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- Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
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- 2nd Paper - Tidal Current Turbines (1)

You are on page 1of 19

ADVANCED TRANSPORT

PROCESSES

RecapMomentum Transport Balance

1. Molecular transport.

2. Convective transport

= molecular stress+ convective stress

2

Momentum Transport Balance

There are two mechanisms :

1. Molecular transport.

2. Convective transport

Molecular transport p = pd + t

3

Lesson outcomes

6. Describe shell balance technique to solve

momentum transfer balance equation.

4

Momentum Balance

momentum in - momentum out + on the system = 0

5

Momentum Balance

momentum in - momentum out

+

on the system = 0

momentum in momentum out momentum in by

by conv. - by conv. + molec. transport -

transport transport

Rate of

Force of gravity

momentum out

acting on the

by molec.

transport

+ system = 0

6

Momentum Balance

9 Steps

7

Procedure of transport analysis

1. Draw a physical diagram

2. Identify all transport mechanisms.

3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the direction of all

transport processes which identified in step 2.

4. Draw a shell, such as that its surface perpendicular to

the transport dir.

5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:

Rate of Rate of All forces acting

momentum in - momentum out + on the system = 0

This should give a first order ODE in terms of shear stress.

8

Procedure of transport analysis

6. If the fluid is Newtonian, apply the Newton law.

However if the fluid is non-Newtonian, apply appropriate

non-Newtonian law empirical equation. This should give a

2nd Order ODE in term of velocity.

physical system . This give rise to boundary conditions.

9

Boundary Conditions (BC)

equals velocity of the solid surface.

the fact that the gas viscosity is low.

velocities are continuous across the interface.

10

Example :- A pair of large parallel plates, each one with

are A, is separated by a distance . The space between

them is filled with Newtonian fluid. The lower plate is

moving horizontally with a velocity of v0 parallel to the

upper plate. Determine the velocity profile of the fluid

at steady state assuming laminar flow condition.

11

Momentum Shell Balance Technique

1. Draw a physical diagram

2. Identify all transport mechanisms

12

Momentum Shell Balance Technique

Shell Balance Step 3-4

3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the direction of all

transport processes which identified in step

4. Draw a shell, such as that its surface perpendicular to the

transport dir.

13

Momentum Shell Balance Technique

5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:

momentum in - momentum out + on the system = 0

ODE in terms of shear stress.

14

Momentum Shell Balance Technique

6. If the fluid is Newtonian, apply the Newtons law.

However if the fluid is non-Newtonian, apply appropriate

non-Newtonian law empirical equation.

15

Momentum Shell Balance Technique

7. Impose physical constraint on the boundary of the

physical system . This give rise to boundary conditions.

Examples;

velocity of the solid surface.

Gas-liquid interface, the shear stress is zero owing to the fact that

the gas viscosity is low.

16

Momentum Shell Balance Technique

8. Solve the equation for the velocity distribution.

Example:

rgd cos

2 x

2

vz 1

2 d

17

Momentum Shell Balance Technique

9. Then obtain the mean velocity, flow rate and other

related flow parameters.

Average velocity

Cross Sectional Area

18

Lesson outcomes

6. Describe shell balance technique to solve

momentum transfer balance equation.

19

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