You are on page 1of 48

# Chapter 2

DIFFERENTIATION
Chapter Outline

## 2.1 Definition of Differentiation

2.2 Differentiation Rules
2.2.1 Differentiation of Standard Functions
2.2.2 The Sum/Difference Rule
2.2.3 The Product Rule
2.2.4 The Quotient Rule
2.2.5 The Chain Rule
2.2.6 The Power Rule
2.3 Derivatives of The Trigonometric Function
2.4 Derivatives of The Logarithmic Function
2.5 Derivatives of The Exponential Function
2.6 Higher Order Differentiation
2.7 Logarithmic Differentiation
2.8 Implicit Differentiation
2.8.1 Differentiation and First Derivative of Implicit Function
2.8.2 Second Derivative of Implicit Function
2.9 Parametric Differentiation
2.9.1 First Derivative of Parametric Equations
2.9.2 Second Derivative of Parametric Equations
2.10 Applications of Differentiation
2.10.1 Velocity and Acceleration
2.10.2 Rates of Change
2.10.3 Minimum and Maximum Values
2.10.4 Points of Inflexion
2.1 DEFINITION OF DIFFERENTIATION

## Differentiation is a process of looking at the way a function changes from one

point to another. Given any function we may need to find out what it looks like when
graphed. Differentiation tells us about the slope (or rise over run, or gradient, depending
on the tendencies of your favourite teacher). As an introduction to differentiation we will
first look at how the derivative of a function is found and see the connection between the
derivative and the slope of the function.

## Given the function f x , we are interested in finding an approximation of the slope of

the function at a particular value of x. If we take two points on the graph of the function
which are very close to each other and calculate the slope of the line joining them we will

be approximating the slope of f x between the two points. Our x-values are x and x h

, where h is some small number. The y-values corresponding to x and x h are f x and

## f x h . The slope m of the line between the two points is given by

y2 y1
m
x2 x1

where x1 , y1 and x2 , y2 are the two points. In our case, we have the two points

## x, f x and x h, f x h . So the slope of the line joining them is given by

f x h f x f x h f x
m
xh x h

2
Example 1

Let f x 2 x 5 . Find the slope of the line joining the points 1, f 1 and

1.01, f 1.01 .

Solution
f 1.01 f 1
m
1.01 1
7.02 7

0.01
2

## as expected since the gradient of y 2 x 5 is 2.

The smaller that h gets to zero, the closer x and x h get to each other, and consequently

the better m approximates the slope of the function at the point x, f x h . So we look

at what happens when we take the limit as h 0 in the slope formula and we call this the

derivative f x . So

f x h f x
f x lim
h 0 h

Notice that f x is the derivative only if the limit exists. If the limit does not exist at
particular x-values then we say that the function is not differentiable at those x-values.

Example 2
Find the derivative of f ( x) x 2 3 .

Solution

3
f x h 3 x 2 3
2

f x lim
h 0 h
x 2 xh h 2 3 x 2 3
2
lim
h 0 h
2 xh h 2
lim
h 0 h
lim 2 x h 2 x
h 0

Definition 1
The derivative (or differentiation) of a function f x at a point x a , written f a , is
defined as:
f x f a f a h f a
f a lim lim
xa xa h 0 h
provided the limit exists and h is a small increment. The process of getting the tangent
line is called differentiation from the first principles or differentiation using definition.

Example 3
Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve f x x 4 x 1 , at the point 1, 4 .
2

Solution

Locate the point 1, 4 on the graph given and draw a tangent line to the curve at that
point. The slope of the tangent line is
f x f a f x f 1
m lim lim
xa xa x 1 x 1

4
f x f 1
m lim
x 1 x 1

lim
x 4 x 1 12 4 1 1
2

x 1 x 1
x2 4 x 3 x 1 x 3 lim x 3 2
lim lim
x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1

Since the line passes through the point 1, 4 , the equation of the line is,
y f (a ) m ( x a )
y 4 (2)( x 1)
y 4 2 x 2
y 2 x 2

dy
NOTE: If y f x , then f x or is called the derived function or the
dx
derivative or the differential coefficient of y with respect to x . Then the process

dy
of finding f x or is called differentiation.
dx

Example 4
Find the derivate of f x x 4 x at x 7 by using the First Principle Method.
2

Solution
f x f a
f a lim ,
xa xa

f x f 7 x 2 4 x 7 2 4 7
so f 7 lim lim
x 7 x7 x 7 x7
x 2 4 x 21
lim
x 7 x7
( x 7)( x 3)
lim
x 7 x7
lim( x 3) 10
x 7

Example 5

5
Find the derivative of the function f x x by using the First Principle.
3

Solution

f x h f x x h
3
x3
f x lim lim
h 0 h h 0 h
x 3 3 x 2 h 3 xh 2 h 3 x 3
lim
h 0 h
3 x 2 h 3 xh 2 h 3
lim
h 0 h

lim 3x 2 3xh h 2
h 0

3x 2

Exercise 1
Find the derivatives of the following functions using definitions.
1 1
2 2
3
(b) f x 3 x Answer:
2 x
2 1
(c) f x at x 2 Answer:
3x 2 6
1
(d) f x x 1 at x 3 Answer:
4

## Instead of using definition or first principle to find derivative of a function, we

can also use some techniques to differentiate function easily. These techniques are very
simple to use especially when involving difficult and complicated functions.

## Table 1: Basic Derivative Formulas

d d n
1. x 1 2. x nx n 1
dx dx

6
d 1 d
3. ln x 4. cos x sin x
dx x dx
d d
5. sin x cos x 6. tan x sec2 x
dx dx
d d
7. cot x cosec2 x 8. sec x sec x tan x
dx dx
d d x
9. cosec x cosec x cot x 10. e ex
dx dx
d d
11. cosh x sinh x 12. sinh x cosh x
dx dx
d d
13. tanh x sech 2 x 14. sech x sech x tanh x
dx dx
d d
15. coth x cosech 2 x 16. cosech x cosech x coth x
dx dx

## 2.2.1Differentiation of Standard Functions

Theorem 1
If f x k for all values of x, where k is a constant, then f x 0 .

