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Apr 26, 2017

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fluidos

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fluidos

© All Rights Reserved

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Newtonian fluids

Transport Phenomena I

Chemical Engineering School

Universidad Industrial de Santander

Rheology and Newtonian fluids

Newtonian Fluid

everything flows

RHEOLOGICAL SPECTRUM

EQUATION of STATE

Rational mechanics EUCLIDIAN ( perfect, rigido ) SOLID =0

(Archimedes, 250 BCE)

Elasticity

HOOKEAN ELASTIC SOLID = G

Linear elastic (or Youngs Modulus) (1678)

= G ()

NO LINEAR ELASTIC SOLID

RHEOLOGY MEDIA Viscoelasticity, thixotropy, )

NO-NEWTONIAN

Hydrodynamics

LINEAR VISCOUS FLUID =

NEWTONIAN

1663

Simple Classification of Rheological

Behavior

Taken from James f. Steffe. Rheological methods in food process Ingeneering. pag 50 https://sites.google.com/site/jfsteffe/freeman-press

NEWTONIAN FLUIDS

Newton Law (1687): The resistance which

arises from the lack of slipperiness of the parts

of the liquid, other things being equal, is

proportional to the velocity with which the parts

of the liquid are separated from one another

x V

y h

dv x

yx : shear rate

dy (<0)

The quantity yx represents the momentum flux,

dv x

yx in other words, the transmission of momentum

dy from the regions of high velocity to the regions of

low velocity.

Viscosity in Pa s

Typical No Newtonian Models for Time Independent

Fluids and No Memory

Effect of Rheological Behavior On Flow

The velocity profile shown in the figures, seeing the great effect that has

the rheological behavior of the flow in the pipeline. n>1 Dilatant or Shear-

thickenin; n=1 Newtonian, n<1 Pseudoplastic or shear thinning. In the right

side are shewed velocity profiles for Binghan fluid.

Generalized Newtonian Fluid Concept

The generalized Newtonian models have been widely used by engineers for designing

flow systems.

This model consider that viscosity is the most important material function, then a simple

extension of the Newtons law of viscosity will be sufficient.

The most common strategy deals with the use of the concept of the:

Main limitations Viscoelastic fluids with low De

Time-independent fluids

Cannot describe normal stress effects

NO LINEAR VISCOUS FLUIDS NO-NEWTONIAN NO

MEMORY EffECTS

Constitutive Equation (rheological Equations of

State) may be derived from:

molecular structure is taken on account

explicitely.

Generalized Newtonian Model. Dozens of

such expressions have been proposed.

Some of them are shown in Table 2.1.

must use data experimental of

viscosity versus strain rate, or shear

stress versus strain rate and prove

which all models fit best. It is also

necessary to make a compromise

between model fit and ease to solve

the equations of flow.

GNF model : the Power-law model

of Ostwald and de Waele

model

log slope:

n-1

m n 1

2 parameters

n [adim.] : power-law index

log

n 1 Shear-thinning (or pseudoplastic)

The most important region ( usually in the range : 0.15 - 0.9 )

for many industrial problems

n 1 Newtonian :

n 1 Shear-thickening ( or dilatant )

GNF model : the Power-law model of Ostwald and de Waele

m n 1

ADVANTAGES DRAWBACKS

gives rough estimates in shear-rate region ( leads to

engineering calculations large errors in some cases )

No characteristic time can be

Overestimates the constructed from the parameters,

pressure drop or this constitutes an awkward for

underestimates the flow dimensional analysis

rate m and n are not related to any

physical and chemical characteristics

GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for

log slope:

n-1 0 0

real

n 1

0 ( ) 0

0

0 log

0 , a zero-shear-rate viscosity

3 parameters

01, a characteristic time

GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )

log slope:

1

n-1

0 1 n

real [1 ( ) ]

