

course there are chances that the profits will be

much

than the above amount, but there are at least equal chances that they will greatly exceed it.

STEAM CULTIVATION.
For many years it has been a dream of American inventors to devise some means by which a locomotive steamengine could be
ploughing.

made

to take the place of the

team

in

Thus
to

far,

although some of the devices have been made

work

tolerably well,

none of them have achieved such sucto general use.

cess as to

commend them

It has fallen to the lot of

England

to

make

the

first

appli-

cation of steam to ploughing that has been so decidedly
successful as to

come

into very general use.

They have

abandoned the idea of making the steam-engine travel at the front of the plough, and place it on one of the headlands,
broadside to
it

its

" anchor " work, an standing opposite to
field.

on the other side of the

Under

the engine there

is

a horizontal windlass, five feet
is

in diameter,

and a similar windlass

attached to the anchor.

A

steel wire rope passes around these two windlasses, its ends being fastened to the carriage to which the ploughs are suspended, and which forms a link in the endless chain.

The windlass under
and
lets

the engine

is

so

arranged that
its

it

clasps the rope firmly on those parts where
is

pulling force
its

exerted,

go as the rope leaves

it

in

movement

toward the anchor.

STEAM CULTIVATION.

451

The ploughs

" are set in " gangs on a tilting frame.

One

end of the frame carries right hand, and the other end left hand ploughs. The ploughman sits on the end of the frame which is " in work," and guides the carriage by means of a
steering wheel.

down

to its work,

His weight holds the end on which he sits and tilts the other end up, so that its
air.

ploughs are in the
"
able,

If the width of the field

is

consider-

"

rope porters

or guiding wheels keep the rope from

running on the ground, and thus save power and prevent wear and tear.

The ploughs being ready

to

commence

their

work

at the

side of the field next to the engine, this is set in

motion

and the ploughs are drawn toward the anchor
arrive at the anchor side of the field, the
his seat to the other

;

when they

ploughman changes end of the frame, and the engine is reand in this manner versed, drawing the ploughs toward it they are moved back and forth until the whole length of the
;

field is ploughed. They are then moved to the ends of the headlands and these are ploughed.

The engine is a locomotive, and advances along

the head-

land so as to be always opposite its work, and the anchor is moved at the pleasure of the operator, by the action of its
windlass.

The ploughs

are used in all cases

where there

is

a sod or

a long stubble to be turned under, but fallow land is cultivated by the substitution of long-toothed grubbers, which

work

at a greater depth.

452

STEAM CULTIVATION.
construction of the steam ploughing apparatus, and

The
its

mode

of operation, are shown in the illustrations which
this article.
it

accompany

Among
1.

the advantages claimed for

are the following

:

Greater rapidity of work, allowing land to be speedily prepared for the crop while in the proper condition, thus
greatly lessening the danger that planting will be delayed

by

rains.

Cheapness of work the cost (in England) being reduced from about $5 per acre, the cost with horses, to
2.

about $1.25, the cost with the steam apparatus.
3.

Improved condition of the
Better drainage.

land.

4.
5.

Greater activity in the performance of

all

the

work of

the farm.

Concerning rapidity of work,
14-horse engine set will

it

may be

stated that a

plough from 9 to 12 acres per day, and do the work better (deeper) than it can possibly be done

with any ordinary farm team.

At the Annual Show of the Eoyal
Bury
up
St.

Agricultural Society at

Edmonds,

in 186T, Fowler's cultivator

smashed
day of

50 acres per light stubble-land at the rate of

10 hours, and did the work at a cost of about 25c. per acre, attendance. including all charges for fuel, wear and tear, and

Anything which places

it

in the

power of the farmer

to

rate as even 8 prepare his land for planting at so rapid a

STEAM CULTIVATION".
acres per day,

453

must do much

to free

him from the annoyance

of frequent delays from wet weather at a time

when

it is

im-

portant that everything proceed rapidly.

The comparative
instead of horses,

cost of cultivation,

when done by steam

is,

of course, dependent on circumstances.

On

small farms, and for use in small fields of irregular shape,

the cost of maintaining an expensive set of machinery, and
the time lost in

moving from one field to another, would more than make up for any saving in the actual cost of the

On farms having 250 acres of land under the plough, and having few fields of less than 10 acres, the saving in cost of work would be very great.
work.
This saving of cost, however, is of minor consequence as compared with the other advantages of steam cultivation.

The improved
drainage,
is

condition of the land, including

its

better

the great argument in favor of the process.
of the ploughs
is

The movement
being turned over,
that
it is

nearly twice as rapid as

that of the horse-plough, and the furrow, instead of simply
is

thrown from the mould-board so rapidly

much more thoroughly pulverized.
is

As the furrows
left

are all laid in one direction, there are

no dead furrows

when the work
of land
it

done.

In the ordinary ploughing of an acre
at the

receives 350,000 foot-marks per acre, one-half of

these being

upon the earth

bottom of the furrows,

which

time becomes compacted to an almost water-tight In steam ploughing, the land is not touched condition. by
in

a hoof, and

when

(as is often

the case)

all

the operations of

454:

STEAM CULTIVATION.

harrowing, rolling, and seed-drilling are done by steam, it is left in a condition most favorable to the growth of the crop, and to the rapid subsidence of water of rains assuming
that the land
is

either naturally or artificially under-drained.

Not the

least benefit of

steam cultivation (accompanied
for threshing, grinding, fod-

by the use of the steam-engine
der-cutting, &c.)
is

found

in the greater activity

which

is

im-

parted to all the business of the farm.

The same

diiference,

but in

less

marked degree,

is

to be observed in the use of

horses instead of oxen.

The motive power
ment, and

sets

the time of the whole establish-

oxen leads to a slow, drawling, listless habit, so steam gives an activity and bustle to everything which makes wages and board tell with better effect
as the use of

on the year's performances.
In the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, for 1867, there is a very elaborate report of the results of the examinations of the committees which had been appointed " to
inquire into the results of steam cultivation in use

by 135

farmers and stock companies in England." The following are some of the conclusions
arrived " In
:

at

which they

nearly

all

the cases reported

it

will be seen that the

expenses of cultivation are very
a larger

much

reduced, and yet that

amount of produce
less

is

said to have

been

realized.

"Not

only are the operations themselves better done,
expensively done, but
all

quicker done,

kindred and

col-

STEAM CULTIVATION.
lateral
'

455
to

movements have had imparted
'

them a speed and

whirr

characteristic of steam

;

men

acquire the habit of

doing the day's
the morrow.
sents

work

in the day,

The

day's labor,

and of not leaving it for too, on a steam farm reprethe physical frame of

more work with

less distress to

the laborer, and better remuneration.

Steam

is

working a

revolution slightly manifested as yet, so that we can only speak of tendencies in farm practice, and in the character of

the rural population.

They

are being trained for the era of

machinery

in agriculture.

" In most cases an increase of produce, in some instances
as

much
"

as 8 bushels per acre (of wheat), has resulted

from

steam cultivation.

We may

state as our general

conclusion that steam

tackle,
is it

now

whether of Fowler, Howard, Smith, or other makers, so far perfected and settled in form and details, that
classed

may be
"

among

old-established, standard

farm

machinery, and no longer

among

the novelties of the day.

We

find, as the result of experience, that
viz.,

which we

already anticipated theoretically,

that the increased

depth of surface and the absence of pressure greatly increase
the absorbing powers of the
action of the drains.
soil,

and consequently

assist

the

Smith, of Woolston, England, was one of the pioneers of steam cultivation, and is still one of its most short time ago he extended an invizealous advocates.

" Mr.

Wm.

A

tation to all

who were

interested in the subject to visit his

456

STEAM CULTIVATION.
his tackle,

farm and witness the operation of
effect.

and

to see its

He

communicates to a

of the statements he

made

to

London paper the substance his visitors, and from this I

extract the following, as serving to illustrate the complete-

ness with which the system has been tried and found satis
factory " You
:

must

see that these fields are not only

heavy

ciay,

but hilly and uneven, and the face of them shows that they are well drained as well as well cultivated. " This with field, No. 3, on which you stand, together

through which you have passed, and No. 1 (light land), which I will hereafter show you, contain 32 acres, and were smashed by steam-power on the 31st of August,

No.

2,

and the
cost
:

1st,

2d,

and 3d of September,

at the following

Labor
Coal
Oil
Interest on

3 14
1

12
2 6

money, and wear and tear

2

96

7 18 00

Or
*
"

4s. 9d.

***##**#**
per acre (about $1.15).
I will let

Now

of seed-beds

you know what the operations and cost have been on these four fields under steam

culture for 14 years, taking those on field No. 3 to represent the lot
:

" 10 steam-power smashings, 2 ridgings and subsoilings

STEAM CULTIVATION.

