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Title: Evaluation Techniques of Damping in Buildings

Authors: Yukio Tamura, Tokyo Polytechnic University


Akihito Yoshida, Tokyo Polytechnic University
Lingmi Zhang, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Subject: Structural Engineering

Keyword: Damping

Publication Date: 2004

Original Publication: CTBUH 2004 Seoul Conference

Paper Type: 1. Book chapter/Part chapter


2. Journal paper
3. Conference proceeding
4. Unpublished conference paper
5. Magazine article
6. Unpublished

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat / Yukio Tamura; Akihito Yoshida; Lingmi Zhang
On the Emerging Role of GPS in Structural Health Monitoring
Evaluation Techniques of Damping in Buildings
Evaluation Techniques of Damping in Buildings

Structural Design Yukio


of Base-Isolation system
Tamura1, Akihito Yoshida2 forZhang
, Lingmi Tall3 Building in Japan
1
Professor, Department of Architecture, Tokyo Polytechnic University
2
Rresearch Associate, Department of Architecture, Tokyo Polytechnic University
Sensitivity on Load Carrying Capacity of
3
Professor, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Frameds to Member Disappearance
Abstract
In order to evaluate dynamic responses of buildings, their dynamic characteristics such as natural
frequencies, vibration modes and damping ratios should be accurately known. It is well known that a
dynamic Thermal
structure can be damped by mechanisms
Deformation Analyseswith different internal and external
of High-Rise Steel characteristics:
Buildings friction
between atomic/molecular or different parts, impact, air/fluid resistance, and so on. Structural damping is the
most important, but most uncertain parameter affecting dynamic responses of buildings. This uncertainty
significantly reduces the reliability of structural design for dynamic effects. Then, accurate determination of
structural damping is very important, not only for evaluating structural responses, but also for designing
active andStructural Design
passive auxiliary damping and
devicesConstruction Method
to be installed in buildings of the 54-story
and structures. However, there is no
Housing Project W-Comfort Towers
theoretical method for estimating damping in buildings. It is very in Tokyo using even for
difficult, if not impossible,
viscous damping. Thus, the design damping ratio has been estimated on the basis of actual measurements,
whichSuper High
are widely Performance
dispersed Reinforced
for various reasons. In this paper,Concrete
feasibility andHigh-rise System
efficiency of two simple and
user-friendly but accurate damping evaluation techniques are discussed. One is the Frequency Domain
Decomposition (FDD) technique using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the cross-spectral density
matrix and the other is the Multi-mode Random Decrement (MRD) technique (Tamura et al., 2002). Both
techniques can be applied for ambient excitations such as wind, turbulence, traffic, and/or micro-seismic
Times
tremors, Squareeasy
thus enabling Skyscrapers: Sustainability
handling of closely-spaced and even Reaching
repeated modes. New As Heights
a result, good
correspondence is shown with vibration characteristics obtained by these techniques, and various important
points to note on the traditional damping evaluation techniques are also discussed.

Experimental Assessment of Floor Vibration Using


Keywords: system identification; damping ratio; Frequency Domain Decomposition; Multi-mode Random Decrement

Introduction iTECH Composite


damping Beam
force is proportional to the velocity, and is
In order to evaluate dynamic responses of buildings, mathematically convenient because it results in a
their dynamic characteristics such as natural linear second order differential equation for
frequencies, vibration modes and damping ratios engineering structures. A transient decay of a
should be accurately known. It is well known that a
An Experimental Study on theviscously
dynamic structure can be damped by mechanisms with
Engineeringunder-damped system will decay
Properties of
exponentially. From a practical point of view,
Deteriorated
different internal and external Concrete
characteristics: friction by Fire
equivalent Damage
viscous damping, which models the overall
between atomic/molecular or different parts, impacts, damped behavior of structural systems as being
air/fluid resistance, and so on. viscous, is often adopted in structural dynamics.
A combination of different phenomena results in Clearly, structural damping is the most important,
various types of damping. Generally, their but most uncertain parameter affecting dynamic
mathematical descriptions are quite complicated, and responses of buildings. This uncertainty significantly
not suitable for vibration analysis for complicated reduces the reliability of structural design for dynamic
structures. In structural dynamics, damping is effects. Then, accurate determination of structural
described by viscous, hysteretic, coulomb or velocity damping is very important, not only for evaluating
squared models. Viscous damping occurs when the structural responses, but also for designing active and
passive auxiliary damping devices to be installed in
Contact Author: buildings and structures. However, there is no
Yukio Tamura, theoretical method for estimating damping in
Professor, buildings. It is very difficult, if not impossible, even
Tokyo Polytechnic University, for viscous damping. Thus, the design damping ratio
1583, Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa, Japan 243-0297 has been estimated on the basis of actual
Tel: +81-(0)46-242-9547 Fax: +81-(0)46-242-9547 measurements, which are widely dispersed for various
e-mail: yukio@arch.t-kougei.ac.jp

