1.0 Introduction Open Source
Open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials. Some consider open source a philosophy, others consider it a pragmatic methodology. Before the term open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet, and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code. Opening the source code enabled a selfenhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. Subsequently, a new, three-word phrase "open source software" was born to describe the environment that the new copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues created.

Open Source Software
Open-source software (OSS) is computer software that is available in source code form for which the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that permits users to study, change, and improve the software. Open source licenses often meet the requirements of the Open Source Definition. Some open source software is available within the public domain. Open source software is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open-source software is the most prominent example of open-source development and often compared to (technically defined) user-generated content or (legally defined) open content movements. The term open-source software originated as part of a marketing campaign for free software. A report by Standish Group states that adoption of opensource software models has resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year to consumers.


Open Source Hardware
Open source hardware is hardware that is designed and offered in the same manner as free and open source software (FOSS). Open source hardware is part of the open source culture and applies the open source concept to hardware. The term usually means that information about the hardware is open to all. This would include the hardware design (i.e. schematics, bill of materials and PCB layout data), as well as a FOSS approach to the software that drives the hardware. Since the rise of reconfigurable programmable logic devices, sharing of logic designs has been a form of open source hardware. Instead of sharing the schematics, HDL code (as in hardware description language) is shared. HDL descriptions are commonly used to set up system-on-a-chip systems either in field-programmable gate arrays or directly in application-specific integrated circuit designs. HDL modules, when distributed, are called semiconductor intellectual property cores, or IP cores.


2.0 The Latest Open Source 2.1 Meaning of Open Source OS
These tables compare the various free software / open source operating systems. Where not all of the non-EOL versions support a feature, the first version which support it is listed.

2.2 Example of Open Source OS Linux

Linux refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems that use the Linux kernel. Their development is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed, both commercially and non-commercially, by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License.



MINIX is a Unix-like computer operating system based on a microkernel architecture created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum for educational purposes; MINIX also inspired the creation of the Linux kernel. MINIX (from "mini-Unix") was first released in 1987, with its complete source code made available to universities for study in courses and research. It has been free and open source software since it was re-licensed under the BSD license in April 2000.

3.0 The Latest Open Source Application Software 3.1 Meaning of Open Source Application Software
Application software is a defined subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. This should be contrasted with system software which is involved in integrating a computer's various capabilities, but typically does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. The term application refers to both the application software and its implementation.


3.2 Example of Open Source Application Software

Open Office, commonly known as OOo or OpenOffice, is an opensource software application suite available for a number of different computer operating systems. It is distributed as free software and written using its own GUI toolkit. It supports the ISO/IEC standard OpenDocument Format (ODF) for data interchange as its default file format, as well as Microsoft Office formats among others. As of November 2009, OpenOffice supports over 110 languages.


An Android is a robot or organism designed to look and act like human. Until recently, androids have largely remained within the domain of science fiction, frequently seen in film and television.


The Latest Development ICT 3.3Hardware Blu-ray vs VCD Blu-ray

Date of Launch June 20, 2006


Media type Encoding

High-density optical disc MPEG-2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and VC1 25 GB (single-layer) 50 GB (dual-layer) 100/128 GB (BDXL) 64 kb ECC 405 nm 1× @ 36 Mbit/s (4.5 MByte/s) Blu-ray Disc Association[1] Data 1080p High-definition definition storage videoHighaudio laser:


Block size Read mechanism Developed by Usage


stereoscopic 3D Future Quad 2160p Ultra HD possibility: HD


In 1993 two optical disc storage formats were being developed


Media type Capacity

Optical disc 4.7 GB (single-sided, single-layer) 8.5 GB (single-sided, double-layer) 9.4 GB (double-sided, single-layer) 17.08 GB (double-sided, doublelayer – rare) 650 nm laser, 10.5 Mbit/s (1×)

Read mechanism Write mechanism Standard

10.5 Mbit/s (1×)

DVD Forum's DVD Books and DVD+RW Alliance specifications

3.4 Software


Windows XP vs Windows 7 Windows XP

Year Release Features

RTM: August24,2001 Retail: October 25, 2001  Faster start-up and hibernation sequences.  The ability to discard a newer device driver in favor of the previous one (known as driver rollback), should a driver upgrade not produce desirable results.  A new, arguably more user-friendly interface, including the framework for developing themes for the desktop environment.  Fast user switching, which allows a user to save the current state and open applications of their desktop and allow another user to log on without losing that information.  The ClearType font rendering mechanism, which is designed to improve text readability on liquid crystal display (LCD) and similar monitors.  Remote Desktop functionality, which allows users to connect to a computer running Windows XP Pro from across a network or the Internet and access their applications, files, printers, and devices.  Support for most DSL modems and IEEE 802.11 connections, as well as networking over FireWire, and Bluetooth.

Windows 7


Year Release Features

RTM: 22July2009 Retail: 22 October 200 Some of the new features included in Windows 7 are advancements in touch, speech, and handwriting recognition, support for virtual hard disks, support for additional file formats, improved performance on multi-coreprocessors, improved boot performance, and kernel improvements.

5.0 Pervasive Computing 5.1 Meaning of Pervasive Computing
Pervasive computing is the trend towards increasingly ubiquitous (another name for the movement is ubiquitous computing), connected computing devices in the environment, a trend being brought about by a convergence of advanced electronic and particularly, wireless - technologies and the Internet. Pervasive computing devices are not personal computers as we tend to think of them, but very tiny - even invisible - devices, either mobile or embedded in almost any type of object imaginable, including cars, tools, appliances, clothing and various consumer goods all communicating through increasingly interconnected networks. According to Dan Russell, director of the User Sciences and Experience Group at IBM's Almaden Research Center, by 2010 computing will have become so naturalized within the environment that people will not even realize that they are using computers. Russell and other researchers expect that in the future smart devices all around us will


maintain current information about their locations, the contexts in which they are being used, and relevant data about the users.

5.2 Example of Pervasive Computing
Advanced high bandwidth networking services. Networked devices, sensors, instruments, interfaces. Information and computational resources, organized as a ubiquitous broadband networks. Converged telecommunication including global wireless voice and data broadband networks. Human-machine interaction technologies. Software “agent” technologies.

6.0 Conclusion
Open source software is software that is developed collaborating by developers across the globe. The software itself is available at little or no cost. The code (the humanreadable version of the software) is distributed with the executable from giving users of the software the freedom to do modify, adapt improve the software to meets their needs. Open source software is the alternative and biggest challenger to closed source or proprietary software. It generally the user nothing, can be distributed freely to anyone and exist as a result of the combined efforts of computer programmer, users and software vendors from around the world that share their intellectual property freely, believe software should cost nothing and should enrich the lives of the users.

Resource - From internet

From book ICT form 4


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