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Tap ch Khoa hoc Trng ai hoc C n Th Phn A: Khoa hc T nhin, Cng ngh v Mi trng: 40 (2015): 37-42

NHN DNG M HNH I TNG DNG MNG N-RON RBF


TRONG IU KHIN D BO M HNH

Lng Hoi Thng1, Nguyn Chnh Nghim2 v Nguyn Ch Ngn2


1
i hc S phm K thut Vnh Long
2
Khoa Cng ngh, Trng i hc Cn Th

ABSTRACT
Thng tin chung:
Ngy nhn: 14/07/2015 Control systems are generally nonlinear in reality, so controller design for
Ngy chp nhn: 27/10/2015 nonlinear systems is difficult and traditional control methods are also
ineffective. Therefore, modern and intelligent control solution such as
Title: model predictive control is preferred. However, when applying model
RBF neural networksbased predictive control, it will be difficult to identify the behaviors of the system
system identification in model in the future, especially the one with unknown parameters. This study
predictive control approaches the application of radial basis function (RBF) neural networks
to overcome such limitation. In addition, applying the online training
T kha: method for the RBF neural network does not require collecting the
iu khin d bo m hnh, training data, which cannot always be achieved in practice. The control
mng n-ron RBF, h nng algorithm was tested on a magnetic levitation system. The simulation
vt bng t trng results show that the system response follows the reference signal, the
setting time is about 2 seconds without overshoot, and steady-state error is
Keywords: negligible. Furthermore, the simulation results also indicate that the
Model predictive control, control system is stable under the presence of noise and the changing of
RBF neural networks, the objects mass.
magnetic levitation system
TM TT
Cc h thng iu khin trong thc t thng phi tuyn, nn vic thit k
b iu khin tr nn kh khn v cc k thut iu khin truyn thng
cng t ra km hiu qu. Do , ngi ta thng tm kim cc gii php
iu khin hin i, thng minh, trong c k thut iu khin d bo
m hnh. Tuy nhin, khi p dng b iu khin d bo m hnh, vn kh
khn l vic nhn dng hnh vi ca i tng trong tng lai, c bit khi
cha bit tham s ca i tng. Nghin cu ny tip cn vic ng dng
mng n-ron hm c s xuyn tm RBF khc phc hn ch . Ngoi
ra, vic ng dng k thut hun luyn online mng n-ron RBF c u
im l khng cn phi thu thp d liu trc - iu m khng phi lc
no cng t c trong thc t. Gii thut iu khin c kim chng
trn h nng vt trong t trng. Kt qu m phng cho thy: p ng ca
h nng vt trong t trng bm theo tn hiu mong mun, vi thi gian
xc lp khong 2 giy, khng xut hin vt l v sai s xc lp khng ng
k. Mt khc, kho st cng cho thy, h thng hot ng n nh di tc
ng ca nhiu v s thay i khi lng vt nng.

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Tap ch Khoa hoc Trng ai hoc C n Th Phn A: Khoa hc T nhin, Cng ngh v Mi trng: 40 (2015): 37-42

1 GII THIU h. V tr ny chnh l ng ra ca i tng iu


khin.
B iu khin d bo dng mt m hnh ton
on trc p ng tng lai ca i tng iu
khin ti nhng thi im khc nhau trong phm vi
d bo nht nh. Da vo p ng d bo ny,
mt thut ton ti u ha c s dng tnh
ton chui tn hiu iu khin tng lai sao cho sai
lch gia p ng d bo bi m hnh v tn hiu
tham kho cho trc l ti thiu. Phng php iu
khin d bo l phng php tng qut thit k
b iu khin trong mt khong thi gian, c th
p dng cho h tuyn tnh cng nh h phi tuyn
(Nguyn Thc Loan v ctv., 2003; Nguyn Th
Phng H, 2007). Trong thc t, vic p dng Hnh 1: M hnh h nng vt bng t trng
chin lc iu khin d bo cho h phi tuyn cn Phng trnh m t i tng c cho bi
gii quyt hai vn c bn, th nht l xy dng (Al-Muthairi et al., 2004; Barie, W. and Chiasson,
m hnh ton d bo hnh vi ca i tng v J., 1996; Shafiq, M. and S. Akhtar, 2004):
th hai l xy dng gii thut gii bi ton ti u
tnh ton chui tn hiu iu khin tt nht dh
(Camacho and Alba, 2007). Tuy nhin, i vi h v
phi tuyn, vic xy dng m hnh ton l kh khn, dt
v c tnh phi tuyn rt a dng. d ( L(h)i ) (1)
U Ri ,
Nhng nm gn y, vic nhn dng m hnh dt
khng tham s ca i tng dng cc k thut dv i
2

