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Product: EXCAVATOR
Model: 320B EXCAVATOR 4XW
Configuration: 320B & 320B L Excavators 4XW00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3066 Engine

Testing and Adjusting


3064 and 3066 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines
Media Number -SENR5546-15 Publication Date -01/07/2013 Date Updated -30/07/2013

i01371296

Cooling System - Check - Overheating


SMCS - 1350-535

Above normal coolant temperatures can be caused by many conditions. Use the following procedure
to determine the cause of above normal coolant temperatures:

Personal injury can result from escaping fluid under pressure.

If a pressure indication is shown on the indicator, push the release valve


in order to relieve pressure before removing any hose from the radiator.

1. Check the coolant level in the cooling system. If the coolant level is too low, air will get into
the cooling system. Air in the cooling system will cause a reduction in coolant flow and
bubbles in the coolant. Air bubbles will keep coolant away from the engine parts, which will
prevent the transfer of heat to the coolant. Low coolant level is caused by leaks or incorrectly
filling the radiator.

2. Check the mixture of antifreeze and water. The mixture should be approximately 50 percent
water and 50 percent antifreeze with 3 to 6 percent coolant conditioner. If the coolant mixture is
incorrect, drain the system. Put the correct mixture of water, antifreeze and coolant conditioner
in the cooling system.

3. Check for air in the cooling system. Air can enter the cooling system in different ways. The
most common causes of air in the cooling system are not filling the cooling system correctly
and combustion gas leakage into the cooling system. Combustion gas can get into the system
through inside cracks, a damaged cylinder head, or a damaged cylinder head gasket. Air in the
cooling system causes a reduction in coolant flow and bubbles in the coolant. Air bubbles keep
coolant away from the engine parts, which prevents the transfer of heat to the coolant.

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4. Check the sending unit. In some conditions, the temperature sensor in the engine sends signals
to a sending unit. The sending unit converts these signals to an electrical impulse which is used
by a mounted gauge. If the sending unit malfunctions, the gauge can show an incorrect reading.
Also if the electric wire breaks or if the electric wire shorts out, the gauge can show an
incorrect reading.

5. Check the radiator.

a. Check the radiator for a restriction to coolant flow. Check the radiator for debris, dirt, or
deposits on the inside of the radiator core. Debris, dirt, or deposits will restrict the flow of
coolant through the radiator.

b. Check for debris or damage between the fins of the radiator core. Debris between the fins
of the radiator core restricts air flow through the radiator core. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, "Cooling System - Inspect".

6. Check the filler cap. A pressure drop in the radiator can cause the boiling point to be lower.
This can cause the cooling system to boil. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, "Cooling System -
Test".

7. Check the fan and/or the fan shroud. The fan shroud must be the proper size and the fan shroud
must be positioned correctly.

8. Check for loose drive belts.

a. A loose fan drive belt will cause a reduction in the air flow across the radiator. Check the
fan drive belt for proper belt tension. Adjust the tension of the fan drive belt, if necessary.
Refer to the Testing and Adjusting Section, "Belt Tension Chart".

b. A loose water pump drive belt will cause a reduction in coolant flow through the radiator.
Check the water pump drive belt for proper belt tension. Adjust the water pump drive
belt's tension, if necessary. Refer to the Testing and Adjusting Section, "Belt Tension
Chart".

9. Check the cooling system hoses and clamps. Damaged hoses with leaks can normally be seen.
Hoses that have no visual leaks can soften during operation. The soft areas of the hose can
become kinked or crushed during operation. These areas of the hose can cause a restriction in
the coolant flow. Hoses become soft and/or get cracks after a period of time. The inside of a
hose can deteriorate, and the loose particles of the hose can cause a restriction of the coolant
flow.

10. Check for a restriction in the air inlet system. A restriction of the air that is coming into the
engine can cause high cylinder temperatures. High cylinder temperatures require higher than
normal temperatures in the cooling system.

11. Check for a restriction in the exhaust system. A restriction of the air that is coming out of the
engine can cause high cylinder temperatures.

a. Make a visual inspection of the exhaust system.

b. Check for damage to exhaust piping or for a damaged muffler. If no damage is found,
check the exhaust system for a restriction.

