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Microbial Identification in the river of Pala-o Riverside, Iligan City

Researchers:
Honghong, Ma. Angelie T.
Jangad, Kristy Lou P.
Maus, Mae Ann J.
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms has an extremely large number that is living in the


human body. It is known to be vectors of different diseases. Some of these
microorganisms even help in carrying out various body functions. Although most
microorganisms are harmless but some of them cause serious diseases. The
disease causing microorganisms are the bacteria, fungi, virus and protozoa which
enters in the body through the use of food and water, air, skin contacts and through
lesions. Example is the Pathogenic bacteria which can cause various diseases can
usually be found among rivers. This study aims to identify the different pathogenic
bacteria and its implications to human health.
METHODS The specimens were collected in a 236 milliliters sterile bottle, then
followed by the experimental procedures such as; Bacterial Culture and Isolation
method with the use of the following agar, MacConkey, Salmonella Shigella,
Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose and Blood agar for isolation and bacterial
growth. Biochemical methods for identification of organism and this includes the
following; Triple Sugar Iron (TSI), Lysin Iron Agar (LIA), Methyl Red (MR), Motility
Testing, Indole Production, Citrate Utilization, Urea Hydrolysis,Control and Ornithine
Decarboxylase. Gram staining method for more specific identification of the bacteria
and observed under microscopic evaluation. RESULT: In the morning bacteria found
were, Vibrio metschnikovii, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter
agglomerans, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. While in the afternoon,
Pseudomonas, Enterobacter cloacae, Vibrio metschnikovii, Shigella sonnei,
Enterobacter agglomerans, Acinetobacter and Escherichia coli
CONCLUSION: In conclusion the Vibrio metschnikovii is the most dominant bacteria
found in morning and afternoon. Therefore, it implies that the river is not good for
swimming and doing any household activities.