my hc nh mng n-ron nhn to chng minh m mg c C


c tnh hu dng ca n, nh kh nng hun dt h
luyn mng (Gupta v ctv., 2003). Tuy nhin, kh trong , h l v tr hn bi (m); v l vn tc hn
khn ca k thut ny l vic thu thp d liu bi (m/s); i l cng ca dng in chy qua
vo/ra ca i tng lm tp d liu mu. V cun dy (A); U l in p cung cp cho cun dy
vy, cng c v pht trin k thut hun luyn (V); R, L l in tr v in cm cun dy (, H);
online khi phi thu thp d liu mu l mt C l hng s lc t (Nm2A-2); m l khi lng hn
gii php c nhiu nh nghin cu v ang bi (kg) v g l gia tc trng trng (m/s2).
pht trin.
in cm ca cun dy l mt hm phi tuyn:
Nhm b sung v khc phc nhng hn ch nu L(h)=L1 +2C/h . (2)
trn, bi bo xut gii php dng mng n-ron
hm c s xuyn tm RBF vi k thut hun luyn Chn bin trng thi nh sau:
online nhn dng hnh vi ca i tng, p x1 = h, x2 = v, x3 = I . (3)
dng iu khin d bo m hnh cho h nng Vc-t trng thi ca h thng:
vt bng t trng.
x = (x1, x2, x3)T.
2 PHNG PHP NGHIN CU
T (1), (2) v (3) ta c phng trnh trng
2.1 i tng iu khin
thi m t i tng nh sau:
Mc d phng php thit k b iu khin
c xut khng i hi m hnh ton ca i
tng, song thun li trong vic kim chng x x
gii thut iu khin m khng cn b tr thit b 1 2

2
trong phng th nghim, nghin cu ny m phng C x3 (4)
h nng vt bng t trng nh Hnh 1 (Al- x2 g .
m x1
Muthairi and Zribi, 2004). Hnh 1, in p U

chnh l ng vo ca i tng, c thay i x3 R x3 2C x2 x3 1 U
nhm kim sot lc in t FE dng nng hoc L 2
L x1 L
h hn bi v tr cch nam chm in mt khong

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Tap ch Khoa hoc Trng ai hoc C n Th Phn A: Khoa hc T nhin, Cng ngh v Mi trng: 40 (2015): 37-42

2.2 Thit k b iu khin d bo m hnh Theo Charara v ctv. (1996), ta thit k b iu


2.2.1 Nguyn tc iu khin khin nh s Hnh 2.

Hnh 2: S iu khin h nng vt bng t trng


Trong : 1 N

i tng iu khin Maglev l h nng J ref


2 k 1
(( h ( k ) h ( k )) 2 . (5)
vt bng t trng c m t Hnh 1.
Khi Dynamic Optimizer thc hin ti u
Khi Tapped Delay Line l b to cc tn
ha hm mc tiu nhm to ra tn hiu iu khin
hiu tr cho ng vo u(k) v ng ra h(k), tc l to
u(k) tt nht m bo ng ra h(k) ng vi tn
ra cc tn hiu: u(k-i), h(k-i). Tu theo mc phi
hiu tham kho href(k) chn trc.
tuyn tuyn ca i tng, m i c th phi c gi
tr ln hn. nghin cu ny, i=2, to cc tn Cc rng buc ng vo ca i tng:
hiu {u(k), u(k-1), u(k-2), h(k-1), h(k-2)}. dumin du dumax ; umin u umax.
Khi Neuro-RBF dng c lng ng 2.2.2 Nhn dng i tng dng mng n-

