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You are on page 1of 48

DIFFERENTIATION

Chapter Outline

2.2 Differentiation Rules

2.2.1 Differentiation of Standard Functions

2.2.2 The Sum/Difference Rule

2.2.3 The Product Rule

2.2.4 The Quotient Rule

2.2.5 The Chain Rule

2.2.6 The Power Rule

2.3 Derivatives of The Trigonometric Function

2.4 Derivatives of The Logarithmic Function

2.5 Derivatives of The Exponential Function

2.6 Higher Order Differentiation

2.7 Logarithmic Differentiation

2.8 Implicit Differentiation

2.8.1 Differentiation and First Derivative of Implicit Function

2.8.2 Second Derivative of Implicit Function

2.9 Parametric Differentiation

2.9.1 First Derivative of Parametric Equations

2.9.2 Second Derivative of Parametric Equations

2.10 Applications of Differentiation

2.10.1 Velocity and Acceleration

2.10.2 Rates of Change

2.10.3 Minimum and Maximum Values

2.10.4 Points of Inflexion

Tutorials & Answers

2.1 DEFINITION OF DIFFERENTIATION

point to another. Given any function we may need to find out what it looks like when

graphed. Differentiation tells us about the slope (or rise over run, or gradient, depending

on the tendencies of your favourite teacher). As an introduction to differentiation we will

first look at how the derivative of a function is found and see the connection between the

derivative and the slope of the function.

the function at a particular value of x. If we take two points on the graph of the function

which are very close to each other and calculate the slope of the line joining them we will

be approximating the slope of f x between the two points. Our x-values are x and x h

, where h is some small number. The y-values corresponding to x and x h are f x and

y2 y1

m

x2 x1

where x1 , y1 and x2 , y2 are the two points. In our case, we have the two points

f x h f x f x h f x

m

xh x h

2

Example 1

Let f x 2 x 5 . Find the slope of the line joining the points 1, f 1 and

1.01, f 1.01 .

Solution

f 1.01 f 1

m

1.01 1

7.02 7

0.01

2

The smaller that h gets to zero, the closer x and x h get to each other, and consequently

the better m approximates the slope of the function at the point x, f x h . So we look

at what happens when we take the limit as h 0 in the slope formula and we call this the

derivative f x . So

f x h f x

f x lim

h 0 h

Notice that f x is the derivative only if the limit exists. If the limit does not exist at

particular x-values then we say that the function is not differentiable at those x-values.

Example 2

Find the derivative of f ( x) x 2 3 .

Solution

3

f x h 3 x 2 3

2

f x lim

h 0 h

x 2 xh h 2 3 x 2 3

2

lim

h 0 h

2 xh h 2

lim

h 0 h

lim 2 x h 2 x

h 0

Definition 1

The derivative (or differentiation) of a function f x at a point x a , written f a , is

defined as:

f x f a f a h f a

f a lim lim

xa xa h 0 h

provided the limit exists and h is a small increment. The process of getting the tangent

line is called differentiation from the first principles or differentiation using definition.

Example 3

Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve f x x 4 x 1 , at the point 1, 4 .

2

Solution

Locate the point 1, 4 on the graph given and draw a tangent line to the curve at that

point. The slope of the tangent line is

f x f a f x f 1

m lim lim

xa xa x 1 x 1

4

f x f 1

m lim

x 1 x 1

lim

x 4 x 1 12 4 1 1

2

x 1 x 1

x2 4 x 3 x 1 x 3 lim x 3 2

lim lim

x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1

Since the line passes through the point 1, 4 , the equation of the line is,

y f (a ) m ( x a )

y 4 (2)( x 1)

y 4 2 x 2

y 2 x 2

dy

NOTE: If y f x , then f x or is called the derived function or the

dx

derivative or the differential coefficient of y with respect to x . Then the process

dy

of finding f x or is called differentiation.

dx

Example 4

Find the derivate of f x x 4 x at x 7 by using the First Principle Method.

2

Solution

f x f a

f a lim ,

xa xa

f x f 7 x 2 4 x 7 2 4 7

so f 7 lim lim

x 7 x7 x 7 x7

x 2 4 x 21

lim

x 7 x7

( x 7)( x 3)

lim

x 7 x7

lim( x 3) 10

x 7

Example 5

5

Find the derivative of the function f x x by using the First Principle.

3

Solution

f x h f x x h

3

x3

f x lim lim

h 0 h h 0 h

x 3 3 x 2 h 3 xh 2 h 3 x 3

lim

h 0 h

3 x 2 h 3 xh 2 h 3

lim

h 0 h

lim 3x 2 3xh h 2

h 0

3x 2

Exercise 1

Find the derivatives of the following functions using definitions.

1 1

(a) f x x Answer:

2 2

3

(b) f x 3 x Answer:

2 x

2 1

(c) f x at x 2 Answer:

3x 2 6

1

(d) f x x 1 at x 3 Answer:

4

can also use some techniques to differentiate function easily. These techniques are very

simple to use especially when involving difficult and complicated functions.

d d n

1. x 1 2. x nx n 1

dx dx

6

d 1 d

3. ln x 4. cos x sin x

dx x dx

d d

5. sin x cos x 6. tan x sec2 x

dx dx

d d

7. cot x cosec2 x 8. sec x sec x tan x

dx dx

d d x

9. cosec x cosec x cot x 10. e ex

dx dx

d d

11. cosh x sinh x 12. sinh x cosh x

dx dx

d d

13. tanh x sech 2 x 14. sech x sech x tanh x

dx dx

d d

15. coth x cosech 2 x 16. cosech x cosech x coth x

dx dx

Theorem 1

If f x k for all values of x, where k is a constant, then f x 0 .

