Magnet Science births Okay folks, greetings physics ...
in this paper, I will try to describe how the science of magnetism could be born. Enjoy ... William Gilbert opened the sheet carrying a scientific understanding of the nature of this magnetism. Study results stated in his book, De Magnete (1660), which also includes about electrical science. In it he outlines the reason why a bar magnet or needle depends or relies on its center point will always put themselves in a north-south direction of the earth (approximately). For that, he reported the results of experiments which showed that when both ends of the rod or pole of a magnet that points toward the same - for example the north brought near each other, it turns out they were rejected, while the opposite will show attraction. This fact encourages Gilbert proposed a theory which states that the appointment of the permanent north-south magnetic needle can be understood when "the earth is considered to behave as a big magnet that the magnetic poles are approximately at the north and south poles of the earth." Earth's north pole and then he linked with the earth's magnetic south pole with the earth's magnetic north pole. Inverted naming reference is based on the nature of attraction and repelling the magnetic poles because the poles of a magnet needle sticks and heading north have been named previously as a bar magnet's north pole, and vice versa. In the book, Gilbert also reported that when a magnet is cut into two separate parts, it still shows the nature of each piece of stem with magnetic poles are fixed in pairs. That is, at the end of a truncated form of new polar opposite to the original pole of the outer edge. Gilbert thus discovered the law of magnetization follows. Magnetic poles have never stood sendir, but always in pairs, sticking together as one unit. This fact is clearly very different from the nature of the poles of an electric charge that can stand alone. Electric current affects the magnetic needle? My friends, if electric currents affecting the magnetic needle? .. let's have a look .... Until the beginning of the 19th century phenomenon of magnetization electriczation and adults is viewed by physicists as two separate aspects. However, in 1820 came a breakthrough that immediately surprising findings of their awareness on the linkages both symptoms of a mini-style.
The most important findings of this occurs when the Danish physicist, Hans Christian Oerstedt (1777-
1851), demonstrated in one of his lectures in the winter of 1820 at the University of Copenhagen that the electric current affects the magnetic needle as a result of the magnetic rod. This fact diperagakannya by flowing electric current from the power liquid cell (galvanic cell) into a wire conductor is placed just above parallel to the magnetic needle free relies on its head. With electric current flowing from south to north, for example, turned out to deviate Kea red magnetic needle northwest. Conversely, if the flow of electric current from north to south, eastern Red Sea Kea deviation. The findings are truly shocking Oerstedt dikala among physicists that. Therefore, on 12 July 1820, when the written report of these findings was published, noted as an important historic event which opened a new page about the linkage electrization and magnetization. Electric current carrying wires affect each other. Within about a week after the report findings Oerstedt reach the city of Paris, the French physicist, Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836), around October 1820 showed that the two strings of electrified wires that also affect each other. When an electric current in both wires in the same direction, they attract, while if the opposite, it will repel. In the same month, two other French physicist, Jean Baptiste Biot (1774-1862) and Felix Savart (17911841), announced their successful experiment to measure the magnitude and direction of magnetic force acting on the long straight wire in the electrical current carrying grain para-magnetic surroundings. From these results they announced the law of magnetic force between the "two parts" a tiny electric current carrying wires, known as the Biot-Savart law. Reverse: Magnets affect the electric current carrying wires. After a number of these findings, Ampere also show that when electric current carrying wire is approached by the south pole of a magnet, the wire seemed to waver. This event indicates that the bar magnets affect the flow of electricity, as opposed to events that were observed by Oerstedt. Through experimenting with business sejumah persistent, Ampere finally managed to show that the electric current carrying wire coil, which consists of a number of wire loops (rings), it behaves just like a magnet. This became evident from the fact that a magnet. This became evident from the fact that a magnet is brought near to or far removed from the coil wire had been there the other magnetic pole. When the cross-sectional plane parallel to the coil wire and opposing flows round the clock, then a magnet is brought near to the cross section from above, with the tip of the north pole in front, it will feel rejected oeh coil wire. Meanwhile, when the south pole is in front, it will feel the effects of traction.