KEYWORDS: Pathogenic bacteria, river, infections, diseases

Bacteria are the simplest life form and are the most numerous organisms with
respect to the number of species and total biomass (Gerardi 2006). Not all bacteria are
pathogenic, some kinds of bacteria are very helpful to humans and a part of normal flora
in our bodies. However, pathogenic bacteria are able to lead sickness and possibly
even death, and usually can be found among rivers.
A study shows that in other countries specifically in North West province of South
Africa, there were cases of rivers that been impaired partly due to frequent
contamination of water sources with a number of pathogenic microorganisms (Meays et
al. 2004). Some rivers like the case when: Tiete River suddenly receives large water
volumes from its tributaries such as the Aricanduva River or the Pinheiros River, which
unload thousands of cubic meters in a few minutes. The resulting flood wave rapidly
raises the Tiete River to a new level, then transports large numbers of pathogenic
bacteria in the densely populated areas along the river (Abraham 2011).
Bacteria from the river can also transmit different kinds of diseases in its
surrounding areas; such as bacillary dysentery, viruses, fungi, protist and Animalia.
Evidences have shown that bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella bacteria found in
rivers alone is responsible for approximately 165 million cases of bacterial diarrheal
diseases annually. Of this, 163 million are in developing countries and 1.5 million in
industrialized ones accounting for an estimated 1.1 million death cases each year
(Sharma et al. 2010). There are a large number of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protist and
Animalia have been identified to be pathogenic for humans and the majority is water
borne which can be transmitted from rivers and a study from 2001 compiled 1415
pathogens (Abraham 2011).
Pathogenic bacteria that develops in rivers that can cause diseases can also be
the effect of poor sanitation and throwing waste products along the river which can also
cause fecal contamination in freshwater. Wastewater effluents play an important role as
sources of fecal contamination in freshwater environments. These non-point sources of
fecal pollution are broadly distributed in both urban and agricultural areas. Standard-
based water quality assessment is an essential component of monitoring programs for
the protection of human health. Microbiological indicators such as total coli forms, fecal
coli forms and fecal streptococci are widely used both in monitoring programs of this
kind and in human health risk assessment. These indicators may also point to the
presence of other non-bacterial pathogens such as enteric viruses and parasitic
protozoans (Dangelo and Pierdominici 2008). Pathogenic bacteria may include:
Klebsiella pneumoniae although found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin and
intestines, it can cause destructive changes to human lungs if aspirated (Ryan 2004). In
most cases, Klebsiella infections are seen mostly in people with a weakened immune
system. Most of the people that are affected is believed to have impaired respiratory
host defenses, including persons with diabetes, alcoholism, malignancy, liver disease,
chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD). The most significant source of patient
infection is the feces, followed by contact with contaminated instruments.
Escherichia coli which is commonly found in lakes, rivers, swimming pools and
soil from fecal sources, in most cases coliforms that do not cause illness. When E. coli
causes serious problems with the blood or kidneys symptoms may in includes: Pale
skin, fever, weakness, bruising and passing only small amounts of urine (May 2012).
Enteric pathogens in environmental surface waters originate mainly from effluent
discharge from sewage treatment plants (E.M Anastasi et al 2012).
Some bacteria may be introduced into the river water path through untreated and
treated waste waters. These are the predominantly Escherichia coli, and intestinal
enterococci, which are excreted by humans and warm blooded animals because these
bacteria pass sewage treatment plants to a great amount and survive for a certain time
in the aquatic environment. Good water quality will contribute to securing the drinking
water supply, as well as provide economic benefits by contributing towards the
protection of fish populations and preservation of biodiversity (Dragun and Kapetanovic
2011). The spread of potential pathogenic enterococci appears to be the manifestation
of a complex network of ecological processes and associated factors in the landscape
of the river Ganga (Lata et al. 2009).
Some waterborne bacteria like in the rivers are anti-microbial resistance and this
resistance becoming commonly found in hospitals and communities and also the need
of antibiotics will continue to go higher and increase. A study shows that anti-microbial
resistance like E. coli revealed multiple drug resistance in this most deadly strain of
prevalent in low hygienic areas, slum areas and urban-rural interfaces. Basically,
bacteria borne, resistance is more dominant, and hospital and community acquired
resistance is becoming more common. The need for antibiotics will thus continue to be
high and will increase because of an ageing population (Lawrence and Jeyakumar
2013).
The review of literature suggests that pathogenic bacteria found in the rivers can
cause various diseases due to its surroundings, poor sanitation, throwing of waste
products and waterborne bacteria are also antimicrobial resistance. However, there are
different kinds of pathogenic bacteria present in the rivers that can transmit different
kinds of diseases and this bacterias having the largest population in the rivers have the
tendency to cause the diseases mentioned.
Theres no such study that has undergone Microbial Identification in Pala-o
Riverside, Iligan city. The study seeks to identify the possible microorganisms found in
the river of Pala-o Riverside Iligan City. Specifically it aims to identify the different
pathogenic bacteria and its implications to human health.
Methods and Design

Design
The study utilized the descriptive type of research since the researchers seeks to
identify pathogenic bacteria in the river of Pala-o Riverside of Iligan City. The research
was conducted at the laboratory since possible pathogenic bacteria cannot be seen by
the naked eye. The researcher used biochemical tests, gram staining method,
coagulase test and oxidase test.

Research Locale
This study was conducted at Pala-o riverside, located at the Barangay Pala-o
542. Pala-o is one of the barangays outlying the highly urbanized area of Iligan City.
The river has a length of 860 meters and a width of about 30 to 40 meters. The river
originates from Pugaan Iligan City.

Instruments
The following culture media used in the research study are; Blood agar,
McConkey agar, Salmonella Shigella agar, Thiosulfate Citrate and Blue Sucrose agar.
Biochemical methods such as; coagulase, oxidase and the gram staining method were
used to classify the specific microorganism. The different Biochemical test for the
identification of microorganism includes the Triple Sugar Iron (TSI), Lysin Iron Agar
(LIA), Methyl Red (MR), Motility Testing, Indole Production, Citrate Utilization, Urea
Hydrolysis, Decarboxylase and Ornithine Decarboxylase. Farther the bacterias were
identified through microscopy.

