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CCB 3033

ADVANCED TRANSPORT
PROCESSES

3. Momentum Transport
i. Flow of Falling Liquid
Course Outcomes

CLO1 Explain the theoretical aspect of momentum, mass


and energy transport
CLO2 Apply mathematical and numerical methodology in
analyzing momentum transfer problem
CLO3 Apply mathematical and numerical methodology in
analyzing heat transfer problem
CLO4 Apply mathematical and numerical methodology in
analyzing mass transfer problem
CLO5 Analyze and solve transport phenomena using
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools.

Semester May 2013


Lesson outcomes
7. Setting-up momentum balance over a thin shell of
the fluid for steady flow.

8. Solve related flow parameters.

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Problem statement
The flow phenomena a liquid flow down an inclined flat plate of length L and
width W(pointing out of the paper).

From the momentum equation, determine the expression for ;


a. Velocity profile
b. Average velocity
c. Mass Flow rates
d. Force

Assume that a thin liquid film with thickness d is fully developed under a
laminar condition.
Consider the case for a liquid with constant viscosity and
density(Newtonian fluid).
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Step 1: Flow Diagram
Draw a physical diagram (given)

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Step 2: Transport Mechanism

Laminar Flow.
What is laminar flow?

This leads to:


1. The flow is totally in the direction of (downwards) the inclined
plate
2. The disturbance is very small and neglected.

Which means:
v=vz ; vx=vy=0
Note the coordinates x-,y-, z direction !

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Step 3-4: Shell & Transport Direction
4. Draw a shell, whether it be one, two or three dimensional
depending on the number or transport dir, such as that its surface
perpendicular to the transport dir.
Note the coordinates x-,y-, z direction !
One velocity
component in
the direction of
flow
depends only on
one spatial
variable; vz=vz(x)

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Step 3-4: Shell & Transport Direction
5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:

Rate of Rate of Rate of


momentum in momentum out momentum in by
by conv. - by conv. + molec. transport -
transport transport

Rate of
External Force
momentum out
acting on the ZERO
by molec.
transport
+ system =

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Step 3-4: Shell & Transport Direction
5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:

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Step 5: Shell Balance
Rate of z-momentum IN
across surface at z=0
(Wx)zz|z=0

Rate of z-momentum OUT


across surface at z=L
(Wx)zz|z=L

Rate of z-momentum IN
across surface at x
(WL)xz|x

Rate of z-momentum OUT


across surface at x+x
(WL)xz|x+x

External force acting on the (LWx)g


system
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Step 5: Shell Balance
The shell balance becomes

Wx zz z 0
zz zL
WL xz x zz x x
WxLg 0
(1)
Dividing both sides by WLx
zz zz xz x xz
z 0 zL
x x
g cos 0 (2)
L x
Using the definition of combined momentum flux and vz = f(x)
0
v z
zz p zz v z v z p 2 v z v z p v z v z
z 0
z
(3)

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Step 5: Shell Balance
Similarly the z-momentum flux across surface at z = L

zz zL
p v z v z (4)

Therefore, the first term of (2) becomes


zz z 0
zz zL

p v z v z p v z v z
0 (5)
L L
The second term of (2) becomes

xz x xz d xz
lim x x
(6)
x 0 x dx

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Step 5: Shell Balance
Using (3) to (6) into (2)

d xz (7)
g cos 0
dx
Using the definition of combined momentum flux

xz xz v x v z xz (8)

Using (8) in (7) and rearranging

d xz
g cos (9)
dx

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Step 6 & 7: Fluid Property & Bound.
C.
Integrating (9)
xz g cos x C1 (10)
Applying the boundary conditions at the gas-liquid interface

at x 0 xz 0 (11)

0 g cos 0 C1

C1 0

xz g cos x (12)

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Step 6 & 7: Fluid Property & Bound.
C.
From Newtons Law of viscosity
dvz
xz (13)
dx
Using (13) in (12) and rearranging

dvz g cos
x (14)
dx
Using (13) in (12) and rearranging

g cos 2
vz ( x) x C2 (15)

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8. The velocity profile
Applying the second boundary condition

at x d vz 0 (16)

g cos 2
C2 d

Finally the velocity profile is obtained by replacing, (16) in (15)

g d 2 cos x 2
v z ( x) 1 (17)
d

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8. Sketch of v.d. and mf. d.
The velocity distribution and momentum flux
distribution

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Step 9: i. Maximum Velocity

i) We can also solve for the maximum velocity,


occurring at the gas-liquid interface, i.e, x = 0

gd 2 cos
vz ,max
2

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Step 9: ii . Average Velocity
ii) The average velocity

Volumetric Flow Rate


vz
Flow Area
W d d d

vz
0 v dxdy W v dx
0

z
0
z
0
v z dx
d
W
dW d
0
dxdy
0

g cos d 2 2
0 d x dx
2d


2
d x 3 x 0
g cos 2 1 3 d g d 2 cos
3

v z 23 v z ,max
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Step 9: iii. Mass Flow Rate
iii) The mass flow rate can be determined via
w Density Volumetric Flow Rate
W d
w v z dxdy
0 0

Since the fluid is incompressible


d
w W v z dx
0

2 gWd 3 cos
w
3

Verify that the units are consistent!

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Another approach for mass flow rate
w Volumetric Flow Rate

Using definition of volumetric flow rate

w v z Flow Area

gd cos
w Wd
3

2 gWd 3 cos
w
3

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Step 9: iv Film thickness
iv) The film thickness can be calculated in one of two ways.

3 vz In terms of
d average
g cos
velocity

3w In terms of mass
d 3 flow rate
2 gW cos

Check the units!


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Step 9: v. Film thickness
v) The force exerted by the liquid on the solid
surface
Fz Shear Stress Surface Area

d dydz
L W
Fz xz
0 0

Fz gdWL cos
Why dydz?

This is the z-component of the


weight of the liquid countering the
viscous shear stress. 23
Flow Regimes in Liquid Film
Re = 4d<vz>/

Laminar flow with negligible rippling Re<20


Laminar flow with pronounced rippling 20<Re<1500
Turbulent flow Re>1500

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Lesson outcomes
7. Setting-up momentum balance over a thin shell
of the fluid for steady flow.

8. Solve related flow parameters


Velocity (profile, maximum, average)
Mass flow rate
Film thickness
Force exerted by fluid on the solid surface

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