The opposite happens when the current in the coil is reversed direction to the direction of clockwise rotation. This fact is in accordance with the laws of Gilbert that the magnetic poles of a type not always in pairs or sticking together. Based on these findings, Ampere and then go further. He suggested that the presence of magnetic rods is due to the presence of "a sort of" ring composition of tiny electric currents in the magnetic field rotation shaft parallel to the flow cross-section perpendicular to the axis connecting the two poles of bar magnets. Each ring is acting as an electrical current carrying magnetic pole pairs. When the ring is located in front of our eyes and spin current is spin clockwise direction, then cross in front of him to behave as a magnetic south pole while those in the rear as the magnetic north pole. When the spin current is reversed, then the opposite applies. The total effect of the rings iniah tiny currents that bring the north and south poles of bar magnets, as has been observed. The connection between magnetism and electric current symptoms as the source became known as the Ampere law. Then an open secret electrization linkage and subsequent magnetization is Michael Faraday. The impact of electric current When Faraday opportunity to work under Davy, he has a lot to know the secret electrization pads and impact. The latter is associated with electrization that occurred in electrical materials, which were previously not electrically charged, if brought near (not touching) the electrically charged material. This occurs because the electrical forces between electrically charged objects both types of charge on the material that was electrically neutral. Part of its proximity to the ends of certain electrically charged rods become electrically charged in opposite directions. Faraday had learned also that the magnet is brought near a piece of rod on a piece of iron (no magnets) apparently mengimbasi iron rods behave as magnets. It looks at the ability to draw pieces of iron (mild) in the vicinity. Reflections on two realities that prompted the Faraday prejudiced a wire ring's wife may have current can also induce currents terbangkitkannya's wife in the electrical current carrying wire ring was located nearby. Faraday then wrestled with these estimates through several experiments that Faraday begun in 1821. However, it is disappointing, it all ends fail! Even so, Faraday remain firm in his conviction. This persistence paid off at the top of the experiments he did in Aug. 1831.
This experiment is a bit weird! Here Faraday wrapped around a tree trunk with a piece of copper wire approximately 70 feet long. After the first coil is partitioned, it is also a piece of copper wire wrap the other, they overlap on the first. Both ends of the wire one coil, say A, then it connects to a wire that he spent on the magnetic needle, while the other two ends of the coil, say B, it connects to the electrical poles of the cell Galvani. Prediction, if the flow of electric current in the coil B induce electric currents flowing in the coil A, then the magnetic needle under the wire connector at both ends will deviate from the original appointment. But he hoped did not look! Thanks to the fortitude and kejeliannya, Faraday finally succeeded! Memperihatkan a little shake of the magnetic needle to coincide with when the ends of the wire coil B is connected to the cell poles Galvani. A similar incident occurred when the coil B to cell relationship Galvani decided. The experimental results of this summit and then opened up opportunities for Faraday to come to the conclusion that electrical current flows terbangkitkannya not have current in the coil A, only occurs when fast-flowing current in the coil B varies: at the ends of the wires from the plug and disconnected from the galvanic cell. Meanwhile, after a relaxed state which is reached after a long B is connected to a galvanic cell pengimbasan electric current does not occur. Once the electric current on a secret key of this impact is found, Faraday take another step forward by contemplating further expansion. From Ampere's experiment, the conclusion that the ring current carrying wire behaves like a rod's wife in advanced magnetic backing. And indeed, Faraday then discovered: A bar magnet in the forward section backed in front of the electric current carrying coil of wire was not apparently induce electric currents flowing in the coil. Build up electric current in a coil of metal wire electrical current as a result of the influence of the magnetic pole which is moved around it became known as Faraday's law. Faraday addition, almost at the same time, Joseph Henry (1797-1878) in the United States and Heinrich Lenz (1804-1865) in Russia managed to find the legal impact of this current generation of electricity. However, since Faraday's most industrious do research on every aspect of electrical current flow, then he is regarded as the inventor of this phenomenon Ac It should be noted that this behavior is very different electrical current flows generated from galvanic cells, especially in the direction of flow. When electric current flow direction galvanic cell is always fixed,
