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December 13, 2012 - Thursday

As a former quizzer and board passer, what do you Are there instances when conventional solutions are

think are the reasons why students do not get the preferred over calculator solutions?

correct answer?

Yes! You must not use calculator techniques when:

I personally classify them into three:

1. The conventional solution is actually more

The most dominant and tragic reason is carelessness. efficient than the calculator techniques. It defeats

Need I explain? :P the purpose of using calculator techniques. DUH!

In most cases, difficulty is not the problem, but 2. You have no knowledge of the underlying

familiarity. How are you supposed to arrive with a principles of the subject matter. You are only

correct solution and answer when you dont even supposed to use shortcuts when you know how to

know where to start!? get there the long way. Otherwise, four letters: L-

O-S-T.

Finally, there might not be enough time to solve the

problem. You can solve most problems, given 3. The calculator techniques clash and corrupt the

sufficient time, regardless of the difficulty. principles that you already know. When it causes

you to doubt something you were once sure of,

Are calculator techniques really necessary? STOP!

No, they are not.

Specifying the Calculation Mode

But in competitions, one needs all the advantage

1. COMP General calculations

he/she can get. Knowledge of calculator techniques is

a huge edge. 2. CMPLX Complex number calculations

It is necessary to develop proficiency with calculators 3. STAT Statistical and regression formulas

as they are an extension of our solving capabilities.

4. BASE-N Calculations involving specific

However, one must not heavily rely on a calculator as number systems (binary, octal,

it also has its limitations. Remember that the decimal, hexadecimal)

calculator is only as good as its user.

5. EQN Equation solution

Then, what is the greatest advantage in using 6. MATRIX Matrix calculations

calculator techniques?

7. TABLE Generation of a number table based

Calculator techniques allow you to solve the problem on an expression

with LPELeast Possible Effort.

8. VECTOR Vector calculations

After having solved the problem with LPE, you can buy

some time for three RsReview, Rest and Return to Variables

the game!

The calculator has preset variables:

What are the requirements to use or develop fx-991ES 6 (A, B, C, D, X, Y)

calculator techniques?

fx-991ES PLUS 8 (A, B, C, D, E, F, X, Y)

There is actually no need to study in review schools

Operations:

offering calculator technique classes or to invest in

expensive calculator technique books. 1. To assign a value to a variable (all modes

except EQN and TABLE)

What we need are only the following:

2. To use the value of a variable in a calculation

1. The underlying principles regarding the subject

matter 3. To recall the value of a variable

2. Technical knowledge on how a calculator works 4. To clear the contents of a variable

3. A certain degree of laziness

I always choose a lazy person to do a difficult job

because he will find an easy way to do it.

Bill Gates

Page 1 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle

Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS

December 13, 2012 - Thursday

Using Multi-Statements A+B+C

: Ans Ans A Ans B Ans C

You can use the colon character (:) to connect two or 2

CALC

more expressions and execute them from left to right A? 25 =

when you press =. B? 39 =

3 + 3: 3 3 C? 40 =

=6 A+B+C

= 52

=9 2

Ans Ans A Ans B Ans C = 468

Using CALC

=

CALC lets you save calculation expressions that

If a part of a continuous solution will not be used again,

contain variables, which you can then recall and

it is preferable to use a Multi-Statement; otherwise, use

execute.

Store.

Expressions:

3A + B Problem

CALC Find the area of the largest circle that can be cut from

A? 5 = a triangle whose sides are 10 cm, 18 cm and 20 cm.

B? 10 = 25

Calculator solution:

Multi-statements:

Using Herons Formula:

X + Y: X X + Y a+b+c

s=

Equalities with a single variable on the left and an 2

expression including variables on the right: A= s sa sb sc

A

A=B+C r=

s

Y = X2 + X + 3 A = r 2

A+B+C

Problem X= :

2

The polynomial x 3 + 4x 2 3x + 8 is divided by Ans

x 5. What is the remainder? X XA XB XC : : Ans 2

X

CALC

Calculator solution:

A? 10 =

Using Remainder Theorem: B? 18 =

X 3 + 4X 2 3X + 8 C? 20 =

CALC A+B+C

X= = 24

X? 5 = 218 2

X X A X B X C = 24 14

=

Ans

CALC becomes especially useful for substitutions, = 14

X

especially when they are lengthy or complicated. Ans 2 = 14

=

Problem

The sides of triangle ABC are AB = 25 cm,

BC = 39 cm and AC = 40 cm. Find its area.

