16 views

Uploaded by Apetsi Ampiah

Evaluation Techniques of Damping in Buildings

- 8. Mech - Ijme -Vertical Turbine Pump - Vimalkumar a. Patel
- Using Winkler Beam
- IJEART03104
- Using Finite Element Software for Enhancing a Vibration Analysis Curriculum
- AETT ZG 524-L2
- Lect 04 Note
- EM 81 - Pump Vibrations Part II
- 4.SDOF Systems in Free Vibration
- Review - Rotor Balancing
- Vibrations
- Machine Foundation PPT
- Mechanical Vibrations
- Section3_9
- 648518 (1).pdf
- Advanced Calculations ENU
- in09_140
- Dv 220131721
- Presentation1
- Differential Quadrature Method for Vibration Analysis of Shear Deformable Annular Sector Plates
- DOM 2007

You are on page 1of 9

org/papers

Akihito Yoshida, Tokyo Polytechnic University

Lingmi Zhang, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Keyword: Damping

2. Journal paper

3. Conference proceeding

4. Unpublished conference paper

5. Magazine article

6. Unpublished

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat / Yukio Tamura; Akihito Yoshida; Lingmi Zhang

On the Emerging Role of GPS in Structural Health Monitoring

Evaluation Techniques of Damping in Buildings

Evaluation Techniques of Damping in Buildings

of Base-Isolation system

Tamura1, Akihito Yoshida2 forZhang

, Lingmi Tall3 Building in Japan

1

Professor, Department of Architecture, Tokyo Polytechnic University

2

Rresearch Associate, Department of Architecture, Tokyo Polytechnic University

Sensitivity on Load Carrying Capacity of

3

Professor, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Frameds to Member Disappearance

Abstract

In order to evaluate dynamic responses of buildings, their dynamic characteristics such as natural

frequencies, vibration modes and damping ratios should be accurately known. It is well known that a

dynamic Thermal

structure can be damped by mechanisms

Deformation Analyseswith different internal and external

of High-Rise Steel characteristics:

Buildings friction

between atomic/molecular or different parts, impact, air/fluid resistance, and so on. Structural damping is the

most important, but most uncertain parameter affecting dynamic responses of buildings. This uncertainty

significantly reduces the reliability of structural design for dynamic effects. Then, accurate determination of

structural damping is very important, not only for evaluating structural responses, but also for designing

active andStructural Design

passive auxiliary damping and

devicesConstruction Method

to be installed in buildings of the 54-story

and structures. However, there is no

Housing Project W-Comfort Towers

theoretical method for estimating damping in buildings. It is very in Tokyo using even for

difficult, if not impossible,

viscous damping. Thus, the design damping ratio has been estimated on the basis of actual measurements,

whichSuper High

are widely Performance

dispersed Reinforced

for various reasons. In this paper,Concrete

feasibility andHigh-rise System

efficiency of two simple and

user-friendly but accurate damping evaluation techniques are discussed. One is the Frequency Domain

Decomposition (FDD) technique using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the cross-spectral density

matrix and the other is the Multi-mode Random Decrement (MRD) technique (Tamura et al., 2002). Both

techniques can be applied for ambient excitations such as wind, turbulence, traffic, and/or micro-seismic

Times

tremors, Squareeasy

thus enabling Skyscrapers: Sustainability

handling of closely-spaced and even Reaching

repeated modes. New As Heights

a result, good

correspondence is shown with vibration characteristics obtained by these techniques, and various important

points to note on the traditional damping evaluation techniques are also discussed.

Keywords: system identification; damping ratio; Frequency Domain Decomposition; Multi-mode Random Decrement

damping Beam

force is proportional to the velocity, and is

In order to evaluate dynamic responses of buildings, mathematically convenient because it results in a

their dynamic characteristics such as natural linear second order differential equation for

frequencies, vibration modes and damping ratios engineering structures. A transient decay of a

should be accurately known. It is well known that a

An Experimental Study on theviscously

dynamic structure can be damped by mechanisms with

Engineeringunder-damped system will decay

Properties of

exponentially. From a practical point of view,

Deteriorated

different internal and external Concrete

characteristics: friction by Fire

equivalent Damage

viscous damping, which models the overall

between atomic/molecular or different parts, impacts, damped behavior of structural systems as being

air/fluid resistance, and so on. viscous, is often adopted in structural dynamics.