Theorem 2

If f x x where n is a real number, then f x nx .

n n 1

5 4

Theorem 3

If f x kx where k is a constant and n is a real number, then f x knx .

n n 1

8 7

Exercise 2

Find the derivative of the following functions.

7

(a) f x 6 Answer : 0

1 2

(b) f x Answer :

x2 x3

(c) y 5 x 9 Answer : 45 x8

1

(d) y 3 x Answer : 2

3x 3

Theorem 4

If f x u x v x where u x and v x are functions which are differentiable with

respect to x, then

f x u x v x .

We also write,

d d d

u x v x u x v x

dx dx dx

Example 6

Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a) f x x 2

3

4

1 2

(b) y 3x 5 1

3 x x2

Solution

d 3 d

(a) f x

dx

x 2

dx

3 x 4 0

3 x 4

dy d 4

d 1 d 2 d

(b) 3x

5

2 1

dx dx dx 3 x dx x dx

8

4

1

1

3

3 x 5 3 x 2 2 2 x 3 0

5 2

1 3

12 x 5

3x 2 12 3 4

4 x 3 1 3 3

5 2 x

5x 5 2 x 2

Exercise 3

1 2

Differentiate x 8 3x 3 2 x 2 Answer : 8 x 7 x 3 4 x 3

2.2.3The Product Rule

Theorem 5

If f x u x v x where u x and v x are functions which are differentiable with

respect to x, then

f x u x v x v x u x .

We also write,

d d d

f x v x u x u x v x

dx dx dx

Example 7

Find f x if f x 6 x 7 x

3 4

Solution

d d

f x 6 x3 7 x 4 7 x 4 6 x3

dx dx

6 x 3 28 x 3 7 x 4 18 x 2

Exercise 4

Find the derivative of the following functions.

(a) f x 5 x 2

3

x 1 Answer :

35 52

2

x

1

x

15 x 2

(b) f x 3x 7 6 5 x

2

Answer : 45 x 2 36 x 35

9

Theorem 6

u x

If f x where u x and v x are functions which are differentiable with respect

v x

to x, and v x 0 then

v x u x u x v x

f x .

v x

2

We also write,

d d

v x u x u x v x

d u x dx dx

dx v x v x

2

Example 8

x2 x 2

Find f x if f x

x3 6

Solution

d x2 x 2

f ( x)

dx x 3 6

( x 3 6)

d 2

dx

d

x x 2 ( x 2 x 2) ( x 3 6)

dx

=

x 6

3 2

( x 3 6) 2 x 1 ( x 2 x 2)(3 x 2 )

=

x 3

6 2

( x 4 2 x 3 6 x 2 12 x 6

=

x

2

3

6

Exercise 5

Find the derivative of the following functions.

2x2 3 2 2 x 2 6 x 3

(a) f x Answer :

2 x 3

2

2x 3

10

2

(b) f x 1 x x 1

1

Answer :

1 x

2

2x2 3 6 x2 8x 9

(c) f x Answer :

3x 2 (3 x 2) 2

Theorem 7

If f x and g x are two differentiable functions at the points g x and x respectively,

If y f g x f u and u g x , then

dy dy du

.

dx du dx

Example 9

Find f x if f x x 2 1

Solution

dy 1 1 1

Let x 1 u x . So, y u f u u then we get f u u 2

2

du 2 2 u

du

Also u x 2 x .

dx

By using Chain Rule we get,

dy dy du 1 2x x

2x

dx du dx 2 u 2 x2 1 x 1

2

Example 10

2

Solution

11

dy

Let 3x x u x . So, y u f u sin u then we get f u cos u

2

du

du

Also u x 6 x 1 .

dx

By using Chain Rule we get,

cos u 6 x 1 6 x 1 cos 3 x 2 x

dy dy du

dx du dx

Exercise 6

dy

Find of the following functions using the chain rule.

dx

(a) y x 3 Answer : 6 x 3

6 5

Answer : 3 4 x 5 3x 2 2 x 1 20 x 6x 2

2

(b) y (4 x 5 3x 2 2 x 1) 3 4

2x

(c) y 2x 2 1 Answer :

2 x2 1

This rule is actually another version of chain rule which is shorter and simpler. It is stated

in the following theorem and illustrated in the next example. If f (x ) is differentiable at

n

dy

n[ f x ]n 1 f x

dx

We can also write

d

[ f x ]n n[ f x ]n 1 f x

dx

Example 11

6

Solution

y x 3

6

12

dy 5 d

6 x 3 x 3

dx dx

6 x 3

5

Exercise 7

Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a) y 8 x 5 x 3 Answer : 4 8 x 5 x 3 80 x 45 x 2 24

4 3 12 3 3 11 3

3x 1 15 3 x 1 2 x 8 3x 1

5 4 5

(b) y Answer :

2 x 2 x

8 9

2 12 x

y Answer :