2 2

Time constant

log Advantages: gives nearly quantitative fit for

many polymer solutions and

the 3-parameters version is polymer melts

used when high-shear-rate Drawbacks: no analytical solutions, even for

data (second Newtonian simple flow problems

plateau) arent available too sharp transition between the

Newtonian plateau and the shear-

thinning region

GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )

The 4-parameters CARREAU-A model

POLYMER SOLUTIONS

2%PIB in Primol 355

0 9.23 102 Pa.s

5%PS in Aroclor 1242 1.5 101 Pa.s

191s

7% aluminum soap n 0.358

in decalin and m-cresol

0 1.01 102 Pa.s

5.9 102 Pa.s

0.84s

0.75%PAAm

in 95/5 w/w H2O-Gly

n 0.364

0 10.6Pa.s 0 89.6Pa.s

102 Pa.s 0.01Pa.s

8.04s 1.41s

n 0.364 n 0.2

GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )

Models that partially remedy the drawbacks of the CARREAU-A model

1 1

0

1 n

0 1 ( )1n [1 ( ) ]

a a

There is a 4-parameters

version of this model, Both models fit quite well smooth

which is equivalent to the transitions between Newtonian plateau

CARREAU - YASUDA model and shear-thinning regions, which is the

case of natural polymers and polymers

with a broad molecular weight distribution

Description of the Carreau-Yasuda Model

constant value as gets large.

0 The viscosity function approaches the

constant value 0 as becomes small.

a The exponent affects the shape of the

transition region between the zero-shear-

rate

plateau and the rapidly decreasing (power-

law-like) portion of the viscosity versus

shear rate curve. Increasing a sharpens the

transition.

The parameter is a time constant for the

fluid. The value of determines the shear

rate

at which the transition occurs from the zero-

shear-rate plateau to the power-law portion.

It also governs the transition from power-

law to = .

n The exponent is a power-law-like

parameter that describes the slope of the

rapidly

decreasing portion of the curve

GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )

Models that partially remedy the drawbacks of the CARREAU-A model

viscosity is expressed as a function of the

1 shear stress.

There is a 4-parameters version, called

0 1 ( ) 1

1

2

the METER model.

function of the shear-rate is (1 )

The parameter 1 represents the shear stress value for which the viscosity is

2

0 2

The time constant or characteristic time is 0 1

2

GNF model : EMPIRICISMS for ( )

Harnett and y

Hu 1989 BINGHAM MODEL y

y 0

Notion of

Yield

stress y 0

Real behaviour apparent

yield stress

Time constant : 0 y

Yield Stress Estimation

It involves the extrapolation of the shear

stress ()shear rate () data to zero shear

rate (start method) or calculation using the

mathematical flow models such as Bingham,

Casson linear or non-linear form or

Herschel-Bulkley.

Controlled Rate

Indirect Metod

The first one (smaller slope) is region of The yield stress is determined using

Oscillation stress sweep measurements elastic deformation (solid like behavior), interpolation between the zero-

which serve for determination of the while the second one (larger slop) is the shear viscosity and shear thinning

linear viscoelastic range of the product region of viscous flow (liquid like region.

can also be employed for the yield behavior). The yield stress can be

stress determination. detected as a breakpoint in the slope of

two power low regressions.

http://fins.uns.ac.rs/e-

journal/index.php?mact=Magazines,cntnt01,details,0&cntnt01hierarchyid=12&cntnt01sortby=magazine_id&cntnt01sortorder=asc&cntnt01summarytemplate=curre

nt&cntnt01detailtemplate=detaljno&cntnt01cd_origpage=180&cntnt01magazineid=77&cntnt01returnid=188

GNF model : Usefulness and Limitaions ( )

For steady state shear flows, the (flow rate - pressure drop) and (torque - angular velocity)

relationships are exact, even if the fluids are viscoelastic

The only limitations concern the fit between the experimental viscosity data and the chosen GNF

model.

The GNF model can be considered as a special case of more general form of the stress tensor,

based on continuum mechanics arguments.

If elastic effects are unimportant (De<DeC), the assumption of steady state shear flow is not

required.