A combination of different phenomena results in Clearly, structural damping is the most important,

various types of damping. Generally, their but most uncertain parameter affecting dynamic

mathematical descriptions are quite complicated, and responses of buildings. This uncertainty significantly

not suitable for vibration analysis for complicated reduces the reliability of structural design for dynamic

structures. In structural dynamics, damping is effects. Then, accurate determination of structural

described by viscous, hysteretic, coulomb or velocity damping is very important, not only for evaluating

squared models. Viscous damping occurs when the structural responses, but also for designing active and

passive auxiliary damping devices to be installed in

Contact Author: buildings and structures. However, there is no

Yukio Tamura, theoretical method for estimating damping in

Professor, buildings. It is very difficult, if not impossible, even

Tokyo Polytechnic University, for viscous damping. Thus, the design damping ratio

1583, Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa, Japan 243-0297 has been estimated on the basis of actual

Tel: +81-(0)46-242-9547 Fax: +81-(0)46-242-9547 measurements, which are widely dispersed for various

e-mail: yukio@arch.t-kougei.ac.jp

reasons. observed in the Random Decrement signature (RD

Many full-scale data have estimated larger damping signature). In such case, GRD cannot be used for

ratios than the actual values because of inappropriate evaluation of damping ratio. In order to evaluate the

use of damping evaluation techniques. In this paper, multiple closely located vibration modes, the

two simple and user-friendly but accurate damping Multi-mode Random Decrement technique (MRD) is

evaluation techniques are examined. One is the proposed (Tamura et al., 2002), where the

Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique superimposition of the multi SDOF systems with

(Brincker et al., 2000) using Singular Value different dynamic characteristics is made. The RD

Decomposition (SVD) of the cross-spectral density signature with beating phenomenon is approximated

matrix and the other is the Multi-mode Random by superimposition of different damped free

Decrement (MRD) technique (Tamura et al., 2002). oscillations as follows:

Both techniques can be applied for ambient

x0

Ri (t ) = e h t cos 1 hi i t i

2

excitations such as wind, turbulence, traffic, and/or i i i

closely-spaced and even repeated modes. n

Full-scale measurements were carried out on R (t ) = Ri (t ) + m

i =1

various types of buildings and structures, and good

correspondence was shown with vibration where R (t ) : original RD signature, Ri (t ) : RD

characteristics obtained by these techniques, and signature for the i-th mode component, x 0i : initial

various important points to note on the traditional value of i-th mode component, hi : i-th mode

damping evaluation techniques are discussed. damping ratio, i : i-th mode circular frequency, t :

time, i : phase shift, and m : mean value correction

Primitive experimental investigation of various of original RD signature.

damping evaluation techniques

Measurement setup Frequency Domain Decomposition

At first, to investigate the features of the various Instead of using PSD directly, as in the classical

damping evaluation techniques, ambient responses frequency domain technique, the cross spectrum

measurements of a 4-story model were conducted. density (CSD) matrix is decomposed at each

Figure 1 shows an elevation and plan of the tested frequency line via Singular Value Decomposition

4-story model, which can oscillate with X, Y and (SVD). SVD has a powerful property of separating

components. Three accelerometers were installed at noisy data from disturbance caused by unmodeled

each level for the X and Y directions to be translated dynamics and measurement noise. For the analysis,

into equivalent motions (X, Y and components) at the Singular Value plot, as functions of frequencies,

the centroid. It is assumed that the floor was subject to calculated from SVD can be used to determine modal

lateral rigid body motion. The sampling rate was set as frequencies and mode shapes. It has been proved that

100Hz, with a Nyquist frequency of 50Hz. The the peaks of a singular value plot indicate the

duration of record was 12 hours. existence of structural modes (Brincker et al., 2000).