457
one operation,

by steam-power, 2 cultivating^ and
each by steam-power
1 cross cultivating
;

drillings at

1 cross cultivating

by steam-power,

and seeding

at

one operation by steam-

power, 7 horse cultivatings, 1 horse subsoiling, 1 ridge

ploughing by horses. The total cost of these operations has been 6.11.9, or 9. 5d. per acre as the average cost of a seedbed, exclusive of planting or drilling, except those planted

by steam-power. u The cropping on No. 3 during that period has been 1 of peas, 2 of barley, 5 of beans, 5 of wheat, and 1 of Swedes.

"The
than
"
it

average yearly produce under steam culture has
fields,

been, on these four

quite 14 bushels per acre
culture.

more

*-x--x--#-&#-*### Now
let
last.

had been under horse

us look into the working of the tackle since the

5th of October

On

that day I started

it

on No. 4

It
is

(heavy land), 10 acres, ridging and subsoiling it for beans. was finished on the 6th at 4.10 P.M. The depth of work
9 inches
;

the consumption of coal 1 ton

;

and the pres-

sure on the engine 60 Ibs. " then shifted the tackle nearly half a mile to No. 1

We

P.M.

(heavy land), 8 acres, and we finished that field at 12.15 on the 8th. Depth of work 10 inches consumption of
;

coal 16 cwt. "

;

pressure on the engine 65

Ibs.

We then

shifted the tackle a quarter of a mile to

No. 3
at

(light land, part 1), 5 acres,

and finished
;

it

on the 9th

12.20 P.M.
9 cwt.
;

Depth

of

work 10 inches
Ibs.

consumption of coal

pressure on engine 60
20

458
"

STEAM CULTIVATION.

then shifted the tackle a mile to No. 6 (light land), 14 acres, working all day on the 10th (the llth was Sunday), working again all day on the 12th, arid
che 13th at 8.40 A.M.
tion of coal 29 cwt.
;

We

we
;

finished on

Depth

of work 11 inches

consumpto

"

We

pressure on engine 65 Ibs. then shifted the tackle more than a mile

No. 3
at

(light land, part 2). 6 acres,

and finished

it

on the 14th

11.50 A.M.
coal 10 cwt. "
;

Depth of work 10 inches; consumption of
pressure on engine 60
Ibs.
it

We
:

then shifted the tackle to where

now

stands,

on

No. 4

(light land), for
v

n. *'"' # ,* " It is not a set of new-fangled tackle, got
-x-

'#.#

you

to see

it

at

work.
:

.*

up

for the pur-

has done pose of racing, for the common portable engine 10 years' hard work. It lias done, in addition to my ploughing, a lot of threshing

and grinding, yet it is in capital trim. has been but a 'mere trifle. The cost of repairs " The windlass has had 10 In 1858 it did years' work.
55 acres for the late Prince Consort, on the Flemish farm,

Windsor, and I have worked

it

on

my

#

*

*

'

*

*

#

#**'*''*
The
first

farm ever

since.

" I have worked the rope T years.

year
it

it

got

out several times.

At one

or other of the splices

pulls in

two

;

indeed

it

through a day without a break

has not, during these 9 days' work, gone therefore the men have had
;

the mending of the ropes to do as well as the ridging and
subsoiling.

"

My

average quantity of work per day

is

much

greater,

STEAM CULTIVATION.

459

average consumption of coal per acre is much less, has ever been before. This is mainly due to my land having been deeply worked so many times before.

and

my
it

than
"

The sum

total of

till

this evidence proves plainly that the

tion of the soil gives clean dress

Woolston system of applying steam-power to the cultivaand cheap seed-beds, and
that

that fancy tackle

He

The boy 14 years old. only you see working the implement has done all my work this year, and well too. The
is

not needed on show days.
is

work

is

before you to speak for itself."

It is found, for use in

neighborhoods where the farms
out by the

are small, that

it is

the best plan to form joint-stock comhiring
it

panies to

own and

operate the tackle

day or
holders.

by the acre, and giving the precedence to stock-

This plan would work the best among the smaller farmers of our Eastern States but at the West, where the
proprietorships are larger,
it

will be

have the apparatus, with
tached to the farm.

its

most advantageous to engine to do other work, at-

sometimes objected that much of the land in this country is too rough and too stony for the steam-plough ever to gain a foothold. The same objection was made twenty
It
is

years ago to the use of the
land,

mowing machine

in

New

Engthe

and there

is

every reason to suppose that

when

advantages of the steam-plough are once fully realized, even the hillsides of Vermont will smile under its influence.

HOUSE PAINTING.
The
They
following receipts and directions are condensed from

a practical English work on the art of house painting.
are principally designed for the inexperienced
cities,

and
diffi-

those who, living at a distance from
culty in obtaining first-class

have great

workmen.

To make the work satisfactory, it is very necessary for the workman to have very clean all the vessels, brushes, and cans
he may require in the course of his work, such as the various paints, pots, or vessels in which he mixes or from which
he uses his
shops,
colors.

handsomely made

These are sometimes bought of stout tin, and such are
in color,

at the

easily

kept clean, and save their expense brushed down their smooth sides.

which

is

readily

He

will also require a

marble slab and muller, to grind the finer colors used in Sometimes a small cast-iron mill is useful not painting.
only to grind colors, but to pass the tinted color through, so
that
it

may be more

thoroughly mixed.

It is

presumed the

workman

will

know what
after

brushes he

will require, according to the

work he has

in hand.

In preparing to paint a good dwelling,

having ob-

tained the necessary colors and brushes, see that you have a

few pounds of good pumice stone, a quire or two of assorted sand paper, to smooth the inequalities in the work some
;

HOUSE PAINTED. twenty pounds of putty, to stop up

461

after the first coat in

every part of the house ; a sufficiency of fine slaked lime, and a proper number of large and small vessels, to mix the
colors in

and use

it

from

;

a few pounds of soaked glue, &c.

If the wood- work be new, and no wall
will

work

required,

you

go over
size,

glue

carefully with a small brush, and some of the colored with red lead, covering what knots and
it

appear in the wood, after which the priming coat of almost all oil, and good white lead, tinted with
stains

may

Indian red, should be evenly brushed over the work and, as soon as dry, the putty knife and putty should follow, to
;

stop

all

the cracks and nail holes.
little spirits

Then should
This

follow the
oil,

second coat, with a

of turpentine in the
is

and

the color slightly tinged with blue black.

generally

thought

sufficient for the attic

and third

stories.

But the

rest of the

house

is

usually finished with old ground white

The roof, if covlead, thinned with spirits of turpentine. ered with tin, should be painted once in three years. There
are
oil,

many

different

methods in

use.

Some

paint with

raw

dry Spanish brown and a little red lead, to dry it, for fear of a rain others, with Spanish brown, more
;

red lead, and half whale

oil

with the linseed

oil

;

others
oils
;

use yellow ochre and black, mixed in the same
others use a roof paint,
oil,

and

carefully

made by boiling paint skins in whale straining them while warm, reserving the

remaining skins, to stop the leaks around chimneys and dormer windows. This last mentioned paint is probably

462
serviceable from
its

HOUSE PAINTING.
elasticity.

In the country, many paint their roofs and out-buildings in the same way, using sometimes Venetian red from its brightness.

Many
and

complaints are continually

made

that white lead,

colors

beaten off
occurs as
its

composed thereof, do not endure, and are quickly by exposure to the sun and rain. This difficulty
paint as from
it is

much from the manner of using the As this occurs in outside work, quality.
first,

to

be

at-

tributed,

to the condition of the

work

to be painted,

being generally in such a state as to absorb the oil from the
first coat,

thereby leaving

it

in a dusty state,
rain.

and

liable to

be washed of by the
against, only

first

This can be guarded

coats over

by filling the old work, in painting two thin and finit, one upon the other, as soon as dry
;

ishing
rain.

it

with one thicker coat, to protect

it

and shed the
is

A

fourth coat, if the immediate expense

not

heeded, will repay its cost in additional service

and beauty.

The white

lead can be procured of any requisite quality
It is thought that the best article is
it

at the color stores.

the most economical, as

works out with more
its

ease,

and

repays the difference of cost in
oil is also

appearance.

Linseed
as

better for having due age, for the

same reasons

the white lead, working with softness and advantage after

parting with the water which

is

generally combined with

new

oil.

The

quality and fineness of the white lead used adds
is

materially to the work, and that which

well ground, and

MIXING PAINTS.
has such mellowness from age as will cause
it

463
to

work

smoothly under the brush, in connection with good linseed
oil,

will certainly repay

first

any reasonable additional cost. The coats should always be mixed with clear linseed oil ;

the fourth coat

may

be used with boiled

oil

and one-quarter

part spirits of turpentine.

where you can depend upon its being made of good dry whitening and It should be carefully and freely used after the linseed oil.
Putty
is

best purchased at a

good color

store,

work has had one coat of
putty very firmly.

paint, for the fresh paint holds the

Harmony
lows.

of Colors.

