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CCB 3033

ADVANCED TRANSPORT
PROCESSES

2. Momentum Transport Balance


RecapMomentum Transport Balance

There are two mechanisms :


1. Molecular transport.
2. Convective transport

Combined momentum flux


= molecular stress+ convective stress

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Momentum Transport Balance

Combined momentum flux = p +rvv


There are two mechanisms :
1. Molecular transport.
2. Convective transport
Molecular transport p = pd + t

Convective transport rvv


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Lesson outcomes
6. Describe shell balance technique to solve
momentum transfer balance equation.

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Momentum Balance

Rate of Rate of All forces acting


momentum in - momentum out + on the system = 0
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Momentum Balance

Rate of Rate of All forces acting


momentum in - momentum out
+
on the system = 0

Rate of Rate of Rate of


momentum in momentum out momentum in by
by conv. - by conv. + molec. transport -
transport transport

Rate of
Force of gravity
momentum out
acting on the
by molec.
transport
+ system = 0

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Momentum Balance

How to solve the equation?

Shell Balance Technique

Set up momentum balance over a thin shell

9 Steps
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Procedure of transport analysis
1. Draw a physical diagram
2. Identify all transport mechanisms.
3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the direction of all
transport processes which identified in step 2.
4. Draw a shell, such as that its surface perpendicular to
the transport dir.
5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:
Rate of Rate of All forces acting
momentum in - momentum out + on the system = 0
This should give a first order ODE in terms of shear stress.

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Procedure of transport analysis
6. If the fluid is Newtonian, apply the Newton law.
However if the fluid is non-Newtonian, apply appropriate
non-Newtonian law empirical equation. This should give a
2nd Order ODE in term of velocity.

7. Impose physical constraint on the boundary of the


physical system . This give rise to boundary conditions.

8. Solve the equation for the velocity distribution.

9. Then obtain the mean velocity, flow rate and etc.

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Boundary Conditions (BC)

1. Solid-liquid interface, the fluid velocity equals to the


equals velocity of the solid surface.

2. Gas-liquid interface, the shear stress is zero owing to


the fact that the gas viscosity is low.

3. Liquid-liquid interface, the shear stresses and the


velocities are continuous across the interface.

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Example :- A pair of large parallel plates, each one with
are A, is separated by a distance . The space between
them is filled with Newtonian fluid. The lower plate is
moving horizontally with a velocity of v0 parallel to the
upper plate. Determine the velocity profile of the fluid
at steady state assuming laminar flow condition.

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

Shell Balance Step 1-2


1. Draw a physical diagram
2. Identify all transport mechanisms

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique
Shell Balance Step 3-4
3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the direction of all
transport processes which identified in step
4. Draw a shell, such as that its surface perpendicular to the
transport dir.

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

Shell Balance Step 5


5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:

Rate of Rate of All forces acting


momentum in - momentum out + on the system = 0

This should give a 1st order


ODE in terms of shear stress.
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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

Shell Balance Step 6


6. If the fluid is Newtonian, apply the Newtons law.
However if the fluid is non-Newtonian, apply appropriate
non-Newtonian law empirical equation.

This should give a Order 2 nd

ODE in term of velocity.

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

Shell Balance Step 7


7. Impose physical constraint on the boundary of the
physical system . This give rise to boundary conditions.

Examples;

Solid-liquid interface, the fluid velocity equals to the equals


velocity of the solid surface.

Gas-liquid interface, the shear stress is zero owing to the fact that
the gas viscosity is low.

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

Shell Balance Step 8


8. Solve the equation for the velocity distribution.

Example:

rgd cos
2 x
2

vz 1
2 d

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

Shell Balance Step 9


9. Then obtain the mean velocity, flow rate and other
related flow parameters.

Volumetric Flow Rate


Average velocity
Cross Sectional Area

Mass Flow Rates Density Volumetric Flow Rate

Force Shear Stress Surface Area

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Lesson outcomes
6. Describe shell balance technique to solve
momentum transfer balance equation.

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