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Differences in the Rheological

Behavior of Newtonian and non-


Newtonian fluids

Transport Phenomena I
Chemical Engineering School
Universidad Industrial de Santander
Rheology and Newtonian fluids

Newtonian Fluid

Society of Rheology 1929


everything flows
RHEOLOGICAL SPECTRUM
EQUATION of STATE
Rational mechanics EUCLIDIAN ( perfect, rigido ) SOLID =0
(Archimedes, 250 BCE)
Elasticity
HOOKEAN ELASTIC SOLID = G
Linear elastic (or Youngs Modulus) (1678)
= G ()
NO LINEAR ELASTIC SOLID

RHEOLOGICALLY COMPLEX = (, , t,)


RHEOLOGY MEDIA Viscoelasticity, thixotropy, )

NO LINEAR VISCOUS FLUIDS = ( )


NO-NEWTONIAN

Hydrodynamics
LINEAR VISCOUS FLUID =
NEWTONIAN

Aerodynamics PASCALIAN ( perfect, inviscid ) FLUID = 0


1663
Simple Classification of Rheological
Behavior

Taken from James f. Steffe. Rheological methods in food process Ingeneering. pag 50 https://sites.google.com/site/jfsteffe/freeman-press
NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
Newton Law (1687): The resistance which
arises from the lack of slipperiness of the parts
of the liquid, other things being equal, is
proportional to the velocity with which the parts
of the liquid are separated from one another

x V
y h

dv x
yx : shear rate
dy (<0)
The quantity yx represents the momentum flux,
dv x
yx in other words, the transmission of momentum
dy from the regions of high velocity to the regions of
low velocity.
Viscosity in Pa s
Typical No Newtonian Models for Time Independent
Fluids and No Memory
Effect of Rheological Behavior On Flow

The velocity profile shown in the figures, seeing the great effect that has
the rheological behavior of the flow in the pipeline. n>1 Dilatant or Shear-
thickenin; n=1 Newtonian, n<1 Pseudoplastic or shear thinning. In the right
side are shewed velocity profiles for Binghan fluid.
Generalized Newtonian Fluid Concept
The generalized Newtonian models have been widely used by engineers for designing
flow systems.
This model consider that viscosity is the most important material function, then a simple
extension of the Newtons law of viscosity will be sufficient.

The most common strategy deals with the use of the concept of the:

GENERALISED NEWTONIAN FLUID

Viscometry allows us to make the most appropriate choice of .

Steady state shear flow


Main limitations Viscoelastic fluids with low De
Time-independent fluids
Cannot describe normal stress effects
NO LINEAR VISCOUS FLUIDS NO-NEWTONIAN NO
MEMORY EffECTS
Constitutive Equation (rheological Equations of
State) may be derived from:

A microrheological stand point where the


molecular structure is taken on account
explicitely.

Continnum (macroscopic) point view as the


Generalized Newtonian Model. Dozens of
such expressions have been proposed.
Some of them are shown in Table 2.1.

Which model to select? For that, you


must use data experimental of
viscosity versus strain rate, or shear
stress versus strain rate and prove
which all models fit best. It is also
necessary to make a compromise
between model fit and ease to solve
the equations of flow.
GNF model : the Power-law model
of Ostwald and de Waele

model

log slope:
n-1
m n 1

real m [=] Pa.sn : consistency index


2 parameters
n [adim.] : power-law index

log
n 1 Shear-thinning (or pseudoplastic)
The most important region ( usually in the range : 0.15 - 0.9 )
for many industrial problems
n 1 Newtonian :
n 1 Shear-thickening ( or dilatant )
GNF model : the Power-law model of Ostwald and de Waele

m n 1

ADVANTAGES DRAWBACKS

Very simple empiricism Cannot describe the low


gives rough estimates in shear-rate region ( leads to
engineering calculations large errors in some cases )
No characteristic time can be
Overestimates the constructed from the parameters,
pressure drop or this constitutes an awkward for
underestimates the flow dimensional analysis
rate m and n are not related to any
physical and chemical characteristics
GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for

model The Truncated Power Law of Spriggs

log slope:
n-1 0 0
real
n 1
0 ( ) 0
0
0 log

0 , a zero-shear-rate viscosity
3 parameters
01, a characteristic time

n , a dimensionless power-law index


GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )

model The CARREAU-A model

log slope:
1
n-1
0 1 n
real [1 ( ) ]
2 2

Time constant
log Advantages: gives nearly quantitative fit for
many polymer solutions and
the 3-parameters version is polymer melts
used when high-shear-rate Drawbacks: no analytical solutions, even for
data (second Newtonian simple flow problems
plateau) arent available too sharp transition between the
Newtonian plateau and the shear-
thinning region
GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )
The 4-parameters CARREAU-A model
POLYMER SOLUTIONS
2%PIB in Primol 355
0 9.23 102 Pa.s
5%PS in Aroclor 1242 1.5 101 Pa.s
191s
7% aluminum soap n 0.358
in decalin and m-cresol
0 1.01 102 Pa.s
5.9 102 Pa.s
0.84s
0.75%PAAm
in 95/5 w/w H2O-Gly
n 0.364
0 10.6Pa.s 0 89.6Pa.s
102 Pa.s 0.01Pa.s
8.04s 1.41s
n 0.364 n 0.2
GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )
Models that partially remedy the drawbacks of the CARREAU-A model

CROSS-WILLIAMSON CARREAU - YASUDA

1 1
0
1 n
0 1 ( )1n [1 ( ) ]
a a

There is a 4-parameters
version of this model, Both models fit quite well smooth
which is equivalent to the transitions between Newtonian plateau
CARREAU - YASUDA model and shear-thinning regions, which is the
case of natural polymers and polymers
with a broad molecular weight distribution
Description of the Carreau-Yasuda Model

The viscosity function approaches the


constant value as gets large.
0 The viscosity function approaches the
constant value 0 as becomes small.
a The exponent affects the shape of the
transition region between the zero-shear-
rate
plateau and the rapidly decreasing (power-
law-like) portion of the viscosity versus
shear rate curve. Increasing a sharpens the
transition.
The parameter is a time constant for the
fluid. The value of determines the shear
rate
at which the transition occurs from the zero-
shear-rate plateau to the power-law portion.
It also governs the transition from power-
law to = .
n The exponent is a power-law-like
parameter that describes the slope of the
rapidly
decreasing portion of the curve

Taken From:Faith A. Morrison. Understanding rheology. Oxford University Press.


GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )
Models that partially remedy the drawbacks of the CARREAU-A model

ELLIS MODEL This is one of the few models in which the


viscosity is expressed as a function of the
1 shear stress.
There is a 4-parameters version, called
0 1 ( ) 1
1
2
the METER model.

The slope in the shear-thinning region in a log-log plot of the viscosity as a


function of the shear-rate is (1 )

The parameter 1 represents the shear stress value for which the viscosity is
2
0 2
The time constant or characteristic time is 0 1
2

One can find analytical solutions for simple flow problems


GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )
Harnett and y
Hu 1989 BINGHAM MODEL y
y 0


Notion of
Yield
stress y 0
Real behaviour apparent
yield stress


Time constant : 0 y
Yield Stress Estimation

Indirect (traditional) tests:


It involves the extrapolation of the shear
stress ()shear rate () data to zero shear
rate (start method) or calculation using the
mathematical flow models such as Bingham,
Casson linear or non-linear form or
Herschel-Bulkley.
Controlled Rate

Indirect Metod

The first one (smaller slope) is region of The yield stress is determined using
Oscillation stress sweep measurements elastic deformation (solid like behavior), interpolation between the zero-
which serve for determination of the while the second one (larger slop) is the shear viscosity and shear thinning
linear viscoelastic range of the product region of viscous flow (liquid like region.
can also be employed for the yield behavior). The yield stress can be
stress determination. detected as a breakpoint in the slope of
two power low regressions.

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GNF model : Usefulness and Limitaions ( )
For steady state shear flows, the (flow rate - pressure drop) and (torque - angular velocity)
relationships are exact, even if the fluids are viscoelastic

The only limitations concern the fit between the experimental viscosity data and the chosen GNF
model.

The GNF model can be considered as a special case of more general form of the stress tensor,
based on continuum mechanics arguments.

If elastic effects are unimportant (De<DeC), the assumption of steady state shear flow is not
required.

There are many examples in the literature, in which the GNF model has been used outside the
region of legitimacy. The corresponding results should be considered with extreme care.