Calculator solution:

Using Herons Formula:

a+b+c

s=

2

A= s sa sb sc

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle

Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS

December 13, 2012 - Thursday

Problem ln x

lim

Solve the following limits:

x+ x

Calculator solution:

x2 + x 6

lim CALC

x2 x 2 4

X? 1 103 = 6.91 103

Calculator solution:

X? 1 106 = 1.38 105

CALC X? 1 109 = 2.07 108

X? 1 106 = 1.2500

=

=

Using SOLVE

x + sin 2x SOLVE uses Newtons Law to approximate the solution

lim

x0 x sin 2x of equations.

Calculator solution: Why is SOLVE useful?

CALC 1. It eliminates the need to simplify, transpose and

X? 1 106 = 3 cross-multiply, among others.

= 2. It can solve equations that may not be solved

ex 1 analytically.

lim

x0 x 2 3. It automatically stores the solution to a variable,

Calculator solution: allowing continuous problem-solving without

rounding off.

CALC

X? 1 106 = 1000000.5 If an equation contains input functions that include an

X? 1 109 = 1000000000 open parenthesis (such as sin and log), do not omit the

closing parenthesis.

=

ex + ex x 2 2 Solution Screen Content

lim

x0 sin2 x x 2

Calculator solution:

CALC

X? 0.1 = 0.2504

X? 0.01 = 0.2500

X? 0.001 = 0

X? 0.0001 = 0

X? 1 106 = Math Error

(Left side)-(Right Side) result shows the result when

= the right side of the equation is subtracted from the

left side, after assigning the obtained value to the

sin x

lim variable being solved for. The closer this result is to

x + x zero, the higher the accuracy of the solution.

Calculator solution:

CALC

X? 1 109 = 3.16 105

=

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle

Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS

December 13, 2012 - Thursday

Problem Examples of common assumed values

Using SOLVE, determine the value/s for y given the Engineering Economy

following equation:

Equivalent nominal rate of interest compounded

y2 2 3 + 3 = 0 nth-ly, given the nominal rate of interest

Calculator solution: compounded mth-ly ....................................... ER n ER m

X 2 2 3X + 3 = 0 Geotechnical Engineering

SOLVE Void ratio, e .............................................................. 0.5 1.5

X? Arbitrary = 1.73

Specific gravity of solids, Gs ......................................2 3

= .

Reinforced Concrete Design

Solutions are always displayed in decimal form. To

attempt to transform the solution to its rational form, Coefficient of resistance, R u ........................ 1 10 MPa

the following are among the things that may be done: Depth of compressive block, a ............ 100 150 mm

1. Clear the screen and recall the answer. Distance from the neutral axis to the outermost

2. Take the inverse of the answer, and take its inverse compressive fiber, c ................................ 150 200 mm

again.

Problem

3. Take the square root of the answer, and square it.

Using SOLVE, determine the all three values for t given

SOLVE uses Newtons Law, so even if there are multiple the following equation:

solutions, only one of them will be returned. In the t 3 + 2t 2 + 9t + 18 = 0

problem, SOLVE is unable to determine that there were

two values for y (repeated roots). Calculator solution:

X 3 + 2X 2 + 9X + 18 = 0

Problem SOLVE

Using SOLVE, determine the value/s for w given the X? 1000 = 2

following equation: X? 0 = 2

w 4 9w 2 + 20 = 0 X? 1000 = 2

Calculator solution: =

SOLVE Using EQN Mode:

X? 10 = 2.24

X? 1 = 2 = ,

X? 1 = 2 SOLVE is unable to determine imaginary values for t.