Data Gathering Procedure


Prior to data gathering, the researcher wrote a letter to the Barangay Captain of
Pala-o Iligan city to ask permission to conduct the research study. After consent was
given, the researcher was referred to the barangay kagawad of Pala-o and supported
with security. Below are the following steps in data gathering:

Specimen Collection
With the use of gloves, and mask, the specimens were collected in a 236
milliliters sterile bottle. Twenty-four water samples were obtained. Twelve from
the morning samples as well as from the afternoon. The river was divided into
three streams; upper, middle and down. The streams were divided into four
stations each measured 10 meters horizontally and four water samples were
collected. Water samples were brought at the Medical Technology laboratory of
Adventist Medical Center College for experimental procedure.
Bacterial Culture and Isolation Method
The following agar were used; MacConkey agar, Salmonella Shigella agar,
Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose agar and Blood agar for isolation and
bacterial growth. Sterile micropipettor blue tip was used as the instrument for the
inoculation of 1000m of the water samples for the bacteria culture media then
applied the streaking method for pure culture so that only a single cell occupies
an isolated portion of the agar surface. This single cell will go through repeated
multiplication to produce a visible colony of similar cells, or clones. The culture
medias were then incubated for about 24 hours at 37 degree Celsius to enhance
bacterial growth.

Gram Staining Procedure


For more specific identification of the bacteria, the colonies were gram
stained and observed under microscopic evaluation. After smear preparation, a
drop of NSS (normal saline solution) was placed on a sterile slide and a small
amount of bacteria growth from the culture media was transferred to the slide
with the use of sterile needle, then air dried. Each of the following gram staining
solutions; Crystal Violet, Iodine, Decolorize and Safranin was used on the smear
with its designated procedural time, then rinse with water. Gram staining method
is used for differentiation of the two major groups of bacteria; Gram-positive and
Gram-negative. If the Gram staining result is Gram-positive, catalase test is
done. Catalase test is used to differentiate Staphylococcus (catalase-positive)
from Streptococcus (catalase-negative). If it is catalase-positive, coagulase test
is done. Coagulase test is used to differentiate Staphylococcus aureus
(coagulase-positive) from Staphylococcus species (coagulase negative). If the
gram staining result is gram-negative, cytochrome oxidase test is done.
Cytochrome Oxidase test is initially used for differentiation between groups of
gram-negative bacteria. After the cytochrome oxidase test, biochemical method
were done to identify the bacteria.
Well isolated colony from the following culture media were used for the
biochemical methods for identification of organism and this includes the
following; Triple Sugar Iron (TSI), Lysin Iron Agar (LIA), Methyl Red (MR), Motility
Testing, Indole Production, Citrate Utilization, Urea Hydrolysis,Control and
Ornithine Decarboxylase. TSI was used to detect fermentation of glucose,
lactose and sucrose, production of gas from the fermentation of sugars and
production of hydrogen sulfide. In determining whether it is gram negative LIA
was used if it is decarboxylates or deaminates lysine forming hydrogen sulfide.
MR was used to determine the ability of the organism to produce and maintain
stable end products from glucose fermentation. Motility testing, to determine if an
organism is motile. Indole production used to determine the ability of an organism
to split tryptophan to form the compound indole. Citrate utilization used to
determine the ability of an organism to utilize sodium citrate as its only carbon
source and inorganic ammonium salts as its only nitrogen source. Urea
Hydrolysis used to determine the ability of an organism to produce the enzyme
urease, which hydrolyzes urea. Hydrolysis of urea produces ammonia and
carbon dioxide. Ornithine Decarboxylase, to determine if the microbe can use the
amino acid. Ornithine as a source of carbon and energy for growth. The use of
ornithine is accomplished by the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase.

Data Analysis
Data was analyzed by creating a table of observed pathogenic bacteria in each
stream stations, from morning to afternoon samples.

Results
Table 1 shows that there are different kinds of bacteria that are present in each
streams in the river. In the upstream, the biochemical results for the identification of
bacteria for the four stations in simplified form were Vibrio metschnikovii,
Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. While in the middle stream, Vibrio
metschnikovii, Enterobacter agglomerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter.
For the downstream, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, Vibrio metschnikovii and
Acinetobacter were found.
Table 1. Bacterias identified in the morning from upstream, midstream and downstream
UPSTREAM

Bacterial Identification Tests

Study Site

Station 1 S S Sta
t t tio
a a n4
ti ti
o o
n n
2 3

M M
A A MA
Agar MAC C C C

G
r
a
m
G G G -
G r r r G
r a a a r
a m m m a b
m - - - m a
- b b b - Gr c
b a a a b am i
a c c c a - l
ci il il il ci ba l
Gram Staining Gram-bacilli lli li li li lli cilli i