CTBUH 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea CTBUH 2004 1

CTBUH 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea


reasons. observed in the Random Decrement signature (RD
Many full-scale data have estimated larger damping signature). In such case, GRD cannot be used for
ratios than the actual values because of inappropriate evaluation of damping ratio. In order to evaluate the
use of damping evaluation techniques. In this paper, multiple closely located vibration modes, the
two simple and user-friendly but accurate damping Multi-mode Random Decrement technique (MRD) is
evaluation techniques are examined. One is the proposed (Tamura et al., 2002), where the
Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique superimposition of the multi SDOF systems with
(Brincker et al., 2000) using Singular Value different dynamic characteristics is made. The RD
Decomposition (SVD) of the cross-spectral density signature with beating phenomenon is approximated
matrix and the other is the Multi-mode Random by superimposition of different damped free
Decrement (MRD) technique (Tamura et al., 2002). oscillations as follows:
Both techniques can be applied for ambient
x0
Ri (t ) = e h t cos 1 hi i t i
2
excitations such as wind, turbulence, traffic, and/or i i i

micro-seismic tremors, thus enabling easy handling of 1 h 2


closely-spaced and even repeated modes. n
Full-scale measurements were carried out on R (t ) = Ri (t ) + m
i =1
various types of buildings and structures, and good
correspondence was shown with vibration where R (t ) : original RD signature, Ri (t ) : RD
characteristics obtained by these techniques, and signature for the i-th mode component, x 0i : initial
various important points to note on the traditional value of i-th mode component, hi : i-th mode
damping evaluation techniques are discussed. damping ratio, i : i-th mode circular frequency, t :
time, i : phase shift, and m : mean value correction
Primitive experimental investigation of various of original RD signature.
damping evaluation techniques
Measurement setup Frequency Domain Decomposition
At first, to investigate the features of the various Instead of using PSD directly, as in the classical
damping evaluation techniques, ambient responses frequency domain technique, the cross spectrum
measurements of a 4-story model were conducted. density (CSD) matrix is decomposed at each
Figure 1 shows an elevation and plan of the tested frequency line via Singular Value Decomposition
4-story model, which can oscillate with X, Y and (SVD). SVD has a powerful property of separating
components. Three accelerometers were installed at noisy data from disturbance caused by unmodeled
each level for the X and Y directions to be translated dynamics and measurement noise. For the analysis,
into equivalent motions (X, Y and components) at the Singular Value plot, as functions of frequencies,
the centroid. It is assumed that the floor was subject to calculated from SVD can be used to determine modal
lateral rigid body motion. The sampling rate was set as frequencies and mode shapes. It has been proved that
100Hz, with a Nyquist frequency of 50Hz. The the peaks of a singular value plot indicate the
duration of record was 12 hours. existence of structural modes (Brincker et al., 2000).
Damping evaluation techniques used for analysis The singular vector corresponding to the local
Three different evaluation techniques in time maximum singular value is unscaled mode shape. This
domain and five techniques in frequency domain were is exactly true if the excitation process in the vicinity
used for evaluation of damping as follows: of the modal frequency is white noise. One of the
Techniques in Time Domain major advantages of the FDD technique is that
(1) Curve fit of damped free oscillation (DFO)
(2) General random decrement technique (GRD) 30cm
(3) Multi-mode random decrement technique (MRD)
Techniques in Frequency Domain 22cm
(1) Half power method (HP) Y
(2) 1 / 2 method ( 1 / 2 ) 22cm
(3) Phase gradient method (PG)
(4) Curve fit of response magnification factor (RM) 22cm X
(5) Frequency domain decomposition (FDD) centroid
This paper briefly describes MRD and FDD. 22cm
Accelerometer
Multi Random Decrement technique (MRD) Z Y
The GRD technique assuming a SDOF system can
efficiently evaluate the damping ratios and the natural 30cm X
frequencies only for well-separated vibration modes.
However, if there are closely located predominant
Fig. 1 Tested 4-story model
frequency components, a beating phenomenon is

