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fields in these lines generates corona currents in

Corona Noise on HVAC and the form of impulse pulses. Corona discharges ,
HVDC randomly distributed along the HV power lines,
inject current impulses into bundle conductors
KUSHAL UJALA DEPARTMENT OF Discharges on the three different phase
ELECTRICAL AND ELELCTRONICS conductors occur at different times.When even
C.S.I.T., DURG the voltage on a particular phase is high enough ,
Kushalujala@gmail.com a corcna burst occurs and noise is generated .
ROOPESH KUMAR SAHU DEPARTMENT Although the conductors are designed to
OF ELECTRICAL AND ELELCTRONICS minimize corona discharges surface irregularities
C.S.I.T., DURG caused by damage, insects , raindrops or
contamination may locally enhance the electric
Abstract : The paper presents an experimental field strength sufficiently high for corona
research in the corona noise on a 400kV discharges to occur.[1]
overhead power line with a horizontal The corona noise level generated by
disposition of conductors.The high voltage over head power lines suffer from various
power line in its role of a communication parameters such as:-
channel is a source of different noises atmospheric conditions,
characterizing an important feature of this line length,
communication media. The main objective was avg value of altitude,
measuring & modeling the corona noise. size of conductors and their
Measurements of the Power Spectrum Density configuration,
(PSD) and relative corona noise within a power type of connection,
frequency period are presented for different
bundle conductor composition,
weather condition. The algorithm for measuring
variations in the corona noise level by 7.95 dB at voltage gradient, and
foul weather condition by 2.9dB at fair weather ground resistance
condition. An appropriate computer model of the The corona generated currents change
corona noise complaint with the measurement with atmospheric and also environmental
results is proposed. conditions that can not be defined accurately and
are uncertain in nature . Apart from atmospheric
1) Introduction conditions, which have a predominant influence
on corona noise level and vary during the time ,
The corona noise is caused by partial there are also some other factors that also affect
discharges on insulator & in air surrounding the level of the noise PSD but they are almost
electrical conductors of overhead power lines. constant in any weather conditions and normal
Discharges occur on three diiffernt phase operations of the power line. Because of the
conductors at different times.The corona noise nature of the corona noise , the HV power lines
level is considerably dependent on the weather as a communication channel desnot represent an
conditions.It is well known that the effect of the AWGN environment .
corona noise is particularly strong in the foul
weather conditions. 3) Measurment Analysis and Methodology
Properties of the corona noise are significant for
both analogue & digital power line 3.1. Measurment Analysis
communications but their influences on
decreasing the channel quality are different.The A basic setup for the noise
analogue Power Line Carrier(PLC) modem is measurement is shown in Fig1. The PLC LINE
tolerant to degradation of channel quality caused Trap Units (LTUs) are connected in series with
by corona noise.Thus , the modeling of this noise the power line to contribute a correct
was based on the Additive White Guassian Noise transmission and reception of the power line
(AWGN). carrier signals . The LTU impedance for the
power line frequency is high and for the
2) Corona Noise industrial frequency it is very low . A coupling
ckt. is used to connect the measurement
Ionization of air surrounding conductors equipment to the HV power line and to protect
of the HV power lines caused by electrostatic the equipment from being damaged because of
the 400kv/50Hz signal. Functions of the bandpass filter with:
coupling device for noise measurement a)
equipment , match impedances and electrical
insulation between the HV power line and the
measurement equipment. central
freque
ncy
199
kHz
and
bandw
idth
22kHz
b)

cent
ral

Fig.1 Pictorial representation of Corona Noise freq


measurement uen

The corona noise measurement were cy


conducted at a substation on 3-phase , 274
50Hz,400kv power line with a horizontal
dispositon of conductors. This type of the power kHz
line is common and can be found all over and
Europe. Noise measurement on this HV power
line were made with an existing coupling ckt. ban
infrastructure for 2-phase connection . Corona dwi
noise measurements were conducted with band
dth
pass filters shown in Fig1. Amplitude
characteristics of the four selected filters with a 3 20
db bandwidth are depicted in Fig2.
kHz
c)