The use of GNF model is not recommended for elongational and/or rapidly changing flows.
Typical geometries used to obtain rheological properties

Taken from:z. Tadmor and C. G. Gogos. Principles of Polymer Processing. Wiley & Interscience 22
Time dependent Flow Behaviour
Time
Thixotropic

Time

Antithyxotropic

This materials are considered inelastic with a function viscosity time


dependent. To difference of viscoelastic fluids, the response of the
substance to stress is instantaneous and the time behavior is due to changes
in the structure of the material itself Taking of Steffe, Rheological Methods
in Food Process Engineering.

There are materials that are thixotropic and viscoelastic


Time dependent Flow Behaviour
Figure Shows the typical
Thixotropic with rheological behaviour of
yield stress thixotropic fluids with and
without yield stress.
Newtonian

Shear-thinning
y (purely viscous)
a

thixotropic
b


area
? Measure of the thixotropy
Models for Time dependent Flow Behaviour

Welman Model Tiu-Borger Model

= =

= 2

A and B are constants. yield stress
B<0 for Thixotropic Behavior is the structural
B>0 for Anti-thixotropic
Behavior
parameter
Standards Flows
Shear Flow Uniaxial (Elongational )Flow
Layers of fluid slide past Velocity profile describes is three-
each other and do not dimensional.
mix Strong stretch occurring in the x3-
The flow is rectilinear, direction and contraction
and the velocity only occurring equally in the x1- and
varies in one direction x2-directions.
perpdicular to flow.

Pruebas Reomtricas

Taken from Understandisng Rheology. Morrison. Ed. Oxford


VISCOELASTIC SUBSTANCES

(s) = / G (Pa.s)
G (Pa)
Characteristic time Viscosity Rigidity
of the substance modulus

Any substance can behave as a viscous liquid or as an elastic solid


according to the time scale of the mechanical sollicitation and, therefore,
the distinction between SOLID and LIQUID is no longer so evident.

Prof. Reiner De = / T DEBORAH number


where T is the characteristic time of the mechanical sollicitation

De 1 elastic solid behaviour Time-scale of the


experiment in
relation to a natural
De 1 viscous liquid behavior time of the material
VISCOELASTIC SUBSTANCES
De = / T DEBORAH number

On the road of Jericho ...


Examples of characteristic times

Water 10-13 s
lubrif. oils 10-5 s
Polyesters 10-2 s
Polyolefines 100 s
Mountains 1013 s

large , if T
The mountains flow before the Lord
DEBORAH, Bible, Juges 5:5 De 1, liquid behaviour
creep testing : It is the sudden
application of a constant stress to
the liquid being tested, and the
monitoring of the resulting strain
thereafter.

oscillatory testing: applying an


oscillating stress or strain as an
input to the liquid and monitoring
the resulting oscillatory strain
or stress output

stress relaxation test: sudden


application of a constant
strain, and the monitoring of the
consequent stress, which then
decays away with
time
CREEP TEST

Compliance: The ratio of strain to


stress, and the case of time-
verying strain arising from a
constant stress the ratio is the
creep Compliance.

()
=

Stress and Strain response of several typical samples


: Linear Elastic Response : linear viscous response

G= Elastic modulus [Pa]

Represent any physical system in the


The movement of any entity
microstructure that can store
through a liquid continuous
energy. This might be i) potential or
phase will dissipate energy.
ii) entropic energy.
Even in a polymer melt where
In first: bond or a polymer segment
there is no liquid around the
being stretched.
chains, there is friction as the
chains slide over one another
Second: An isolated polymer random
coil being deformed from its
spherical rest state.
= 0 sin

= 0 sin

=0 Elastic material
0< <90 Visco-elastic material
Stress and strain are in Phase: What the = 90 Viscous material
strain is at its maximun, stress also is at its
maximun

= 0 sin +


= = cos

OSCILLATORY TEST

Creep and stress relaxation test are convenient for studing material response
at long times (minutes to days), but less acurrate at shorter times (second
and less)

High times in creep (t) oscillatory test dominated viscous response

Short times in creep (t) oscillatory test dominated elastic response


GEMIC
O VISCOELASTIC SUBSTANCES

DEBORAH number De = / T
Situation of flow Corrresponding expression of De

2R
Sudden Average velocity V
in the small tube
contraction <v> R

Flow around Uniform V


V R approach velocity
a sphere R

Flow in the vicinity N


of a sphere N
in uniform rotation R

CENTRE DE GENIE CHIMIQUE DES MILIEUX RHEOLOGIQUEMENT COMPLEXES Groupe ENSIC Nancy-France