2 CTBUH 2004 CTBUH 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, KoreaTamura


closely-spaced modes, even repeated modes, can be Fourier Transform (DFT) calculation. In the frequency
dealt with without any difficulty. The only domain approaches, the power spectral density
approximation is that mode shape orthogonality is functions or the transfer function is calculated via DFT.
assumed. It is well known that leakage error in PSD estimation
Not only for the natural frequency and the mode shape, always takes place due to data truncation of DFT.
but also the damping ratio can be estimated by FDD. Leakage is a kind of bias error, which cannot be
The basic idea of the FDD method is as follows eliminated by windowing, e.g. by applying a Hanning
(Brincker et al. 2001). The singular value in the window, and is harmful to the damping estimation
vicinity of the natural frequency is equivalent to the accuracy, which relies on the PSD measurements. The
PSD function of the corresponding mode (as a SDOF
system). This PSD function is identified around the f1=3.1Hz h1=19.76%

Acceleration(cm/s )
0.06

2
peak by comparing the mode shape estimate with the f2=3.6Hz h2=0.25%
0.03
singular vectors for the frequency lines around the
peak. As long as a singular vector is found that has a 0
high Modal Amplitude Coherence (MAC) value with -0.03
the mode shape, the corresponding singular value -0.06
belongs to the SDOF function. If at a certain line none 0 5 10 15 20 25
of the singular values has a singular vector with a Time (s)
MAC value larger than a certain limit value, the Fig. 2 RD signature of tip acceleration (X dir.)
search for matching parts of the PSD function is
terminated. From the fully or partially identified
SDOF spectral density function, the natural frequency
and the damping ratio can be estimated by taking the X = X cos Y sin
PSD function back to the time domain by inverse FFT Y Y = X sin + Y cos
as a correlation function of the SDOF system. From Y
the free decay function, the natural frequency and the
damping are found by the logarithmic decrement X
technique. Fig. 3 Coordinates transformation to X, Y axes
X
Damping ratios from various techniques
Acceleration(cm/s )

f1=3.6Hz h1=0.24%
2

Figure 2 shows the RD signature using X dir. tip 0.06


acceleration records. The initial amplitude of the 0.03 f2=3.7Hz h2=0.37%
acceleration to get the RD signature was set at the 0
standard deviation, acc. For this model, there are two
-0.03
close peaks as natural frequency for the X and Y
directions. Therefore, the RD signature with a beating -0.06
0 5 10 15 20 25
phenomenon as shown in Fig. 2 was observed, Time (s)
although it was not clear. As described above, the
GRD technique should not be used for the evaluation Fig. 4 RD signature of tip acceleration (X dir)
of the dynamic characteristics. The MRD technique is
an appropriate approach in such a case to identify the
two different dynamic characteristics. However, when 1/2 FDD
a beating phenomenon is not clear as in this case, it is HP MRD
difficult to identify the two different dynamic 3 PG DFO
characteristics by MRD. Thus, coordinate 2 RM
Damping ratio (%)

transformation is needed to make the acceleration


records, which have almost the same energy for the 1
RM PG
acceleration in the X and Y directions, as shown in Fig. 0.7
0.5 1/2
3. FDD HP
Figure 4 shows the RD signature using X dir. tip 0.3 MRD
acceleration records. It can be seen that a beating 0.2 DFO
phenomenon is much clearer than that using X dir. tip
acceleration as already shown in Fig. 2. The natural 0.1
frequency and the damping ratio evaluated by MRD 1 2 3 5 7 10
20 30 50 70 100
3
for the RD signature using X dir. tip acceleration are 10
3.6 Hz and 0.24% for the 1st mode, and 3.7 Hz and Number of data points used for DFT calculation
0.37% for the 2nd mode.
Figure 5 shows the variations of the damping ratio Fig. 5 Changes of damping ratio vs. data points
with the number of data points used for Discrete