Ked

looks

well

with blacks,

whites, or yellows.

Blues harmonize with whites and yelwith whites, black or yellow. Greens, Gold, with

blacks or browns.

White appears well with any

color.

Purple, pink and white, &c., &c.

MIXING PAINTS.

A

Beautiful White Paint.

For

inside

work, which

ceases to smell,

and
to

dries in a

few hours.

Add

one pound
turpentine;
it

of frankincense
dissolve
it

two quarts of
fire,

spirits of

over a clear

strain

it,

and bottle

for use

;

then add one pint of this mixture to four pints of bleached linseed oil, shake them well together, grind white lead in
spirits of turpentine,

and

strain

it,

then add sufficient of the
;

lead to

make

it

proper for painting

if

too thick in using,

464
thin with turpentine,

MIXING PAINTS.
it

being suitable for the best internal

work on account of

its

superiority

and expense.
oil is

For a Pure White Paint.
seed
oil is

Nut

the best

;

if lin-

used, add one-third of turpentine.

Paint. Mix or grind white lead in linseed oil to the consistency of paste, add turpentine in the proportion of one quart to a gallon of oil ; but
these proportions must be varied according to circumstances.

To Mix Common White

Remember
If the

to strain
is

your color for the better

sorts of work.

work

exposed to the sun, use
its

more turpentine

for

the ground color to prevent

blistering.

For Knotting.
glue size and apply

Mix white or read
it

lead

powder

in strong

warm.
Stain your white lead with red
turps.

Common
lead,

Flesh Color.
oil

and mix with

and
Is

Fine Flesh Color.
vermilion.

composed of white

lead, lake

and

A

Beautiful Color for Carriages, &c.

Mix carmine

lake with black japan.

Cream
oil.

Color.

This

is

a mixture of chrome yellow, the

best English Venetian red, white lead, and red lead, in

Pearl Gray. White lead, with equal portions of Prussian blue and lampblack, mix with oil and turps.

Fawn
very
fine.

Color.

Grind some burnt and raw
or three pounds of this
is

terra sienna

Two

sufficient to stain

MIXING PAINTS.
white lead for a large building.
shade, and very excellent

465
is

This color

of a superior

for inside

work.
;

Blue.

Grind Prussian blue
and mix
it

fine in linseed oil,

other blue very in turps with white paint to the tint

required.

Buff

This

is

a mixture of

low and white
and turps.

lead,

French yellow, chrome yeltinged with a little Venetian red, oil

Straw.
oil

A

mixture of chrome yellow and white lead,

and

turps.

Drab.
tle

Raw

and burnt umber and white

lead,

with a

lit-

umber and white
turps, as before.

Venetian red, linseed oil and turps. lead, with a little Venetian red,
Another.

Burnt
oil

and

Steel.
digris, in

Mix white
White
oil

lead, Prussian blue, fine lake

and ver-

such proportions as to produce the required color.
lead, Prussian

Purple.
lake, with

blue and vermilion, or

and

turps.

Violet.
black,

Is

composed of vermilion, mixed with bluewhite.

and a

little

French Gray.
with vermilion
;

White lead and Prussian
and

blue, tinged

for the last coat substitute carmine
oil

for the vermilion.

Mix with

and

turps.

Silver.

Use white

lead, indigo,

and a small portion of

blue-black, as the shade

may

require.

466
Gold.

MIXING PAINTS.

Mix Naples yellow

or patent yellow with a small
little

quantity of orange

chrome and a

Spanish white.
yellow

Dark Chestnut. Mix red ochre and black. Use ochre when you require to lighten the color, in oil.
Salmon.
etian red, oil

White
and

lead, tinged

with the best English Ven-

turps.

Peach Blossom.
mixed with
Drab.
oil

White

lead,

tinged

with orpiment

;

and turps.

White lead with a little Prussian blue and French
Another.

yellow, linseed oil and turps.

White

lead,

with

French yellow and lamp-black, linseed oil and turps. Another. White lead with a little chrome green and bluea
little

black.

Lead.
with a

This

is

a mixture of lamp-black and white lead,

little litharge.

Chocolate.
little

Mix lamp-black and Venetian

red with a

red lead, or litharge, to harden the color and give a

The colors must be ground, and mixed drying quality. with boiled oil and a little turps.

Dark Red,

for

Common Purposes. Mix

English Venelitharge, to

tian red in boiled oil with a little red lead

and

give a drying quality.

Orange. Mix red lead and French yellow with linseed oil and turps, or use deep chrome yellow.
Bright Yellow for Floors, &c. White lead and linseed oil, mixed with some French yellow, and a little chrome

MIXING PAINTS.
burnt white yellow to brighten it some red lead, to give it a very drying quality. and litharge added
;

467
vitriol

This

color

mixed with equal parts of boiled
thin.

oil

and turpentine,

and used very

Dark Yellow.

Mix French yellow
and

in boiled

oil,

adding

to it a little red lead

litharge, to give the paint a drying

quality.

Light Yellow. This chrome yellow and white

is

a mixture of French yellow,

lead,

with

oil

and

turps.

Another.

French yellow, white lead, and red lead. Another. Grind raw terra sienna in turps and linseed oil mix with
;

white lead.

If the color

is

required of a

warmer

cast,

add

a

little

burnt terra sienna ground in turps.

Olive Green.

A suitable, cheap, and handsome color for

outside work, such as doors, carts, wagons. &c.

Grind separately Prussian blue and French yellow in boiled oil, then mix to the tint required with a little burnt
white
vitriol to act as a drier.

Another.

Black and blue

mixed with yellow,
shades required.

in such quantities as to obtain the colors or

For distemper, use indigo and yellow pink

mixed with whiting or white lead powder. Another. This is a mixture of Prussian blue, French yellow, a small
portion of Turkey umber, and a the same way.
little

burnt vitriol.

Ground
blue and

chrome yellow.

Another, in oil. Grind the same.

Mix Prussian
Another shade.

A mix-

ture of Prussian blue and French yellow, with a small

468

MIXING PAINTS.

quantity of white lead and Turkey
vitriol.

umber and burnt white

Grind the same.

Light Green.
white lead.

White mixed with

verdigris.

A variety

of shades may be obtained by using blue and yellow with

Grass Green.

Yellow mixed with

verdigris.

Another.
of white

lead.

Mix one pound of verdigris with two pounds Walnut oil is the best for this purpose.

Invisible Green, for outside -work.

Mix lamp-black

and French yellow, with burnt white vitriol. These colors mix in boiled oil. Burnt vitriol is the best drier for greens,
as
it is

powerful and colorless, and consequently will not

injure the color.

To Paint a Bronze.
oil
;

yellow and boiled nearly dry use the bronze powder at certain parts and the
edges also
;

Grind good black with chrome apply it with a brush, and when

the effect will be a brassy hue.

A

Good Imitation of

Gold.

Mix white

lead,
is

chrome

yellow, and burnt sienna, until the proper shade

obtained.
tar

Tar Paint
with whiting.

for Fences, Roofs, &c.

Common

mixed

Venetian red or French yellow, according This should be warmed in a large to the color required.
iron kettle in the open
ing-brush.
It is

and applied with a large paintan excellent preservative of the wood, and
air,

looks well for rough work.

Paint Driers.

Litharge.

This

is

a useful

drier,

and

MIXING PAINTS.

460

may be

used in

all

delicate colors.

kinds of paints, except greens and very White Vitriol or Copperas. This turns

into water, especially

when used
till

in black paints

;

and

is

almost useless for any color
is

the water of crystallization
drier,

evaporated, and then

it

becomes a powerful

and

may be used for every delicate color, as it is perfectly transparent ; but when used in its raw state in white paint, has
the effect of turning
it

yellow.

Sugar of Lead.
it

This

is

a very useful and transparent drier, not

so powerful as

white

vitriol,

but

it

may
:

be used with

to advantage.

Milk Paint

for In-door
feet

hundred square

The quantity for one One quart of skimmed milk, three

Work.

ounces of lime, two ounces of linseed or poppy

oil,

one

pound and a half of Spanish white or whiting. Put the lime into a clean bucket, add sufficient of the milk to slake
the lime, add the
oil

a few drops at a time, stirring the the whole of the
oil is

mixture with a

flat stick till
;

incorpo-

rated in the mass

then add the remainder of the milk, and afterwards the Spanish white or whiting, finely powdered,

gently over the mixture by degrees. Curded milk will do for the purpose, but it must not be
sifted

and

sour.

One
;

coat of this will do for ceilings and staircases

in general
is

two

coats or

more

for

new wood.

