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School of Mechanical Engineering School of Mechanical Engineering

Shandong Institute of Light Industry Shandong Institute of Light Industry

Jinan PR China Jinan PR China

shandongri@126.com yandong89632356@126.com

AbstractThe static and dynamic performance for the welded- Huazhong University of Science and Technology has

structure column of a certain horizontal machining center is analyzed and compared the welded EQD18 and cast PM50A

analyzed using the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. types. The finite element model of the two machine centers

The stress, deformation distribution, natural frequency and are built with the finite element software ANSYS. The static

mode of vibration of column under the different conditions are stiffness, the dynamic stiffness and the natural frequency of

analyzed. The analytical results show that: the maximum stress the two types of machine centers are calculated in the

is 2.40MPa and the maximum distortion is 11m, both of them different situations. Experiment shows that the finite element

can meet the accuracy requirements; the lowest vibration model presented in this thesis is proved to be an efficient and

mode frequency is 87.0 Hz, vibration isolation measures can be

valid way to analyze the machine centers, and it is reliably

properly used. This type of welded structure can withstand a

provided for the design of the high-speed machine centers

greater internal stress, bending stress, but also improve the

structural stability. Through analysis, the welded structure [4].

column has many advantages, such as high stiffness, good A certain type of high-speed horizontal machining center

Connectivity, greater compact structure, high strength, low is being developed by a company. The structure of its

production processes, high production efficiency, etc. So this column utilizes the welded form of steel plate. The headstock

design can be called a better structure. is hanged on the column. And it can be driven up and

down(Y axis). The column can be driven around (X axis)

Keywords-Finite Element Analysis; Welded-structure through the screw rod of the base. In this paper, the stress

Horizontal Column; the Static and Dynamic Performance and deformation distribution under the different conditions

are simulated by the finite element software ABAQUS. The

I. INTRODUCTION parameters of column are analyzed to check up whether they

The high-speed machine center is one of the hotspots of are reasonable. Then the structure of column is optimized

the development of machine tool. As the high-speed and analyzed in order to advance the machining accuracy

machining center develops to the direction of high-precision, and working lifetime.

high-quality and high-efficiency, its structure is more and

more complicated. The column is an essential part of the II. FEA MODEL

machining center, the structural property of the column has a A. 3D Model

great effect on the performance of the machining center,

especially affects its processing precision, vibration-resistant, The FEA Model of the column is the foundation which of

etc. In addition, the good or bad of its strength, stiffness also mechanical analysis and optimization. The model is

influence the lifetime of machine tools. Therefore, how to reasonable or not directly affects the precision of results and

accurate the components of column precisely, reasonably, the cost, etc.

scientifically and feasibly, is an important issue that the As the structure of column is complicated, only load-

machine tool need to be urgently solved in the structural bearing parts are considered. Ignore screw holes, chamfer,

design process. installing support and other the small parts which have little

effect on the overall performance [5]. A large number of

In the Finite element calculation of the machine tool

steel plates, whose thickness is small compared with its

design, there are two key difficulties which are accurately

length and width, are widely utilized in the column. We use

modeling and huge workload. Most of scholars simplify the

the plane with the actual dimensions take the place of them.

machine as the centralizing quality model or and the

The simplified model of column is shown in figure 1.

distributing quality model.

Static tests for a small amount of pieces of faying surface

have been carried out since 1960s in china [1-3]. In 1980s,

static and dynamic performance for faying surface of unit

sample or some other typical connections has been studied

systematically. In recent years, researches of Zhejiang _____________________________________

University study the dynamic performance for fixed junction

of a machine tool together with the dynamic performance of 978-1-4244-5265-1/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

a column machining center bed and parameter identification.

Figure 1. The simplified model of column Figure 2. The load on the column and the imposed boundary conditions

(drilling)

B. Material Properties

The material of the column is Q235, modulus of

elasticity is 210GPa, Poisson ratio is 0.3, and density is

7860kg/m3.