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12. Check the shunt line. The shunt line must be submerged in the expansion tank. A restriction of
the shunt line from the radiator top tank to the engine water pump inlet will cause a reduction in
water pump efficiency. A reduction in water pump efficiency will result in low coolant flow
and overheating.

13. Check the water temperature regulator. A water temperature regulator that does not open, or a
water temperature regulator that only opens part of the way can cause overheating. Refer to
Testing and Adjusting, "Water Temperature Regulator - Test".

14. Check the water pump. A water pump with a damaged impeller does not pump enough coolant
for correct engine cooling. Remove the water pump and check for damage to the impeller.

15. Check the air flow through the engine compartment. The air flow through the radiator comes
out of the engine compartment. Ensure that the filters, air conditioner, and similar items are not
installed in a way that prevents the free flow of air through the engine compartment.

16. Consider high outside temperatures. When outside temperatures are too high for the rating of
the cooling system, there is not enough of a temperature difference between the outside air and
coolant temperatures.

17. Consider high altitude operation. The cooling capacity of the cooling system goes down as the
engine is operated at higher altitudes. A pressurized cooling system that is large enough to keep
the coolant from boiling must be used.

18. The engine may be running in the lug condition. When the load that is applied to the engine is
too large, the engine will run in the lug condition. When the engine is running in the lug
condition, engine rpm does not increase with an increase of fuel. This lower engine rpm causes
a reduction in air flow through the radiator. This lower engine rpm also causes a reduction in
coolant flow through the system. This combination of less air and less coolant flow during high
input of fuel will cause above normal heating.

19. Timing of the engine which is incorrect may also cause overheating of the engine. Late timing
creates more heat in the engine. Early timing creates less heat in the engine.

Note: If the timing of the engine is incorrect, the exhaust valves may be burned and damage to
the exhaust manifold may occur.

Copyright 1993 - 2017 Caterpillar Inc. Mon Apr 24 10:42:44 UTC+0700 2017
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Product: EXCAVATOR
Model: 320B EXCAVATOR 4XW
Configuration: 320B & 320B L Excavators 4XW00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3066 Engine

Testing and Adjusting


3064 and 3066 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines
Media Number -SENR5546-15 Publication Date -01/07/2013 Date Updated -30/07/2013

i02765190

Cooling System - Test


SMCS - 1350-040; 1350-081

This engine has a pressure type cooling system. A pressure type cooling system has two advantages:

The pressure type cooling system can operate safely at a higher temperature than the boiling
point of water at a range of atmospheric pressures.

The pressure type cooling system prevents cavitation in the water pump.

Cavitation is the sudden generation of low pressure bubbles in liquids by mechanical forces. The
generation of an air or steam pocket is more difficult in a pressure type cooling system.

Regular inspections of the cooling system should be made in order to identify problems before
damage can occur. Visually inspect the cooling system before tests are made with the test equipment.

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When a diagnosis is made of a cooling
system problem, temperature and pressure must be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an
effect on the cooling system temperature. For an example, refer to Illustration 1. This will show the
effect of pressure on the boiling point (steam) of water. This will also show the effect of height above
sea level.

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Illustration 1 g00313203

Cooling system pressure at specific altitudes and boiling points of water

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam and alkali.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot and under pressure.


The radiator and all lines to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only when engine is stopped
and radiator cap is cool enough to touch with your bare hand.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid contact with skin


and eyes.

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The coolant level must be to the correct level in order to check the coolant system. The engine must
be cold and the engine must not be running.

After the engine is cool, loosen the pressure cap in order to relieve the pressure out of the cooling
system. Then remove the pressure cap.

The level of the coolant should not be more than 13 mm (0.5 inch) from the bottom of the filler pipe.
If the cooling system is equipped with a sight glass, the coolant should be to the proper level in the
sight glass.

Illustration 2 g01328289

Test location for water temperature

(1) Plug

Test Tools For The Cooling System


Table 1
Required Tools
Part Number Part Name Qty
4C-6500 Digital Thermometer 1
285-0910 Multi-Tool Gp 1
9U-7400 Multitach Tool Gp 1

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9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump 1


245-5829 Coolant/Battery Tester Gp 1

Making contact with a running engine can cause burns from hot parts
and can cause injury from rotating parts.

When working on an engine that is running, avoid contact with hot


parts and rotating parts.