ron RBF
ra ca i tng, l h(k ) .
Mng n-ron RBF p dng trong nghin cu
Hm mc tiu (Cost function) ca gii thut
ny l mt mng truyn thng hai lp (Liu, 2013),
ti u c chn nh sau:
vi 5 ng vo, 10 nt n v mt nt ra, nh Hnh 3.

Hnh 3: Cu trc mng n-ron RBF

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Tap ch Khoa hoc Trng ai hoc C n Th Phn A: Khoa hc T nhin, Cng ngh v Mi trng: 40 (2015): 37-42

Lp n: S dng hm kch hot Gauss.


x cip m

u e .
p
Ng ra ca n-ron th q thuc lp n, c tnh ipnew ipold 3 (12)
ton theo: ip3 j 1
j j

2
X mq vi 1, 2 v 3 ln lt l h s hc tng ng
2 q ca cc b trng s, tm v rng ca hm c s.
zq e , (6)
Vi k thut hun luyn ny, trong mi chu k
trong , X l vect ng vo, X=[u(k), u(k-1), ly mu, mng n-ron c cp nht li trng s
u(k-2), h(k-1), h(k-2)]T; mq l tm hm Gauss v mi theo nguyn tc (10), (11) v (12) vi d liu
q l b rng hm Gauss ca nron n th q. c ly trc tuyn m khng cn phi thu thp
trc.
Lp ra: Ng ra ca mng nron RBF, c 2.2.3 M hnh m phng
tnh ton bi:
S m phng b iu khin d bo m hnh
10 dng mng n-ron RBF c xy dng nh Hnh
w z .
^
h( k ) iq q (7) 4. , gii thut gii bi ton ti u c s
q 1 dng l cng c ti u ha sn c ca MATLAB.
Trong qu trnh m phng, m hnh ny cho php
hun luyn mng n-ron RBF, ta gi s ti thay i tn hiu tham kho, gi lp nhiu cm bin
thi im k, d liu vo ra ca i tng l {x(k), v thay i khi lng hn bi, nhm h tr vic
yd(k)}. Hm mc tiu c nh ngha nh (8). kho st tnh n nh, bn vng ca b iu khin.
1 m 1 m 2 vi 1, 2 v 3 ln lt l h s hc tng ng
d j j 2
2
J y y ej , ca cc b trng s, tm v rng ca hm c s.
2 j 1 j 1
(8)
Vi k thut hun luyn ny, trong mi chu
Trong : k ly mu, mng n-ron c cp nht li trng
s mi theo nguyn tc (10), (11) v (12) vi d
l 1 n
xk cip
e j ydj y j ydj w exp 2
i 1
ij
p 1
.
ip
(9) liu c ly trc tuyn m khng cn phi thu
thp trc.
2.2.4 M hnh m phng
Nguyn tc cp nht online trng s ca mng
n-ron RBF th hin bi (Gupta v ctv, 2003): S m phng b iu khin d bo m hnh
dng mng n-ron RBF c xy dng nh Hnh
ijnew ijold 1ui e j , (10) 4. , gii thut gii bi ton ti u c s
dng l cng c ti u ha sn c ca MATLAB.
Trong qu trnh m phng, m hnh ny cho php
x cip m thay i tn hiu tham kho, gi lp nhiu cm bin
u e ,
p
cipnew cipold 2 (11) v thay i khi lng hn bi, nhm h tr vic
ip2 j 1
j j
kho st tnh n nh, bn vng ca b iu khin.