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CTBUH 2004 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea Tamura 3
bias error caused by leakage is proportional to the 25.9m 13.8m
square of the frequency resolution (Bendat and Piersol,
1986). Therefore, increasing frequency resolution is a
very effective way to reduce leakage error. As shown
in Fig. 5, the damping ratio evaluated by frequency
domain approaches decreases with increasing the
number of data points used for DFT calculation and

59.15m
converge to a constant value. It is noted that the
number of data points used for DFT calculation should
be larger than 16,384, which is almost 600 times the
natural frequency of the model, to identify the
accurate damping ratio.

System identification of 15-story office building


Tested 15-story building (a) Northeast (b) Northwest
A series of field measurements of ambient Fig. 6 Elevation of 15-story office building
vibrations of a middle-rise 15-story office building
located in Ichigaya, Tokyo, were made, and its
dynamic characteristics were evaluated (Tamura et al.,
2002, Miwa et al., 2002). The building extends from 0.95Hz
20 1.16Hz
Singular Values
0.86Hz
6.1m underground to 59.15m above basement level, as
2.37Hz 2.60Hz 4.37Hz
shown in Fig. 6. The columns are concrete-filled-tube 2.90Hz 4.10Hz 4.60Hz
0
(CFT) and the beams are wide-flange steel. The floor
comprises a concrete slab and steel deck. The exterior -20
walls of the first floor are of pre-cast concrete. The
walls from the second floor to the top are of -40
autoclaved lightweight concrete (ALC). The plan of a 0 1 2 3 4 5
standard story is 22.2m long by 13.8m wide, and the Frequency (Hz)
floor-to-floor height is 3.8m. The concrete strengths
were 24N/mm2 underground, 42N/mm2 for the Fig. 7 Singular value plot obtained by FDD
column filling, and 21N/mm2 (lightweight concrete)
above ground.

Field measurement
Fourteen accelerometers were used for one setup
with two accelerometers at the 15th floor as references.
It is assumed that the floor was subject to lateral rigid
body motion. The measured vibration was translated
into equivalent motions at the desired corners. f1=0.76Hz f2=0.85Hz f3=1.11Hz
Accelerometers excluding reference accelerometers
were used as roving sensors for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and
4th setups. Three accelerometers were typically placed
in the southeast (x direction) and northeast (x and y
directions) corners from the 7th floor to 15th floor as
well as in the roof. Six accelerometers were placed at
the 2nd, 4th and 6th floors.
The ambient data recorded during the field
measurement were processed in the frequency domain f4=2.23Hz f5=2.46Hz f6=2.94Hz
afterwards. Cross spectral density was estimated using
full measurement data with a frame of 1024 data
points. 512 spectrum lines, with frequency resolution
of 0.0195 Hz, were calculated. A Hanning window
was applied as usual with 66.7 % overlap to increase
the average number.

Dynamic characteristics estimated by FDD f7=3.85Hz f8=4.25Hz f9=4.49Hz


Figure 7 presents the SV Plots of the CFT building.
There were many peaks of less than 5Hz Fig.8 Mode shape of the CFT Building
corresponding to the natural frequencies, and it was

4 CTBUH 2004 CTBUH 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, KoreaTamura


Normalized Singular Values

20 dB 0.76Hz possible to obtain up to the 9th mode below 5Hz.