(c) 1 6

3x 2

1 5 5 3 x 2 1 5

x 1 1

(d) y when x 2 Answer :

x 1 27

FUNCTION

Theorem 8

d d

(a) sin x cos x (b) cos x sin x

dx dx

d d

(c) tan x sec2 x (d) sec x sec x tan x

dx dx

d d

(e) cot x csc2 x (f) csc x csc x cot x

dx dx

Example 12

Differentiate of following functions

(a) y x 5 sin x cot x 4 csc x

sin t

(b) y t

3 2 cos t

13

Solution

d d d

(a) y x 5 sin x cot x cot x sin x 4 csc x

dx dx dx

d d

3 2 cos t sin t sin t 3 2 cos t

(b) y t dt dx

3 2 cos t

2

3 2 cos t 3 2 cos t

2 2

Exercise 8

Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a) y sin 5 x 2

3

Answer :15sin 2 5 x 2 cos 5 x 2

3 9 3 3

(b) y tan

3

x Answer : tan 2 x sec 2 x

5 5 5 5

FUNCTION

Theorem 9

d 1

(a) ln x

dx x

d 1 du

(b) ln u where u f x

dx u dx

d 1 1

(c) log a x log a e

dx x ln a x

Basic Properties of Logarithmic Function:

1. ln e x x

14

2. e ln x x

3. ln ab ln a ln b

a

4. ln ln a ln b

b

5. ln a b b ln a

Example 13

Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a) y ln 7 x 2

(b) g x 2 x ln 3 x 2

3 2

(c) y ln 3 x 2

6

Solution

dy 1 d

(a) 2

dx 7 x dx

7 x2

14 x

7 x2

2

x

d d

(b) g x 2 x

3

ln 3 x 2 2 ln 3 x 2 2 x 3

dx dx

6x

2 x3 6 x ln 3 x 2

2 2

3 x 2

2

12 x 4

6 x ln 3 x 2

2 2

(using the product rule)

3 x 2

2

dy 1 d

3x 2

6

(c) dx

3x 2 dx

6

15

1

18 3 x 2

5

3x 2

6

18

(using the power rule)

3x 2

Exercise 9

Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a) f x ln 2 x 1

3 6 x2

Answer :

2 x3 1

x 1 2

(b) y ln Answer :

x 1 x 12

FUNCTION

Theorem 10

d x

(a)

dx

e ex

d u du

(b)

dx

e eu

dx

where u f x

d x

(c)

dx

a a x ln a, a 1

d u du

(d)

dx

a a u ln a

dx

, where u f x and a 1

Example 14

dy

Find for each of the following exponential function

dx

2

(a) y e3x

(b) y 3e 2 x 1 e x 1

(c) y 7 2 x 1

16

Solution

2

(a) y e3x

dy 2 d

dx

e3 x

dx

3x 2

2

6 xe3 x

(b) y 3e 2 x 1 e x 1

dy e x 1

6e 2 x 1

dx 2 x 1

(c) y 7 2 x 1

dy

2 7 2 x 1 ln 7

dx

Exercise 10

(a) f x x e

3 5 x

Answer : 5 x 3e 5 x 3 x 2e 5 x

x2 2 2e3 x 1 (2 x 3) 2 x 2

(b) f x Answer :

2e3 x 1 1 (2e3 x 1 1) 2

1

10 9

x2 x 2

(c) y x 2 2e x2

Answer :10 x 2 2e 2x e

x2

1 2

x 3

(d) y 2 Answer : 2 x 3 ln 2 ln 3

32 x 32 x

dy

If y f x is a differentiable function, then f x is called the first

dx

d2y

derivative of y or f x y

(can also be denoted by ), f x is called the second

dx 2

17

d3y

derivative of y or f x (can also be denoted by y ), f x is called the third

dx3

dny

n

f n x is the n th derivative of y or f x and is obtained by differentiating

dx

f x n times.

Example 15

Find the second and third derivatives for each of the following functions.

(a) f x 5 x 3 x 2 x 5

3 2

2x

(b) y

3x 1

Solution

(a) f x 5 x3 3 x 2 2 x 5

f x 15 x 2 6 x 2

f x 30 x 6

f x 30

2x

(b) y

3x 1

dy 3 x 1 2 2 x 3 2

3x 1 3x 1

2 2

dx

d 2 y 3 x 1 0 2 6 3x 1

2

12

3x 1

3

3x 1

4

dx 2

d 3 y 3x 1 0 12 9 3x 1

3 2

108

(3 x 1) 4

3x 1

6

dx 3

Exercise 11

18

Find the indicated derivative for the following functions:

(a) y 3x 3 2 x 2 x 1; y Answer : 18

1 x d2y 4

(b) y ; Answer :

1 x dx 2 1 x 3

x2 3x 2 16 x 32

(c) f x ; f x Answer : 5

x2 4 x 2 2

(d) f x x 2 3 ; f x

2

Answer : 24 x

The rules for differentiating a product or a quotient that we have revised are used

u

when there are just two-factor functions, i.e. uv or . Where there are used when there

v

are more than two functions in any arrangement top or bottom, the derivative is best found

by what is known as logarithmic differentiation.

d 1

It all depends on the basic fact that ln x and that if x is replaced by a function F

dx x

d 1 dF uv

then ln F . Bearing that in mind, let us consider the case where y ,

dx F dx w

where u, v and w and also y are functions of x. First take logs to the base e.

ln y ln u ln v ln w

Now differentiate each sides with respect to x, remembering that u, v, w and y are all

functions of x.