Oxidase Test - + - - - - - -

Biochemical Tests

A A
K/ / A A / A A
N A / / A / /
TSI A/A C G A A G A A

- -
, ,
-, -, -, -, -, - -
-, -, -, -, -, , ,
SIM -,-,- + - - - - - -

MR - - + - - - - -

- - -
-/ -/ / -/ -/ / /
LIA -/- - + - - + - -

CITRATE - - - - - + - -
UREASE - - - - - + - -

ORN - - - - - - - -

V
.
V
V V .
. . M M
K M M K e e
P . e e . t t
s p t t p s s
e n s s n c c
u e c c e h h
d u h h u n n
o m n n m i i
m o i i o k k
o n k k n o o
n i o o i v v
a a v v a i i
RESULT V. Metschnikovii s e ii ii e i i

MIDDLESTREAM

Study Site

Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4

MAC MAC MAC MAC

G G
r r
G a a
r m m
a - - G
m r
- a
b b b m
a a a -
c c c b
i i i a
l l l c
l Gram- l Gram- l Gram- il
Gram-bacilli i bacilli i bacilli i bacilli li
- + - - - - - -

Biochemical Tests

A A K
A / / /
/ A A N
A/A A A/AG G A/A G A/AG C

- - -
, , ,
- + + -,
, , , -,
-,-,- - -,-,- + -,-,- + -,-,- -
- - + - - - - +
- - -
/ / / -/
-/- - -/- - -/- - -/+ +
- - + + - + + -
- - - - - - + -
- - - - - - - +
A
V E E c
. . . i
M n
e e
t a a t
s g g o
c g g b
h l l a
n o o c
i m m t
k e e e
o r r r
v V. a V. a K. s
i Metschni n Metschn n pneumo p
V. Metschnikovii i kovii s ikovii s niae p

DOWNSTREAM

Study Site

Station 1 Station Station 3 Station 4


2

MAC MAC MAC MAC

G
r
a G G
m r r
G - a a
r m m
a - -
m b b b
- a a a
b c c c
a i i i
c l l l
il Gram- l Gram- l Gram- l
Gram-bacilli li bacilli i bacilli i bacilli i
- - - - - - - -

Biochemical Tests

K K
A A / /
/ / N N
A/A A A/A A A/A C A/A C

- - - -
, , , ,
- - - -
, , , ,
-,-,- - -,-,- - -,-,- - -,-,- -
+ + - - - + + +
-/- - -/- - -/- - -/- -
/ / / /
- - + +
- - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - -
- - - - - + - +
K A A
. V c c
r . i i
h n n
i e e
n M t t
o e o o
s t b b
c s a a
l c c c
e h t t
r n e e
o i r r
m k
a o
t V. v V. s K. s
i Metsch i Metschn p rhinoscle p
K. rhinoscleromatis s nikovii i ikovii p romatis p

Table 2 shows the different bacteria's that has been identified mainly in each streams
with its four study site/stations. In the afternoon, the pathogenic bacteria found in the
upper stream were; Pseudomonas, Enterobacter cloacae, Vibrio Metschnikovii and
Shigella sonnei. And in the middle stream pathogenic bacteria present were; Shigella
sonnei, Vibrio metschnikovii, Enterobacter agglomerans and Acinetobacter. The
bacteria present in the downstream were, Shigella sonnei, Acinetobacter, Vibrio
metschnikovii, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter agglomerans.

Table 2. Bacterias identified in the afternoon from upstream, midstream and


downstream
UPSTREAM

Bacterial Identification Tests

Study Site

Station 1 St St Sta
ati ati tio
on on n4
2 3

Agar MAC SS SS SS

G G
r r
a G G a
m r r m
- a a -
b m m b
a Gr - Gr - Gr a
c a b a b am c
i m- a m- a - i
l ba c ba c ba l
l cill il cill il cill l
Gram Staining Gram-bacilli i i li i li i i
Oxidase Test + + - + - + - -

Biochemical Tests

TSI K/K(LF) A A/ K A/ K A/ A
/ A( / A( / A(L /
A LF K LF K F) A
G ) ( ) ( (
( N N N
N
L L L L
F F F F
) ) ) )

