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# CCB 3033

PROCESSES

## 2. Momentum Transport Balance

RecapMomentum Transport Balance

## There are two mechanisms :

1. Molecular transport.
2. Convective transport

## Combined momentum flux

= molecular stress+ convective stress

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Momentum Transport Balance

## Combined momentum flux = p +rvv

There are two mechanisms :
1. Molecular transport.
2. Convective transport
Molecular transport p = pd + t

## Convective transport rvv

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Lesson outcomes
6. Describe shell balance technique to solve
momentum transfer balance equation.

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Momentum Balance

## Rate of Rate of All forces acting

momentum in - momentum out + on the system = 0
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Momentum Balance

## Rate of Rate of All forces acting

momentum in - momentum out
+
on the system = 0

## Rate of Rate of Rate of

momentum in momentum out momentum in by
by conv. - by conv. + molec. transport -
transport transport

Rate of
Force of gravity
momentum out
acting on the
by molec.
transport
+ system = 0

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Momentum Balance

## Set up momentum balance over a thin shell

9 Steps
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Procedure of transport analysis
1. Draw a physical diagram
2. Identify all transport mechanisms.
3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the direction of all
transport processes which identified in step 2.
4. Draw a shell, such as that its surface perpendicular to
the transport dir.
5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:
Rate of Rate of All forces acting
momentum in - momentum out + on the system = 0
This should give a first order ODE in terms of shear stress.

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Procedure of transport analysis
6. If the fluid is Newtonian, apply the Newton law.
However if the fluid is non-Newtonian, apply appropriate
non-Newtonian law empirical equation. This should give a
2nd Order ODE in term of velocity.

## 7. Impose physical constraint on the boundary of the

physical system . This give rise to boundary conditions.

## 9. Then obtain the mean velocity, flow rate and etc.

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Boundary Conditions (BC)

## 1. Solid-liquid interface, the fluid velocity equals to the

equals velocity of the solid surface.

## 2. Gas-liquid interface, the shear stress is zero owing to

the fact that the gas viscosity is low.

## 3. Liquid-liquid interface, the shear stresses and the

velocities are continuous across the interface.

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Example :- A pair of large parallel plates, each one with
are A, is separated by a distance . The space between
them is filled with Newtonian fluid. The lower plate is
moving horizontally with a velocity of v0 parallel to the
upper plate. Determine the velocity profile of the fluid
at steady state assuming laminar flow condition.

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

## Shell Balance Step 1-2

1. Draw a physical diagram
2. Identify all transport mechanisms

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique
Shell Balance Step 3-4
3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the direction of all
transport processes which identified in step
4. Draw a shell, such as that its surface perpendicular to the
transport dir.

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

## Shell Balance Step 5

5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:

## Rate of Rate of All forces acting

momentum in - momentum out + on the system = 0

## This should give a 1st order

ODE in terms of shear stress.
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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

## Shell Balance Step 6

6. If the fluid is Newtonian, apply the Newtons law.
However if the fluid is non-Newtonian, apply appropriate
non-Newtonian law empirical equation.

## ODE in term of velocity.

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

## Shell Balance Step 7

7. Impose physical constraint on the boundary of the
physical system . This give rise to boundary conditions.

Examples;

## Solid-liquid interface, the fluid velocity equals to the equals

velocity of the solid surface.

Gas-liquid interface, the shear stress is zero owing to the fact that
the gas viscosity is low.

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

## Shell Balance Step 8

8. Solve the equation for the velocity distribution.

Example:

rgd cos
2 x
2

vz 1
2 d

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Momentum Shell Balance Technique

## Shell Balance Step 9

9. Then obtain the mean velocity, flow rate and other
related flow parameters.

## Volumetric Flow Rate

Average velocity
Cross Sectional Area

## Force Shear Stress Surface Area

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Lesson outcomes
6. Describe shell balance technique to solve
momentum transfer balance equation.

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