1 dy 1 du 1 dv 1 dw

y dx u dx v dx w dx

dy

So to get by itself, we merely have to multiply across by y. Note that when we do

dx

this, we put the grand function that y represents:

19

dy uv 1 du 1 dv 1 dw

dx w u dx v dx w dx

This is not a formula to memorize, but a method of working, since the actual terms on the

right-hand side will depend on the functions you start with.

Example 16

dy

Find for the following functions:

dx

x 2 sin x

(a) y

cos 2 x

(b) y x 4 e3 x tan x

Solution

x 2 sin x

(a) y

cos 2 x

ln y ln x 2 ln sin x ln cos 2 x

1 dy 1 1 1

2 2 x x

cos 2sin

2x

y dx x sin x cos 2 x

2

cot x 2 tan 2 x

x

dy x 2 sin x 2

cot x 2 tan 2 x

dx cos 2 x x

(b) y x 4 e3 x tan x

ln y ln x 4 ln e3 x ln tan x

1 dy 1 1 1

4 4 x 3 3 x 3e3 x 2 x

sec

y dx x e tan x

4 sec 2 x

3

x tan x

dy 4 sec 2 x

x 4e3 x tan x 3

dx x tan x

20

Exercise 12

Differentiate with respect to x:

3x 1 cos 2 x 3x 1 cos 2 x 3

2 tan 2 x 2

(a) y Answer :

3x 1

2x

e 2x

e

5

(a) y x sin 2 x cos 4 x Answer : x sin 2 x cos 4 x 2 cot 2 x 4 tan 4 x

5 5

In the previous sections we have learnt how to differentiate functions which are

written explicitly where the equation is arranged so that y is on the left hand side and the

x term is on the right hand side of the equation, such as y 2 x 3 3x . Sometimes, we

have to deal with equation which is in implicit form such as x 2 y 2 x y where y is not

dy

easily written as a subject. To find for such function, we need to use a method of

dx

differentiation called implicit differentiation. To use this method, we need to differentiate

every term with respect to x using the appropriate rules. For example,

d

(a) xy x d y y d x Using product rule

dx dx dx

dy dy

x y 1 x y

dx dx

(b) 2 y x 2

d d

(2 y ) ( x2 )

dx dx

21

dy

2 2 x(1)

dx

dy

x

dx

The following examples illustrate how the method of implicit differentiation is carried

out.

Example 17

dy

Find for the following functions

dx

(a) x 2 y 2 2 xy

(b) xy 2 x 2 y 3 y x

Solution

(a) x 2 y 2 2 xy

Differentiate every term with respect to x.

dy dy

2x 2 y 2 x y 1

dx dx

dy dy

2x 2 y 2x 2y

dx dx

dy dy

2y 2x 2x 2 y

dx dx

2 y 2 x dy 2 x y

dx

dy x y

dx x y

(b) xy 2 x 2 y 3 y x

x

d 2

dx

y y 2 1 x 2

dy

dx

y x2 3 1

d

dx

dy

dx

dy dy dy

x 2 y y2 x2 y 2 x 3 1

dx dx dx

2 xy x 2

3

dy

dx

1 y 2 2 xy

22

dy 1 y 2 2 xy

dx 3 2 xy x 2

The higher order derivatives for implicit function can also be obtained using implicit

differentiation. The next example shows how the second order derivative is evaluated.

Example 18

d2y

Using implicit differentiation find 2

for the function 3 x 2 y 2 2 in terms of x and y.

dx

Solution

dy

First, we calculate by differentiating again both sided with respect to x.

dx

dy

6x 2 y 0

dx

dy 3x

dx y

d2y

Next step, to obtain , we differentiating again both sided with respect to x.

dx 2

dy

2 y 3 3 x

d y dx

dx 2 y2

dy

3 y 3x

dx

y2

d2y dy 3x

To express in terms of x and y, we substitute

dx 2 dx y

3x

2

y 3 3 x

d y

y

dx 2 y2

23

3y 2 9x 2

d2y

y

3 y 2 3x 2

dx 2 y2 y3

d2y 6

Since, 3 x 2 y 2 2 , if we wish we can also write 3 .

dx 2 y

Exercise 13

1. Find the first derivative of the following functions:

y y 2 x 3 1

(a) x 2 y 4 Answer :

x 1 x

3

x

14 x

(b) x y 5 7 x 2 0 Answer : 1

5 x y

4

d2y y

2. Find 2

for the function x y 2 x y 2 y 2 x 2 Answer :

x 2 xy x 2 y 2

dx

Parametric equation is another type of equation which is not expressed in the form

of y f x . The variables x and y are expressed separately in terms of third variable.

For example:

x t 1

y 2t 2 1

Both expression x and y are called Parametric Equations and t is called parameter.

dy dy dt

x

dx dt dx

Example 19

24

dy

Find for each of the following parametric equation.

dx

(a) y 3t 2 4t and x 1 2t

(b) y 2e t and x 3 ln t 1

Solution

dy

(a) y 3t 4t , 6t 4

2

dt

dx

x 1 2t , 2

dt

Applying the chain rule,

dy dy dt

x

dx dt dx

dy 6t 4

3t 2

dx 2

dy

(b) y 2e , 2e t

t

dt

dx 3

x 3 ln t 1 ,

dt t 1

dy dy dt 2e t t 1

x

dx dt dx 3

The second order derivatives for parametric functions can also be obtained by the same

method of differentiation.

