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## PID controller

.

### The proportional term is given by:

integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain ( ) and added to the controller output. The integral term is given by: The integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller . Derivative term The job of derivative control is to react to changes in the system. A constant error will be dealt with by proportional and integral control The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain, Kd. " id="pdf-obj-2-6" src="pdf-obj-2-6.jpg">

### The contribution from the integral term is proportional to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of the error. The integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the

integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain ( ) and added to the controller output. The integral term is given by: The integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller . Derivative term The job of derivative control is to react to changes in the system. A constant error will be dealt with by proportional and integral control The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain, Kd. " id="pdf-obj-2-16" src="pdf-obj-2-16.jpg">

### The integral term is given by:

integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain ( ) and added to the controller output. The integral term is given by: The integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller . Derivative term The job of derivative control is to react to changes in the system. A constant error will be dealt with by proportional and integral control The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain, Kd. " id="pdf-obj-2-22" src="pdf-obj-2-22.jpg">

### The derivative term is given by:

diverges, with or without oscillation, and is limited only by saturation. Instability is caused by excess gain. Generally, stabilization of response is required and the process must not oscillate for any combination of process conditions and set-points, though sometimes marginal stability (bounded oscillation) is acceptable or desired. Tuning method: Method Advantages Disadvantages Requires Manual No math required; online. experienced tuning personnel Process upset, some Ziegler – Proven method; online. Nichols trial-and-error, very aggressive tuning. Consistent tuning; online or offline - can Software employ computer-automated control system Some cost or tools design (CAutoD) techniques; may include valve and sensor analysis; allows simulation before training involved downloading; can support non-steady-state " id="pdf-obj-3-4" src="pdf-obj-3-4.jpg">

Method

### Manual tuning:

If
the
system
must
remain
online,
one
tuning
method
is
to first
set
and
values
to
zero.
Increase
the
until
the
output
of
the loop
oscillates, then the should be set to approximately half of that value for a
"quarter amplitude decay" type response. Then increase until any offset is
corrected in sufficient time for the process. However, too much will cause
instability. Finally, increase , if required, until the loop is acceptably quick to
reach its reference after a load disturbance. However, too much will cause
excessive response and overshoot. A fast PID loop tuning usually overshoots
slightly to reach the setpoint more quickly; however, some systems cannot accept
overshoot, in which case an over-damped closed-loop system is required, which
will require a
setting significantly less than half that of the
setting that was
causing oscillation.
Effects of increasing a parameter independently
Overshoot Settling time
Stability
Parameter
Rise time
error
Small
Decrease
Increase
Decrease
change
Decrease
Increase
Increase
Eliminate

### the Ziegler–Nichols method, introduced by John G. Ziegler and Nathaniel B.

Ziegler Nichols method, introduced by John G. Ziegler and Nathaniel B. Nichols in the 1940s. As in the method above, the and gains are first set to zero. The proportional gain is increased until it reaches the ultimate gain, , at which the output of the loop starts to oscillate. and the oscillation period are used to set the gains as shown: Ziegler – Nichols method Control Type P - - PI - PID These gains apply to the ideal, parallel form of the PID controller. When applied to the standard PID form, the integral and derivative time parameters and are only dependent on the oscillation period . " id="pdf-obj-5-58" src="pdf-obj-5-58.jpg">
Ziegler Nichols method, introduced by John G. Ziegler and Nathaniel B. Nichols in the 1940s. As in the method above, the and gains are first set to zero. The proportional gain is increased until it reaches the ultimate gain, , at which the output of the loop starts to oscillate. and the oscillation period are used to set the gains as shown: Ziegler – Nichols method Control Type P - - PI - PID These gains apply to the ideal, parallel form of the PID controller. When applied to the standard PID form, the integral and derivative time parameters and are only dependent on the oscillation period . " id="pdf-obj-5-60" src="pdf-obj-5-60.jpg">

### period

Ziegler Nichols method, introduced by John G. Ziegler and Nathaniel B. Nichols in the 1940s. As in the method above, the and gains are first set to zero. The proportional gain is increased until it reaches the ultimate gain, , at which the output of the loop starts to oscillate. and the oscillation period are used to set the gains as shown: Ziegler – Nichols method Control Type P - - PI - PID These gains apply to the ideal, parallel form of the PID controller. When applied to the standard PID form, the integral and derivative time parameters and are only dependent on the oscillation period . " id="pdf-obj-5-108" src="pdf-obj-5-108.jpg">

.

### of Eq. (1).

= Proportional gain
= Integral gain

CL RESPONSE
RISE TIME
OVERSHOOT
SETTLING TIME
S-S ERROR
Kp
Decrease
Increase
Small Change
Decrease
Ki
Decrease
Increase
Increase
Eliminate
Kd
Small Change
Decrease
Decrease
No Change

,
,

,

.

### shown below to obtain a desired response.

• 1. Obtain an open-loop response and determine what needs to be improved

• 2. Add a proportional control to improve the rise time

• 3. Add a derivative control to improve the overshoot

• 4. Add an integral control to eliminate the steady-state error

• 5. Adjust each of Kp, Ki, and Kd until you obtain a desired overall response.

example, if a PI controller gives a good enough response, then you don't need to implement a derivative controller on the system. Keep the controller as simple as possible.

,

### Before going into a PID control, let's take a look at a PI control. From the table, we see that an integral controller (Ki) decreases the rise time, increases both the overshoot and the settling time, and eliminates the steady-state error. For the given system, the closed-loop transfer function with a PI control is:

X(s)/F(s) = (K p +K i /s)/ (s 2 +10s+20+K p +K i /s)