Damping evaluation techniques used for analysis The singular vector corresponding to the local

Three different evaluation techniques in time maximum singular value is unscaled mode shape. This

domain and five techniques in frequency domain were is exactly true if the excitation process in the vicinity

used for evaluation of damping as follows: of the modal frequency is white noise. One of the

Techniques in Time Domain major advantages of the FDD technique is that

(1) Curve fit of damped free oscillation (DFO)

(2) General random decrement technique (GRD) 30cm

(3) Multi-mode random decrement technique (MRD)

Techniques in Frequency Domain 22cm

(1) Half power method (HP) Y

(2) 1 / 2 method ( 1 / 2 ) 22cm

(3) Phase gradient method (PG)

(4) Curve fit of response magnification factor (RM) 22cm X

(5) Frequency domain decomposition (FDD) centroid

This paper briefly describes MRD and FDD. 22cm

Accelerometer

Multi Random Decrement technique (MRD) Z Y

The GRD technique assuming a SDOF system can

efficiently evaluate the damping ratios and the natural 30cm X

frequencies only for well-separated vibration modes.

However, if there are closely located predominant

Fig. 1 Tested 4-story model

frequency components, a beating phenomenon is

closely-spaced modes, even repeated modes, can be Fourier Transform (DFT) calculation. In the frequency

dealt with without any difficulty. The only domain approaches, the power spectral density

approximation is that mode shape orthogonality is functions or the transfer function is calculated via DFT.

assumed. It is well known that leakage error in PSD estimation

Not only for the natural frequency and the mode shape, always takes place due to data truncation of DFT.

but also the damping ratio can be estimated by FDD. Leakage is a kind of bias error, which cannot be

The basic idea of the FDD method is as follows eliminated by windowing, e.g. by applying a Hanning

(Brincker et al. 2001). The singular value in the window, and is harmful to the damping estimation

vicinity of the natural frequency is equivalent to the accuracy, which relies on the PSD measurements. The

PSD function of the corresponding mode (as a SDOF

system). This PSD function is identified around the f1=3.1Hz h1=19.76%

Acceleration(cm/s )

0.06

2

peak by comparing the mode shape estimate with the f2=3.6Hz h2=0.25%

0.03

singular vectors for the frequency lines around the

peak. As long as a singular vector is found that has a 0

high Modal Amplitude Coherence (MAC) value with -0.03

the mode shape, the corresponding singular value -0.06

belongs to the SDOF function. If at a certain line none 0 5 10 15 20 25

of the singular values has a singular vector with a Time (s)

MAC value larger than a certain limit value, the Fig. 2 RD signature of tip acceleration (X dir.)

search for matching parts of the PSD function is

terminated. From the fully or partially identified

SDOF spectral density function, the natural frequency

and the damping ratio can be estimated by taking the X = X cos Y sin

PSD function back to the time domain by inverse FFT Y Y = X sin + Y cos

as a correlation function of the SDOF system. From Y

the free decay function, the natural frequency and the

damping are found by the logarithmic decrement X

technique. Fig. 3 Coordinates transformation to X, Y axes

X

Damping ratios from various techniques

Acceleration(cm/s )

f1=3.6Hz h1=0.24%

2

acceleration records. The initial amplitude of the 0.03 f2=3.7Hz h2=0.37%

acceleration to get the RD signature was set at the 0

standard deviation, acc. For this model, there are two

-0.03

close peaks as natural frequency for the X and Y

directions. Therefore, the RD signature with a beating -0.06

0 5 10 15 20 25

phenomenon as shown in Fig. 2 was observed, Time (s)

although it was not clear. As described above, the

GRD technique should not be used for the evaluation Fig. 4 RD signature of tip acceleration (X dir)

of the dynamic characteristics. The MRD technique is

an appropriate approach in such a case to identify the

two different dynamic characteristics. However, when 1/2 FDD

a beating phenomenon is not clear as in this case, it is HP MRD

difficult to identify the two different dynamic 3 PG DFO

characteristics by MRD. Thus, coordinate 2 RM

Damping ratio (%)

records, which have almost the same energy for the 1

RM PG

acceleration in the X and Y directions, as shown in Fig. 0.7

0.5 1/2

3. FDD HP

Figure 4 shows the RD signature using X dir. tip 0.3 MRD

acceleration records. It can be seen that a beating 0.2 DFO

phenomenon is much clearer than that using X dir. tip

acceleration as already shown in Fig. 2. The natural 0.1

frequency and the damping ratio evaluated by MRD 1 2 3 5 7 10

20 30 50 70 100

3

for the RD signature using X dir. tip acceleration are 10

3.6 Hz and 0.24% for the 1st mode, and 3.7 Hz and Number of data points used for DFT calculation

0.37% for the 2nd mode.