it turns out the direction of electrical current flow of electric current changes. In the Faraday experiment, the direction of current flow back and forth. Therefore, the current is called alternating current (AC). Faraday's law is the background of power generation at the centers of power plants now. Line style To explain his theory, put forward the concept of Faraday's lines of force which is the visual depictions of how the load-electric charge interact via electrical forces, as well as poles of a magnet through magnetic force. For a positive electric charge, an imaginary line terswbut trending out; The negative electric charge., An imaginary line is directed to enter. The lines of this style can be in URLs with the water flow lines. In this parable, the positive charge acts as a source of water, whereas a negative charge as well suck. For magnetic rod, line always closed his style: out of the north pole and into the south pole magnetic rod. These magnetic lines of force we can see by doing the following simple experiment. Glue sticks behind a U-shaped magnet piece of paper which is placed horizontally and was sprinkled with fine iron powder. Shake the paper slowly organizing themselves so that the iron powder in the final composition no longer changed. In these conditions iron powder looks like organizing themselves according to the curved lines which originate at both poles of magnets. Curved lines of this imaginary "lines of magnetic force" that the intention. These lines of force "is considered" filled the entire space around the "a" electric charge and a magnetic pole. Faraday's explanation of its legal nature is based on the following principles. Each ring of metal wire tends to maintain the number of lines of force which remains dilingkupinya For example, consider the ring of metal wire that circles the field horizontally. Magnetic north pole is brought near the stem, from the top of the circle toward the ring before, certainly will increase the number of lines of force that dilingkupinya. The ring had, in an effort to reduce these additional lines of force, will generate an electric current so that the upper side is formed on the magnetic north pole. This means that, contrary to the current flow clockwise rotation. If the magnet sticks were then dissociated, to increase the number of line style which is now reduced, the ring will generate flows in the opposite direction. Thus, the magnetic rod back and forth motion will generate an AC current on this wire ring which explains Faraday's law. Electric and magnetic fields
The concept of Faraday's lines of force is apparently giving rise to a new perspective on the interaction of nature: electricity, magnetism, gravity or even gravity. In this new view, the space filled with imaginary lines of force is called force fields. Space filled with electric lines of force, for example, called an electric field, and magnetic fields to which is filled with magnetic lines of force. Here the number of lines of force that penetrate the particular surface determines the size of the electric or magnetic field on the surface. The greater the number the greater the line style corresponding force fields on the surface of the goal According to this view of field theory, in terms of the existence of electricity, for example, the existence of a direct electric charge Q spread the electrical properties of the ineffable as a line of electric force on the entire space around them. Electric charge Q in this case referred to as a source of electric field concerned. Another electric charge q is called a test charge Q placed around will interact directly in the local (local) with the electric field generated by Q, where q is located. When an electric charge q is similar to Q, the interaction is realized in the form of electrical repulsive force acting on q. So, in the view of field theory, electric charge Q repulsive force experienced by the test charge q, due to the interaction between the q and the electric field by Q at position q. This differs from the view of the previous style, which requires the presence of electric charges Q and q simultaneously. Without q, then nothing special happens around an electric charge Q due to the force mains undefined. To obtain a visual impression of this view, we can field URLs as secar overall flow of river water. Here the "watershed" is like for the electric field and the "spring" is like for the source of electric charge Q. Lightweight objects being thrown into this river, as supposing test electric charge q, soon appeared to interact directly with the flow of the river at the place where he was with the result he was immediately washed away (rejected) to follow the flow of water. As examples of metaphor in front, the track or trace of this object is one of the lines of force field. Because the electric force fields, magnets, and other undefined at every point, then the magnitude of this field can be expressed in a mathematical statement which is commonly known as a function of a point in space. By submission of this field theory ideas, created new employment opportunities for
theoretical physicists to go further down the halls of the secret relationship between electrization and magnetization by simply relying on the software: Math! Incomplete The next donation to the linkage electrization symptoms more fully and magnetization is a theoretical findings (on paper) through a pen-known Scottish theoretical physicist, James Clerk Maxwell (18311879). Like other physicists that adult, Maxwell (1831-1879). Like the adult's only other physicists, Maxwell was fascinated by the fact that a moving electric charge, ie, electric currents, generate magnetic phenomena. He was also fascinated by the fact that the stem (pole) magnet moves electrization cause symptoms, which generate the flow of electric current in a wire coil surrounding the metal wire.