Example 20

d2y

Find for each of the parametric equation in example 2.18.

dx 2

Solution

(a) y 3t 2 4t and x 1 2t

25

From example 2.18, it was found that

dy

3t 2 ,

dx

d2y dy

For , differentiate 3t 2 with respect to x,

dx 2

dx

d2y dt 3 3

3

dx 2

dx 2 2

(b) y 2e t and x 3 ln t 1

From example 2.18, it was found that

dy dy dt 2e t t 1

x

dx dt dx 3

d2y dy

For , differentiate with respect to x.

dx 2

dx

d 2 y 2e t 2e t

2

t 1 dt

dx 3 3 dx

d 2 y 2te t t 1 2te t t 1

dx 2 3 3 9

Exercise 14

dy

1. Find the value of for the parametric equation x t 3 t and y t 2 t when t 2

dx

5

. Answer :

11

dy d2y

2. For each of the following curves find an expression for and in terms of the

dx dx 2

parameter.

8

(a) y 4t 2 3t , x 1 3t Answer :

9

21 3t 6t 1

(b) y 1 3t 3 , x t 3 Answer :

3t 5

26

There are a lot of applications of derivatives in engineering disciplines such as

velocity, displacement, acceleration, rate of change, approximation, calculation of errors

and others.

Given an equation for the displacement of a moving object, find an equation for its

velocity and an equation for its acceleration, and use the equations to analyze the motion.

If x is the displacement of a moving object from a fixed plane (such as the ground), and t

is time, then

dx

Velocity: v x

dt

Speed: v

To tell quickly whether an object is speeding up or slowing down, compare the signs of

the velocity and acceleration.

If velocity and acceleration have the same sign, the object is speeding

up.

ExampleIf21velocity and acceleration have different signs, the object is slowing

The position of a ball thrown into the air is observed to be described by the equation

y t 20 12t 16t 2

where y is in feet. We wish to determine the equation of its velocity, and its

acceleration.

Solution: To

find the velocity, we can differentiate to get

dy

0 12 16 2 t 12 32t

dt

27

From this we see that at t 0 , the ball is moving upward at 12 ft/sec. In contrast, at t 2

sec, the ball has a velocity of 12 32 2 52 ft/sec. The negative value means that the

ball is travelling downward, after having reached its maximum height.

To find the acceleration, we differentiate again:

d 2 y d dy d

12 32t 32 ft/sec2

dt 2 dt dt dt

The negative sign means that the direction of the acceleration is downward.

Example 22

A bicycle travels along a straight road. At 1:00 it is 1 mile from the end of the road and at

4:00 it is 16 miles from the end of the road. Compute:

(a) its average velocity from 1:00 to 4:00

(b) its instantaneous velocity at 3:00

Solutions

(a) Let s represent the bicycles position relative to the end of the road

s 16 1 15

v av 5 miles/hour

t 4 1 3

Let s t 2 . Then v t s t 2t

At 3 oclock, t 3 so v 3 s 3 6 miles/hour

The acceleration of a moving object is the rate of change of its velocity with respect to

a t s t

dv d 2x

Acceleration: a v x 2

dt dt

28

Example 22

Assume that a car increases it velocity from 60 km/hr to 65 km/hr in 15 minutes. Then,

4

hours .

increase in velocity

Average rate of increase of velocity =

time taken

5 km/hr

20 km/hr

1 hr

4

So, the average rate of increase of velocity is 20 km/hr in one hour or is written as 20

km/hr2. The rate of increase of velocity is called acceleration.

The term rate implies a change in a quantity with respect to another quantity, often time. A

cars rate, for example, is its speed and is the distance traveled in a unit of time. If two

rates are related, the rate of change of one quantity is tied to the rate of change of another

quantity. The Chain Rule offers ways to treat such problems. If y is a function of x ,

dy

then is the change of y changes with respect to x . When x represents time, then

dx

dy

we usually use the symbol t . In which case is a measure of the rate of change in y .

dt

For example, if r represents the radius of a circle in meters and t represents time in

dr

seconds, then represents the rate change of radius.

dt

Example 23

The area of an ink blot at time t is A cm 2 , where A 3t 2 t . Determine the rate of

change in the blot area when t 5

Solution

dA

Given the area of the ink blot is A 3t 2 t . We have 6t 1

dt

dA

When t 5 , 6(5) 1 31

dt

29

Thus, at t 5 the area of the ink blot is expanding at a rate of 31 cm 2s-1

Example 24

At time t , the volume V cm3 of water in a leaking tank is V where

V 100 3t t 2 . Find the rate of water flow from the tank at t 6 seconds.

Solution

Given the equation V 100 3t t 2 , rate of flow is

dV

3 2t .

dt

dV

When t 6 , 3 2(6)

dt

15

Thus, after t 6 seconds the rate of flow from the tank is 15 cm3s -1

dV

Observe that the negative value of shows that the water volume is decreasing.

dt

Example 25

Suppose air is blown into a spherical balloon at a rate of 36 in3/sec. How fast is the radius

of the balloon increasing at the instant that the radius is 3 inches?

Solution:

A procedure for handling a related rates problem like the one above is as follows:

30

1 Draw a picture of the situation.

Introduce variables for quantities that are Let V be volume and r the radius of

2

changing. the balloon.

dV

We know that = 36 in3/sec.

dt

3 We want when r = 3

involved. dt

Note: decreasing quantity means a

negative derivative.