Where

color

you may use powdered umber, ochres, chromes, greens, blues, pinks, &c., &c., ground in milk. For particurequired,
lar

work, strain the color through a hair

sieve.
is

Lime Whitewash.

Lime whitewash

made from lime

470
well slaked.
boiling water,

MIXING PAINTS.
Dissolve two pounds and a half of alum
in.

and add

it

to every pailful of whitewash.
it is

Lime whitewash should be used very thin, and when sufficiently bound on the wall by means of alum, two
coats will cover the
first

thin

work

better

;

this

may

be used for the

coat, thinned with water.

their

wash

too thick,
to bind

Most whitewashers apply and do not mix a proportionate quanit,

tity of

alum

consequently the operation of the
coat in various parts and leaves an

brush rubs off the

first

uneven
is

surface,

and the original smooth surface of the wall

entirely destroyed.

Italian Marble.
for columns, &c.,

This looks bold, and
is

is

well adapted

and

easy to imitate.
colors,
:

The ground a

light buff.
buff,

For the graining
in the following

prepare a rich,
stiff

warm

made

manner

Mix

in boiled oil

white lead and good stone ochre, and tinge with vermilion,
then grind some burnt terra sienna very fine in burnt oil, and put it into another pot mix some pure white stiff
;

Thin these colors with turoil, and keep this separate. pentine, have ready a brush for the buff, and another for
in

the terra sienna.

Proceed

to

work

as follows
full

:

Take the

brush intended for the buff moderately

of color, and

dab

it

them
sible.
fill

on freely and carefully in different patches, some of larger than others, and varying them as much as pos-

When

these are laid on, take the other brush

and

in with the terra sienna the spaces

between

;

as soon as

this is done, take a

dry duster or softener and blend the

MIXING PAINTS.

471

edges together, making it appear as soft as possible. Proceed in this manner till the whole is finished, then take a
hair pencil and

draw a few thin white veins over the work,

much as is necessary ; take another pencil varying them for the terra sienna, and run a few thin lines intermixing with the whole ; varnish when dry.
as

your white lead to a light lead color, with lamp-black and a little Throw on black spots with a graniting machine, rose-pink.
a pale red, and
is
fill

To Imitate

Granite.

For the ground

color, stain

up with white a

little

before the ground

dry.

A

Cheap Oak Varnish.

Two

quarts of boiled

oil,

one

and a half pound of litharge, three quarters of a pound of gum shellac, one ounce of gum. All boiled together, and
stirred

up

till

dissolved, then take off the fire

and add two

quarts of turps.
for use.

"When

settled, strain into a bottle

and cork

Common Oil Varnish.
oil,

Take one gallon of quick drying
;

and one quart of turpentine put the resin with the drying oil into a varnish kettle, and let it dissolve in a gentle heat take it from the fire and gradually

two pounds of

resin,

;

pour in the spirits of turpentine.
the turpentine.

If too thick add

more of

Transparent Varnish for Pictures. Take the white of four eggs and two ounces of loaf sugar beat them up in
;

lime water to the proper consistency for varnishing.

472

MTTTNa PAINTS.

For Varnishing on Wood, Unpainted. Quarter of a pint of wood naphtha, quarter of a pint of spirits of wine, four
ounces of benzoin, four ounces of orange shellac, added all If not thick enough with those ingredients for together.

your purpose, add more of the gums benzoin and

shellac.

Waterproof Varnish, for Linen or

Calico.

One

pint

of turpentine, one and a half pint of linseed

oil, seven ounces

of litharge, one ounce of sugar of lead. Strain it, apply it with a brush, and dry it in the sun or in a warm place.

Instructions.
paints
;

Oil of turpentine deadens the color of

varnishes, copal, &c., brighten the color.

SOLDERS AND CEMENTS.

4:73

SOIDEKS.
For lead
solder.

add 2 parts of

lead.

Melt 1 part block tin,, and when Use resin with it.

fused,

Melt 4 parts of pewter, 1 part of and 1 part bismuth together. Use resin with it.
solder.

For tm

tin,

CEMENTS.
Grime.

Melt 1

Ib.

glue in 2 quarts

warm

water.

For a

glue that will
in 2 quarts of

resist

the action of water, boil 1
milk.

skimmed
it.

Ib. of glue Pulverized chalk added to

glue strengthens

Soft cement.

For

boilers, steam-pipes,
oil,

&c.

:

4 parts red
filings.

or white lead, ground in

with 2 or 3 parts iron

cement. Mix iron borings or filings with salt then add a small quantity of sal ammoniac with water,

Hard

water.

Hydraulic cement
&c.,
is

for

cisterns,

sewers, cellars, pipes,
Ibs.

purchased by the barrel, which contains 300
cementr
is

Dry
marble,

which

will resist

the weather equal to

made

of 2 parts sifted ashes, 3 parts clay, and 1
oil.

part sand, mixed with

and applied while

soft.

Brown
Mix

mortar,,for masonry, brick-work, <&c.

1 part lime, 2 parts sand, a small quantity of hair

with water.

CONTENTS.
ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED.

A.
PAGE

ACCOUNTS, KEEPING OF

227 227
229
231

Accounts by single entry, with examples
"

double

"

"

"

Form of bill of sundries
receipt in full

237
.'

"
"

check
due-bill

238
238 238

"

promissory note " " with
draft or bill of
all

surety

238
239 240
190

"

exchange

Explanation of

the above
OF, IN

ALCOHOL, PROPORTION

LIQUORS

ANGULAR MEASURE,

Illustrated

23
197

ANIMALS, LIFE AND INCREASE OF
Table,
tic

showing the period of reproduction and gestation of domes198

animals and fowls

Table,

showing when forty weeks (the period of gestation in a
will expire,
life

cow)

from any day throughout the year
.

199
.

Growth and

of animals

.

199

4:76

CONTENTS.
9JUOM

ANIMALS,

AGE

OP, Illustrated

201

To
" "
"

find the age of a horse

201
,

"

"

"

"

cattle

206

sheep
"
" "
"

208 208
212

goats

ANIMALS, FOOD

OF, Illustrated

Table, showing the comparative difference between good hay and

other food for stock
Table,

being the results of experiments

212

showing the comparative difference between good hay and
being the

other food for stock

mean between experiment and
213
different animals require per

theory
Table,

showing the quantity of food

day
Table, Table,

to each 100 Ibs of then- live weight.

213 214
dif-

showing the daily food required by the ox
showing the
effects

produced by an equal quantity of

ferent kinds of substances as food for sheep

215 209
219

ANIMALS, COMPUTED WEIGHT OF

ANNUITIES
Table, showing the

amount of $1

for

any number of years from

1

to 24, at 5 and 6 per cent,

compound interest

219

Table, showing the present worth of $1 annuity at 5 and 6 per
cent,

compound

interest for

any number of years from

1 to 34,

218
158
156

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT, table
"
fluid

measure, table

ARITHMETICAL CHARACTERS, EXPLANATION OF
ARTIFICIAL

14

MANURES

357
152

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT, table

CONTENTS.
B.

477

PAGE

BALANCES, FALSE, Illustrated

84

To detect false balances
To
find the true

84
84
125 62

weight

BOARD FENCE

(see fences)

BOARD MEASURE
BOOKS, SIZES OF (see printing)

260 242
81

BONDS

U.

S.

BONDS

BOXES, CAPACITY OF

BRICK- WORK (see masonry)

276
387
391 391
391

BUTTER, PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF

BUTTER AND CHEESE-MAKING
The butter dairy

The milk room
Cleanliness

392 392
393

Setting the milk

Cream-churning

Packing
Test

for

market

394
396
397

of good butter.

The cheese dairy
Quality of cheese

397
399

To

construct an ice-house for the dairy

Analysis of butter C.

390

CAPACITY OF BOXES
"

81
Illustrated

WAGON-BEDS,

82 78

CASK-GAUGING, Illustrated

478
To
"

CONTENTS.
PAGB
find the contents of a cask

by three dimensions
"

79 79
:

"

"

"

"

"

four

"

CATTLE, SOILING
CATTLE, TO FIND THE

401

AGE

OF
OF, Illustrated

206
209

CATTLE, COMPUTED

WEIGHT

Table, showing the compute weight of cattle from their girth, &c. 211

CEMENTS
Glue
Soft cement

473 473

473 473 473
473
for

Hard cement
Hydraulic cement

Dry cement

Brown mortar
CIRCLES

masonry, brickwork, &c

473 296

To

find the circumference of a circle

296 296 296

" "

" diameter " area

" "

To

find the side of an equal square containing the
circle

same area as a
297 297

given

To

find the solidity of a sphere

Table,

showing the areas of

circles

and the

sides of their equal

squares, from 1 to 100

298
table,

To

find,

by means of the

the square or circle that will con-

tain the area of a board or surface of given length and width. 302

CIRCULAR MEASURE, Illustrated
CISTERNS, Illustrated

23

86
in square or oblong cisterns

To

find the

number of gallons

86

CONTENTS.