Figure 5 shows the variations of the damping ratio Fig. 5 Changes of damping ratio vs. data points

with the number of data points used for Discrete

CTBUH

CTBUH 2004 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea Tamura 3

bias error caused by leakage is proportional to the 25.9m 13.8m

square of the frequency resolution (Bendat and Piersol,

1986). Therefore, increasing frequency resolution is a

very effective way to reduce leakage error. As shown

in Fig. 5, the damping ratio evaluated by frequency

domain approaches decreases with increasing the

number of data points used for DFT calculation and

59.15m

converge to a constant value. It is noted that the

number of data points used for DFT calculation should

be larger than 16,384, which is almost 600 times the

natural frequency of the model, to identify the

accurate damping ratio.

Tested 15-story building (a) Northeast (b) Northwest

A series of field measurements of ambient Fig. 6 Elevation of 15-story office building

vibrations of a middle-rise 15-story office building

located in Ichigaya, Tokyo, were made, and its

dynamic characteristics were evaluated (Tamura et al.,

2002, Miwa et al., 2002). The building extends from 0.95Hz

20 1.16Hz

Singular Values

0.86Hz

6.1m underground to 59.15m above basement level, as

2.37Hz 2.60Hz 4.37Hz

shown in Fig. 6. The columns are concrete-filled-tube 2.90Hz 4.10Hz 4.60Hz

0

(CFT) and the beams are wide-flange steel. The floor

comprises a concrete slab and steel deck. The exterior -20

walls of the first floor are of pre-cast concrete. The

walls from the second floor to the top are of -40

autoclaved lightweight concrete (ALC). The plan of a 0 1 2 3 4 5

standard story is 22.2m long by 13.8m wide, and the Frequency (Hz)

floor-to-floor height is 3.8m. The concrete strengths

were 24N/mm2 underground, 42N/mm2 for the Fig. 7 Singular value plot obtained by FDD

column filling, and 21N/mm2 (lightweight concrete)

above ground.

Field measurement

Fourteen accelerometers were used for one setup

with two accelerometers at the 15th floor as references.

It is assumed that the floor was subject to lateral rigid

body motion. The measured vibration was translated

into equivalent motions at the desired corners. f1=0.76Hz f2=0.85Hz f3=1.11Hz

Accelerometers excluding reference accelerometers

were used as roving sensors for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and

4th setups. Three accelerometers were typically placed

in the southeast (x direction) and northeast (x and y

directions) corners from the 7th floor to 15th floor as

well as in the roof. Six accelerometers were placed at

the 2nd, 4th and 6th floors.

The ambient data recorded during the field

measurement were processed in the frequency domain f4=2.23Hz f5=2.46Hz f6=2.94Hz

afterwards. Cross spectral density was estimated using

full measurement data with a frame of 1024 data

points. 512 spectrum lines, with frequency resolution

of 0.0195 Hz, were calculated. A Hanning window

was applied as usual with 66.7 % overlap to increase

the average number.

Figure 7 presents the SV Plots of the CFT building.

There were many peaks of less than 5Hz Fig.8 Mode shape of the CFT Building

corresponding to the natural frequencies, and it was

Normalized Singular Values

0.85Hz

Figure 8 depicts the corresponding nine mode shapes.

0 Figure 9 shows a typical bell of the SDOF system

the 1st mode and the 2nd mode of the 15-story

-20 building. From the identified SDOF spectral density

-40 function, the modal frequency and the damping can

be estimated by taking the PSD function back to time

0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 domain by inverse FFT as correlation function of the

Frequency (Hz) SDOF system, as shown in Fig. 10.From the free

Fig.9 Singular value plot of 15-story building decay function, the modal frequency and the

(Frequency ranges 0.5-1.5Hz) damping are found by the logarithmic decrement

technique.