Find an equation relating the quantities 4

4 V r3

involved. 3

4

V r 3 , so

3

dV 4 dr

5 (like implicit differentiation), considering 3r 2

dt 3 dt

the changing quantities as functions of t.

dr

4 r 2

dt

Warning: don't forget the chain rule!

2 dr

36 4 3

Substitute the given rates and other dt

6

constants. Warning: this comes after

differentiating!

dr 36 36 1

dt 4 3 2

36

7 Solve for the desired rate.

dr

So is approximately 0.32 in/sec

dt

A few relationships that we will find useful are concentrated in the table shown below

4 3

Volume of sphere V r

3

Surface area of sphere S 4r 2

Area of circle A r 2

Perimeter of circle P 2r

Volume of cylinder V r 2 h

31

1 2

Volume of cone V r h

3

Area of rectangle A xy

Perimeter of rectangle P 2x 2 y

Volume of box V xyz

Sides of Pythagorean triangle c 2 a 2 b2

greater than the y-values on either side of it and close to it.

Similarly, at B, y is a minimum value since the y-value at the point B is less than y-values

on either side of it and close to it.

The point C is worth a second consideration. It looks like half a max and half a min.

The curve flattens out at C, but instead of dipping down, it then goes on with an

increasingly positive gradient. Such point is an example of a point of inflexion, i.e it is

essentially a form of S-bend.

Points A, B and C are called stationary points on the graph, or stationary values of y.

32

A stationary point is a point on the graph of a function y = f (x) where the rate of change is

dy

zero. That is where: 0

dx

dy

For stationary points, A, B, C: 0

dx

This can occur at a local maximum, a local minimum or a point of inflexion. Solving this

equation will locate the stationary points.

If we now trace the gradient of the first derived curve and plot this against x, we obtain

d2y

the second derived curve, which shows values of against x.

dx 2

dy

From the first derived curve, we see for stationary points: 0

dx

For the second derived curve, we see that:

d2y

For maximum y, is negative

dx 2

d2y

For minimum y, is positive

dx 2

33

d2y

For point of inflexion, is zero

dx 2

(a) The values of x at which stationary points occur, by differentiating the function and

dy

then solving the equation 0

dx

(b) The corresponding values of y at these points by merely substituting the x-values

found, in y f (x)

(c) The type of each stationary point (max, min or point of inflexion) by testing in the

d2y

expression for

dx 2

Example 26

x3 x2

Find the stationary points on the graph of the function y 2 x 5 . Distinguish

3 2

between them and sketch the graph of the function.

Solution

There are of course two stages:

dy

(a) Stationary points are given by 0

dx

d2y

dy

dx

x 2 x 2, 2x 1

dx 2

( x 2)( x 1) 0 x 2 and x 1

(b) The type of each stationary point is determined by substituting the roots of the

dy d2y

equation 0 in the expression for

dx dx 2

d2y

If is negative, then y is a maximum

dx 2

34

d2y

If is positive, then y is a minimum

dx 2

d2y

If is zero, then y may be a point of inflexion

dx 2

d2y

the expression for

dx 2

d2y

At x 2, 4 1 3, i.e positive x 2 gives ymin

dx 2

d2y

At x 1 2 1 3, i.e negative x 1 gives ymax

dx 2

2 1

Substituting in y f ( x) gives x 2, ymin 1 and x 1, ymax 6

3 6

A point of inflexion can also occur at points other than stationary points. A point of

inflexion (P-of-I) is defined simply as a point on a curve at which the direction of bending

changes from a right-hand bend to a left-hand bend or vice versa.

At a point of inflexion the second derivative is zero. However, the converse is not

necessarily true because the second derivative can be zero at points other than points of

inflexion.

35

The point C we considered is, of course a P-of -I but it is not essential at a P-of-I for the

gradient to be zero. Points P and Q are perfectly good points of inflexion. At the points of

inflexion, P and Q, the gradient is in fact positive.

Let S be a true point of inflexion and T a point on y f (x) as shown. Clearly T is not a

point of inflexion. The first derived curves could well look like this.

d2y

Although 0 for each (at x x6 and x x7 ), how to differ?

dx 2

d2y

In the case of the real P-of-I,the graph of crosses the x-axis. In the case of no P-of-

dx 2

d2y d2y

I, the graph of only touches the x-axis and does not change sign.

dx 2 dx 2

This is the clue we have been after, and gives us our final rule:

36

d2y d2y

For a point of inflexion, 0 and there is a change of sign of as we go through

dx 2 dx 2

the point.

The sign of the second derivative changes as x increases from values to the left of P to

values to the right of P.

d2y

(a) we differentiate y f (x) twice to get

dx 2

d2y

(b) we solve the equation 0

dx 2

d2y

(c) we test to see whether or not a change of sign occurs in as we go through

dx 2

this value of x.