4:79
PAGE

To

find the

number of

gallons in triangular cisterns
circular

86

"

"

"

87

Table, showing the contents of circular cisterns from 1 foot to 25
feet in diameter for each 10 inches in depth

87
88
89

To To

find the

number of gallons

in tub-shaped cisterns

ascertain the size of cisterns adapted to roofs

Table,

showing the contents of

circular cisterns in barrels for

each foot in depth

90

To

construct filtering cisterns to furnish pure water for domestic

use

91

CHARCOAL, TO PREPARE

115

CHEESE DAIRY (see butter and cheese)

397
169
118
18

CLOTH MEASURE,

table.

COKE
COMMERCIAL ABBREVIATIONS

COMPOUND INTEREST,
CONTENTS

table of

218
475

CORN ON THE COB

IN CRIBS, TO
equilateral

MEASURE, Illustrated

57

When When

the crib the crib

is

57
58
194
Ib.

is

flared at the sides

CORN, RELATION OF PORK TO
Table, showing price of pork per
for corn

at different prices per bushel

194
195 195

To
To

find the price of pork, the price of corn being given
find the price of corn, the price of

pork being given

CROPS, ROTATION OF

378
crops

Rotation of

field

385

480
Eotation of garden crops

CONTENTS.
PA6B

386
381

Chemical theory of rotation
CROPS, NUTRITIVE VALUE OF

190
171

CUBIC MEASURE, table

To

find the cubic contents of

any

solid
1

body

171

CUBES AND CUBE ROOTS, TABLE

or,

FROM

TO 1000

303

CULTIVATION, STEAM, Illustrated

450

9.
DECIMALS
FRACTIONS
fractions to decimals

257 257
257 258

To reduce

To add
To

decimals

subtract decimals

To multiply decimals

258

To

divide decimals

259
259

Table of useful decimals

DECREASE AND EXPECTATION OF

HUMAN

LIFE

216

Table, showing the decrement and expectation of

human

life.

.

.

216

Table of

St.

Maur

217
292

DEFINITIONS OF MATHEMATICAL FORMS
Parallel Lines

292

An
An

Angle

292
292
292

A Right Angle
Acute Angle
Obtuse Angle

An

292
292

A A

Surface
Triangle
Altitude...
.

292
292

The

CONTENTS.

481
PAGB

A Right Angle Triangle A Parallelogram
AEectangle

293 293

293
293

A Square A Trapezoid
The Altitude

293
293

A Circle
The Circumference
The Diameter The Radius

293 293
293
293

A
A

Solid

294

Prism

294 294
294

Triangular Prism

Hexagonal Prism
Cylinder

294

Cube

294

A Pyramid
The
Altitude.

294
294
294

A Cone A Frustum
An
Ellipse

295
295 295

ASphere

A

Spheroid

295
193
IN ARTICLES or

DEPTH OF SOWING WHEAT
DIET, SOLID

MATTER AND WATER

198

in 100 Table, showing the proportion of solid matter and water

parts each of various articles of diet

198

482
DRAINING TILE

CONTENTS.
*

PAGE

362
a drain
tile

How

to

make

364
used
in

Different kinds of

364

Boynton's improvement

making
tile

tile

365
367

Rules to be observed in making
Size and quantity of
tile

drains

required to the acre
tile

368

Tools used in laying drain

370
373 373

How
The

to

make drain

tile,

Illustrated

Why should land be drained
effects of drainage

374
162

DRY MEASURE,

table

E.
EARTH, PRESSURE
OF,

AGAINST

WALLS

255
149
149

ENGLISH MONET, table
" "

Gold and

silver coin

Copper coin

150

Canadian currency

150
(see soils,

EXHAUSTION OF SOILS

exhaustion

of)

320 216
life.
. .

EXPECTATION AND DECREASE OF

HUMAN

LIFE

Table, showing the decrement and expectation of human
St.

216 217

Maur's Table

F.
FALSE BALANCES,
Illustrated.

84 84 84
125

To
To

detect false balances
find the true

weight

FENCES AND FENCING, Illustrated

CONTENTS.

4:83
PAGE

Kail fence
Table, showing the

126

number of

rails,

stakes,

and riders required
127

for each 10 rods of fence

Post and
Table,

rail

fence
rails

128
required for each

showing the number of posts and
rail

10 rods of post and

fence

128
128

Post and board fence

To

find the

number

of feet of boards required for each rod of post

and board fence

129
posts required for a given length of post

To

find the

number of

and board fence
FENCES, HEDGE
FENCES,
(see

129

hedge plants)

130 134

WIEE
(see animals, food
of), Illustrated

FOOD OF ANIMALS

212

FOOD FOR STOCK, STEAMING
FRACTIONS (see decimals)
Table of useful decimals
FREIGHTS, By-laws of N. Y. Chamber of

415
257 259

Commerce

442
113

FUEL
Table, Table,
coal

showing the comparative values of
showing the weights per cubic

fire

woods

113

foot of different kinds of

115 116
115

Properties of charcoal

To prepare
Table,

charcoal

showing the number of parts of charcoal afforded by 100

parts of different kinds of

wood
.

118 118

Coke...

484

CONTENTS.
PAOB

Table,

showing the weight, evaporative powers
fuel

for weight, bulk,

and character of

119 120

Combustible matter of fuel
Table, showing the heating

power of

different combustibles

121
121
.
.

Table, showing the effects of heat Table,

upon

certain bodies

showing the

relative value of different fuels

by weight.

121

Table, showing the
lifted to

number of

gallons of water

which may be
Ibs.

various heights

by the consumption of 112

of coal 122

Table,

showing the price of parts of a cord of wood

at given

rates per cord

123

G.
GrARDEN SEEDS, QUANTITY
OF,

TO PLANT,

&C

192

GARDENING FOR MARKET
Size,

428 430
432
. .

arrangement, and equipment of the garden

Construction and care of the hot-bed
Profits of the

same
field

434
435

Management of

crops

Vegetables best adapted for market

437

Harvesting the crops
Prices of early vegetables
Profits of the business

440
441

446
78

G-AUGING, CASK, Illustrated

GLUE, TO MELT AND APPLY
GOATS, TO FIND THE AGE OF

473

208

GrOVERFMENT LAND MEASURE
(TRAIN, MEAST^EICENT
OF, IN GRANARIES, Illustrated

50
60

CONTENTS.

485
PAGE
differ-

G-RAIN,

WEIGHT

or, as established

by the Legislatures of the

ent States
(TRAIN,

189
191
ACRE,

PER CENT. OF OIL IN

G-RAIN, QUANTITY OP, TO

sow PER

&c

192

GRAVITY, SPECIFIC, Illustrated

182

To
"

find the specific gravity of a

body
"
lighter than water

183
183

"

"

"

"

"

To reduce the gravity of a body

to its

weight in

Ibs.

per cubic foot 184

Table, showing the specific gravity of various bodies

185

To

find the

weight of a cubic foot of substance, the
. .

specific grav-

ity being given

:

185
feet in

To

find the

number of cubic

any

irregular

body

186

Table,

showing the weight of a cubic foot of different substances 187

HAY, MEASUREMENT

OF, Illustrated

51
into

To
"
"

find the

number of tons of hay raked
" " "
in a

windrows

52 52 53
53

"

" "

mow

" "
"

" "
"

" "
"
"

in old stacks in long, square stacks

" "

"
"

"

when taken

out of old

mows
54

or stacks
Table,

showing the price per cwt. of hay

at given prices per ton

54

An

easy

mode

of ascertaining the value of a given

number of Ibs.
55
121

of hay at a given price per ton of 2000 Ibs

HEAT, EFFECTS

OF,

ON DIFFERENT BODIES
.

HEATING INCLOSED AIR

.

122

4:86

CONTENTS.
PAGE

HEATING BY STEAM-PIPE

123

HEDGE PLANTS
Directions for setting and trimming

130
131

To preserve plants during the winter
Setting evergreens

131 131

Osage orange

132

Honey locust
Buck thorn
Privit

132
132

132 133 133
133

Hawthorn

Norway
Arbor

spruce

vitae

Hemlock
HOP, ANALYSIS
OF, Illustrated

133

323

HORSE POWEB.

Illustrated

136
of.

HOESE POWER,
Table,

origin

and definition

139
able to perform at different

showing the labor one horse

is

rates of speed

on

canals, railroads,

and turnpikes

140

Table,

showing how

much one team and plough will perform in a
141

day

in acres and tenths

Draught of a horse

136

Power

of the horse

when

aided by horse-mill

136 136 136 139

Travel per day of the horse

Burden of the horse
Endurance of the horse

To compute the power
u
"
"
"

of a waterfall

139

of a steam-engine

140

CONTENTS.