Illustration 3 g00286267

4C-6500 Digital Thermometer

The 4C-6500 Digital Thermometer is used in the diagnosis of problems that cause overheating or
overcooling in the engine. This tool can be used to check the temperature in several areas of the
cooling system. The testing procedure is in Tool Operating Manual, NEHS0554.

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Illustration 4 g01311364

285-0910 Multi-Tool Gp

Illustration 5 g00313263

The 285-0910 Multi-Tool Gp is used to check the air flow through the radiator core.

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Illustration 6 g00286276

9U-7400 Multitach Tool Group

The 9U-7400 Multitach Tool Gp is used to measure the fan speed. Refer to Operating Manual,
NEHS0605, " 9U-7400 Multitach Tool Gp " for the testing procedure.

Illustration 7 g00286369

9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump

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The 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump is used to test the filler caps. This pressurizing pump is also used to
pressure test the cooling system for leaks.

Illustration 8 g00439083

245-5829 Coolant/Battery Tester Gp

Check the coolant frequently in cold weather for the proper glycol concentration. Use the 245-5829
Coolant/Battery Tester Gp in order to ensure adequate freeze protection. The testers are identical
except for the temperature scale. The testers give immediate, accurate readings. The testers can be
used for coolants that contain ethylene or propylene glycol.

Making the Correct Antifreeze Mixtures


Do not add pure antifreeze to the cooling system in order to adjust the concentration of antifreeze.
The pure antifreeze increases the concentration of antifreeze in the cooling system. The increased
concentration increases the concentration of dissolved solids and undissolved chemical inhibitors in
the cooling system.

Add an antifreeze and water mixture in the concentration which provides the desired freeze
protection. Use the following chart in order to determine the correct concentration of antifreeze in
water to use.

Table 2
Antifreeze Concentrations For Freeze Protection
Temperature Concentration

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Protection to
30% antifreeze and 70% water
15 C (5 F)
Protection to
40% antifreeze and 60% water
23 C (9 F)
Protection to
50% antifreeze and 50% water
37 C (35 F)
Protection to
60% antifreeze and 40% water
51 C (60 F)

Checking the Filler Cap


Table 3
Required Tools
Part Number Part Name Qty
9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump 1

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a faulty seal on the radiator pressure cap.

Illustration 9 g01328299

Typical schematic of filler cap

(1) Sealing surface between the pressure cap and the radiator

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Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam and alkali.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot and under pressure.


The radiator and all lines to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only when engine is stopped
and radiator cap is cool enough to touch with your bare hand.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid contact with skin


and eyes.

To check for the amount of pressure that opens the filler cap, use the following procedure:

1. After the engine cools, carefully loosen the filler cap. Slowly release the pressure from the
cooling system. Then, remove the filler cap.

2. Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look for damage to the seal. Look for damage to the surface
that seals. Remove any debris on the cap, the seal, or the sealing surface.

Carefully inspect the filler cap. Look for any damage to the seals and to the sealing surface.
Inspect the following components for any foreign substances:

Filler cap

Seal

Surface for seal

Remove any deposits that are found on these items, and remove any material that is found on
these items.

3. Install the pressure cap on the 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump .

4. Observe the exact pressure that opens the filler cap.

5. Compare the pressure to the pressure rating that is found on the top of the filler cap.

6. If the filler cap is damaged, replace the filler cap.

Testing The Radiator And Cooling System For Leaks


Table 4
Required Tools

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Part Number Part Name Qty


9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump 1

Use the following procedure to test the radiator and the cooling system for leaks.

Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam and alkali.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot and under pressure.


The radiator and all lines to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only when engine is stopped
and radiator cap is cool enough to touch with your bare hand.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid contact with skin


and eyes.

1. When the engine has cooled, loosen the filler cap to the first stop. Allow the pressure to release
from the cooling system. Then remove the filler cap.

2. Make sure that the coolant covers the top of the radiator core.

3. Put the 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump onto the radiator.

4. Use the pressurizing pump to increase the pressure to an amount of 20 kPa (3 psi) more than the
operating pressure of the filler cap.

5. Check the radiator for leakage on the outside.

6. Check all connections and hoses of the cooling system for leaks.

The radiator and the cooling system do not have leakage if all of the following conditions exist:

You do NOT observe any leakage after five minutes.

The dial indicator remains constant beyond five minutes.