X? 10 = 2.24

X? 1000 = 2.24 Problem

= . , , , . Simplify:

The solution for the equation depends on the initial

assumption. a a a

The speed at which SOLVE comes up with the solution

also depends on the initial assumption. Conventional solution:

= a a a1/2

= a a3/2

= a a3/4

= a7/4

= /

Page 4 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle

Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS

December 13, 2012 - Thursday

Calculator solution: This is particularly useful when:

1. You do not want to overwrite the current value for

A A A=A X X, nor store it elsewhere

2. You want to avoid confusion when the solution

SOLVE

variable resembles the actual variables in the

A? Arbitrary =

problem

X? 1 = 0.875

3. There is a successive use of the same equation, but

= /

different variables are to be determined

Problem

Problem

A point P is at a distance of 4, 5 and 6 from the vertices

If kx 3 k + 3 x 2 + 13 is divided by x 4, the

of an equilateral triangle of side of x. Find x.

remainder is 157. What is the value of k?

Calculator solution:

Calculator solution:

Using Remainder Theorem:

AX 3 A + 3 X 2 + 13 = 157, A

SOLVE

X? 4 =

A? Arbitrary = 4

=

Problem

2 2 2

X = 4 + 5 2 4 5 cos A body at a temperature of 50F is placed outdoors

42 + 52 X 2 where the temperature is 100F. If after 5 minutes, the

= cos 1

245 temperature of the body is 60F, find:

It follows that: 1. How long it will take for the body to reach a

52 + 62 X 2 temperature of 75F; and

= cos 1

256 2. The temperature of the body after 20 minutes.

2

4 + 62 X 2

= cos 1 Calculator solution:

246

The template equation for Newtons Law of

+ + = 180 Cooling is:

42 + 52 X 2 52 + 62 X 2 T = cekt + Tm

cos 1 + cos 1

245 256

2 2 With Tm = 100:

4 + 6 X2

+ cos 1 = 180 T = cekt + 100

246 A = BeCD + 100

SOLVE

X? 7 = 8.54 At t = 0 min, T = 50:

A = BeCD + 100, B

= . SOLVE

Only the following functions are not allowed inside an A? 50 =

equation using SOLVE: , d/dx, , Pol and Rec. C? Arbitrary =

D? 0 =

Did you know B? Arbitrary = 50 final

specified variable if it follows the following syntax?

{equation},{solution variable}

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle

Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS

December 13, 2012 - Thursday

At t = 5 min, T = 60: Another calculator solution:

A = BeCD + 100, C

XP3 6 XC5 0

SOLVE

CALC

A? 60 =

X? 5 = 54

B? 50 final =

X? 6 = 54

D? 5 =

X? 7 = 84

C? 0.1 = 0.0446 final

X? 8 = 0

At T = 75, t =?:

=

A = BeCD + 100, D

SOLVE

Using CMPLX Mode

A? 75 =

B? 50 final = To perform complex number operations, first press

C? 0.0446 final = Mode 2 (CMPLX) to enter CMPLX Mode. You can use

D? Arbitrary = 15.53 either rectangular coordinates or polar coordinates to

input complex numbers. Complex number calculation

= .

results are displayed in accordance with the complex

At t = 20 min, T =?: number format setting on the setup menu.

A = BeCD + 100, A

You cannot use SOLVE, summation, integration,

SOLVE

differentiation, percentage, Pol and Rec while in CMPLX

B? 50 final =

Mode.

C? 0.0446 final =

D? 20 = You also cannot take the factorial, logarithm, natural

A? Arbitrary = 79.52 logarithm, cube root, square root, nth root and nth

power (other than 2 or 3) of a complex number; use

= .

permutation, combination and trigonometric functions

on a complex number; and raise 10 or e to a complex

Problem number, but these may be used for real numbers while

If nP3 = 6 nC5, find n. in CMPLX Mode.