- - - -
, , , ,
- - - -
, -,-, , -,-, , -,-, ,
SIM -,-,- + - - - - - -
MR - - - - - - - -
n
o

r
e
a
c
- - - t
/ / / o
LIA -/- + -/- - -/- - -/- n
CITRATE - + - - - - - -
UREASE - - - - - - - -
ORN - + - - - - - -
E
n
t
e
r
o S
b h
a i
c g
t e
e P P l
r s s l
e e a
V. u V. u
c M d M d
l et o et o V. s
o sc m sc m Me o
a hn o hn o tsc n
c ik n ik n hni n
a ov a ov a ko e
RESULT Pseudomonas e ii s ii s vii i

MIDDLESTREAM

Study Site

Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station


4

MAC MAC MAC MAC

G
r
G G a
r r m
a G a -
m r m
- a -
b m b b
a - a a
c b c c
i a i i
l c l l
l Gram- il Gram- l Gram- l
Gram-bacilli i bacilli li bacilli i bacilli i
- - - - - - - -

Biochemical Tests

A/A(LF) A A/AG(LF) A A/A(LF) A A/AG(LF K


/ / / ) /
N
A A A C
( ( ( (
N N N N
L L L L
F F F F
) ) ) )

- - - -
, , , ,
- - - -
, , , ,
-,-,- - -,+,+ - -,-,- - -,+,+ -
- - - - - - - +
- - - -
/ / / /
no reacton - -/- - -/- - -/- +
- - + - - - + -
- - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - +
V V V A
. . . c
M M M i
e e e n
t t t e
s s s t
c c c o
h h h b
n n n a
i i i c
k k k t
o o o e
v E. v V. v E. r
i agglome i Metschni i agglom
Shigella sonnei i rans i kovii i erans

DOWNSTREAM

Study Site

Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station


4

MAC SS MAC MAC

G G G
r r r
a G a a
m r m m
- a - -
b m b b
a - a a
c b c c
i a i i
l c l l
l Gram- il Gram- l Gram- l
Gram-bacilli i bacilli li bacilli i bacilli i
- - - - - - - -

Biochemical Tests

K K A
/ A / /
N / N A
C A C G
( ( ( (
N N N N
L L L L
F F F F
A/A(LF) ) A/A(LF) ) A/A(LF) ) A/A(LF) )
-,-,- -,-,- -,-,- -,-,+

- - - -
, , , ,
- - - +
, , , ,
- - - +
- + - - - + - -
- - - -
/ no / / /
no reacton + reacton - -/- + -/- -
- - - - - - - +
- - - - - - + -
- + - - - + - -
A A
c V c
i . i E
n M n .
e e e a
t t t g
o s o g
b c b l
a h a o
c n c m
t i t e
e k e r
r o V. r a
Shigella v Metschni n
Shigella sonnei sonnei ii kovii E. coli s

Table 3 shows that V. metschnikovii is the most dominant in all streams more
especially in the upstream. While K. rhinoscleromatis is the most dominant in the
downstream then followed by the Acinetobacter. In the midstream, the least dominant
bacteria were, K. pneumoniae and Acinetobacter. While for the upstream were,
Pseudomonas, E. agglomerans and K. pneumoniae.
Table 3. Summary of the bacterias identified in the morning

Table 4 also shows the dominance of V. metschnikovii which is also present in all
streams but for the afternoon result it is more dominant in the midstream. The next
dominant bacteria is S. sonnei which is also present in all streams but more dominant in
the downstream. K. pneumoniae which is only present in the upstream followed by E.
agglomerans which is only present in the midstream and downstream same as to
Acinetobacter. The least dominant bacteria present are the Enterobacter cloacae which
is only present in the upstream while E. coli in the downstream.
Table 4. Summary of the bacterias identified in the afternoon

DISCUSSION
The following bacteria are identified in the morning and afternoon. In the
morning, the identified bacterias were, Vibrio metschnikovii, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis.
While in the afternoon, the bacteria found were, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter cloacae,
Vibrio metschnikovii, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter agglomerans, Acinetobacter and E.
coli. The most dominant bacteria present in both morning and afternoon sample is
Vibrio metschnikovii.