There are many examples in the literature, in which the GNF model has been used outside the

region of legitimacy. The corresponding results should be considered with extreme care.

The use of GNF model is not recommended for elongational and/or rapidly changing flows.

Typical geometries used to obtain rheological properties

Taken from:z. Tadmor and C. G. Gogos. Principles of Polymer Processing. Wiley & Interscience 22

Time dependent Flow Behaviour

Time

Thixotropic

Time

Antithyxotropic

dependent. To difference of viscoelastic fluids, the response of the

substance to stress is instantaneous and the time behavior is due to changes

in the structure of the material itself Taking of Steffe, Rheological Methods

in Food Process Engineering.

Time dependent Flow Behaviour

Figure Shows the typical

Thixotropic with rheological behaviour of

yield stress thixotropic fluids with and

without yield stress.

Newtonian

Shear-thinning

y (purely viscous)

a

thixotropic

b

area

? Measure of the thixotropy

Models for Time dependent Flow Behaviour

= =

= 2

A and B are constants. yield stress

B<0 for Thixotropic Behavior is the structural

B>0 for Anti-thixotropic

Behavior

parameter

Standards Flows

Shear Flow Uniaxial (Elongational )Flow

Layers of fluid slide past Velocity profile describes is three-

each other and do not dimensional.

mix Strong stretch occurring in the x3-

The flow is rectilinear, direction and contraction

and the velocity only occurring equally in the x1- and

varies in one direction x2-directions.

perpdicular to flow.

Pruebas Reomtricas

VISCOELASTIC SUBSTANCES

(s) = / G (Pa.s)

G (Pa)

Characteristic time Viscosity Rigidity

of the substance modulus

according to the time scale of the mechanical sollicitation and, therefore,

the distinction between SOLID and LIQUID is no longer so evident.

where T is the characteristic time of the mechanical sollicitation

experiment in

relation to a natural

De 1 viscous liquid behavior time of the material

VISCOELASTIC SUBSTANCES

De = / T DEBORAH number

Examples of characteristic times

Water 10-13 s

lubrif. oils 10-5 s

Polyesters 10-2 s

Polyolefines 100 s

Mountains 1013 s

large , if T

The mountains flow before the Lord

DEBORAH, Bible, Juges 5:5 De 1, liquid behaviour

creep testing : It is the sudden

application of a constant stress to

the liquid being tested, and the

monitoring of the resulting strain

thereafter.

oscillating stress or strain as an

input to the liquid and monitoring

the resulting oscillatory strain

or stress output

application of a constant

strain, and the monitoring of the

consequent stress, which then

decays away with

time

CREEP TEST

stress, and the case of time-

verying strain arising from a

constant stress the ratio is the

creep Compliance.

()

=

: Linear Elastic Response : linear viscous response

The movement of any entity

microstructure that can store

through a liquid continuous

energy. This might be i) potential or

phase will dissipate energy.

ii) entropic energy.

Even in a polymer melt where

In first: bond or a polymer segment

there is no liquid around the

being stretched.

chains, there is friction as the

chains slide over one another

Second: An isolated polymer random

coil being deformed from its

spherical rest state.

= 0 sin

= 0 sin

=0 Elastic material

0< <90 Visco-elastic material

Stress and strain are in Phase: What the = 90 Viscous material

strain is at its maximun, stress also is at its

maximun

= 0 sin +

= = cos

OSCILLATORY TEST

Creep and stress relaxation test are convenient for studing material response

at long times (minutes to days), but less acurrate at shorter times (second

and less)

GEMIC

O VISCOELASTIC SUBSTANCES

DEBORAH number De = / T

Situation of flow Corrresponding expression of De

2R

Sudden Average velocity V

in the small tube

contraction <v> R

V R approach velocity

a sphere R

of a sphere N

in uniform rotation R

CENTRE DE GENIE CHIMIQUE DES MILIEUX RHEOLOGIQUEMENT COMPLEXES Groupe ENSIC Nancy-France

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