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# BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle

## Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS

December 13, 2012 - Thursday
As a former quizzer and board passer, what do you Are there instances when conventional solutions are
think are the reasons why students do not get the preferred over calculator solutions?
Yes! You must not use calculator techniques when:
I personally classify them into three:
1. The conventional solution is actually more
The most dominant and tragic reason is carelessness. efficient than the calculator techniques. It defeats
Need I explain? :P the purpose of using calculator techniques. DUH!
In most cases, difficulty is not the problem, but 2. You have no knowledge of the underlying
familiarity. How are you supposed to arrive with a principles of the subject matter. You are only
correct solution and answer when you dont even supposed to use shortcuts when you know how to
know where to start!? get there the long way. Otherwise, four letters: L-
O-S-T.
Finally, there might not be enough time to solve the
problem. You can solve most problems, given 3. The calculator techniques clash and corrupt the
sufficient time, regardless of the difficulty. principles that you already know. When it causes
you to doubt something you were once sure of,
Are calculator techniques really necessary? STOP!
No, they are not.
Specifying the Calculation Mode
But in competitions, one needs all the advantage
1. COMP General calculations
he/she can get. Knowledge of calculator techniques is
a huge edge. 2. CMPLX Complex number calculations
It is necessary to develop proficiency with calculators 3. STAT Statistical and regression formulas
as they are an extension of our solving capabilities.
4. BASE-N Calculations involving specific
However, one must not heavily rely on a calculator as number systems (binary, octal,
it also has its limitations. Remember that the decimal, hexadecimal)
calculator is only as good as its user.
5. EQN Equation solution
Then, what is the greatest advantage in using 6. MATRIX Matrix calculations
calculator techniques?
7. TABLE Generation of a number table based
Calculator techniques allow you to solve the problem on an expression
with LPELeast Possible Effort.
8. VECTOR Vector calculations
After having solved the problem with LPE, you can buy
some time for three RsReview, Rest and Return to Variables
the game!
The calculator has preset variables:
What are the requirements to use or develop fx-991ES 6 (A, B, C, D, X, Y)
calculator techniques?
fx-991ES PLUS 8 (A, B, C, D, E, F, X, Y)
There is actually no need to study in review schools
Operations:
offering calculator technique classes or to invest in
expensive calculator technique books. 1. To assign a value to a variable (all modes
except EQN and TABLE)
What we need are only the following:
2. To use the value of a variable in a calculation
1. The underlying principles regarding the subject
matter 3. To recall the value of a variable
2. Technical knowledge on how a calculator works 4. To clear the contents of a variable
3. A certain degree of laziness
I always choose a lazy person to do a difficult job
because he will find an easy way to do it.
Bill Gates
Page 1 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012
BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle
Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS
December 13, 2012 - Thursday
Using Multi-Statements A+B+C
: Ans Ans A Ans B Ans C
You can use the colon character (:) to connect two or 2
CALC
more expressions and execute them from left to right A? 25 =
when you press =. B? 39 =
3 + 3: 3 3 C? 40 =
=6 A+B+C
= 52
=9 2
Ans Ans A Ans B Ans C = 468
Using CALC
=
CALC lets you save calculation expressions that
If a part of a continuous solution will not be used again,
contain variables, which you can then recall and
it is preferable to use a Multi-Statement; otherwise, use
execute.
Store.
Expressions:
3A + B Problem
CALC Find the area of the largest circle that can be cut from
A? 5 = a triangle whose sides are 10 cm, 18 cm and 20 cm.
B? 10 = 25
Calculator solution:
Multi-statements:
Using Herons Formula:
X + Y: X X + Y a+b+c
s=
Equalities with a single variable on the left and an 2
expression including variables on the right: A= s sa sb sc
A
A=B+C r=
s
Y = X2 + X + 3 A = r 2
A+B+C
Problem X= :
2
The polynomial x 3 + 4x 2 3x + 8 is divided by Ans
x 5. What is the remainder? X XA XB XC : : Ans 2
X
CALC
Calculator solution:
A? 10 =
Using Remainder Theorem: B? 18 =
X 3 + 4X 2 3X + 8 C? 20 =
CALC A+B+C
X= = 24
X? 5 = 218 2
X X A X B X C = 24 14
=
Ans
CALC becomes especially useful for substitutions, = 14
X
especially when they are lengthy or complicated. Ans 2 = 14
=
Problem
The sides of triangle ABC are AB = 25 cm,
BC = 39 cm and AC = 40 cm. Find its area.
Calculator solution:
Using Herons Formula:
a+b+c
s=
2
A= s sa sb sc