487
PAQB

To

find the age of the horse ................................

201

Food of the horse ........................................ 213

HOUSE PAINTING ............................................ 460

HUMAN STRENGTH ...........................................
HYDRAULICS,
Illustrated ......................................

135

93
93

The fundamental laws of

hydraulics,

&c .....................
from a head of water.
.
.
.

To
To

find the velocity of a stream issuing

95
96

find the head, the velocity being given ............. find the quantity of

.....

To

water that will issue from an opening,
96
97

the dimensions of the opening and the head being given .....

To To

find the velocity of currents in ditches, sluices, brooks or rivers
find the

volume of water discharged by drains,

sluices, brooks,

&c., of given dimensions, in a given time ...................

98
98 99

To

find the velocity of

water running through pipes ..........

.To find the quantity of water discharged through pipes ........

To

find the pressure of a fluid

on the bottom of a

vessel, cistern.

or reservoir ............................................

100

To

find the pressure

on the side of a vessel .................. 100
103

HYDRAULIC EAM,

THE, Illustrated .............................

To

ascertain the quantity of water

and the height

to

which

it

may

be elevated by a given
results of

fall

and volume of water ........ 105
106
110

Working

water rams

now in use ...................

HYDRAULIC PRESS,

THE, Illustrated .............................

ICE HOUSE, to construct an ................................. 399
ICE,

STRENGTH OF ........................................... 271

488
ILLUSTRATIONS, LIST OP

CONTENTS.
PAGE 17

INCLINED PLANE, Illustrated
INTEREST, SIMPLE

282

218 218

INTEREST,

COMPOUND

Table of simple interest at 7 per cent, for each day to a month,

from $1 to $100
Table of simple interest at 6 per cent, for each day to a month,

222

from $1 to $100.
Table,

224
to $5,000

showing the interest of $1

from

1

day to 2000 220
273
.

days, at 6 or 7 per cent

IRON, WEIGHT or SQUARE ROLLED, Illustrated " " " "

ROUND

275

KEEPING ACCOUNTS
.

(see accounts,

keeping of)

227
227
229
.

By
By

single entry,

with examples

double entry, with examples
It.

LAND, MEASUREMENT

OF, Illustrated

43

When the field is a square,
boid

a parallelogram, a rhombus, or a rhom-

44
the field
the field
is

When
When When

triangular

44
45
45

is
is

a trapezium or trapezoid

the field
the field the field
the field

an irregular polygon
long and the sides crooked and irregular

When
When

is

46 46

is

long and the sides and ends crooked.and irregular
a circle
. .

When

is

47

CONTENTS.

489
PAGE

Plots containing an acre
Table,

47
feet square of the fractions

showing the square feet and the

of an acre
Table, showing the

48

number of

hills

or plants on an acre, for

any

distance apart, from 10 inches to 6 feet
tudinal distances being unequal
Table,

the lateral and longi-

48

showing the number of

plants, hills, or trees contained in
feet.
.

an acre at equal distances apart, from 3 inches up to 66

49

LAND MEASURE, GOVERNMENT
LATHS, size
of,

50

number

in a bundle,

&c

279 24

LATITUDE

LEAD

PIPE,

WEIGHT OF
to 4

112

Table,

showing the weight of lead pipe per yard from

inches diameter
Table,

112
light lead pipe

showing the weight of very

112

LEVER, THE, Illustrated
LIFE AND INCREASE OF ANIMALS, Illustrated
Table,

279
197
ani-

showing the period of reproduction and gestation of

mals and fowls
Table,

198

showing when forty weeks (the period of gestation in a
will expire
life

cow)

from any day throughout the year

199
199

Growth and
LIFE,

of animals

DECREASE AND EXPECTATION OF

216
life

Table,

showing the decrement and expectation of

216 217
251
251

Table of St.

Maur

LIGHTNING RODS, Illustrated

To

construct a lightning-rod

490
Conductors of electricity

CONTENTS.
PAGK

253
253

Non-conductors
Dr.
Franklin's theory

253
190
17

LIQUORS, PROPORTION OF ALCOHOL IN

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

LOGS REDUCED TO INCH-BOARD MEASURE
Table,

70
of inch
.

showing the number of

feet (board measure)

boards contained in round saw-logs of various dimensions.

.

71

LONGITUDE

(see seasons, &c.), Illustrated

19 167

LONG MEASURE,

table

n.
MANURES
The use of manures
Rules in deciding what manures should be used
Classification of

327
328
331 332 332

manures

Mineral manures

Vegetable manures

332 332 332
333

Animal manures
Analysis of fish-guano Analysis of Peruvian guano

Analysis of Bolivian guano

333

How to select a good How to apply guano

article of

guano

334

334 335

Analysis of bone (crushed) manure
Table, showing the comparative value of animal manures, with

farm-yard manure as the standard

,

335

CONTENTS.

491
PAGE

Decomposed vegetables
Distinction

as

manures

336 336

between animal and vegetable manures

Table, showing the relative values of decomposed vegetables as

manures from the inorganic matter they contain
Table, showing the relative value of decomposed vegetables as

336

manures from the nitrogen they contain
Analysis of a manure-heap in the condition usually applied to
the field

336

337
338 340
"341

Analysis of other specimens of fresh farm-yard manure
Analysis of green sand marl (of
"

New

Jersey)

Digestion and

its

"

products

Value of liquid manures
Poudrette and urate
Analysis of night-soil

344 345 346
347 347 348

The dry earth system
Invention of Rev. Mr. Moule

To

construct earth closets and their use

Table, showing the effect produced

on the quantity of the crop
manures applied
to the

by equal
soil

quantities of different

same
351

Table,

showing the comparative increase of corn by

different

fertilizers

350
351

Moisture absorbed by different manures
Table,

showing the number of loads of manure and the number

of heaps to each load required to each acre, the heaps at given
distances apart

352
foot

Weight of manure per cubic

353

492
Load of manure, how much

CONTENTS.
PAGB
it is

353
to the acre for a

To

find the

number of
Ibs.

loads of

manure required

given number of

per square foot

354 354 358 358 358 359
359 360

MANURES, ARTIFICIAL
Analysis of Mape's improved superphosphate of lime
/

Analysis of Coe's superphosphate

Analysis of Deburg's bone meal Analysis of bone dust
Analysis of fish guano
Prices of standard fertilizers

Average composition per cent, and per ton of various agricultural
products

361

MARKING GOODS
MARKET, GARDENING FOR
MASONRY,
Illustrated

247
446
276
in stone walls

To

find the

number of perches

276 277

Brick-work
Dimensions of bricks

277
in a wall

To

find the

number of bricks

277 278 264
264

Laths MATERIALS, STRENGTH OF
Tensile strength
Table,

showing the weight

in Ibs. necessary to tear asunder

one 264 265

square inch of various materials

To

find the tensile strength

Table,

showing the strength of iron-wire rope and hempen cable 266
266

To

find the strength of cables

CONTENTS.

493
PAGE

To

find the strength of ropes

and hawsers
will bear

267

Table,

showing what weight hemp rope

with safety

.

.

.

267
267

Strength of metal and wooden rods

Hempen

cords

268
268

Lateral or transverse strength
Table, showing the transverse strength of timber
Tables,

268
269

showing the transverse strength of iron

To

find the transverse strength

when

the bar

or"

beam

is

fixed at

one end, and the load applied at the other

269

When the bar or beam is fixed at both ends and the weight applied
in the

middle

270

When

the bar or

beam

is

supported at

both ends, and the weight

applied in the middle
Table, showing the resistance of materials to crushing

270
271

Strength of ice

271
of,

MATHEMATICAL FORMS, DEFINITIONS

Illustrated
of), Illustrated

292

MEASUREMENT OF LAND
"
" "

(see land, (see hay,

measurement

43
51

HAY

measurement

of), Illustrated

GRAIN
TIMBER

IN GRANARIES, Illustrated
(see timber measurement), Illustrated ...
S. (see

60
61

MEASURES AND WEIGHTS, TABLES OF U.
sures)

weights and mea145
163 163

MEASURES OF CAPACITY COMPARED
Tables of English weights and measures

MECHANICAL POWERS,

Illustrated

279 279
282

The lever,

Illustrated

The

inclined plane, Illustrated

494
The wheel and the axle

CONTENTS.
PAGK

284
286 288
t

The wedge,
The screw,

Illustrated
Illustrated

The

pulley, Illustrated

290
121

METALS, FUSING HEAT OF

METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
"

173
173

origin
"

and history

of.

countries that have

adopted the

173

" "
" "

"

act of Congress authorizing

174
176
177

"
"

formation of tables
table of linear

measure
measure

" " " " " "

table of square

178

"
"

table of cubic or solid

measure

179 179

table of dry

and liquid measure

"
"

table of weights table of angles
tables of equivalents

180
181
181

"

MILK, PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF
Analysis of milk
Table,

387
387

showing the
milk cream

effects of various

degrees of heat in making

new

387

Analysis of the milk of different animals

390
153

MISCELLANEOUS WEIGHTS

MIXING PAINTS

460
145

MONEY

(see

United States Money)

MORTAR, BROWN, FOR MASONRY, BRICK-WORK, &c

463

CONTENTS.
N.