1 f1 = 0.76Hz h1 = 0.65% In order to show the influence of the frequency

resolution on the damping estimation accuracy, 256,

0.5

R() / 2

0 calculate the CSD functions. The corresponding

frequency resolutions were 0.0783, 0.0392, 0.0195,

-0.5

0.00977 and 0.00488 Hz, respectively. Figure 11

-1 presents the changes of the damping ratios with the

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

number of data points used for DFT calculation. It is

Time lag (s) very interesting to observe that, as predicted by the

Fig.10 Correlation function of 1st mode theory of random data procession, the damping ratios

(%) of all modes decrease, while the number of data

Damping Ratio

2nd mode

2 3rd mode that damping estimates converge when the number of

data points is large enough (up to 4096 or 8192).

1 Table 2 shows the damping ratios with enough data

0 points to be used for DFT calculation. Table 1 shows

the dynamic characteristics of 15-story building

(a) 1st - 3rd mode

2.5 (%)

obtained by FDD. The number of data points used

Damping Ratio

2 6th mode about 0.01)

1.5 5th mode

1 Dynamic characteristics of a tall chimney

0.5 4th mode Field Measurement Set-up

Ambient response measurements of a 230m-high

(b) 4th - 6th mode

chimney were conducted, and its dynamic

2.5 (%)

Damping Ratio

2 7th mode and Yoshida and Tamura 2004). Figure 12 shows the

1.5

9th mode y

1 : Accelerometers

0.5 8th mode : Sonic anemometer

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

(c) 7th - 9th mode

DataNumber

points used

of for

FFTPSD calculation x

G.L.+220m

Fig.11 Changes of damping ratio vs. data points

Table 1 Dynamic characteristics of 15-story building

Natural Frequency Damping Ratio G.L.+148m

Mode

(Hz) (%)

1st 0.76 0.65

2nd 0.86 0.74

3 rd

1.11 0.84 G.L.+76m

230m

4th 2.23 1.10

5th 2.47 1.56

6th 2.94 1.67

7th 3.85 2.12 G.L.

th

8 4.26 0.85

9th 4.47 1.11 Fig.12 Elevation of chimney

CTBUH

CTBUH 2004 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea Tamura 5

elevation and plan of the tested chimney, consisting of calculation. The damping ratios converge to precise

steel trusses and a concrete funnel. The chimney has values with increase in the number of data points.

an octagonal cross section. Table 2 shows the dynamic characteristics of the

Accelerometers were installed on three different chimney obtained by the FDD method with enough

levels, as shown in Fig.12. Two horizontal DFT data points and by the RD technique, where the

components (x, y) and one vertical component (z) MRD technique was used for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th

were measured at each level. A sonic anemometer was modes. These results show fairly good agreement

also installed at the top of the chimney. The sampling between the FDD and MRD techniques, except for the

rate of the acceleration records was set at 100Hz, and

the ambient responses were measured for 90 minutes

in total. Width of band pass filter 220m

2

10 148m

0.40Hz 76m

0

0.41Hz

System Identification by MRD and FDD 10

Figure 13 shows the power spectrum density -2

10

functions of accelerations at three different heights.

-4

Peaks corresponding to several natural frequencies are 10

clearly shown. -6

10 4

At first, the general Random Decrement (GRD) 0.1 1

technique assuming a SDOF system was applied for Frequency (Hz)

system identification using the ambient y-dir. Fig.13 Power spectrum of tip acceleration (Y-dir)

acceleration records at the top level, GL+220m. By

processing with a numerical band-pass filter with a

frequency range of 0.06Hz - 1.0Hz, only the 1 h1 = 0.18% h2 = 0.30%

Acceleration (cm/s2)

0.5

0.40Hz depicted in Fig.13 were extracted. The initial

amplitude of the acceleration to get the RD signature 0

was set at the standard deviation, acc. Figure 14

-0.5

shows the obtained RD signature, where a beating

phenomenon is clearly observed, suggesting two -1

closely located predominant frequency components. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

By carefully studying the peak near 0.4Hz, it is seen Time (s)

that there are actually two peaks: at 0.40Hz and Fig. 14 RD signature of tip acceleration (Y-dir.)