C. Constraints and Load

This column is welded structure, which is connected with

guide-rail together by bolts. So the rests of column are all

fixed.

As to the machining center, the force is caused by

reaction which through the spindle and spindle box delivered

to the column. In order to simulate the column's deformation

actually, add the force on the guide-rails by the equivalence

principle. According to the force characteristics of machining

centers, we analyzed the stress conditions by the two

different conditions are as follows: Figure 3. The load on the column and the imposed boundary conditions

1) Drilling (milling)

When the spindle is located in the highest point of its

journey, the column deformation is biggest, when we D. Creating Mesh

research use this condition as the limit condition. At this Creating mesh is a process which can make the whole

point, the distance between the spindle centerline and the structure dispersed. It is the basis of finite element analysis.

bottom plane is 1005mm. The pressure on the top is 3940N, It determines the accuracy of results. Disperse the plate with

resolve the force into the left and right bearings by the S4R unit. Disperse the solid with C3D8R. The dispersed

equivalence principle, the pressure of each bearing is 1970N. column is shown in figure 4.

The load in the Z-axis is 5800N; resolve the force into the

left and right guide-rails by the equivalence principle, so the

pressure of each guide-rail is 2900NEach guide-rail has

two anchor points. So the force of each anchor point is

1450N.

2) Milling

The machine center is affected by the torque in the XY

plane. The maximum power of the Motor is 31KW, rated

speed is 1100r/m, and the driving torque of main spindle is

P 31

M 9550 9550 N m 269.1N m

n 1100

Also 269.1N m ! 232N m , so it is 269.1N m .

Resolve the force into the left and right guide-rails by the

equivalence principle. Figure 4. The dispersed column

The load on the column (corresponding to the drilling

and milling) and the imposed boundary conditions is shown

in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

III. STATIC ANALYSIS

The stress and deformation distribution under different

conditions are simulated by the FEA software ABAQUS.

1) Drilling

The column has a small deformation under the load. The

maximum stress on the bottom of the column is 1.97MPa

and the maximum deformation distribution on top of the

column is 11.0m. The results are shown in Figure 5 and

Figure 6.

the column is lager when drilling. Its value is 2.40MPa. The

material of column is Q235, and the tensile strength and

compression strength reach 300MPa and 1100MPa. It is far

beyond the stress that column can bore. Therefore the

problems of the structure cant be considered.

IV. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

The dynamic performance of columns reflects the

Figure 5. The stress distribution of the column structure of the vibration-resistant capacity under the

dynamic cutting force, which have a direct impact on the

machining accuracy of machine tools [6]. The natural

frequency and mode of vibration can be determined by the

dynamic analysis of the column. And they are all important

parameters on structural design which can withstand the

dynamic load [6]. At the same time the results can be used for

structural improvement of the column.

In order to avoid the resonance phenomena of the column,

the dynamic characteristics are analyzed, the natural

frequencies within 500Hz and the corresponding mode of

vibration are obtained. Its natural frequencies are shown in

Table I.

Figure 6. The deformation distribution of the column

TABLE I. THE FORMER SEVEN-ORDER NATURAL FREQUENCY OF THE

COLUMN STRUCTURE

2) Milling

The column has a small deformation under the load. The Oder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

maximum stress on the bottom of the column is 2.40MPa Natural

87. 153 216 303 387 451 474

and the maximum deformation distribution on top of column Frequen

0 .6 .7 .0 .5 .9 .1

is 9.40m. The results are shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8. cy (Hz)

The corresponding mode of vibration is shown in Figure

9 and Figure 15.

Figure 14. The mode of vibration of sixth order

Figure 10. The mode of vibration of second order

Figure 11. The mode of vibration of third order

According to table 1 and the figures of the mode of

vibration, the first and second frequencies are relatively low.