## For example, if f x 3 then f x 0 .

Theorem 2
If f x x where n is a real number, then f x nx .
n n 1

## For example, if f x x then f x 5 x .

5 4

Theorem 3
If f x kx where k is a constant and n is a real number, then f x knx .
n n 1

## For example, if f x 3 x then f x 24 x .

8 7

Exercise 2
Find the derivative of the following functions.

7
(a) f x 6 Answer : 0

1 2
x2 x3
(c) y 5 x 9 Answer : 45 x8
1
(d) y 3 x Answer : 2
3x 3

## 2.2.2The Sum/Difference Rule

Theorem 4
If f x u x v x where u x and v x are functions which are differentiable with
respect to x, then
f x u x v x .

We also write,
d d d
u x v x u x v x
dx dx dx

Example 6
Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.
(a) f x x 2
3

4
1 2
(b) y 3x 5 1
3 x x2

Solution
d 3 d
(a) f x
dx
x 2
dx
3 x 4 0
3 x 4

dy d 4
d 1 d 2 d
(b) 3x
5
2 1
dx dx dx 3 x dx x dx

8
4
1
1
3
3 x 5 3 x 2 2 2 x 3 0
5 2
1 3

12 x 5
3x 2 12 3 4
4 x 3 1 3 3
5 2 x
5x 5 2 x 2
Exercise 3
1 2
Differentiate x 8 3x 3 2 x 2 Answer : 8 x 7 x 3 4 x 3
2.2.3The Product Rule
Theorem 5
If f x u x v x where u x and v x are functions which are differentiable with
respect to x, then
f x u x v x v x u x .

We also write,
d d d
f x v x u x u x v x
dx dx dx

Example 7

Find f x if f x 6 x 7 x
3 4

Solution
d d
f x 6 x3 7 x 4 7 x 4 6 x3
dx dx
6 x 3 28 x 3 7 x 4 18 x 2

## 168 x 6 126 x 6 294 x 6

Exercise 4
Find the derivative of the following functions.

(a) f x 5 x 2
3
35 52
2
x
1
x
15 x 2

(b) f x 3x 7 6 5 x
2
Answer : 45 x 2 36 x 35

## 2.2.4The Quotients Rule

9
Theorem 6
u x
If f x where u x and v x are functions which are differentiable with respect
v x

to x, and v x 0 then

v x u x u x v x
f x .
v x
2

We also write,
d d
v x u x u x v x
d u x dx dx

dx v x v x
2

Example 8
x2 x 2
Find f x if f x
x3 6

Solution
d x2 x 2
f ( x)
dx x 3 6

( x 3 6)
d 2
dx
d

x x 2 ( x 2 x 2) ( x 3 6)
dx
=
x 6
3 2

( x 3 6) 2 x 1 ( x 2 x 2)(3 x 2 )
=
x 3
6 2

( x 4 2 x 3 6 x 2 12 x 6
=
x
2
3
6

Exercise 5
Find the derivative of the following functions.

2x2 3 2 2 x 2 6 x 3
2 x 3
2
2x 3

10
2
(b) f x 1 x x 1
1
1 x
2

2x2 3 6 x2 8x 9
3x 2 (3 x 2) 2

## 2.2.5The Chain Rule

Theorem 7
If f x and g x are two differentiable functions at the points g x and x respectively,

## then, the composite functions f og f g x also differentiable at the point x.

If y f g x f u and u g x , then

dy dy du
.
dx du dx

Example 9

Find f x if f x x 2 1

Solution
dy 1 1 1
Let x 1 u x . So, y u f u u then we get f u u 2
2

du 2 2 u
du
Also u x 2 x .
dx
By using Chain Rule we get,
dy dy du 1 2x x
2x
dx du dx 2 u 2 x2 1 x 1
2

Example 10

## Find the derivative of f x sin 3 x x .

2

Solution

11
dy
Let 3x x u x . So, y u f u sin u then we get f u cos u
2

du
du
Also u x 6 x 1 .
dx
By using Chain Rule we get,

cos u 6 x 1 6 x 1 cos 3 x 2 x
dy dy du

dx du dx

Exercise 6
dy
Find of the following functions using the chain rule.
dx

(a) y x 3 Answer : 6 x 3
6 5

Answer : 3 4 x 5 3x 2 2 x 1 20 x 6x 2
2
(b) y (4 x 5 3x 2 2 x 1) 3 4

2x
(c) y 2x 2 1 Answer :
2 x2 1

## 2.2.6The Power Rule

This rule is actually another version of chain rule which is shorter and simpler. It is stated
in the following theorem and illustrated in the next example. If f (x ) is differentiable at

## the point x and y [ f x ] for any real number n, then

n

dy
n[ f x ]n 1 f x
dx
We can also write
d
[ f x ]n n[ f x ]n 1 f x
dx

Example 11

## Using the power rule differentiate the functions y x 3

6

Solution

y x 3
6

12
dy 5 d
6 x 3 x 3
dx dx

6 x 3
5

Exercise 7
Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a) y 8 x 5 x 3 Answer : 4 8 x 5 x 3 80 x 45 x 2 24
4 3 12 3 3 11 3

3x 1 15 3 x 1 2 x 8 3x 1
5 4 5

2 x 2 x
8 9

2 12 x
(c) 1 6

3x 2
1 5 5 3 x 2 1 5

x 1 1
(d) y when x 2 Answer :
x 1 27

## 2.3 DERIVATIVES OF THE TRIGONOMETRIC

FUNCTION

Theorem 8
d d
(a) sin x cos x (b) cos x sin x
dx dx
d d
(c) tan x sec2 x (d) sec x sec x tan x
dx dx
d d
(e) cot x csc2 x (f) csc x csc x cot x
dx dx