495

PAGE

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CERTAIN CROPS
Table,

190
190

showing the nutritive value of certain crops
o.

OIL, per cent, in different seeds, grain,

&c
<fec..
.

191
191

Table,

showing the per

cent, of oil in different seeds, grain,

OSAGE ORANGE

hedge plants
P.

130

PAINTING

460 460
463

House painting
Mixing paints

A beautiful white paint A pure white paint
Common white
For knotting
paint

463

464
464

464
464

Common

flesh color

Fine flesh color

464 464
464 464
464
46 5

A

beautiful color for carriages

Cream

color

Pearl gray

Fawn
Blue
Buff

color

465 465

Straw

Drab
Steel...

465
465

4:96

CONTENTS.
PAGE

Purple
Violet

465
465
465
465

French gray
Silver

Gold

465

Dark chestnut
Salmon
Peach blossom
Drab.

466 466

466
466 466

Lead
Chocolate

466
466

Dark red
Orange
Bright yellow

466 466
467

Dark yellow
Light yellow
Olive green

467
467

Light green Grass green
Invisible green

467

468 468 468
468

Bronze
Imitation of gold

Tar paint
Paint driers

468
468
469 469
.

Milk

paint.

Lime whitewash
Italian marble.
.
.

470

CONTENTS.

497
PAQB

Imitation granite

471 471

Oak varnish
Oil varnish

471 471 472

Varnish

for pictures

Varnish for unpainted wood

Waterproof

varnish for cloth,

&c

472
31 62

PENDULUMS

(see time, seasons, &c.), Illustrated

PLANK MEASURE
Table,

showing the contents (board measure) of planks of various
67

dimensions

PLANTS

(see

hedge plants)

130
194
lb.,

PORK, RELATION OF CORN TO
Table,

showing the price of pork per

at different prices per

bushel for corn

194

To To

find the price of

pork per

lb.,

the price of corn being given.

.

195
195

find the price of corn, the price of

pork being given
.*

POST AND RAIL FENCE (see

fences), Illustrated

128

POST AND BOARD

"

(see fences)

128

POWERS, THE MECHANICAL, Illustrated
PRACTICAL READER, TO THE

279
11

PREFACE
PRESSURE OF EARTH AGAINST WALLS
PRINTING, FACTS ABOUT

7

255
260

The

different types used in

book printing
different type

260
261

The number of ems made by
Press-work
Sizes of books...

262
.

262

498
Table,

CONTENTS.
PAGE

showing the number of leaves and pages from the folding
263

of a sheet

PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF MILK, BUTTER, &o

387
190
193

PROPORTION OF ALCOHOL

IN

LIQUORS

WEIGHT

TO

BULK

OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES

PULLEY, THE, Illustrated

290

R.
KAIL FENCE, Illustrated
RAIN, AVERAGE FALL OF (see temperature and average
fall

126
of
rain)..

37 243

RELATIVE VALUE OF GOLD AND CURRENCY
Table,

showing the greenback value of $1 at the
of gold

different quota-

tions

243

Highest quotation of gold in
"

New York
Richmond

"

during the " "

civil

war.
"

.

244

"

..

244
244
245 245
245

English bonds and consols, explanation
"
" "

of.

Selling Short," explanation of
Seller's Option,"

"
"

" " "

Buyer's Option,"

Stock Quotations,
"
"

"

246
245

Bull," commercial definition of

Bear,"
"

"

245 245
251
251 303

Stag,"

RODS, LIGHTNING

To

construct a lightning-rod ....*.

ROOTS, SQUARE AND CUBE, TABLE OF

CONTENTS.

499
PAQB

ROTATION or CROPS
"
field

378

crops
crops..

385 386

"

garden

SCANTLING MEASURE
Table, showing the contents

72
(board measure) of scantling of

various dimensions

72

SCREW, THE, Illustrated
SEASONS, TIME, &c. (see time), Illustrated
SEEDS, WEIGHT or, as established by the Legislatures of the different
States

288
19

189
.

SEEDS, OIL PER CENT. IN
"

191

quantity

of,

to

sow

or plant per acre,

&c

192

SHEEP, TO FIND THE AGE OF
SOILING CATTLE

208
401

Experiments by

the author
for soiling

402

Arrangement of crops

405
409

Arguments
SOILS.

in favor of soiling

EXHAUSTION OF

320
soil in

Table,

showing the organic substances removed from the
Ibs.

1000
Table,
Ibs.

each of the various crops
soil in

321
1000

showing the inorganic matter removed from the
each of the various crops

321

Table, showing the kinds of inorganic matter removed from the
soil in

1000

Ibs.

each of the various crops

322

500

CONTENTS.
PAGE

Analysis of the hop, showing the elements
soil

it

removes from the
323

Table,

showing amount of inorganic matter removed from the soil
324
311 312

by ten bushels of grain
SOILS
Classification of soils

To analyze

soils

313

General results of analytical examinations of soils
Table,

316
.

showing the composition

in 1000 parts of different soils.

.

317
317

Analytic table of three very fertile soils Analytic table of arable lands of great
fertility

318
318

Depth of

soil

its

importance

Table, showing the weight per cubic foot of the different kinds of

earth

319
473
473
473

SOLDERS
/
%

Lead solder
Tin solder
SOLID MATTER AND
Table,

WATER

IN ARTICLES OF
solid

DIET
matter and water in 100

188

showing the proportion of

parts each of the various articles of diet

188
182

SPECIFIC G-RAVITY (see gravity), Illustrated

SQUARE MEASURE,

table
table
of,

165

SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS,
STEAMING FOOD FOR STOCK

from

1 to

1000

303

415 416
421 423

Report of the Department of Agriculture

How

to

make

a steaming apparatus

Prindle's Agricultural

Steamer and Cauldron (Illustrated)

CONTENTS.

501
PAGB

Advantages of cooked food

425 450
452

STEAM CULTIVATION,

Illustrated

Advantages claimed
Report of the Royal Agricultural Society
STOCK,
|

455 415
246
135

STEAMING FOOD FOR

STOCK QUOTATIONS
STRENGTH,

HUMAN
(see materials, strength of)

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
SUCCESS IN BUSINESS

264 246
246

Short credits Small profits

246
expense

Economy

in

247 247
168

Marking goods
SURVEYORS' MEASURE, table

T.

TEMPERATURE AND FALL OF RAIN, AVERAGE OF
Table,

37
at

showing the average temperature of the four seasons
coasts,

points on the Pacific and Atlantic
this continent

and the
,

interior of

37 38
39

Periodical rains, region

of.

Frequent
Scanty

"
rains,

"
rains,

39

Table, showing the latitude and longitude, the elevation above

the level of the sea, the

mean annual

temperature, and the

average

fall

of rain in various places in the United States

49

TILE DRAINING (see draining)

362

502
TIMBER, MEASUREMENT

CONTENTS.
PAGE
OF, Illustrated

61

Board measure

62

To

ascertain the contents (board measure) of boards, scantling,

and plank
Table,

62

showing the contents of inch boards from 6 inches to 30
63

broad, and from 4 to 24 feet long

Square timber

65
65
62

To measure square timber
Plank measure
Table,

showing the contents (board measure) of planks of various
67

dimensions

Round and square timber
To measure round
timber, Illustrated

64 65
70
(board measure) of inch
.

Logs reduced to inch-board measure
Table, showing the

number of

feet

boards contained in round saw-logs of various dimensions..
TIME, SEASONS, &c., Illustrated

.

71

19
19

To reduce longitude
Time, apparent and

to time

mean

21 21
31

To

ascertain the length of the day and night
Illustrated

Pendulums,

To

find the length of a

pendulum

for a

given number of vibra31

tions per minute

To

find the vibrations per minute, the length of the
-

pendulum
32

being given

;

Measure of time,

table, Illustrated

25
26

Division of the calendar year

CONTENTS.

503
PAGE

Old style (0.

S.)

and new style (N.
is..

S.)

27
27

Decade, what period it " " " Century,

27 27

Lunar Cycle, what

it is
it is

Golden Number, what
Solar Cycle,

27

what

it is

28

To

find the lunar cycle or golden

number
in the

28

Table, showing the

number of days from any day
any other

month
28
29

to the

same day

in

Table, finding the
Table,

number of days between two dates
planets, &c., in the solar

showing the

system

27
32

Distance of the planets, and size compared with the earth

u.
UNITED STATES BONDS, explanation
Five-Twenties
Ten-Forties
Seven-Thirties
of.