0.85Hz
Figure 8 depicts the corresponding nine mode shapes.
0 Figure 9 shows a typical bell of the SDOF system
the 1st mode and the 2nd mode of the 15-story
-20 building. From the identified SDOF spectral density
-40 function, the modal frequency and the damping can
be estimated by taking the PSD function back to time
0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 domain by inverse FFT as correlation function of the
Frequency (Hz) SDOF system, as shown in Fig. 10.From the free
Fig.9 Singular value plot of 15-story building decay function, the modal frequency and the
(Frequency ranges 0.5-1.5Hz) damping are found by the logarithmic decrement
technique.
1 f1 = 0.76Hz h1 = 0.65% In order to show the influence of the frequency
resolution on the damping estimation accuracy, 256,
0.5
R() / 2

512, 1024, 2048 and 4096 data points were used to


0 calculate the CSD functions. The corresponding
frequency resolutions were 0.0783, 0.0392, 0.0195,
-0.5
0.00977 and 0.00488 Hz, respectively. Figure 11
-1 presents the changes of the damping ratios with the
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
number of data points used for DFT calculation. It is
Time lag (s) very interesting to observe that, as predicted by the
Fig.10 Correlation function of 1st mode theory of random data procession, the damping ratios
(%) of all modes decrease, while the number of data
Damping Ratio

3 1st mode points, or frequency resolution, increases. It appears


2nd mode
2 3rd mode that damping estimates converge when the number of
data points is large enough (up to 4096 or 8192).
1 Table 2 shows the damping ratios with enough data
0 points to be used for DFT calculation. Table 1 shows
the dynamic characteristics of 15-story building
(a) 1st - 3rd mode
2.5 (%)
obtained by FDD. The number of data points used
Damping Ratio

for DFT calculation is 4096 (frequency resolution is


2 6th mode about 0.01)
1.5 5th mode
1 Dynamic characteristics of a tall chimney
0.5 4th mode Field Measurement Set-up
Ambient response measurements of a 230m-high
(b) 4th - 6th mode
chimney were conducted, and its dynamic
2.5 (%)
Damping Ratio

characteristics were evaluated (Tamura et al. 2002


2 7th mode and Yoshida and Tamura 2004). Figure 12 shows the
1.5
9th mode y
1 : Accelerometers
0.5 8th mode : Sonic anemometer
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
(c) 7th - 9th mode
DataNumber
points used
of for
FFTPSD calculation x
G.L.+220m
Fig.11 Changes of damping ratio vs. data points
Table 1 Dynamic characteristics of 15-story building
Natural Frequency Damping Ratio G.L.+148m
Mode
(Hz) (%)
1st 0.76 0.65
2nd 0.86 0.74
3 rd
1.11 0.84 G.L.+76m
230m
4th 2.23 1.10
5th 2.47 1.56
6th 2.94 1.67
7th 3.85 2.12 G.L.
th
8 4.26 0.85
9th 4.47 1.11 Fig.12 Elevation of chimney

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CTBUH 2004 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea Tamura 5
elevation and plan of the tested chimney, consisting of calculation. The damping ratios converge to precise
steel trusses and a concrete funnel. The chimney has values with increase in the number of data points.
an octagonal cross section. Table 2 shows the dynamic characteristics of the
Accelerometers were installed on three different chimney obtained by the FDD method with enough
levels, as shown in Fig.12. Two horizontal DFT data points and by the RD technique, where the
components (x, y) and one vertical component (z) MRD technique was used for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th
were measured at each level. A sonic anemometer was modes. These results show fairly good agreement
also installed at the top of the chimney. The sampling between the FDD and MRD techniques, except for the
rate of the acceleration records was set at 100Hz, and
the ambient responses were measured for 90 minutes

PSD of acceleration Sacc(f)


in total. Width of band pass filter 220m
2
10 148m
0.40Hz 76m
0
0.41Hz
System Identification by MRD and FDD 10
Figure 13 shows the power spectrum density -2
10
functions of accelerations at three different heights.
-4
Peaks corresponding to several natural frequencies are 10
clearly shown. -6
10 4
At first, the general Random Decrement (GRD) 0.1 1
technique assuming a SDOF system was applied for Frequency (Hz)
system identification using the ambient y-dir. Fig.13 Power spectrum of tip acceleration (Y-dir)
acceleration records at the top level, GL+220m. By
processing with a numerical band-pass filter with a
frequency range of 0.06Hz - 1.0Hz, only the 1 h1 = 0.18% h2 = 0.30%
Acceleration (cm/s2)

frequency components around the lowest peak near f1 = 0.40Hz f2 = 0.41Hz


0.5
0.40Hz depicted in Fig.13 were extracted. The initial
amplitude of the acceleration to get the RD signature 0
was set at the standard deviation, acc. Figure 14
-0.5
shows the obtained RD signature, where a beating
phenomenon is clearly observed, suggesting two -1
closely located predominant frequency components. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
By carefully studying the peak near 0.4Hz, it is seen Time (s)
that there are actually two peaks: at 0.40Hz and Fig. 14 RD signature of tip acceleration (Y-dir.)
0.41Hz. These peaks are named f1 and f2, respectively,
in this paper. The approximation was made by the
Normalized Singular Values