Example 12
Differentiate of following functions
(a) y x 5 sin x cot x 4 csc x

sin t
(b) y t
3 2 cos t

13
Solution
d d d
(a) y x 5 sin x cot x cot x sin x 4 csc x
dx dx dx

## 5cos x cot x 5csc x 4 csc x cot x

d d
3 2 cos t sin t sin t 3 2 cos t
(b) y t dt dx
3 2 cos t
2

## 3 2 cos t cos t sin t 2sin t 3cos t 2

3 2 cos t 3 2 cos t
2 2

Exercise 8
Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.
(a) y sin 5 x 2
3
Answer :15sin 2 5 x 2 cos 5 x 2

3 9 3 3
(b) y tan
3
x Answer : tan 2 x sec 2 x
5 5 5 5

FUNCTION

## The basic differentiations of the logarithmic functions are as follows:

Theorem 9
d 1
(a) ln x
dx x
d 1 du
(b) ln u where u f x
dx u dx
d 1 1
(c) log a x log a e
dx x ln a x
Basic Properties of Logarithmic Function:
1. ln e x x

14
2. e ln x x

3. ln ab ln a ln b

a
4. ln ln a ln b
b
5. ln a b b ln a

Example 13
Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.
(a) y ln 7 x 2

(b) g x 2 x ln 3 x 2
3 2

(c) y ln 3 x 2
6

Solution
dy 1 d
(a) 2
dx 7 x dx
7 x2

14 x

7 x2
2

x

d d
(b) g x 2 x
3
ln 3 x 2 2 ln 3 x 2 2 x 3
dx dx
6x
2 x3 6 x ln 3 x 2
2 2

3 x 2
2

12 x 4
6 x ln 3 x 2
2 2
(using the product rule)
3 x 2
2

dy 1 d
3x 2
6
(c) dx
3x 2 dx
6

15
1
18 3 x 2
5

3x 2
6

18
(using the power rule)
3x 2

Exercise 9
Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a) f x ln 2 x 1
3 6 x2
2 x3 1
x 1 2
x 1 x 12

FUNCTION

## The basic differentiations of the exponential functions are as follows:

Theorem 10
d x
(a)
dx
e ex

d u du
(b)
dx
e eu
dx
where u f x

d x
(c)
dx
a a x ln a, a 1

d u du
(d)
dx
a a u ln a
dx
, where u f x and a 1

Example 14
dy
Find for each of the following exponential function
dx
2
(a) y e3x
(b) y 3e 2 x 1 e x 1

(c) y 7 2 x 1

16
Solution
2
(a) y e3x
dy 2 d

dx
e3 x
dx
3x 2
2
6 xe3 x

(b) y 3e 2 x 1 e x 1

dy e x 1
6e 2 x 1
dx 2 x 1

(c) y 7 2 x 1
dy
2 7 2 x 1 ln 7
dx

Exercise 10

## Using appropriate rules, differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a) f x x e
3 5 x
Answer : 5 x 3e 5 x 3 x 2e 5 x

x2 2 2e3 x 1 (2 x 3) 2 x 2
2e3 x 1 1 (2e3 x 1 1) 2

1
10 9
x2 x 2
(c) y x 2 2e x2
Answer :10 x 2 2e 2x e
x2
1 2
x 3
(d) y 2 Answer : 2 x 3 ln 2 ln 3
32 x 32 x

## 2.6 HIGHER ORDER DERIVATIVES

dy
If y f x is a differentiable function, then f x is called the first
dx

d2y
derivative of y or f x y
(can also be denoted by ), f x is called the second
dx 2

17
d3y
derivative of y or f x (can also be denoted by y ), f x is called the third
dx3

## derivative of y or f x f (x) (can also be denoted by y ) and so on. Generally,

dny
n
f n x is the n th derivative of y or f x and is obtained by differentiating
dx

f x n times.

Example 15
Find the second and third derivatives for each of the following functions.
(a) f x 5 x 3 x 2 x 5
3 2

2x
(b) y
3x 1

Solution
(a) f x 5 x3 3 x 2 2 x 5

f x 15 x 2 6 x 2

f x 30 x 6

f x 30

2x
(b) y
3x 1

dy 3 x 1 2 2 x 3 2

3x 1 3x 1
2 2
dx

d 2 y 3 x 1 0 2 6 3x 1
2
12

3x 1
3
3x 1
4
dx 2

d 3 y 3x 1 0 12 9 3x 1
3 2
108

(3 x 1) 4
3x 1
6
dx 3

Exercise 11

18
Find the indicated derivative for the following functions:
(a) y 3x 3 2 x 2 x 1; y Answer : 18

1 x d2y 4
1 x dx 2 1 x 3

x2 3x 2 16 x 32
(c) f x ; f x Answer : 5
x2 4 x 2 2

(d) f x x 2 3 ; f x
2

## 2.7 LOGARITHMIC DIFFERENTIATIONS

The rules for differentiating a product or a quotient that we have revised are used

u
when there are just two-factor functions, i.e. uv or . Where there are used when there
v
are more than two functions in any arrangement top or bottom, the derivative is best found
by what is known as logarithmic differentiation.
d 1
It all depends on the basic fact that ln x and that if x is replaced by a function F
dx x

d 1 dF uv
then ln F . Bearing that in mind, let us consider the case where y ,
dx F dx w
where u, v and w and also y are functions of x. First take logs to the base e.
ln y ln u ln v ln w

Now differentiate each sides with respect to x, remembering that u, v, w and y are all
functions of x.
1 dy 1 du 1 dv 1 dw

y dx u dx v dx w dx
dy
So to get by itself, we merely have to multiply across by y. Note that when we do
dx
this, we put the grand function that y represents:

19
dy uv 1 du 1 dv 1 dw

dx w u dx v dx w dx

This is not a formula to memorize, but a method of working, since the actual terms on the

Example 16
dy
Find for the following functions:
dx
x 2 sin x
(a) y
cos 2 x
(b) y x 4 e3 x tan x

Solution
x 2 sin x
(a) y
cos 2 x
ln y ln x 2 ln sin x ln cos 2 x

1 dy 1 1 1
2 2 x x
cos 2sin
2x
y dx x sin x cos 2 x
2
cot x 2 tan 2 x
x
dy x 2 sin x 2
cot x 2 tan 2 x
dx cos 2 x x

(b) y x 4 e3 x tan x

ln y ln x 4 ln e3 x ln tan x

1 dy 1 1 1
4 4 x 3 3 x 3e3 x 2 x
sec
y dx x e tan x
4 sec 2 x
3
x tan x

dy 4 sec 2 x
x 4e3 x tan x 3
dx x tan x

20
Exercise 12
Differentiate with respect to x:
3x 1 cos 2 x 3x 1 cos 2 x 3
2 tan 2 x 2
3x 1
2x
e 2x
e
5
(a) y x sin 2 x cos 4 x Answer : x sin 2 x cos 4 x 2 cot 2 x 4 tan 4 x
5 5

## 2.8.1 Differentiation and First Derivative of Implicit Function

In the previous sections we have learnt how to differentiate functions which are
written explicitly where the equation is arranged so that y is on the left hand side and the
x term is on the right hand side of the equation, such as y 2 x 3 3x . Sometimes, we
have to deal with equation which is in implicit form such as x 2 y 2 x y where y is not

dy
easily written as a subject. To find for such function, we need to use a method of
dx
differentiation called implicit differentiation. To use this method, we need to differentiate
every term with respect to x using the appropriate rules. For example,

d
(a) xy x d y y d x Using product rule
dx dx dx
dy dy
x y 1 x y
dx dx

(b) 2 y x 2
d d
(2 y ) ( x2 )
dx dx

21
dy
2 2 x(1)
dx
dy
x
dx

The following examples illustrate how the method of implicit differentiation is carried
out.

Example 17
dy
Find for the following functions
dx
(a) x 2 y 2 2 xy
(b) xy 2 x 2 y 3 y x

Solution
(a) x 2 y 2 2 xy
Differentiate every term with respect to x.
dy dy
2x 2 y 2 x y 1
dx dx
dy dy
2x 2 y 2x 2y
dx dx
dy dy
2y 2x 2x 2 y
dx dx

2 y 2 x dy 2 x y
dx
dy x y

dx x y

(b) xy 2 x 2 y 3 y x

x
d 2
dx
y y 2 1 x 2
dy
dx
y x2 3 1
d
dx
dy
dx
dy dy dy
x 2 y y2 x2 y 2 x 3 1
dx dx dx

2 xy x 2
3
dy
dx
1 y 2 2 xy

22
dy 1 y 2 2 xy

dx 3 2 xy x 2

## 2.8.2Second Derivative of Implicit Function

The higher order derivatives for implicit function can also be obtained using implicit
differentiation. The next example shows how the second order derivative is evaluated.

Example 18
d2y
Using implicit differentiation find 2
for the function 3 x 2 y 2 2 in terms of x and y.
dx

Solution
dy
First, we calculate by differentiating again both sided with respect to x.
dx

dy
6x 2 y 0
dx
dy 3x

dx y

d2y
Next step, to obtain , we differentiating again both sided with respect to x.
dx 2
dy
2 y 3 3 x
d y dx

dx 2 y2

dy
3 y 3x
dx
y2

d2y dy 3x
To express in terms of x and y, we substitute
dx 2 dx y

3x
2
y 3 3 x
d y
y
dx 2 y2

23
3y 2 9x 2
d2y

y

3 y 2 3x 2
dx 2 y2 y3

d2y 6
Since, 3 x 2 y 2 2 , if we wish we can also write 3 .
dx 2 y

Exercise 13
1. Find the first derivative of the following functions:
y y 2 x 3 1
(a) x 2 y 4 Answer :
x 1 x
3
x

14 x
(b) x y 5 7 x 2 0 Answer : 1
5 x y
4

d2y y
2. Find 2
for the function x y 2 x y 2 y 2 x 2 Answer :
x 2 xy x 2 y 2
dx

## 2.9 PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATIONS

Parametric equation is another type of equation which is not expressed in the form
of y f x . The variables x and y are expressed separately in terms of third variable.
For example:

x t 1
y 2t 2 1

Both expression x and y are called Parametric Equations and t is called parameter.

## We can differentiate parametric equations using the chain rule

dy dy dt
x
dx dt dx

Example 19

24
dy
Find for each of the following parametric equation.
dx
(a) y 3t 2 4t and x 1 2t
(b) y 2e t and x 3 ln t 1

Solution
dy
(a) y 3t 4t , 6t 4
2

dt
dx
x 1 2t , 2
dt
Applying the chain rule,
dy dy dt
x
dx dt dx
dy 6t 4
3t 2
dx 2

dy
(b) y 2e , 2e t
t

dt
dx 3
x 3 ln t 1 ,
dt t 1
dy dy dt 2e t t 1
x
dx dt dx 3

## 2.9.2Second Derivative of Parametric Equations

The second order derivatives for parametric functions can also be obtained by the same
method of differentiation.