Example 27

Find the points of inflexion, if any, on the graph of the function:

x3 x2

y 2x 5

3 2

Solution

(a) Differentiate twice,

dy

x 2 x 2,

dx

d2y

2x 1

dx 2

d2y 1

For P-of-I, 0 , with change of sign 2 x 1 0 x

dx 2

2

1

If there is a P-of-I, it occurs at x

2

37

1 1 1

We take a point just before x , i.e. x a, and a point just after x , i.e

2 2 2

1 d2y

x a, where a small positive quantity , and investigate the sign of at

2 dx 2

these two values of x.

d2y

2x 1

dx 2

1 d2y 1

(i) At x a, 2

2 a 1 1 2a 1

2 dx 2

2a (negative)

1 d2y 1

(ii) At x a, 2

2 a 1 1 2a 1

2 dx 2

2a (positive)

d2y 1

There is a change in sign of as we go through x

dx 2

2

1

There is a point of inflexion at x

2

Exercise 15

Find the points of inflexion on the graph of the function:

(a) y 3 x 5 5 x 4 x 4 Answer : P-of-I is 1,3

5 7

(c) y x 3 5 x 2 3x 4 Answer : P-of-I is ,

3 27

38

TUTORIALS

1. Find the derivative of the following functions from the first principles

(a) f x 2 x 5

(b) f x x 4

2

(a) f x 2 x 1

(b) f x x 5

3

1

(c) f x

x

1

(d) f x

2x

(a) f x x 3 ; a 2

(b) f x 2 x 3 ; a 3

2

(c) f x 2 3x ; a 2

(d) f x x 6 x 1 ; a 1

2

1

(e) f x ; a 1

x2

(a) y 32

(b) y x 5

(c) y 4 x 1

(d) y 1 3 x

39

(e) y 5x 2

(f) y x 2 3 x

(g) y 4 x 2 3 x 2

5 8 6 5 15 4

(h) y x x x x3 2

2 5 2

(i) y sin 7 x

(j) y 2 cos 5 x

(k) y 2 sin x 3

(l) y 3 cos 4 x 2

(m) y 4 sin(1 x)

(n) y cos( x 4 2 x 2 3)

(o) y cos 2 (3 x 1)

(p) y sin 3 (2 x 3)

(q) y cos( x 3 4) 4

(r) y ln(2 x 3 3)

(s) y ln(tan 3 x)

(t) y ln(3 x 2)

1

2

(u) y tan(ln x)

(v) y ln(ln x)

dy

5. If y x 4 5 x 3 6 x 2 7 x 3 , obtain an expression for , and hence calculate the

dx

dy

value of at x 2 .

dx

dy

6. Differentiate the following and calculate the value of at the value of x stated.

dx

(a) y 2 x 3 4 x 2 2 x 7 ( x 2)

(b) y 3 x 4 5 x 3 4 x 2 x 4 ( x 3)

(c) y 4 x 2 2 x 4 3 x 3 7 x 2 2 x 3 ( x 1)

dy

7. Determine in each of the following cases

dx

40

(a) y x 2 .sin x

(b) y x 3 .e x

cos x

(c) y

x2

2e x

(d) y

tan x

(a) y 5 x 2

4

(b) y sin 3 x 2

(c) y e 4 x 1

(d) y 5cos 2 x 3

(e) y cos3 x

(f) y ln 4 x 5

dy

9. Determine in each of the following cases

dx

(a) y e x cos x

(b) y x3 tan x

(c) y 2e x ln x

sin x

(d) y

2e x

cos x

(e) y

tan x

tan x

(f) y

ex

ln x

(g) y

x3

(h) y tan x 3

2

(i) y 5 4 x 5

2

2

2

(j) y 6e x

41

(k) y 3sin 4 5 x

(a) ln cos 3x

(b) sin 3 4x

(c) e 2 x sin 3x

x4

(d)

( x 1)2

e 4 x sin x

(e)

x cos 2 x

(f) ln sec x tan x

1 x 2

(h) ln 2

1 x

2

(i) esin 5x

(j) x 2 cos 2 x

(k) ln x 1 x

2 2

11. Differentiate log 10 x 3 x 1 with respect to x

2

dy d2y

12. Determine and for

dx dx 2

dy

(a) y 2 x 3 11x 2 12 x 5 and determine the value of x at which 0

dx

(b) y 3 sin 2 x 1 4 cos 3 x 1

dy d2y

13. If x 2 y 2 2 x 2 y 23 , find and at the point where x 2, y 3 .

dx dx 2

dy

14. Find an expression for when x 3 y 3 4 xy 5 .

dx

42

dy d2y

15. If x 31 cos and y 3 sin find and in their simplest forms.

dx dx 2

et dy dy

16. If y is a function of x, and x t show that x 1 x .

e 1 dt dx

dy

17. Find when x 3 y 3 3 xy 2 8 .

dx

dy d2y

18. If x 2 xy y 2 7 , find and at x 3, y 2 .

dx dx 2

d2y dy

19. If y 3e 2 x cos 2 x 3 , verify that 2

4 8y 0 .

dx dx

dy

20. The parametric equations of a curve are x cos 2 and y 1 sin 2 . Find at

dx

.

6

s (t ) 8t 3 5t 2 3t 10

where s is in meters. We wish to determine the equation of its velocity, and its

acceleration.

s 3t 4 ,

2

where s is in meters. We wish to determine the equation of its velocity, and its

acceleration.

23. The toy car is at rest at the top of the inclined board. By the time it reaches the bottom

of the board it is going 1.1m/s. The toy car traveled for 12 seconds. What is the

acceleration of the toy car?

43

24. At time t, the volume V cm3 of water leaking tank is V, where

V 100 3t t 2 .

Find the rate of water flow from the tank at t = 6 seconds.

volume if the balloon V cm3 in terms of t and find the rate of change of the volume

at t 4 seconds.

26. The radius r cm of a circle increases at a constant rate of 0.5 cms-1 . If the initial radius

is 3.5cm, find the radius of the circle after 10 seconds.

27. The radius of the circle is increasing at the rate of 5cm per minute. Find

(a) the rate of change of the area of the circle when its radius is 12 cm.

