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adsorption and ion exchange solutions for unit operations

adsorption and ion exchange solutions for unit operations

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q0 c

Langmuir: q - gives straight line of plot of 1/q vs. 1/c [3]

K c

The data are closest to a straight line on plot [3], indicating the Langmuir isotherm is the best fit.

The linearized form of the Langmuir equation is:

1 K 1 1

q q0 c q0

Using the line of best fit for the data in plot [3]:

1

Intercept 6.78

q0

1 g glucose

q0 0.147

6.78 g alumina

and

K

Slope 0.124

q0

g glucose

m 3 solution

Q2. Batch adsorption

Given:

qF = 0 kg phenol / kg carbon

S = 2.5 m3 solution

cF = 0.25 kg phenol / m3 solution

q F M c F S qM cS

03 0.252.5 q3 c2.5

q 0.208 0.833c

Plot the equilibrium data and the operating line. At equilibrium, q and c are in equilibrium, at the

intersection of the two lines:

The equilibrium data are best fit by a Freundlich-type isotherm, as shown on the graph. Solving

analytically (or graphically) for the intersection of the two lines:

kg phenol

ceq 0.109

m 3 solution

kg phenol

q eq 0.118

kg carbon

- Assuming solution volume S is constant

100% 100% 56.4%

cF 0.25

Height of bed: HT = 14 cm

Diameter of bed: D = 4 cm

Flow rate = 754 cm3/s

Usable capacity of bed: tu = 3.65 h

Length of unused bed: HUNB = 4.1 cm

(a) For a constant flowrate, a change in the break point time (to tb = 8.5 h) will only change

the length of the column, not the diameter (D = 4 cm).

8.5h

H B (new) 9.9cm 23.1cm

3.65h

- On a plot of c/c0 vs t, A1 (~tb) will change with the length of the column, but A2 will be

constant (same mass transfer zone)

c

t t ,new 1 dt A1 A2 t b ,new A2 8.5 1.51 10.01h

0

c0

t u ,new t b ,new 8.5h

t u ,new 8.5

0.849

t t ,new 10.01

(b) When the flowrate changes, the diameter needs to change to keep similar flow (velocity)

and mass transfer characteristics. The length of the bed and the fraction of capacity used

will change with the break point as calculated in (a): HT = 27.2 cm; tu/tt = 0.849.

For a constant flow velocity, the cross-sectional area will change proportionally to the volumetric

flow rate:

Flow new

Anew Aold

Flow old

2000 2

2

Dnew Dold

4 754 4

Dnew

2000

4cm 2 6.5cm

754

Q4. Ion-exchange column

Given:

HT = 30.5 cm

D = 2.59 cm

Mass of ion-exchange resin: 99.3 g

Feed concentration: c0 = 0.18 M (0.18 mol CuSO4 / L)

A1 A2

tb ts

Break point time: from the graph, when c/c0 = 0.010, tb = 460 s

Usable capacity of the bed: = 0 (1 ) = 1

0

Total capacity of the bed: = 0 (1 ) = 1 + 2

0

- Can be solved by integrating the area above the curve graphically or numerically

- Alternatively, it can be shown that (A1+A2) = tt ts, the time when c/c0 = 0.5

- From the graph,

= 645

460

= = 0.713

645

460

= = 30.5 = 21.75

645

=

= 30.5 21.75 = 8.75

3 1

1.37 3

645 0.18 63.54 = 10.106

1000

10.106

= = 0.102

99.3

Q5. Scale-up of ion-exchange column

Given:

Column I: HT = 0.4 m Column II: tb = 13.0 min

Flow rate = 0.2 m3/h

tb = 8.0 min

tu/tt = 0.65

= (1 )

= (1 0.65) 0.4 = 0.14

=

= 0.65 0.4 = 0.26

For Column II, the following relation can be applied to determine the length of used bed:

,2 ,2 ,1 ,2

= ,2 =

,1 ,1 ,1

0.26 13

,2 = = 0.4225

8

Total length for the column II, assuming that the length of unused bed (HUNB) is unchanged:

,2 = ,2 +

,2 = 0.4225 + 0.14 = 0.5625

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