0.41Hz. These peaks are named f1 and f2, respectively,

in this paper. The approximation was made by the

Normalized Singular Values

40 dB

MRD, and the damping ratio and the natural 0.40Hz

20 2.17Hz

frequency of the chimney were estimated at 0.18% 0.41Hz 1.52Hz 2.38Hz

and 0.40Hz for the 1st mode, and 0.30% and 0.41Hz 0 1.47Hz

for the 2nd mode. The dynamic characteristics of the -20

3rd and 4th modes were also estimated by the MRD -40

technique. -60

The FDD technique was applied to the six 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

horizontal components of the acceleration responses at Frequency (Hz)

the three different heights to evaluate the chimneys

dynamic characteristics. Figure 15 shows the Fig. 15 Frequency distribution of singular value

frequency distribution of the singular value obtained

Normalized Singular Values

range of 0.1Hz - 0.7Hz, where the upper line shows 30

two peaks at 0.40Hz and 0.41Hz, corresponding to f1 20 0.41Hz

10

and f2. The lower line has a peak between 0.40Hz and 0

0.41Hz, and the right-side slope can be connected to -10

the first peak of the upper line, and the left to the -20

second peak. This forms a bell, so the combination -30

of the upper and lower lines can closely identify the 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

located modes. Frequency (Hz)

Figure 17 shows the auto-correlation function of the Fig. 16 Frequency distribution of singular value

1st mode obtained by the inverse FFT for the (Close-up: frequency range 0.1-0.7Hz)

separated peak as above. Figure 18 shows the

variations of the damping ratios of the lowest two

modes with the number of data points used for PSD

3rd-mode damping ratio. and the ambient responses were measured for 1 hour

in 1 setup.

Field measurement setup System identification by FDD

Ambient response measurements were performed Figure 20 shows the SVD plot of large span roof

on a large-span roof 42.8m high, 108m wide, and 49m obtained by FDD. There were many peaks of less than

deep in cantilever form, as shown in Photo 1. 10Hz, and it was possible to obtain up to the 15th

Servo-type accelerometers were installed on top of a mode below 6Hz. Figure 20 shows the SVD plot

roof beam to measure the vertical acceleration. Three obtained by FDD. There are many peaks

accelerometers were set as reference measurement corresponding to the natural frequencies. The mode

points and the other 12 accelerometers were set as shapes up to the 15th mode obtained by the FDD

moving measurement points. The ambient response method are shown in Fig. 21. Mode shapes could be

measurements were carried out for 4 setups, and a estimated very clearly in spite of the ambient response

total of 51 measurement points were obtained, as measurements. The natural frequencies obtained by

shown in Fig. 19. The sampling rate was set at 100Hz, the FEM analysis and field measurement are shown in

h = 0.24%

1 1

49m f = 0.40Hz

0.5 1

2

108m

R()/

0

-0.5

42.8m -1

0 50 100 150 200

Time lag (s)

Fig. 17 Correlation function obtained by FDD

Damping ratio (%)

1st mode

1

2nd mode

0.5

0

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

(a) Setup 1 (b) Setup 2 Data points used for PSD calculation

Fig. 18 Variations of damping ratio with

PSD data points

Natural Frequency Damping Ratio

(c) Setup 3 (d) Setup 4

Mode (Hz) (%)

Fig. 19 Measurement setups (4 setups)

RD FDD RD FDD

20 dB (g) 1st 0.40 0.40 0.18 0.24

(d) (h)

(j) (m) nd 0.39

(e)(f) (o)(p) 2 0.41 0.41 0.30

Singular Values

(c)

(k)

(i) (l) (n)

3rd

(b)

(a)

1.47 1.47 0.83 0.3

0 th 0.91

4 1.53 1.52 0.85

5th 2.17 2.17 0.55 0.65

-20 6th 2.38 2.38 0.42 0.39

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Frequency (Hz) 7th - 2.87 - -

th 0.77

8 - 3.10 -

Fig. 20 SVD plot obtained by FDD

CTBUH

CTBUH 2004 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea Tamura 7

Table. 3 Natural Frequency of large span roof

Natural Frequency (Hz) Difference

Mode

FEM FDD (%)

st

1 0.94 1.03 +10

2nd 0.98 1.09 +11

(a)f1=1.03Hz (b) f2=1.09Hz (c) f3=1.31Hz 3rd 1.12 1.31 +17

th

4 1.52 1.93 +27

5th 2.30 2.88 +25

(Number of data points used for DFT : 4096)