cent
ral
freq
uen
cy
273
kHz
and
ban
Fig. 2. Amplitude characteristics of the applied dwi
dth collects and stores all the measured data . The
stored waveform pts. are samples of the
34 measured signal and they are defined by the
kHz times and amplitude value consisting of a
sequence of measured pts. We have analysed a
d) signal waveform consisting of :
equidistant waveform samples and
cent sequence of minimum and maximum
waveform pts. of noise samples.
ral
freq
4) PSD of the HV Power Lines Noise
uen
cy Similarly as signals, the noise too can be
described in a spectral domain. Because of its
280 random nature it is usually defined in terms of
kHz PSD that can be used as a measure of a
continuous broadband noise and discrete
and peaks.PSD measures distribution of the noise
ban power with frequency Therefore, the noise PSD
represents an avg noise level in the frequency
dwi
domain. In practice ,we can only measure PSD in
dth a finite band.Fig 3 shows the noise level which
can be measured at high frequency cable in a
90
substation.Results of the noise PSD
kHz measurements made at fair weather cond. are
given in fig 3a.Using the same approach ,the
noise PSD was measured also at foul weather
3.2. Measurement methodology conditions are given in fig3b.This has been taken
from Ref[1].
1. PSD From fig3 we can see that the following is
1. Average RMS voltage at the filter o/p of characteristics for the measured PLC channel:
a given bandwidth,and corona noise
2. Variation in the RMS voltage within a interference with other power line
power frequency period . carriers
The spectrum/network analyzer HP 3589A Foul weather conditions significantly affect the
was used for estimation of the noise PSD and corona noise .The noise level at such conditions
measurements of interferance from external is approx 15 db above the level at fair weather
sources. The measurements were conducted at conds.Also obsereved from fig 3 is that the
fair and foul weather conditions using the corona noise PSD decreases with the increasing
spectrum/network analyzer at the input of a frequency.With the obtained results avg levels of
bandpass filter(fig1.) with 100 avgs and a the background noise and spectral components
bandwidth of 1 Hz. The noise power level for caused by other noise sources existing on the
different bandwidths was calculated by using the obsereved power line can now be determined.
following expression:-

PN f 1 = PN f 2 +10 log{f1/{f2}

The avg RMS voltage can be measured with


Fluke 199C Scopemeter and can be verified.
To measure variations in the RMS
corona noise within a power frequency period,
waveform need to be recorded. This can be done
with a Fluke 199C Scopemeter . The meter can
be controlled by a personal computer that also
apart are used for HVDC power transmission. in
this transmission scheme PLC communication is
achieved by coupling the signals between the
pole conductors and the shield wire .
Telecommunication techniques [5] are used to
transmit information from various distant points
within the power system for use by the protective
equipment of the power systems located at the
substation or at the converter stations. The kind
of teleportation information depends on the
requirements of protection system itself. the
reliability and availability of the PLC channel
over which the teleportation signals are
transmitted has to be ensured at all times. Hence
it is important to study corona noise and its
(a) effects.[6]
(b) Previous studies has also shown that
electromagnetic coupling between the pole
Fig. 3. PSD of the noise measured at a high- conductors and the shield wire has resulted in the
frequency cable at fair weather (a) and foul shield wire going into corona as well as
weather conditions (b) formation of corona discharge does not mean full
loss of insulating properties by the gaseous
To know how the freq content changes space, However its formation is undesirable
over the period of the industrial freq,which is not because of electromagnetic interference and
possible from PSD investigations into the corona corona loss effects it has. Corona phenomena
noise should be envisaged in the freq band with results from the partial electrical breakdown or
no spectral components from other sources of ionization of air surrounding a power conductor
interference such as for eg. PLC systems, radio- corona occurs when the conductor surface
navigation systems and broad cast radio electric field intensity exceeds the breakdown
stations.Therefore,to determine the corona noise strength of surrounding air , in free space , there
behavior during a power freq period appropriate are always some free electrons present because
filters are needed. The selection of the central of radioactivity and cosmic rays.
freq and bandwidth of such filters depends on
PSD of an actual power line and a transfer Corona discharges, which lead to radio noise are
function of the both the coupling circuits and the pulsating in nature, producing pulses of current
LTU .The filtered signal is composed of a and voltage on the conductors of transmission
continuous background and corona noise. lines, which then propagates to the
5) Contributing Factors to HVDC Corona communication
Noise channels in the
form of radio
Corona performance of HVDC transmission noise. The level of
lines has become very important not only for radio interference
existing transmission lines but for new lines as in the vicinity of a
well. It has become an important research transmission line
question how ,on HVDC lines ionized particles depends on
formed during corona are carried from conductor corona generation
surroundings to the earth wire hence affecting on the conductors
power line carrier communication.[3-4] and the
This research is important for determining propagation of corona currents on the
the levels of radio interference that impact on conductors. electromagnetic fields resulting from
communication systems and contributions of corona disturbances in the operation of PLC
corona on power losses, audible noise and systems or devices over a wide range of
television interference. frequency. These unwanted disturbances which
The study of corona noise is important lead to radio noise, pulsating in nature,
particularly in schemes such as the Cahora Bassa producing pulses of current and voltage on the
where two monopolar lines a distance of one km conductors of transmission lines. Radio noise
levels at any point, depends on the shape of
corona, current pulses which are the source of
interference currents in the conductors. 8) Conclusion
Corona phenomena is the self sustained
electric discharge in which field intensified In this paper we present results of our
ionization is localized only over a portion of investigation into the relative corona noise
the distance between the electrodes. It appears as dependence on the power frequency voltage in
reddish tufts or beads ,a visible bluish white HV power line communications .Our approach
glow depending on the polarity of the conductors was based on results of our measurements, as
or whether it is AC or DC corona .As corona is well as those of statistical analysis of the
initiated ,a hissing sound is heard and Ozone gas captured data and modeling at different weather
is formed which can be detected by its unique conditions
order and the condition may be seen after dark By measuring PSD we determined the
near high voltage transmission lines ,as a various types and levels of noise sources existing
luminous halo surrounding the wires .As the on the power line[7-8]. We established that the
conductor voltage is increased partial discharges relative corona noise describes the corona noise
are produced at a faster rate until ,at a critical behavior during a power frequency period.
field a steady corona glow is obtained [5].The From results of our measurements and
onset gradient for a dc system at which those of statistical analysis we can conclude that
ionization begins for dry air is given by peeks the corona noise cannot be describe as a white
formula as:- noise with a constant variance .The results of our
measurement which were conducted at foul and
Ec=30m[1+(0.308/r)] KV/cm weather conditions, show that the character of
the corona noise is similar to the one of the
Where = relative air density, m=conductor Gaussian noise with a variable variance during a
roughness factor, r=conductor radius in cm power frequency period.