## Page 2 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle
Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS
December 13, 2012 - Thursday
Problem ln x
lim
Solve the following limits:
x+ x
Calculator solution:
x2 + x 6
lim CALC
x2 x 2 4
X? 1 103 = 6.91 103
Calculator solution:
X? 1 106 = 1.38 105
CALC X? 1 109 = 2.07 108
X? 1 106 = 1.2500
=

=
Using SOLVE
x + sin 2x SOLVE uses Newtons Law to approximate the solution
lim
x0 x sin 2x of equations.
Calculator solution: Why is SOLVE useful?
CALC 1. It eliminates the need to simplify, transpose and
X? 1 106 = 3 cross-multiply, among others.
= 2. It can solve equations that may not be solved
ex 1 analytically.
lim
x0 x 2 3. It automatically stores the solution to a variable,
Calculator solution: allowing continuous problem-solving without
rounding off.
CALC
X? 1 106 = 1000000.5 If an equation contains input functions that include an
X? 1 109 = 1000000000 open parenthesis (such as sin and log), do not omit the
closing parenthesis.
=
ex + ex x 2 2 Solution Screen Content
lim
x0 sin2 x x 2
Calculator solution:
CALC
X? 0.1 = 0.2504
X? 0.01 = 0.2500
X? 0.001 = 0
X? 0.0001 = 0
X? 1 106 = Math Error
(Left side)-(Right Side) result shows the result when
= the right side of the equation is subtracted from the

left side, after assigning the obtained value to the
sin x
lim variable being solved for. The closer this result is to
x + x zero, the higher the accuracy of the solution.
Calculator solution:
CALC
X? 1 109 = 3.16 105
=

## Page 3 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle
Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS
December 13, 2012 - Thursday
Problem Examples of common assumed values
Using SOLVE, determine the value/s for y given the Engineering Economy
following equation:
Equivalent nominal rate of interest compounded
y2 2 3 + 3 = 0 nth-ly, given the nominal rate of interest
Calculator solution: compounded mth-ly ....................................... ER n ER m

X 2 2 3X + 3 = 0 Geotechnical Engineering
SOLVE Void ratio, e .............................................................. 0.5 1.5
X? Arbitrary = 1.73
Specific gravity of solids, Gs ......................................2 3
= .
Reinforced Concrete Design
Solutions are always displayed in decimal form. To
attempt to transform the solution to its rational form, Coefficient of resistance, R u ........................ 1 10 MPa
the following are among the things that may be done: Depth of compressive block, a ............ 100 150 mm
1. Clear the screen and recall the answer. Distance from the neutral axis to the outermost
2. Take the inverse of the answer, and take its inverse compressive fiber, c ................................ 150 200 mm
again.
Problem
3. Take the square root of the answer, and square it.
Using SOLVE, determine the all three values for t given
SOLVE uses Newtons Law, so even if there are multiple the following equation:
solutions, only one of them will be returned. In the t 3 + 2t 2 + 9t + 18 = 0
problem, SOLVE is unable to determine that there were
two values for y (repeated roots). Calculator solution:
X 3 + 2X 2 + 9X + 18 = 0
Problem SOLVE
Using SOLVE, determine the value/s for w given the X? 1000 = 2
following equation: X? 0 = 2
w 4 9w 2 + 20 = 0 X? 1000 = 2

Calculator solution: =

## X 4 9X 2 + 20 = 0 Another calculator solution:

SOLVE Using EQN Mode:
X? 10 = 2.24
X? 1 = 2 = ,
X? 1 = 2 SOLVE is unable to determine imaginary values for t.
X? 10 = 2.24
X? 1000 = 2.24 Problem
= . , , , . Simplify:
The solution for the equation depends on the initial
assumption. a a a
The speed at which SOLVE comes up with the solution
also depends on the initial assumption. Conventional solution:

= a a a1/2

= a a3/2
= a a3/4
= a7/4
= /
Page 4 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012
BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle
Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS
December 13, 2012 - Thursday
Calculator solution: This is particularly useful when:
1. You do not want to overwrite the current value for
A A A=A X X, nor store it elsewhere
2. You want to avoid confusion when the solution
SOLVE
variable resembles the actual variables in the
A? Arbitrary =
problem
X? 1 = 0.875
3. There is a successive use of the same equation, but
= /
different variables are to be determined
Problem
Problem
A point P is at a distance of 4, 5 and 6 from the vertices
If kx 3 k + 3 x 2 + 13 is divided by x 4, the
of an equilateral triangle of side of x. Find x.
remainder is 157. What is the value of k?
Calculator solution:
Calculator solution:
Using Remainder Theorem:
AX 3 A + 3 X 2 + 13 = 157, A
SOLVE
X? 4 =
A? Arbitrary = 4
=

Problem
2 2 2
X = 4 + 5 2 4 5 cos A body at a temperature of 50F is placed outdoors
42 + 52 X 2 where the temperature is 100F. If after 5 minutes, the
= cos 1
245 temperature of the body is 60F, find:
It follows that: 1. How long it will take for the body to reach a
52 + 62 X 2 temperature of 75F; and
= cos 1
256 2. The temperature of the body after 20 minutes.
2
4 + 62 X 2
= cos 1 Calculator solution:
246
The template equation for Newtons Law of
+ + = 180 Cooling is:
42 + 52 X 2 52 + 62 X 2 T = cekt + Tm
cos 1 + cos 1
245 256
2 2 With Tm = 100:
4 + 6 X2
+ cos 1 = 180 T = cekt + 100
246 A = BeCD + 100
SOLVE
X? 7 = 8.54 At t = 0 min, T = 50:
A = BeCD + 100, B
= . SOLVE
Only the following functions are not allowed inside an A? 50 =
equation using SOLVE: , d/dx, , Pol and Rec. C? Arbitrary =
D? 0 =
Did you know B? Arbitrary = 50 final

## that SOLVE can determine the solution for a

specified variable if it follows the following syntax?
{equation},{solution variable}

## Page 5 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle
Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS
December 13, 2012 - Thursday
At t = 5 min, T = 60: Another calculator solution:
A = BeCD + 100, C
XP3 6 XC5 0
SOLVE
CALC
A? 60 =
X? 5 = 54
B? 50 final =
X? 6 = 54
D? 5 =
X? 7 = 84
C? 0.1 = 0.0446 final
X? 8 = 0
At T = 75, t =?:
=
A = BeCD + 100, D
SOLVE
Using CMPLX Mode
A? 75 =
B? 50 final = To perform complex number operations, first press
C? 0.0446 final = Mode 2 (CMPLX) to enter CMPLX Mode. You can use
D? Arbitrary = 15.53 either rectangular coordinates or polar coordinates to
input complex numbers. Complex number calculation
= .
results are displayed in accordance with the complex
At t = 20 min, T =?: number format setting on the setup menu.
A = BeCD + 100, A
You cannot use SOLVE, summation, integration,
SOLVE
differentiation, percentage, Pol and Rec while in CMPLX
B? 50 final =
Mode.
C? 0.0446 final =
D? 20 = You also cannot take the factorial, logarithm, natural
A? Arbitrary = 79.52 logarithm, cube root, square root, nth root and nth
power (other than 2 or 3) of a complex number; use
= .
permutation, combination and trigonometric functions
on a complex number; and raise 10 or e to a complex
Problem number, but these may be used for real numbers while
If nP3 = 6 nC5, find n. in CMPLX Mode.
Calculator solution: CMPLX Mode submenu
XP3 = 6 XC5
To enter the CMPLX mode submenu, press Shift 2. The
X? 6 = Cant Solve
submenu contains the following:
SOLVE may not be able to determine the correct 1. Arg Returns the argument of the complex
solution, even when one exists. number
Conventional solution: 2. Conjg Obtains the conjugate of the complex
n! number
nPr =
nr ! 3. r Specifies the calculation result format
n!
nCr = to polar coordinates
n r ! r!
4. a + bi Specifies the calculation result format
n! n!
=6 to rectangular coordinates
n3 ! n 5 ! 5!
n! n! Review of complex numbers:
= 6
n3 n4 n5 ! n 5 ! 5!
n 3 n 4 = 20 Algebraic or rectangular form of a complex number, z:
n2 7n 8 = 0 z = x + yi
n = 1,8 x = real part
= y = imaginary part