40 dB
MRD, and the damping ratio and the natural 0.40Hz
20 2.17Hz
frequency of the chimney were estimated at 0.18% 0.41Hz 1.52Hz 2.38Hz
and 0.40Hz for the 1st mode, and 0.30% and 0.41Hz 0 1.47Hz
for the 2nd mode. The dynamic characteristics of the -20
3rd and 4th modes were also estimated by the MRD -40
technique. -60
The FDD technique was applied to the six 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
horizontal components of the acceleration responses at Frequency (Hz)
the three different heights to evaluate the chimneys
dynamic characteristics. Figure 15 shows the Fig. 15 Frequency distribution of singular value
frequency distribution of the singular value obtained
Normalized Singular Values

by the FDD technique. Figure 16 is a close-up in the 40 dB 0.40Hz


range of 0.1Hz - 0.7Hz, where the upper line shows 30
two peaks at 0.40Hz and 0.41Hz, corresponding to f1 20 0.41Hz
10
and f2. The lower line has a peak between 0.40Hz and 0
0.41Hz, and the right-side slope can be connected to -10
the first peak of the upper line, and the left to the -20
second peak. This forms a bell, so the combination -30
of the upper and lower lines can closely identify the 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
located modes. Frequency (Hz)
Figure 17 shows the auto-correlation function of the Fig. 16 Frequency distribution of singular value
1st mode obtained by the inverse FFT for the (Close-up: frequency range 0.1-0.7Hz)
separated peak as above. Figure 18 shows the
variations of the damping ratios of the lowest two
modes with the number of data points used for PSD

6 CTBUH 2004 CTBUH 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, KoreaTamura


3rd-mode damping ratio. and the ambient responses were measured for 1 hour
in 1 setup.

Dynamic characteristics of a large-span roof


Field measurement setup System identification by FDD
Ambient response measurements were performed Figure 20 shows the SVD plot of large span roof
on a large-span roof 42.8m high, 108m wide, and 49m obtained by FDD. There were many peaks of less than
deep in cantilever form, as shown in Photo 1. 10Hz, and it was possible to obtain up to the 15th
Servo-type accelerometers were installed on top of a mode below 6Hz. Figure 20 shows the SVD plot
roof beam to measure the vertical acceleration. Three obtained by FDD. There are many peaks
accelerometers were set as reference measurement corresponding to the natural frequencies. The mode
points and the other 12 accelerometers were set as shapes up to the 15th mode obtained by the FDD
moving measurement points. The ambient response method are shown in Fig. 21. Mode shapes could be
measurements were carried out for 4 setups, and a estimated very clearly in spite of the ambient response
total of 51 measurement points were obtained, as measurements. The natural frequencies obtained by
shown in Fig. 19. The sampling rate was set at 100Hz, the FEM analysis and field measurement are shown in
h = 0.24%
1 1
49m f = 0.40Hz
0.5 1

2
108m

R()/
0
-0.5

42.8m -1
0 50 100 150 200
Time lag (s)
Fig. 17 Correlation function obtained by FDD

Photo. 1 Large span roof 1.5


Damping ratio (%)

1st mode
1
2nd mode
0.5

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
(a) Setup 1 (b) Setup 2 Data points used for PSD calculation
Fig. 18 Variations of damping ratio with
PSD data points

Table 2 Dynamic characteristics of chimney


Natural Frequency Damping Ratio
(c) Setup 3 (d) Setup 4
Mode (Hz) (%)
Fig. 19 Measurement setups (4 setups)
RD FDD RD FDD
20 dB (g) 1st 0.40 0.40 0.18 0.24
(d) (h)
(j) (m) nd 0.39