Example 20
d2y
Find for each of the parametric equation in example 2.18.
dx 2

Solution
(a) y 3t 2 4t and x 1 2t

25
From example 2.18, it was found that
dy
3t 2 ,
dx

d2y dy
For , differentiate 3t 2 with respect to x,
dx 2
dx

d2y dt 3 3
3
dx 2
dx 2 2

(b) y 2e t and x 3 ln t 1
From example 2.18, it was found that
dy dy dt 2e t t 1
x
dx dt dx 3
d2y dy
For , differentiate with respect to x.
dx 2
dx

## Using product rule,

d 2 y 2e t 2e t
2
t 1 dt
dx 3 3 dx

d 2 y 2te t t 1 2te t t 1

dx 2 3 3 9

Exercise 14
dy
1. Find the value of for the parametric equation x t 3 t and y t 2 t when t 2
dx

5
11
dy d2y
2. For each of the following curves find an expression for and in terms of the
dx dx 2
parameter.
8
(a) y 4t 2 3t , x 1 3t Answer :
9
21 3t 6t 1
(b) y 1 3t 3 , x t 3 Answer :
3t 5

## 2.10 APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION

26
There are a lot of applications of derivatives in engineering disciplines such as
velocity, displacement, acceleration, rate of change, approximation, calculation of errors
and others.

## 2.10.1 Velocity and Acceleration

Given an equation for the displacement of a moving object, find an equation for its
velocity and an equation for its acceleration, and use the equations to analyze the motion.

## Theorem 2.11: Velocity and Speed

If x is the displacement of a moving object from a fixed plane (such as the ground), and t
is time, then
dx
Velocity: v x
dt
Speed: v

To tell quickly whether an object is speeding up or slowing down, compare the signs of
the velocity and acceleration.

## TECHNIQUE: Speeding Up or Slowing Down

If velocity and acceleration have the same sign, the object is speeding
up.

ExampleIf21velocity and acceleration have different signs, the object is slowing
The position of a ball thrown into the air is observed to be described by the equation
y t 20 12t 16t 2

where y is in feet. We wish to determine the equation of its velocity, and its
acceleration.

Solution: To
find the velocity, we can differentiate to get
dy
0 12 16 2 t 12 32t
dt

27
From this we see that at t 0 , the ball is moving upward at 12 ft/sec. In contrast, at t 2

sec, the ball has a velocity of 12 32 2 52 ft/sec. The negative value means that the
ball is travelling downward, after having reached its maximum height.
To find the acceleration, we differentiate again:
d 2 y d dy d
12 32t 32 ft/sec2
dt 2 dt dt dt
The negative sign means that the direction of the acceleration is downward.

Example 22
A bicycle travels along a straight road. At 1:00 it is 1 mile from the end of the road and at
4:00 it is 16 miles from the end of the road. Compute:
(a) its average velocity from 1:00 to 4:00
(b) its instantaneous velocity at 3:00

Solutions
(a) Let s represent the bicycles position relative to the end of the road
s 16 1 15
v av 5 miles/hour
t 4 1 3

## (b) If s t 2 , when t 1 , s 1 and when t 4, s 16

Let s t 2 . Then v t s t 2t

At 3 oclock, t 3 so v 3 s 3 6 miles/hour

## Theorem 12: Acceleration

The acceleration of a moving object is the rate of change of its velocity with respect to

## time. Thus a t v t . If s t represents the position of the particle at time t , then

a t s t

dv d 2x
Acceleration: a v x 2
dt dt

28
Example 22
Assume that a car increases it velocity from 60 km/hr to 65 km/hr in 15 minutes. Then,

## the increase in velocity is 5 km/hr in 15 minutes or 0.25 hours or 1

4
hours .
increase in velocity
Average rate of increase of velocity =
time taken
5 km/hr
20 km/hr
1 hr
4

So, the average rate of increase of velocity is 20 km/hr in one hour or is written as 20
km/hr2. The rate of increase of velocity is called acceleration.

## 2.10.2 Rate of Change

The term rate implies a change in a quantity with respect to another quantity, often time. A
cars rate, for example, is its speed and is the distance traveled in a unit of time. If two
rates are related, the rate of change of one quantity is tied to the rate of change of another
quantity. The Chain Rule offers ways to treat such problems. If y is a function of x ,

dy
then is the change of y changes with respect to x . When x represents time, then
dx

dy
we usually use the symbol t . In which case is a measure of the rate of change in y .
dt
For example, if r represents the radius of a circle in meters and t represents time in

dr
seconds, then represents the rate change of radius.
dt

Example 23
The area of an ink blot at time t is A cm 2 , where A 3t 2 t . Determine the rate of
change in the blot area when t 5

Solution
dA
Given the area of the ink blot is A 3t 2 t . We have 6t 1
dt
dA
When t 5 , 6(5) 1 31
dt

29
Thus, at t 5 the area of the ink blot is expanding at a rate of 31 cm 2s-1
Example 24
At time t , the volume V cm3 of water in a leaking tank is V where
V 100 3t t 2 . Find the rate of water flow from the tank at t 6 seconds.

Solution
Given the equation V 100 3t t 2 , rate of flow is
dV
3 2t .
dt
dV
When t 6 , 3 2(6)
dt
15

Thus, after t 6 seconds the rate of flow from the tank is 15 cm3s -1
dV
Observe that the negative value of shows that the water volume is decreasing.
dt

Example 25
Suppose air is blown into a spherical balloon at a rate of 36 in3/sec. How fast is the radius
of the balloon increasing at the instant that the radius is 3 inches?

Solution:
A procedure for handling a related rates problem like the one above is as follows:

30
1 Draw a picture of the situation.