Calculator solution: CMPLX Mode submenu

XP3 = 6 XC5

To enter the CMPLX mode submenu, press Shift 2. The

X? 6 = Cant Solve

submenu contains the following:

SOLVE may not be able to determine the correct 1. Arg Returns the argument of the complex

solution, even when one exists. number

Conventional solution: 2. Conjg Obtains the conjugate of the complex

n! number

nPr =

nr ! 3. r Specifies the calculation result format

n!

nCr = to polar coordinates

n r ! r!

4. a + bi Specifies the calculation result format

n! n!

=6 to rectangular coordinates

n3 ! n 5 ! 5!

n! n! Review of complex numbers:

= 6

n3 n4 n5 ! n 5 ! 5!

n 3 n 4 = 20 Algebraic or rectangular form of a complex number, z:

n2 7n 8 = 0 z = x + yi

n = 1,8 x = real part

= y = imaginary part

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle

Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS

December 13, 2012 - Thursday

Polar or triangular form of a complex number, z: =

z = r

Ansr

r = absolute value or modulus

= argument or amplitude 24114.93

form: = .

r2 = x2 + y2

y tan arg Ans

tan = 4

x

x = r cos 15

y = r sin

=

Argand Diagram or Complex Plane

4X 15Y

CALC

X? 10 =

Y? 7 = 65

4x 15y = 65

+ =

Problem

The segment from (1,4) to (2, 2) is extended three

Using the fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS, the argument

times its own length through (2, 2). The terminal

is always measured clockwise from the positive real

point is:

axis.

Calculator solution:

Problem

2 2i 1 + 4i

Given two points A(5,3) and B(10,7), determine: 3 6i

1. The midpoint of line segment AB. 2 2i + 3Ans

11 20i

2. The horizontal distance between A and B.

(, )

3. The vertical distance between A and B.

4. The straight line distance AB. Problem

5. The slope of the line passing through A and B. Find the resultant of the concurrent force system

shown in the figure:

6. The inclination of the line passing through A and

B.

7. The equation, in general form, of the line passing

through A and B.

Calculator solution:

5 + 3i + 10 + 7i

2

5

+ 5i

2

Calculator solution:

,

4000 + 200 180 30 + 300 180 + 60

10 + 7i 5 + 3i + 300 60 r

15 + 4i 476.98 61.61

= = .

Page 7 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle

Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS

December 13, 2012 - Thursday

Problem (CE Board May 1998) Calculator solution:

For the forces in the figure shown: 4

tan =

3

= .

P + 260 arg 12 5i = 500 arg 3 + 4i

P = 500 arg 3 + 4i

260 arg 12 5i r

P = 503.5983.16

= .

= .

1. Which of the following most nearly gives the Among the strengths of COMPLX Mode is solving for an

magnitude of the horizontal component of the unknown magnitude and its corresponding direction.

resultant force system?

Problem

2. Which of the following most nearly gives the

magnitude of the resultant force? Determine the tension in each segment of the cable

shown:

3. Which of the following gives the angle that the

equilibrant makes with the horizontal axis?

Calculator solution:

86.6030 + 70.70 180 45 + 68.30270

25.01 + 24.99i

= .

Ansr

35.3544.99

= .

Ansr Calculator solution:

35.35 135.01

Enter COMP Mode:

= . . MA = 0

CD cos 35 6 + 7 tan 35 = 0

The force of 500 N is the resultant of the forces P and 16 6 + 20 6 + 11 X sin 35 6 + 11

260 N acting as shown in the figure. X cos 35 6 + 7 tan 35 = 0

SOLVE

X? Arbitrary = 23.34

= .

Enter CMPLX Mode:

23.3435 + 20270 + BC2 = 0

BC2 = X35 + 20270 r

BC2 = 20.23 kN160.92

= .

1. Which of the following gives the value of the angle Ans + 16270 + AB1 = 0

that the 500 N makes with the horizontal? AB1 = Ans + 16270 r

AB1 = 29.61130.21

2. Which of the following gives the value of ?

= . End

3. Which of the following gives the value of P?

Page 8 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012

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