(g) f7=2.88Hz (h) f8=2.97Hz (i) f9=3.30Hz Damping Damping

Mode No. Mode No.

ratio (%) ratio (%)

1 0.69 9 0.91

2 0.59 10 1.44

(j) f10=3.90Hz (k) f11=3.94Hz (l) f12=4.58Hz

3 0.56 11 0.66

4 0.21 12 0.98

5 2.17 13 1.01

(m) f13=4.86Hz (n) f14=5.38Hz (o) f15=5.57Hz

6 1.38 14 0.83

Fig.21 Mode shape obtained by FDD

7 1.47 15 0.85

8 0.27 16 0.61

Table 3. The five modes are compared with the natural emphasized that the sufficient number of data points

frequency corresponding to them. for DFT was necessary for the spectral damping

By comparing the FEM and FDD results, we find that evaluation techniques.

the natural frequency obtained from the field

measurements is about 10% higher than that obtained References

from the FEM analysis. This is considered to be due to 1) Bendat, J. and Piersol, A. (1986), Random Data, Analysis and

the contribution of the stiffness of the secondary Measurement Procedures, John Wiley & Son, New York, USA,

2) Brinker, R., Zhang, L.-M. and Anderson, P. (2000), Modal

members, which is not estimated by the FEM model. Identification from ambient response using frequency domain

Table 4 shows the damping ratio estimated by FDD up decomposition, Proc. of the 18th IMAC

to 16th mode. 3) Brincker, R., Ventura, C.E. and P. Andersen (2001), Damping

Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition, Proc. of the

Conclusion 19th IMAC, 698-703, Feb. 2001

4) Miwa, m., Nakata, S., Tamura, Y., Fukushima, Y., and Otsuki, T.

In this paper, various damping evaluation techniques

(2002), Modal identification by FEM analysis of a building with

were discussed, and efficiency and feasibility of the CFT columns, 20th International Modal Analysis Conference

Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique 5) Tamura, Y., Zhang, L., Yoshida, A., Cho, K., Nakata, S., and Naito,

and the Multi-mode Random Decrement (MRD) S. (2002), Ambient vibration testing & modal identification of an

technique were demonstrated. Both techniques can be office building with CFT columns, 20th International Modal

applied for ambient excitations, thus enabling easy Analysis Conference, pp141-146

6) Tamura Y., Zhang L.-M., Yoshida A., Nakata S. and Itoh T., (2002),

handling of closely-spaced and even repeated modes. Ambient Vibration Tests and Modal Identification of Structures by

As the results, fairly good correspondence was shown FDD and 2DOF-RD Technique, Structural Engineers World

with vibration characteristics obtained by the MRD Congress Yokohama, Japan, October 9-12

technique and the FDD technique. Various important 7) Yoshida A. and Tamura Y., (2004), System identification of

points to note on the traditional damping evaluation structure for wind-induced response, 5th International Colloquium

techniques were also discussed, and it was on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Applications, Ottawa, Canada,

July 11-15, pp335-338

- 8. Mech - Ijme -Vertical Turbine Pump - Vimalkumar a. PatelUploaded byiaset123
- Using Winkler BeamUploaded bygolddust2012
- IJEART03104Uploaded byerpublication
- Using Finite Element Software for Enhancing a Vibration Analysis CurriculumUploaded bytruva_kiss
- AETT ZG 524-L2Uploaded byGopal Athani
- Lect 04 NoteUploaded byLucbinhtim Le
- EM 81 - Pump Vibrations Part IIUploaded byΡαφαηλ Καμ.
- 4.SDOF Systems in Free VibrationUploaded byshamshiri
- Review - Rotor BalancingUploaded byNoelrmu
- VibrationsUploaded bybislerinit
- Machine Foundation PPTUploaded bySuvankar
- Mechanical VibrationsUploaded byamar0341
- Section3_9Uploaded bysonti11
- 648518 (1).pdfUploaded byGustavo A. da Silva
- Advanced Calculations ENUUploaded byastracr
- in09_140Uploaded bybashmal
- Dv 220131721Uploaded byjojomarbun
- Presentation1Uploaded byjsnb
- Differential Quadrature Method for Vibration Analysis of Shear Deformable Annular Sector PlatesUploaded byTami Rogers
- DOM 2007Uploaded bynkumarrs
- Effect of Singular Value Decomposition Based Processing on Speech PerceptionUploaded byAnonymous qwgN0m7oO
- Hafizi_2017_IOP_Conf._Ser.__Mater._Sci._Eng._257_012038.pdfUploaded byBalaganesh
- Methods for Earthquake AnalysisUploaded byafcis
- JGS Da Silva_SAL de Andrade_Parametric Modeling of the Dinamic Behaviour of a Steel-concrete Composite Floor_ES 2014Uploaded byjovana
- Basics of Vibration IsolationUploaded bySAiTeja
- Mode ShapeUploaded bythabiso87
- See page 7 - 16 (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 507) Proceedings of the First International Conferen.pdfUploaded bySatya Murty
- plmUploaded bySeema Jaiswal
- Analysis of Friction Excited Vibration of Drum Brake SquealUploaded byAnonymous PufNjg
- Strength and Safety Verification of Piping System Exposed to VibrationsUploaded byaaaa