The vibration mode of first order results from the column

swing side to side. And the vibration mode of second order

results from the column swing back and forth. The results

can be used for choosing a suitable motor and taking some

measures to isolate the vibration. From figure 11 to Figure

15, the vibration mode frequencies are gradually increasing

from the third order to seventh order. The vibration mode

frequencies are relatively high. The results can be used for

structural improvement of the column.

Figure 12. The mode of vibration of forth order V. OPTIMAL DESIGNS AND ANALYSIS

It is shown from the above data that the design for the

column of the horizontal machining center is very reasonable.

This structure of the column is Q235 welded steel plate

parts, and the column is installed in the sliding seat, which is

moved with the column and slide with the horizontal

movement. The bottom of the four docks is connected with

guide-rails by bolts, and the ribs are allocated. The

comprehensive performance of bendingresistant, torque

resistant and the stiffness of the column are improved, at the

same time, the partial distortion and flutter of the column

avoided effectively.

Figure 13. The mode of vibration of fifth order Compared with the casting structure, the advantages and

disadvantages of the welded structure column are as follows

(1) Because the strength of steel is three times higher

than cast iron and the stiffness of steel is 2.5 times higher

than cast iron, the welded structure column can save a lot of

metal materials under the same conditions of strength,

rigidity and other properties, etc.

(2) Welded structure ensures greater stiffness;

moreover, it can also ensure greater compact structure, high

strength, low production processes and high production

efficiency, etc. isolation measures or some other necessary structural

(3) Connectivity is good, weld seam has good optimization designs should be considered under the

mechanical properties, pressure-resistant, good sealing, demand of meeting the accuracy.

corrosion-resistant, etc.

(4) Simplify the complex parts and large parts of the ACKNOWLDGMENT

manufacturing process. R.B.G. thanks: Natural Science Foundation of Shandong

(5) However, there has welding stress while welding, Province; Science and Technology Development Planning of

and how to reduce the welding stress should be noticed in the Education Department of Shandong province (J07Y07-1);

designing. Post-weld, heat treatment should also require Independent Innovation Agenda for universities of Jinan

eliminating stress and deformation. (200906034).

VI. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

(1) From the results of the static analysis, it can be [1] Deng Xiangdong, Xiong Ji, etc. The dynamic analysis and optimal

seen that the deformation is lager when the headstock is at design of the H65100 Column Horizontal Machining Center [J].

the vertex. The maximum deformation is 11m. The main Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology, 2008, 28(4):

720-723.

reason is that the column is higher and the stress is lager in

[2] Tong Qingsheng. Fundamental of Material Forming Technology

the top of column. Both the stress and deformation can meet [J].Bejing: Machinery Industry Press, 2007, 11.

the accuracy requirements. [3] Guo Zhiquan, Xu Ya-shen,etc. Research on structure static and

(2) The structure of this column is welded-steel plate dynamic design based on FEA of machine center columns [J]. Journal

parts, which has the advantages of compact, high strength, of Mechanical Strength, 2006, 28(2).

low production processes, etc. [4] Wang Xuelin, Li Xiuping. The finite element analysis of the high-

(3) According to the static and dynamic analysis of speed machine centers based on the finite element software

welded structure, the welded structure column can withstand ANSYS:[ Master thesis] .wuhan: Huazhong University of Science

and Technology Press,2005, 30(4).

a greater internal stress, bending stress, and it can also

improve the structural stability. [5] Shi Yi-ping, Zhou Yurong. The example explanation of the finite

element analysis ABAQUS [M].Beijing: Machinery Industry Press,

(4) According to the static and dynamic analysis of the 2006.

column, the maximum stress of this column is 2.40MPa and [6] Jiang Hong-ping, Chen Nan. The finite element analysis of the

the maximum deformation distribution is 11m under the XH715 vertical machining center[J]. Modern Manufacturing

influence of the load. Therefore the disruptive structural Engineering, 2006, 12.

problems needn't be considered. The minimum natural

frequency is 87.0Hz, since the deformation is relatively

small, the column can easily lead to resonance. Vibration

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