Introduce variables for quantities that are Let V be volume and r the radius of
2
changing. the balloon.
dV
We know that = 36 in3/sec.
dt

## Write down explicitly what rates are dr

3 We want when r = 3
involved. dt
Note: decreasing quantity means a
negative derivative.
Find an equation relating the quantities 4
4 V r3
involved. 3
4
V r 3 , so
3

## Differentiate both sides with respect to t

dV 4 dr
5 (like implicit differentiation), considering 3r 2
dt 3 dt
the changing quantities as functions of t.
dr
4 r 2
dt
Warning: don't forget the chain rule!
2 dr
36 4 3
Substitute the given rates and other dt
6
constants. Warning: this comes after
differentiating!
dr 36 36 1

dt 4 3 2
36
7 Solve for the desired rate.
dr
So is approximately 0.32 in/sec
dt
A few relationships that we will find useful are concentrated in the table shown below

4 3
Volume of sphere V r
3
Surface area of sphere S 4r 2
Area of circle A r 2
Perimeter of circle P 2r
Volume of cylinder V r 2 h

31
1 2
Volume of cone V r h
3
Area of rectangle A xy
Perimeter of rectangle P 2x 2 y
Volume of box V xyz
Sides of Pythagorean triangle c 2 a 2 b2

## At the point A, i.e at x x1 , a maximum value of y occurs since at A, the y-value is

greater than the y-values on either side of it and close to it.

Similarly, at B, y is a minimum value since the y-value at the point B is less than y-values
on either side of it and close to it.

The point C is worth a second consideration. It looks like half a max and half a min.
The curve flattens out at C, but instead of dipping down, it then goes on with an
increasingly positive gradient. Such point is an example of a point of inflexion, i.e it is
essentially a form of S-bend.

Points A, B and C are called stationary points on the graph, or stationary values of y.

32
A stationary point is a point on the graph of a function y = f (x) where the rate of change is
dy
zero. That is where: 0
dx

dy
For stationary points, A, B, C: 0
dx
This can occur at a local maximum, a local minimum or a point of inflexion. Solving this
equation will locate the stationary points.

If we now trace the gradient of the first derived curve and plot this against x, we obtain

d2y
the second derived curve, which shows values of against x.
dx 2

dy
From the first derived curve, we see for stationary points: 0
dx
For the second derived curve, we see that:

d2y
For maximum y, is negative
dx 2
d2y
For minimum y, is positive
dx 2

33
d2y
For point of inflexion, is zero
dx 2

## From the result we have just established, we can now determine:

(a) The values of x at which stationary points occur, by differentiating the function and

dy
then solving the equation 0
dx
(b) The corresponding values of y at these points by merely substituting the x-values
found, in y f (x)
(c) The type of each stationary point (max, min or point of inflexion) by testing in the

d2y
expression for
dx 2

Example 26
x3 x2
Find the stationary points on the graph of the function y 2 x 5 . Distinguish
3 2
between them and sketch the graph of the function.

Solution
There are of course two stages:
dy
(a) Stationary points are given by 0
dx

d2y
dy
dx
x 2 x 2, 2x 1
dx 2
( x 2)( x 1) 0 x 2 and x 1

## i.e stationary points occur at x 2 and x 1

(b) The type of each stationary point is determined by substituting the roots of the

dy d2y
equation 0 in the expression for
dx dx 2
d2y
If is negative, then y is a maximum
dx 2

34
d2y
If is positive, then y is a minimum
dx 2
d2y
If is zero, then y may be a point of inflexion
dx 2

## To determine the type of each stationary point, substitute x 2 and x 1 in

d2y
the expression for
dx 2
d2y
At x 2, 4 1 3, i.e positive x 2 gives ymin
dx 2
d2y
At x 1 2 1 3, i.e negative x 1 gives ymax
dx 2

2 1
Substituting in y f ( x) gives x 2, ymin 1 and x 1, ymax 6
3 6

## 2.10.4 Points of Inflexion

A point of inflexion can also occur at points other than stationary points. A point of
inflexion (P-of-I) is defined simply as a point on a curve at which the direction of bending
changes from a right-hand bend to a left-hand bend or vice versa.

At a point of inflexion the second derivative is zero. However, the converse is not
necessarily true because the second derivative can be zero at points other than points of
inflexion.

35
The point C we considered is, of course a P-of -I but it is not essential at a P-of-I for the
gradient to be zero. Points P and Q are perfectly good points of inflexion. At the points of
inflexion, P and Q, the gradient is in fact positive.

Let S be a true point of inflexion and T a point on y f (x) as shown. Clearly T is not a
point of inflexion. The first derived curves could well look like this.

## Notice the difference between the two second derived curves.

d2y
Although 0 for each (at x x6 and x x7 ), how to differ?
dx 2

d2y
In the case of the real P-of-I,the graph of crosses the x-axis. In the case of no P-of-
dx 2

d2y d2y
I, the graph of only touches the x-axis and does not change sign.
dx 2 dx 2

This is the clue we have been after, and gives us our final rule:

36
d2y d2y
For a point of inflexion, 0 and there is a change of sign of as we go through
dx 2 dx 2
the point.

The sign of the second derivative changes as x increases from values to the left of P to
values to the right of P.

## So, to find where points of inflexion occur:

d2y
(a) we differentiate y f (x) twice to get
dx 2
d2y
(b) we solve the equation 0
dx 2
d2y
(c) we test to see whether or not a change of sign occurs in as we go through
dx 2
this value of x.