## Page 6 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012

BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle
Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS
December 13, 2012 - Thursday
Polar or triangular form of a complex number, z: =
z = r
Ansr
r = absolute value or modulus
= argument or amplitude 24114.93

## Relationship between the rectangular and the polar =

form: = .
r2 = x2 + y2
y tan arg Ans
tan = 4
x
x = r cos 15
y = r sin
=
Argand Diagram or Complex Plane
4X 15Y
CALC
X? 10 =
Y? 7 = 65
4x 15y = 65
+ =

Problem
The segment from (1,4) to (2, 2) is extended three
Using the fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS, the argument
times its own length through (2, 2). The terminal
is always measured clockwise from the positive real
point is:
axis.
Calculator solution:
Problem
2 2i 1 + 4i
Given two points A(5,3) and B(10,7), determine: 3 6i
1. The midpoint of line segment AB. 2 2i + 3Ans
11 20i
2. The horizontal distance between A and B.
(, )
3. The vertical distance between A and B.
4. The straight line distance AB. Problem
5. The slope of the line passing through A and B. Find the resultant of the concurrent force system
shown in the figure:
6. The inclination of the line passing through A and
B.
7. The equation, in general form, of the line passing
through A and B.
Calculator solution:
5 + 3i + 10 + 7i
2
5
+ 5i
2
Calculator solution:
,
4000 + 200 180 30 + 300 180 + 60
10 + 7i 5 + 3i + 300 60 r
15 + 4i 476.98 61.61
= = .
Page 7 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012
BulSU Civil Engineering Quizzers Circle
Calculator Proficiency with Casio fx-991ES and fx-991ES PLUS
December 13, 2012 - Thursday
Problem (CE Board May 1998) Calculator solution:
For the forces in the figure shown: 4
tan =
3
= .
P + 260 arg 12 5i = 500 arg 3 + 4i
P = 500 arg 3 + 4i
260 arg 12 5i r
P = 503.5983.16
= .
= .

1. Which of the following most nearly gives the Among the strengths of COMPLX Mode is solving for an
magnitude of the horizontal component of the unknown magnitude and its corresponding direction.
resultant force system?
Problem
2. Which of the following most nearly gives the
magnitude of the resultant force? Determine the tension in each segment of the cable
shown:
3. Which of the following gives the angle that the
equilibrant makes with the horizontal axis?
Calculator solution:
86.6030 + 70.70 180 45 + 68.30270
25.01 + 24.99i
= .
Ansr
35.3544.99
= .
Ansr Calculator solution:
35.35 135.01
Enter COMP Mode:
= . . MA = 0

## Problem (CE Board Nov. 2006) 16 6 + 20 6 + 11 CD sin 35 6 + 11

CD cos 35 6 + 7 tan 35 = 0
The force of 500 N is the resultant of the forces P and 16 6 + 20 6 + 11 X sin 35 6 + 11
260 N acting as shown in the figure. X cos 35 6 + 7 tan 35 = 0
SOLVE
X? Arbitrary = 23.34
= .
Enter CMPLX Mode:
23.3435 + 20270 + BC2 = 0
BC2 = X35 + 20270 r
BC2 = 20.23 kN160.92
= .
1. Which of the following gives the value of the angle Ans + 16270 + AB1 = 0
that the 500 N makes with the horizontal? AB1 = Ans + 16270 r
AB1 = 29.61130.21
2. Which of the following gives the value of ?
= . End
3. Which of the following gives the value of P?
Page 8 of 8 Compiled by Engr. Daniel E. Dumapit, 2012