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# MATH 428Fall, 2016

Assignment #3 Solutions
21 points

1. (4 points)
Let G be the graph defined by V (G) = {1, 2, 3, 4} and E(G) = {12, 13, 14}. Construct a
3-regular graph H such that G is an induced subgraph of H.

Ans. The complete bipartite graph K3,3 on vertex set {1, 2, ..., 6} with parts {2, 3, 4} and {1, 5, 6}
has G as its subgraph. We could alternatively use the theorem proved in class to build the
desired graph, however this would lead to a graph on 16 vertices.

2. (3 points)
What is the adjacency matrix of each of the following graphs:

## P6 , the path of order 6.

C6 , the cycle of order 6.
K6 , the complete graph of order 6.

Ans .

0 1 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0
AP 6 =

0 0 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 1 0

0 1 0 0 0 1

1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0
AC6 =

0 0 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 0 1 0

0 1 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 1 1 1
AK6 =

1 1 1 0 1 1

1 1 1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1 0

## 3. (5 points) Let Jn be the n by n matrix with all the entries equal to 1.

Let AG be the adjacency matrix of a graph G of order n. Prove that for every i, the
(i, j)th entry of AG Jn is equal to deg(i).
Prove that G is a regular graph if and only if AJ = JA.

Ans .

1
This is simply because the (i, j)th entry of AJ is equal to
n
X n
X
Ai,k Jk,j = Ai,k = deg(i).
k=1 k=1

Similar to the first part, one can show that the (i, j)th entry of JA is equal to deg(j).
Thus, if AJ = JA, then for every i and j, deg(i) = AJi,j = JAi,j = deg(j), implying
that G is a regular graph.

4. (5 points)
Let Km,n denote the bipartite graph on m + n vertices, with vertex set V = {u1 , . . . , um }
{v1 , . . . , vn } and edge set E = {ui vj |1 i m, 1 j n}. So, Km,n has size mn.

## How many automorphisms does Km,n have when m 6= n?

How many automorphisms does Kn,n have?

Ans .

Observe that when m 6= n for every i, j, deg(ui ) = n and deg(vj ) = m. So any auto-
morphism of Km,n in this case cannot map a vertex from {u1 , ..., um } to {v1 , . . . , vn }.
On the other hand any permutation of vertices within the two parts is allowed, as the
vertices are connected to all the vertices on the other part, and permuting them will not
change this fact. As the number of permutations of first part is m! and the second part
is n!, there are (m!) (n!) ways to combine these and obtain an automorphism of Km,n .
When m = n, namely Kn,n our argument from above does not go through and we might
be able to switch ui with vj . However, if a vertex from {u1 , ..., un } is mapped to one
from {v1 , ..., vn }, then the rest of the vertices of {u1 , ..., un } must also be mapped to
{v1 , ..., vn } also. As ui is not connected to any of {u1 , ..., un }. The number of ways to
make such automorphisms is 2(n!)2 . Namely, any automorphism of the type we made
in the part 1 of the problem, can be combined with a mirroring map from us to vs to
obtain another automorphism of Kn,n .

## 5. (4 points) An edge e = uv of a connected graph G is called a bridge of G if G e is

disconnected. Prove that every edge of a tree T is a bridge of it.

Ans. Assume for contradiction that T e is connected for some edge e of a tree T . This would
imply that T e is a tree on less than n 1 edges, contradicting a property of trees that we
showed in class. However, to prove it directly and only relying on the definition of a tree,
assuming T e is connected, where e = uv is an edge of the tree, implies that there must be
a uv path in T e. Adding e to this uv path gives a cycle in T , contradicting that T was a
tree.