=(p/760)*(293/273+) (0<m<1) The analysis prove that the signal to-


noise ratio varies during a power frequency
Where p=atmospheric pressure in mm of period at all weather conditions but is higher at
mercury foul weather condition than at fair weather
=ambient temp.in degree C conditions. As a consequence of the SNR
variations the probability of error is also variable
and considerably affects the reliability of digital
communications
6)Results And Discussions
These attain results are very important as they
provide solid basis for investigation into channel
If we add sharp points to the
coding techniques in the digital PLC
conductor on the rough surfaces communications.
then the effects which can be seen is
as shown in Figure 4 In conclusion, the method of analyzing
corona has been demonstrated by using examples
Fig. 4 Corona which can be observed at high of experiments that have already been
Voltage with sharp points on the conductor conducted. The paper has shown that corona can
be investigated using observations, through
If we energize the test line to still which one can observe the corona inception on
higher volts on positive polarity the conductor surfaces. The use of an
then Corona Pulses can be oscilloscope for observing and obtaining corona
observed. wave forms has also been demonstrated. These
The corona current analysed was in wave forms can be analyzed further, although
the range of micro amps. this has not been done at this stage of the
It shows that a clean conductor research. The study of the corona currents and
produces less current than a dirty radio noise levels have so far, been useful in
one and if two shield wires are understanding corona behavior of HVDC power
connected in parallel ,less noise lines.
would be produced.
References

1. INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISION, IEC REPORT (1980) Planning of
(single-side band) power line carrier systems.
Geneva.
2. CIGRE STUDY COMMITTEE 35 Working
Group 09 (2000) Report on Digital Power Line
Carrier.
3. D.C.Smith,The major Control and Protection
Functions of the Telecommunication System
Installed on the Cahora Bassa- Apollo Scheme.
4. F. Venter , Class Notes on HVDC Systems
Design and Operation,Durban, May 2001
5. M.S.Naidu, V.Kamaraju.High Voltage
Engineering,2nd ed..McGraw-Hill,1995.
6. D.V.Razevig,High Voltage
Engineering,Khanna Publisher,1982.
7. A.C.Britten ,Class Notes on HVDC Systems
Design and Operation,Durban, July 2001.
8. Guide on Power Line
Carrier,CIGRE,Paris,1979.