Example 27
Find the points of inflexion, if any, on the graph of the function:
x3 x2
y 2x 5
3 2

Solution
(a) Differentiate twice,
dy
x 2 x 2,
dx

d2y
2x 1
dx 2
d2y 1
For P-of-I, 0 , with change of sign 2 x 1 0 x
dx 2
2
1
If there is a P-of-I, it occurs at x
2

## (b) Test for change of sign.

37
1 1 1
We take a point just before x , i.e. x a, and a point just after x , i.e
2 2 2

1 d2y
x a, where a small positive quantity , and investigate the sign of at
2 dx 2
these two values of x.
d2y
2x 1
dx 2
1 d2y 1
(i) At x a, 2
2 a 1 1 2a 1
2 dx 2
2a (negative)

1 d2y 1
(ii) At x a, 2
2 a 1 1 2a 1
2 dx 2
2a (positive)

d2y 1
There is a change in sign of as we go through x
dx 2
2
1
There is a point of inflexion at x
2

Exercise 15
Find the points of inflexion on the graph of the function:
(a) y 3 x 5 5 x 4 x 4 Answer : P-of-I is 1,3

## (b) y 2 x 4 16 x 2 3 Answer : P-of-I is 1.155, 14.79 and 1.155, 14.79

5 7
(c) y x 3 5 x 2 3x 4 Answer : P-of-I is ,
3 27

38
TUTORIALS

1. Find the derivative of the following functions from the first principles
(a) f x 2 x 5

(b) f x x 4
2

(a) f x 2 x 1

(b) f x x 5
3

1
(c) f x
x
1
(d) f x
2x

## 3. Find f x for the following f x .

(a) f x x 3 ; a 2

(b) f x 2 x 3 ; a 3
2

(c) f x 2 3x ; a 2

(d) f x x 6 x 1 ; a 1
2

1
(e) f x ; a 1
x2

## 4. Find the derivative of each of the following

(a) y 32
(b) y x 5
(c) y 4 x 1
(d) y 1 3 x

39
(e) y 5x 2
(f) y x 2 3 x
(g) y 4 x 2 3 x 2
5 8 6 5 15 4
(h) y x x x x3 2
2 5 2
(i) y sin 7 x
(j) y 2 cos 5 x
(k) y 2 sin x 3
(l) y 3 cos 4 x 2
(m) y 4 sin(1 x)
(n) y cos( x 4 2 x 2 3)
(o) y cos 2 (3 x 1)
(p) y sin 3 (2 x 3)
(q) y cos( x 3 4) 4
(r) y ln(2 x 3 3)
(s) y ln(tan 3 x)

(t) y ln(3 x 2)
1
2

(u) y tan(ln x)
(v) y ln(ln x)

dy
5. If y x 4 5 x 3 6 x 2 7 x 3 , obtain an expression for , and hence calculate the
dx

dy
value of at x 2 .
dx

dy
6. Differentiate the following and calculate the value of at the value of x stated.
dx
(a) y 2 x 3 4 x 2 2 x 7 ( x 2)
(b) y 3 x 4 5 x 3 4 x 2 x 4 ( x 3)
(c) y 4 x 2 2 x 4 3 x 3 7 x 2 2 x 3 ( x 1)

dy
7. Determine in each of the following cases
dx

40
(a) y x 2 .sin x

(b) y x 3 .e x
cos x
(c) y
x2
2e x
(d) y
tan x

## 8. Differentiate the following with respect to x

(a) y 5 x 2
4

(b) y sin 3 x 2

(c) y e 4 x 1

(d) y 5cos 2 x 3

(e) y cos3 x

(f) y ln 4 x 5

dy
9. Determine in each of the following cases
dx

(a) y e x cos x

(b) y x3 tan x

(c) y 2e x ln x
sin x
(d) y
2e x
cos x
(e) y
tan x
tan x
(f) y
ex
ln x
(g) y
x3

(h) y tan x 3
2

(i) y 5 4 x 5
2

2
2
(j) y 6e x

41
(k) y 3sin 4 5 x

## 10. Differentiate the following with respect to x

(a) ln cos 3x
(b) sin 3 4x
(c) e 2 x sin 3x

x4
(d)
( x 1)2

e 4 x sin x
(e)
x cos 2 x
(f) ln sec x tan x

## (g) sin 4 x cos3 x

1 x 2
(h) ln 2
1 x
2
(i) esin 5x

(j) x 2 cos 2 x

(k) ln x 1 x
2 2

11. Differentiate log 10 x 3 x 1 with respect to x
2

dy d2y
12. Determine and for
dx dx 2
dy
(a) y 2 x 3 11x 2 12 x 5 and determine the value of x at which 0
dx
(b) y 3 sin 2 x 1 4 cos 3 x 1

dy d2y
13. If x 2 y 2 2 x 2 y 23 , find and at the point where x 2, y 3 .
dx dx 2

dy
14. Find an expression for when x 3 y 3 4 xy 5 .
dx

42
dy d2y
15. If x 31 cos and y 3 sin find and in their simplest forms.
dx dx 2

et dy dy
16. If y is a function of x, and x t show that x 1 x .
e 1 dt dx

dy
17. Find when x 3 y 3 3 xy 2 8 .
dx

dy d2y
18. If x 2 xy y 2 7 , find and at x 3, y 2 .
dx dx 2

d2y dy
19. If y 3e 2 x cos 2 x 3 , verify that 2
4 8y 0 .
dx dx

dy
20. The parametric equations of a curve are x cos 2 and y 1 sin 2 . Find at
dx

.
6

## 21. The position of an object is observed to be described by the equation,

s (t ) 8t 3 5t 2 3t 10

where s is in meters. We wish to determine the equation of its velocity, and its
acceleration.

## 22. The position of an object is observed to be described by the equation,

s 3t 4 ,
2

where s is in meters. We wish to determine the equation of its velocity, and its
acceleration.

23. The toy car is at rest at the top of the inclined board. By the time it reaches the bottom
of the board it is going 1.1m/s. The toy car traveled for 12 seconds. What is the
acceleration of the toy car?

43
24. At time t, the volume V cm3 of water leaking tank is V, where
V 100 3t t 2 .
Find the rate of water flow from the tank at t = 6 seconds.

## 25. The radius, r , of a spherical balloon at time t is given by r t 2 t . Express the

volume if the balloon V cm3 in terms of t and find the rate of change of the volume
at t 4 seconds.

26. The radius r cm of a circle increases at a constant rate of 0.5 cms-1 . If the initial radius
is 3.5cm, find the radius of the circle after 10 seconds.