- Hossein i 1999Uploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- ASR_CarboUploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- 517Uploaded byRavi Valakrishnan
- 2006 Asset Strategy App K - Building Mtce PolicyUploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- 2006 Asset Strategy App K - Building Mtce PolicyUploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- Seismic Design of Structures Using Friction Damper BracingsUploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- Compaction DataUploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- Cive1400 Problem Sheet 200607 SolutionsUploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- Assignment on Permeability Etc.Uploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- permeabilidadUploaded byJael Gutierrez
- Vector CalculusUploaded byApetsi Ampiah
- STAAD PRO tutorialUploaded bysaisssms9116
- STAAD PRO tutorialUploaded bysaisssms9116
- Cive1400 200506 SolutionsUploaded byApetsi Ampiah

- Transformation of StressesUploaded bymuhammadsali
- 8 Grid GenerationUploaded byAbaziz Mousa OutlawZz
- Rejobs IrenaUploaded byToninho Porpino
- schoology for es teachersUploaded byapi-281701497
- Courseplan_KU211GUploaded byAndré Fontes
- Abap SkillsUploaded bysaibabu
- Experiment 5: Swelling and solute transport properties of hydrogels.Uploaded byidownloadbooksforstu
- Singh and Delhi 2018 - Site Layout Planning Waste Typology and Its Handling Through AR-BIM Concept_ a Lean ApproachUploaded byconcretetechgroup
- Chlorophyta ChromosomeUploaded byDuy Phạm Ngọc
- Oxford GCSE Maths for OCR sample Teacher Guide materialUploaded byOxford University Press Children and Schools
- Chuck Fisher PresenttnUploaded bySeni Nabou
- Local Directional Number Pattern for Face Analysis Face and Expression RecognitionUploaded byvenkatsrmv
- Blueprint Session 6 Pm Measurement Points and PermitsUploaded byDhiraj Patil
- Feb 2012 Symmetry MagazineUploaded byzaxos021
- E-cb Past 2011-2012 TemplateUploaded byJhez Pasaporte Delgado
- DME UNIT-1Uploaded bySathis Kumar
- DRIP-Microcomputer-Program-User's-Guide.pdfUploaded byamikcor
- Tseng - Behavioral Finance, Bounded Rationality, Traditional FinanceUploaded byMohsin Younis
- Capacity Builders - Capital Investment ProgrammeUploaded byBlackpool Community News at Scribd
- Econ 350 Chapter02 (1)Uploaded byAngela Diana Nicholas
- q1 week 7Uploaded byIsraelDelMundo
- Jurnal Kriteria Baru SleUploaded byDr Edi Hidayat
- Brant Cortright - The Neurogenesis Diet and Lifestyle****Uploaded bySteve Mitchell
- KRITI INDIAUploaded byPrabhat Pahan
- Design and Analysis of Solar Powered RC AircraftUploaded bytheijes
- csir formUploaded bycoolrajeee
- User_Guide___Instruction_Book_enUS_1385855115.pdfUploaded byjuanka_82
- AUTOMATIC RATION DISPENSING SYSTEMUploaded bynaveenrk14
- Orebro University 2006Uploaded byapi-3711970
- 0089.txtUploaded bynvisca