242
242

242 242 243
145
146 147

Six per cents, of '81

UNITED STATES MONET, table
" " "
" "

Gold coin
Silver coin

Copper coin

148 147

Alloy of Gold and Silver

v.
VELOCITY, table of

188

504

CONTENTS,

w.
PAGE

WAGES
Table of wages at $3 to $25 per month of 26 working days

224
224
82
82

WAGON-BEDS, CAPACITY
'JL'O

OF, Illustrated

find the contents of

wagon-beds

WALLS, PRESSURE OF EARTH AGAINST

255
103

WATER RAM,
WEATHER

Illustrated

33

Table, for telling the

weather through

all

the lunations of the year

33

WEDGE,

THE, Illustrated

286
of U.
S.,

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, TABLES

Illustrated

145
1

Long measure
Hair's breadth

67

168
168

Gunter's chain

Hopes and cables
Geographical and nautical measure
Miscellaneous long measures
*

168
169 168

Measures of

circles

23

Measures of surfaces

165
43

Land measure
Paper measure
Liquid measure

263
160
161

Standard gallon measure

Dry measure
Standard bushel measure
Imperial or British bushel
Miscellaneous dry measures

162

162
163
163

CONTENTS.

505
PAGE

Measure of weights, avoirdupois

153

Troy weight
Troy weight reduced
to avoirdupois

156 157

Diamond measure
Measure of time Measure of value
Standard of gold and silver
Miscellaneous weights and measures
,

157

25
145

148
153 163 153 172 155

Heaping measure
Barrel measure

Ton weight and ton measure

A sack of wool A pack of wool A truss of hay A load of hay A bale of hay A firkin of butter A bale of cotton
WEIGHT, COMPUTE, OP CATTLE,
Illustrated

155

56

56 56
155
155

209
112

WEIGHT OF LEAD PIPE
WEIGHTS OF
Table,
G-RAIN, SEEDS,

&o
seeds, &c., as established

189

showing the weight of grain,

by
189

the Legislatures of the different States

WEIGHT OF SQUARE ROLLED IRON
Table, showing the weight of square rolled iron from iV inch to

273

12 inches, and 1 foot long

273
. .

WEIGHT OF ROUND ROLLED IRON

.

275

506

CONTENTS.
PAGB

Table,

showing the weight of round

rolled iron

from

inch to

12 inches diameter and 1 foot long

275
193

WEIGHT, PROPORTION
Table,

OF,

TO BULK or VARIOUS SUBSTANCES

showing the weight per cubic foot of various substances,
feet required to

and the number of cubic

make

a ton of each.. 193

WHEAT, DEPTH OF SOWING

193

WHEEL AND AXLE
WHITEWASH

284
469 35

WIND
Table, showing the force and velocity of

wind

36
35
134

To

find the force of

wind

acting against a surface

WIRE FENCES

WOOD
To

MEASURE,

Illustrated

62
in a given pile of

ascertain the

number of cords

wood

62

From Bishop SCOTT,
I

of the M. E. Church.

glad you are about to bring out an unabridged edition of CONYBEARE and HOWBON'S great book, The Life, Times and Travels of St. Paul." I have been acquainted with it for several years, and regard it as the most precious treasure of uninspired literature that the lover of Biblical knowledge can possess. Let it fly on the wings of favoring breezes, and become the familiar household friend in every family in the land. I wish you great success in your noble Christian enterprise. Odessa, Del., December 25th, 1868.
'

am

Prom

T.

W. WOOLSEY,

D.D. LL.D.,

President of Tale College.

CONYBEARE and HOWSON'S work has such a permanent acknowledged value that nothing need be said in commendation of it. The more it is diffused the better. I should regard the original work as far better than the most skillfully executed
abridgment. Yale College, December 23rd, 1868.

Prom
first

Rev.

HENRY WARD BEECHER,
Church, Brooklyn.

Pastor of Plymouth Congregational

CONYBEARE and HOWSON'S "Life and Epistles of St. Paul" ever since the Good for all Clergymen. publication, and with ever increasing interest and benefit. It would be a mistake to suppose the volume less well suited to a layman's library. I can conscientiously recommend the work for every intelligent Christian household
I have used

and

library.

Brooklyn, December 19th, 1868.

Prom

Rev,

PHILIP "SCHAPP,

D.D., Church Historian and Editor

Lange's Commentary*'*

As a complete biography of the Great Apostle of the Gentiles for the general reader, the well-known work of CONYBEARE and HOWSON has no superior in English literature. It is full of reliable and well digested information in an elegant and pleasing style, and breathes a devout and truly Christian spirit. New York, December 15th, 1868.
D.D., Pastor of Madison Square Presbyterian Church. " LIFE AND you propose to publish an edition of the EPISTLES OF ST. PAUL," by CONIBEARE and HOWSON, unabridged, with all its valuable The work maps and illustrations, yet in a single volume, and at a reduced price. itself 1 have always regarded as one of the most interesting and instructive of modern It fortifies the evidences of Christianity by showing its relations to geography, times. It gives wonderful freshness and life to the history and monumental testimonies. It would be injustice to the perusal of the Book of the Acts and the Holy Epistles. An edition authors, and to their subject, to attempt any abridgment of such a work. within the reach of general readers, with no diminution of contents, must prove, in my judgment, of yreat service to letters and religion. New York, December 17th, 18i8.

Prom
I

Rev.

W. ADAMS,
to hear that

am happy

From Rev. H.
ture.

D.

NORTH ROP, Pastor of the

West 23cf Street Presbyterian Church.

DR BOARDMAN'S endorsement of this work cannot be considered too emphatic. All who examine it must admit that it is a valuable contribution to our theological literaIt is clear, concise,
-

studied, and one

f the

New

comprehensive just such a book as ought to be read and books that it pays to buy.

York, December 19ih, 1868.

Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1868 by E. B. TBFAT & Co. in the Clerk's District Court of the United irtates lor the Southein District of New York.

Office of the

A Book of Great Value

to

Old and Young.

JUST ISSUED.

FACTS AND FIGURES.
Historical,

Documentary
I

-,

Statistical

and

Political.

From

the Foundation of the Government to
I VOL.,

the

Present

Time.

408 PAGES,

HMO.

COMPILED FROM OFFICIAL SOURCES.

is

care has been spent in the preparation of this work, and it public in the belief that it is, as its title purports, a ready Hand-book of facts and figures, bearing upon all the important matters per-

Much labor and now offered to the

taining to our National History. Thus : If you wish to know the spirit which actuated our forefathers during the seven years war of the Revolution, by turning to its pages you will find it, in the language of the immortal Declaration of Independence, culminating in the confederation of the Colonies, the adoption of the Federal Constitution, with various amendments to the present time.

If you want to know the origin and history of the emblem of our nationThe Stars and Stripes you will find full particulars in an article written expressly for this book, by the distinguished historian, J. T. Headley.
ality,

tion Proclamation to South Carolina,

pages arc found the following important documents. The Nullificawhich made President Jackson so famous. The Monroe Doctrine, and the Neutrality Laws of the United States. It contains all the important slavery documents which have agitated the

In

its

country for the past half century ; viz, the various Fugitive Slave Bills, Statisof Slavery during our colonial history, the Missouri Compromise Act, the Dred Scott Decision, Slave Population in 1860, the Constitutional Amendments, Abolishing Slavery, &c., and following these may be found Washington's First Inaugural and Farewell Address.
tics

" with malice toward none, with charity for all" &c. If you wish to know the popular and electoral vote of each candidate for the Presidency of the different political parties, you have in concise form the figures from Washington, down to 1868. If you wish to know the number of killed and wounded in putting down the Rebellion, you here have the official figures of the Provost Marshal General, also the number of troops furnished by each State during the war. It contains a chronology of important events of the war with statistics of over eleven hundred battles and skirmishes of the war, with the loss on each side as It contains a complete table from official sources of the prizes capfar as known. tured and vessels destroyed by our navy, in violation of the Blockade, also a full list of Union vessels captured or destroyed by Rebel Privateers. In its pages may be found the Civil Rights Bill, the Freedmen s Bureau Bill, the Bankrupt Act, the Tenure of Office Bill, the various Reconstruction measures of Congress, with numerous State papers and statistical matter, that should be
his first and last Inaugural,

If you wish to the important acts of the late President Lincoln, you will here find the first call for troops to put down the Rebellion, with a table of the various calls ; the Blockading Proclamation, the Emancipation Proclamation,

know

familiar to

all.

MEN AND WOMEN WANTED EVERYWHERE
Price, $

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,

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