Vibrio metschnikovii as what (Caldini 1997) stated, it is a marine organism which


includes streams, lakes, and sewage as well as in shellfish. The isolation of V.
metschnikovii in a variety of farm animals (chicken, cattle, swine, and horses) suggest
that infections caused by V. metschnikovii may be regarded as zoonotic. The most
common clinical presentation of Vibrio infection is self-limited gastroenteritis, but wound
infections and primary septicemia may also occur (Levine 1993). Therefore, many V.
Metschnikovii was found because of the nearby residing animals in the river. Klebsiella
pneumoniae although found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin and intestines, it can
cause destructive changes to human lungs if aspirated (Ryan 2004). In most cases,
Klebsiella infections are seen mostly in people with a weakened immune system. Most
of the people that are affected is believed to have impaired respiratory host defenses,
including persons with diabetes, alcoholism, malignancy, liver disease, chronic
obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD). The most significant source of patient infection
is the feces, followed by contact with contaminated instruments. Pseudomonas are
found throughout the body, most commonly in the urinary tract, respiratory tract, blood
and wounds (Collins 1996). They are found almost everywhere, in soil, water, plants
and animals. It is clinically significant and opportunistic pathogen, often causing
nosocomial infections. Acinetobacter occurs from person to person (colonized or
patient) or after contact with contaminated environment (Maryam et al 2012).
Acinetobacter are wide spread in nature and can be isolated from soil, water, human
skin and the environment. According to a study, Acinetobacter were the seventh most
common isolate recovered from critically ill patients. Frequently colonise the skin and
upper respiratory tract of patients and are responsible for a wide range of local and
systemic infections, including pneumonia, septicaemia and wound infections.
Enterobacter agglomerans was described in association with the contamination of
intravenous uid, total parenteral nutrition,and the anesthetic agent propofol, and blood
products (Alvarez et al. 1995). It can be found in human and animal feces and in plants.
Within the genus, E. agglomeransis the most commonly isolated species in humans,
resulting in soft tissue or bone/joint infections following penetrating trauma by vegetation
(Cruz et al. 2000). Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis predominantly affects the upper
respiratory tract, particularly the nasal cavity, and may spread to the tracheobronchial
tree (Nakwan et al. 2010). Several predisposing factors such as living under conditions
of poor hygiene and nutritional deciencies has been described and are apparently
necessary for transmission of the disease. Same as to K. pneumoniae it can cause
destructive changes to human lungs via inflammation and hemorrhage with cell
death(necrosis). Escherichia coli is commonly found in lakes, rivers, swimming pools
and soil from fecal sources, in most cases coliforms that do not cause illness. When E.
coli causes serious problems with the blood or kidneys symptoms may in includes: Pale
skin, fever, weakness, bruising and passing only small amounts of urine (May 2012).
Enteric pathogens in environmental surface waters originate mainly from effluent
discharge from sewage treatment plants (E.M Anastasi et al 2012). Only one E. coli was
found in this study because of the fact that Pala-o riverside doesnt have any nearby
industrial agriculture or factories. Shigella Sonnei causes shigellosis, its symptoms are
usually mild but range from watery, self-limiting diarrhea to life threatening dysentery. Of
four Shigella species, S. sonnei is the most frequently isolated in industrialized countries
(Guzman et al 2012). Enterobacter cloacae are commonly found chiefly in the
environment in water and soil but are common invaders of tissues in contaminated
wounds of animals and in opportunistic infections such as cystitis and pyelonephritis in
cattle. Implications caused by E. cloacae are the following; Fever, apprehension and
patients with pulmonary consolidation may present with crackling sounds, dullness to
percussion, tubular breath sounds, and egophony (Nishijima 1999).

The study is limited only on the identification of pathogenic bacteria in Pala-o


riverside Iligan City.
The researchers recommendations are the following; Local Government Unit
may conduct a program about Cleanliness and Waste Disposal Management to the
people residing near by the river. Future researchers are recommended to conduct the
same research by making a comparative study among the rivers in Iligan City.
In conclusion the Vibrio metschnikovii is the most dominant bacteria found in
morning and afternoon. Therefore, it implies that the river is not good for swimming and
doing any household activities.

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