Hnh 4: S iu khin d bo m hnh

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Tap ch Khoa hoc Trng ai hoc C n Th Phn A: Khoa hc T nhin, Cng ngh v Mi trng: 40 (2015): 37-42

3 KT QU V THO LUN c hnh thnh t cc vng dy qun quanh li


thp vi in tr ca cun dy R=28.7; in cm
Cc tham s ca h nng vt bng t trng L1=0.65 H; hng s lc t C=1.4 x 10m2A-2 ; gia
c xc lp theo Al-Muthairi v ctv. (2004), gm: tc trng trng g=9.81m/s.
hn bi thp khi lng m=11.87g; nam chm in
0.035 0.03
h out h out
h ref h ref
0.03
0.025

0.025
0.02

0.02
Vi tri (cm)

Vi tri (cm)
0.015
0.015

0.01
0.01

0.005
0.005

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Thoi gian (s) Thoi gian (s)

a) Trng hp href=3cm b) Trng hp href=2,6cm


Hnh 5: p ng ca h khi thay tn hiu tham kho thay i
0.04 0.03
h out h out
0.035 h ref h ref
0.025
0.03

0.02
0.025
Vi tri (cm)

Vi tri (cm)

0.02 0.015

0.015
0.01

0.01

0.005
0.005

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Thoi gian (s) Thoi gian (s)

a) Trng hp m tng 20% b) Trng hp m gim 20%


Hnh 6: p ng ca h khi thay i khi lng vt cn nng
0.03 0.18
h out h out
h ref 0.16 h ref
0.025
0.14

0.02 0.12
Vi tri (cm)

Vi tri (cm)

0.1
0.015
0.08

0.01 0.06

0.04
0.005
0.02

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Thoi gian (s) Thoi gian (s)

a) Trng hp m c nh, c nhiu b) Trng hp m gim 20%, c nhiu


Hnh 7: p ng ca h khi c tc ng ca nhiu

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Tap ch Khoa hoc Trng ai hoc C n Th Phn A: Khoa hc T nhin, Cng ngh v Mi trng: 40 (2015): 37-42

Hnh 5 trnh by p ng ca h thng khi tn TI LIU THAM KHO


hiu tham kho thay i href=3cm (Hnh 5a) v
khi href=2,6cm (Hnh 5b). Kt qu cho thy p Al-Muthairi, N. F. and Zribi, M., 2004. Sliding
ng khng xut hin vt l v khng c sai s xc mode control of a Magnetic Levitation System.
lp, vi thi gian xc lp hp l. Hnh 6 trnh by Mathematical Problems in Engineering,
kt qu m phng khi trng lng ca hn bi c Volume 2004, Issue 2, Pages 93-107.
thay i trong trng hp tng 20% (Hnh 6a) v Barie, W. and Chiasson, J., 1996. Linear and
gim 20% (Hnh 6b). Kt qu cho thy thi im nonlinear state-space controllers for magnetic
qu , mng n-ron RBF cn vi chu k cp levitation. International Journal of Systems
nht trng s v hi t v gi tr mong mun sau Science, 27, no. 11, Pages 11531163.
p ng ca h thng bm tt tn hiu tham Camacho, E. F. and Alba, C. B., 2007. Model
kho. Trong trng hp Hnh 7, nhiu trng cng Predictive Control. 2nd ed., Springer, 405
sut 0.1W c thm vo gi lp nhiu cm pages. ISBN-13: 978-1852336943.
bin khong cch. Tng ng vi hai trng hp
khi khi lng hn bi c gi c nh (Hnh 7a) Charara, A., Miras, J.D. and Caron, B., 1996.
Nonlinear control of a magnetic levitation
v khi gim 20% (Hnh 7b), chng ta thy p ng
vn bm tt tn hiu tham kho. Tuy nhin, p system without premagnetization, IEEE
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Liu, J., 2013. Radial Basis Function (RBF)
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Nguyn Thc Loan, Nguyn Th Phng H v
mng n-ron RBF c tin hnh trc tuyn
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b nhn dng t iu chnh thch ng vi s bin h phi tuyn da vo m hnh m, Tp ch
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