(b)the radius of the circle when its area is increasing at a rate of 50 cm 2s -1 .

28. The volume of a constant height cone is decreasing at a rate of 4 cm3s-1 . Find the rate

of change in its cross sectional radius when the radius is 5 cm and the height is 8 cm.

29. Water is poured into an inverted cone of depth 20 cm and radius 10 cm at a rate of 10

cm3s-1. Find the rate at which the radius of the water in the cone is increasing when

the depth is 4 cm.

30. A water tank in the shape of an inverted circular cone has a radius of 30 m and a

height of 10 m. Water is pumped into the tank at a rate of 30 m 3/minute. Calculate the

rate of change of the height of water in the tank when the depth of water is 5m.

31. Find the stationary values of y and the points of inflexion of each of the following

functions.

(a) y x 3 6 x 2 9 x 6

1

(b) y x

x

44

(a) y x 2 2 x 7

(b) y 4 x 3 3 x 2 18 x 9

33. Find the values of x for which minimum and maximum values of y and points of

inflexion occur on the curve y 12 ln x x 2 10 x.

x x 1

34. Find the stationary points and points of inflexion on the curves y .

x2

x 1 and x 3 .

45

ANSWERS

1. (a) 2 (b) 2x

1 1 1

2. (a) (b) 3x 2 (c) (d)

x 1 x2 2x 2x

3

3. (a) 1 (b) 12 (c) (d) 4

2

(e) 2

4. (a) 0 (b) 5x 4

(c) 4 (d)-3

(e) 10 x (f) 2 x 3

(g) 8 x 3 (h) 20 x 7 6 x 4 30 x 3 3 x 2

(i) 7 cos 7 x (j) 10 sin 5 x

(k) 6 x 2 cos x 3 (l) 24 x sin 4 x 2

(m) 4 cos(1 x) (n) 4( x 3 x) sin( x 4 2 x 2 3)

(o) 6 cos(3 x 1) sin(3 x 1) (p) 6 sin 2 ( 2 x 3) cos( 2 x 3)

6x 2

(q) 12 x 2 ( x 3 4) 3 sin( x 3 4) 4 (r)

2x 3 3

3sec 2 3 x 3

(s) or 3sec 3x cos ec3 x (t)

tan 3 x 2(3 x 2)

sec 2 (ln x) 1

(u) (v)

x x ln x

5. 4 x 3 15 x 2 12 x 7, 59

6. (a) 6 x 2 8 x 2, 6

(b) 12 x3 15 x 2 8 x 1, 212

(c) 22 x 8 x 3 9 x 2 2, 19

(c) (d)

x3 tan 2 x

46

8. (a) 20 5 x 2 (b) 3cos 3 x 2

3

4

(e) 3cos 2 x.sin x (f)

4x 5

x 2 2

1 cos x sin x

x

(c) 2e ln x (d)

x 2e x

(e) (f)

tan 2 x ex

1 3ln x

(h) 2 x sec x 3

2 2

(g)

x4

(i) 40 4 x 5

2

(j) 12 x.e x 2

(k) 15cos 4 5x

10. (a) 3 tan 3x (b) 12sin 2 4 x cos 4 x

2 x 3 ( x 2)

(c) e

2x

3cos 3x 2sin 3x (d)

x 1

3

e 4 x sin x 1

(e) 4 cot x 2 tan 2 x (f) sec x

x cos 2 x x

4 x

(g) 4 cos 4 x sin 3 x 3cos 2 x sin 5 x (h)

1 x4

(j) 2 x cos 2 x 2 x 2 sin x cos x

2

(i) 10sin 5 x cos 5 xesin 5x

2 x

(k)

x 1 x2

2x 3

11. y '

x 3x 1 ln10

2

dy d2y 2

12. (a) 6 x 2 22 x 12 ; 12 x 22, x ,3

dx dx 2 3

dy d2y

(b) 6 cos 2 x 1 12 sin 3 x 1 , 12 sin 2 x 1 36 cos 3 x 1

dx dx 2

dy

dy 2 2x

13. dx 2 y 2 ,

3

, d 2 y 2 2 y 2 2 2 2 x dx 25

,

4

dx 2

2 y 2 2

64

47

dy 3 x 2 4 y 2

14.

dx 3 y 2 8 xy

dy 1 cos d 2 y 1 cos

15. ;

dx sin dx 2 3 sin 3

16. Show

dy y2 x2

17.

dx y 2 2 xy

dy y 2 x d 2 y 2 y x dy dx 2 y 2 x )(2 dy dx 1

18. , 4, , 42

dx 2 y x dx 2 2 y x 2

19. Show

dy cos 2 1

20. ,

dx sin 2 3

21. v(t ) 24t 2 10t 3 ; a (t ) 48t 10

22. v(t ) 18t 24 ; a (t ) 18

23. 0.0917 m/s 2

24. 15 cm 2 s 1

25. 14400 cm 3 s 1

26. 8.5 cm

27. (a) 120 cm 2 /s (b) 5 cm

28. 0.0477cms 1

5

29. cms 1

4

2

30. m/minute

15

2

31. m/minute

15

32. (a) y max 10 at x 1; y min 6 at x 3; P of I at 2,8

11 250

33. (a) , (b) 0.25,4.375

3 27

34. y max at x 2; y min at x 3; P of I at x 6

36. A 3 ; B 9

37. FIY

48

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