27. The radius of the circle is increasing at the rate of 5cm per minute. Find
(a) the rate of change of the area of the circle when its radius is 12 cm.
(b)the radius of the circle when its area is increasing at a rate of 50 cm 2s -1 .

28. The volume of a constant height cone is decreasing at a rate of 4 cm3s-1 . Find the rate
of change in its cross sectional radius when the radius is 5 cm and the height is 8 cm.

29. Water is poured into an inverted cone of depth 20 cm and radius 10 cm at a rate of 10
cm3s-1. Find the rate at which the radius of the water in the cone is increasing when
the depth is 4 cm.

30. A water tank in the shape of an inverted circular cone has a radius of 30 m and a
height of 10 m. Water is pumped into the tank at a rate of 30 m 3/minute. Calculate the
rate of change of the height of water in the tank when the depth of water is 5m.

31. Find the stationary values of y and the points of inflexion of each of the following
functions.
(a) y x 3 6 x 2 9 x 6
1
(b) y x
x

## 32. Find the coordinates of the point of inflexion on the curves

44
(a) y x 2 2 x 7
(b) y 4 x 3 3 x 2 18 x 9

33. Find the values of x for which minimum and maximum values of y and points of
inflexion occur on the curve y 12 ln x x 2 10 x.

x x 1
34. Find the stationary points and points of inflexion on the curves y .
x2

x 1 and x 3 .

## 36. Sketch the graph of y x 3 3 x 2

45

1. (a) 2 (b) 2x
1 1 1
2. (a) (b) 3x 2 (c) (d)
x 1 x2 2x 2x
3
3. (a) 1 (b) 12 (c) (d) 4
2
(e) 2
4. (a) 0 (b) 5x 4
(c) 4 (d)-3
(e) 10 x (f) 2 x 3
(g) 8 x 3 (h) 20 x 7 6 x 4 30 x 3 3 x 2
(i) 7 cos 7 x (j) 10 sin 5 x
(k) 6 x 2 cos x 3 (l) 24 x sin 4 x 2
(m) 4 cos(1 x) (n) 4( x 3 x) sin( x 4 2 x 2 3)
(o) 6 cos(3 x 1) sin(3 x 1) (p) 6 sin 2 ( 2 x 3) cos( 2 x 3)
6x 2
(q) 12 x 2 ( x 3 4) 3 sin( x 3 4) 4 (r)
2x 3 3
3sec 2 3 x 3
(s) or 3sec 3x cos ec3 x (t)
tan 3 x 2(3 x 2)

sec 2 (ln x) 1
(u) (v)
x x ln x
5. 4 x 3 15 x 2 12 x 7, 59
6. (a) 6 x 2 8 x 2, 6

(b) 12 x3 15 x 2 8 x 1, 212

(c) 22 x 8 x 3 9 x 2 2, 19

## x sin x 2 cos x 2e x tan x sec 2 x

(c) (d)
x3 tan 2 x

46
8. (a) 20 5 x 2 (b) 3cos 3 x 2
3

## (c) 4e 4 x 1 (d) 10sin 2 x 3

4
(e) 3cos 2 x.sin x (f)
4x 5

x 2 2

1 cos x sin x
x
(c) 2e ln x (d)
x 2e x

## sin x tan x cos x sec 2 x sec 2 x tan x

(e) (f)
tan 2 x ex
1 3ln x
(h) 2 x sec x 3
2 2
(g)
x4
(i) 40 4 x 5
2
(j) 12 x.e x 2

(k) 15cos 4 5x
10. (a) 3 tan 3x (b) 12sin 2 4 x cos 4 x

2 x 3 ( x 2)
(c) e
2x
3cos 3x 2sin 3x (d)
x 1
3

e 4 x sin x 1
(e) 4 cot x 2 tan 2 x (f) sec x
x cos 2 x x
4 x
(g) 4 cos 4 x sin 3 x 3cos 2 x sin 5 x (h)
1 x4
(j) 2 x cos 2 x 2 x 2 sin x cos x
2
(i) 10sin 5 x cos 5 xesin 5x

2 x
(k)
x 1 x2
2x 3
11. y '
x 3x 1 ln10
2

dy d2y 2
12. (a) 6 x 2 22 x 12 ; 12 x 22, x ,3
dx dx 2 3
dy d2y
(b) 6 cos 2 x 1 12 sin 3 x 1 , 12 sin 2 x 1 36 cos 3 x 1
dx dx 2
dy
dy 2 2x
13. dx 2 y 2 ,
3
, d 2 y 2 2 y 2 2 2 2 x dx 25
,
4
dx 2
2 y 2 2
64

47
dy 3 x 2 4 y 2
14.
dx 3 y 2 8 xy
dy 1 cos d 2 y 1 cos
15. ;
dx sin dx 2 3 sin 3
16. Show
dy y2 x2
17.
dx y 2 2 xy
dy y 2 x d 2 y 2 y x dy dx 2 y 2 x )(2 dy dx 1
18. , 4, , 42
dx 2 y x dx 2 2 y x 2
19. Show
dy cos 2 1
20. ,
dx sin 2 3
21. v(t ) 24t 2 10t 3 ; a (t ) 48t 10
22. v(t ) 18t 24 ; a (t ) 18
23. 0.0917 m/s 2
24. 15 cm 2 s 1
25. 14400 cm 3 s 1
26. 8.5 cm
27. (a) 120 cm 2 /s (b) 5 cm
28. 0.0477cms 1
5
29. cms 1
4
2
30. m/minute
15
2
31. m/minute
15
32. (a) y max 10 at x 1; y min 6 at x 3; P of I at 2,8

## (b) y max 2 at x 1; y min 2 at x 1

11 250
33. (a) , (b) 0.25,4.375
3 27
34. y max at x 2; y min at x 3; P of I at x 6

36. A 3 ; B 9
37. FIY

48