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Apr 26, 2017

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momentum transport

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momentum transport

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ADVANCED TRANSPORT

PROCESSES

3. Momentum Transport

i. Flow of Falling Liquid

Course Outcomes

and energy transport

CLO2 Apply mathematical and numerical methodology in

analyzing momentum transfer problem

CLO3 Apply mathematical and numerical methodology in

analyzing heat transfer problem

CLO4 Apply mathematical and numerical methodology in

analyzing mass transfer problem

CLO5 Analyze and solve transport phenomena using

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools.

Lesson outcomes

7. Setting-up momentum balance over a thin shell of

the fluid for steady flow.

3

Problem statement

The flow phenomena a liquid flow down an inclined flat plate of length L and

width W(pointing out of the paper).

a. Velocity profile

b. Average velocity

c. Mass Flow rates

d. Force

Assume that a thin liquid film with thickness d is fully developed under a

laminar condition.

Consider the case for a liquid with constant viscosity and

density(Newtonian fluid).

4

Step 1: Flow Diagram

Draw a physical diagram (given)

5

Step 2: Transport Mechanism

Laminar Flow.

What is laminar flow?

1. The flow is totally in the direction of (downwards) the inclined

plate

2. The disturbance is very small and neglected.

Which means:

v=vz ; vx=vy=0

Note the coordinates x-,y-, z direction !

6

Step 3-4: Shell & Transport Direction

4. Draw a shell, whether it be one, two or three dimensional

depending on the number or transport dir, such as that its surface

perpendicular to the transport dir.

Note the coordinates x-,y-, z direction !

One velocity

component in

the direction of

flow

depends only on

one spatial

variable; vz=vz(x)

7

Step 3-4: Shell & Transport Direction

5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:

momentum in momentum out momentum in by

by conv. - by conv. + molec. transport -

transport transport

Rate of

External Force

momentum out

acting on the ZERO

by molec.

transport

+ system =

8

Step 3-4: Shell & Transport Direction

5. Carry out the momentum shell balance as below:

9

Step 5: Shell Balance

Rate of z-momentum IN

across surface at z=0

(Wx)zz|z=0

across surface at z=L

(Wx)zz|z=L

Rate of z-momentum IN

across surface at x

(WL)xz|x

across surface at x+x

(WL)xz|x+x

system

10

Step 5: Shell Balance

The shell balance becomes

Wx zz z 0

zz zL

WL xz x zz x x

WxLg 0

(1)

Dividing both sides by WLx

zz zz xz x xz

z 0 zL

x x

g cos 0 (2)

L x

Using the definition of combined momentum flux and vz = f(x)

0

v z

zz p zz v z v z p 2 v z v z p v z v z

z 0

z

(3)

11

Step 5: Shell Balance

Similarly the z-momentum flux across surface at z = L

zz zL

p v z v z (4)

zz z 0

zz zL

p v z v z p v z v z

0 (5)

L L

The second term of (2) becomes

xz x xz d xz

lim x x

(6)

x 0 x dx

12

Step 5: Shell Balance

Using (3) to (6) into (2)

d xz (7)

g cos 0

dx

Using the definition of combined momentum flux

xz xz v x v z xz (8)

d xz

g cos (9)

dx

13

Step 6 & 7: Fluid Property & Bound.

C.

Integrating (9)

xz g cos x C1 (10)

Applying the boundary conditions at the gas-liquid interface

at x 0 xz 0 (11)

0 g cos 0 C1

C1 0

xz g cos x (12)

14

Step 6 & 7: Fluid Property & Bound.

C.

From Newtons Law of viscosity

dvz

xz (13)

dx

Using (13) in (12) and rearranging

dvz g cos

x (14)

dx

Using (13) in (12) and rearranging

g cos 2

vz ( x) x C2 (15)

15

8. The velocity profile

Applying the second boundary condition

at x d vz 0 (16)

g cos 2

C2 d

Finally the velocity profile is obtained by replacing, (16) in (15)

g d 2 cos x 2

v z ( x) 1 (17)

d

16

8. Sketch of v.d. and mf. d.

The velocity distribution and momentum flux

distribution

17

Step 9: i. Maximum Velocity

occurring at the gas-liquid interface, i.e, x = 0

gd 2 cos

vz ,max

2

18

Step 9: ii . Average Velocity

ii) The average velocity

vz

Flow Area

W d d d

vz

0 v dxdy W v dx

0

z

0

z

0

v z dx

d

W

dW d

0

dxdy

0

g cos d 2 2

0 d x dx

2d

2

d x 3 x 0

g cos 2 1 3 d g d 2 cos

3

v z 23 v z ,max

19

Step 9: iii. Mass Flow Rate

iii) The mass flow rate can be determined via

w Density Volumetric Flow Rate

W d

w v z dxdy

0 0

d

w W v z dx

0

2 gWd 3 cos

w

3

20

Another approach for mass flow rate

w Volumetric Flow Rate

w v z Flow Area

gd cos

w Wd

3

2 gWd 3 cos

w

3

21

Step 9: iv Film thickness

iv) The film thickness can be calculated in one of two ways.

3 vz In terms of

d average

g cos

velocity

3w In terms of mass

d 3 flow rate

2 gW cos

22

Step 9: v. Film thickness

v) The force exerted by the liquid on the solid

surface

Fz Shear Stress Surface Area

d dydz

L W

Fz xz

0 0

Fz gdWL cos

Why dydz?

weight of the liquid countering the

viscous shear stress. 23

Flow Regimes in Liquid Film

Re = 4d<vz>/

Laminar flow with pronounced rippling 20<Re<1500

Turbulent flow Re>1500

24

Lesson outcomes

7. Setting-up momentum balance over a thin shell

of the fluid for steady flow.

Velocity (profile, maximum, average)

Mass flow rate

Film thickness

Force exerted by fluid on the solid surface

25

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