(e)(f) (o)(p) 2 0.41 0.41 0.30
Singular Values

(c)
(k)

(i) (l) (n)

3rd

(b)
(a)

1.47 1.47 0.83 0.3
0 th 0.91
4 1.53 1.52 0.85
5th 2.17 2.17 0.55 0.65
-20 6th 2.38 2.38 0.42 0.39
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Frequency (Hz) 7th - 2.87 - -
th 0.77
8 - 3.10 -
Fig. 20 SVD plot obtained by FDD

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CTBUH 2004 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea Tamura 7
Table. 3 Natural Frequency of large span roof
Natural Frequency (Hz) Difference
Mode
FEM FDD (%)
st
1 0.94 1.03 +10
2nd 0.98 1.09 +11
(a)f1=1.03Hz (b) f2=1.09Hz (c) f3=1.31Hz 3rd 1.12 1.31 +17
th
4 1.52 1.93 +27
5th 2.30 2.88 +25

(d) f4=1.93Hz (e) f5=2.58Hz (f) f6=2.74Hz

Table 4 Damping ratio estimated by FDD


(Number of data points used for DFT : 4096)
(g) f7=2.88Hz (h) f8=2.97Hz (i) f9=3.30Hz Damping Damping
Mode No. Mode No.
ratio (%) ratio (%)

1 0.69 9 0.91
2 0.59 10 1.44
(j) f10=3.90Hz (k) f11=3.94Hz (l) f12=4.58Hz
3 0.56 11 0.66
4 0.21 12 0.98
5 2.17 13 1.01
(m) f13=4.86Hz (n) f14=5.38Hz (o) f15=5.57Hz
6 1.38 14 0.83
Fig.21 Mode shape obtained by FDD
7 1.47 15 0.85
8 0.27 16 0.61

Table 3. The five modes are compared with the natural emphasized that the sufficient number of data points
frequency corresponding to them. for DFT was necessary for the spectral damping
By comparing the FEM and FDD results, we find that evaluation techniques.
the natural frequency obtained from the field
measurements is about 10% higher than that obtained References
from the FEM analysis. This is considered to be due to 1) Bendat, J. and Piersol, A. (1986), Random Data, Analysis and
the contribution of the stiffness of the secondary Measurement Procedures, John Wiley & Son, New York, USA,
2) Brinker, R., Zhang, L.-M. and Anderson, P. (2000), Modal
members, which is not estimated by the FEM model. Identification from ambient response using frequency domain
Table 4 shows the damping ratio estimated by FDD up decomposition, Proc. of the 18th IMAC
to 16th mode. 3) Brincker, R., Ventura, C.E. and P. Andersen (2001), Damping
Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition, Proc. of the
Conclusion 19th IMAC, 698-703, Feb. 2001
4) Miwa, m., Nakata, S., Tamura, Y., Fukushima, Y., and Otsuki, T.
In this paper, various damping evaluation techniques
(2002), Modal identification by FEM analysis of a building with
were discussed, and efficiency and feasibility of the CFT columns, 20th International Modal Analysis Conference
Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique 5) Tamura, Y., Zhang, L., Yoshida, A., Cho, K., Nakata, S., and Naito,
and the Multi-mode Random Decrement (MRD) S. (2002), Ambient vibration testing & modal identification of an
technique were demonstrated. Both techniques can be office building with CFT columns, 20th International Modal
applied for ambient excitations, thus enabling easy Analysis Conference, pp141-146
6) Tamura Y., Zhang L.-M., Yoshida A., Nakata S. and Itoh T., (2002),
handling of closely-spaced and even repeated modes. Ambient Vibration Tests and Modal Identification of Structures by
As the results, fairly good correspondence was shown FDD and 2DOF-RD Technique, Structural Engineers World
with vibration characteristics obtained by the MRD Congress Yokohama, Japan, October 9-12
technique and the FDD technique. Various important 7) Yoshida A. and Tamura Y., (2004), System identification of
points to note on the traditional damping evaluation structure for wind-induced response, 5th International Colloquium
techniques were also discussed, and it was on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Applications, Ottawa, Canada,
July 11-15, pp335-338

8 CTBUH 2004 CTBUH 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, KoreaTamura