The inside of the cooling system has leakage only if the following conditions exist:

The reading on the gauge goes down.

You do NOT observe any outside leakage.

Make any repairs, as required.

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Cooling System Conditioner

Supplemental cooling system additive contains alkali. To prevent


personal injury, do not drink, avoid contact with the skin and eyes.

NOTICE

All water is corrosive at engine operating temperature. The cooling


system should be protected with a 3% to 6% concentration of cooling
system conditioner at all times.

Caterpillar does not recommend the use of cooling system solutions


that are intended to stop leaks.

Use of these products may result in excessive internal deposits that


could reduce the engine's heat transfer characteristics.

Caterpillar Cooling System Conditioner can be used with an antifreeze or without an antifreeze of
ethylene glycol base in the coolant.

When the conditioner is added to the coolant, the cooling system must be flushed and the cooling
system must be cleaned.

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Product: EXCAVATOR
Model: 320B EXCAVATOR 4XW
Configuration: 320B & 320B L Excavators 4XW00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3066 Engine

Systems Operation
3064 and 3066 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines
Media Number -SENR5546-15 Publication Date -01/07/2013 Date Updated -30/07/2013

i01570640

Cooling System
SMCS - 1350

Illustration 1 g00549894

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Cooling system schematic (warm engine)

(1) Radiator

(2) Water temperature regulator

(3) Water outlet pipe

(4) Cylinder head

(5) Cylinder block

(6) Water pump

The engine has a pressure type cooling system. A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages.
First, the cooling system can have safe operation at a temperature that is higher than the normal
boiling point of water. The pressure type cooling system also prevents water pump cavitation.
Cavitation is the sudden making of low pressure bubbles in liquids by mechanical forces. With a
pressure type cooling system, it is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to be made in the cooling
system.

Under normal operation, water pump (6) sends coolant into cylinder block (5). Coolant travels
through cylinder block (5) into cylinder head (4). Coolant then travels through water outlet pipe (3) to
the housing for water temperature regulator (2). When water temperature regulator (2) is open, the
coolant travels through the outlet hose to radiator (1). The coolant is cooled as the coolant travels
through radiator (1). When the coolant gets to the bottom of the radiator, the coolant travels through
the inlet hose to water pump (6) .

When the engine is cold, water temperature regulator (2) is closed. The coolant does not travel to
radiator (1). The coolant travels from the housing for the water temperature regulator through a hose
to water pump (6) .

Note: Water temperature regulator (2) is an important part of the cooling system. The water
temperature regulator divides coolant flow between the radiator and the bypass in order to maintain
the correct temperature. Water temperature regulator (2) must be installed in order to mechanically
control the system. Most of the coolant will travel through the bypass if the water temperature
regulator is not installed. The engine will overheat in hot weather if water temperature regulator (2) is
not installed. In cold weather, the engine will not obtain operating temperature if even small amounts
of coolant travel through the radiator.

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Product: EXCAVATOR
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Configuration: 320B & 320B L Excavators 4XW00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3066 Engine

Testing and Adjusting


3064 and 3066 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines
Media Number -SENR5546-15 Publication Date -01/07/2013 Date Updated -30/07/2013

i05183360

Water Temperature Regulator - Test


SMCS - 1355-081-ON; 1355-081

Introduction
This procedure is intended to give information on testing the water temperature regulator.

Test Procedure

Personal injury can result from escaping fluid under pressure.

If a pressure indication is shown on the indicator, push the release valve


in order to relieve pressure before removing any hose from the radiator.

1. Remove the water temperature regulator from the engine.

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature of the water is equal to the fully open temperature of
the water temperature regulator. Refer to Specifications, "Water Temperature Regulator" for the
fully open temperature of the water temperature regulator. Stir the water in the pan. This will
distribute the temperature throughout the pan.

3. Hang the water temperature regulator in the pan of water. The water temperature regulator must
be below the surface of the water. The water temperature regulator must be away from the sides
and the bottom of the pan.

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for ten minutes.

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5. After ten minutes, remove the water temperature regulator. Immediately measure the opening
of the water temperature regulator. Refer to Specifications, "Water Temperature Regulator" for
the minimum opening distance of the water temperature regulator at the fully open temperature.

If the distance is less than the amount listed in the manual, replace the water temperature regulator.

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