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TRANSPORTATION Vehicle Signal Change nterval

U.S. Customary Units v

y= t+
a = deceleration rate (ft/sec2) 2a ! 64.4 G
A = absolute value of algebraic difference in grades (%) r = W v+ l
e = superelevation (%)
f = side friction factor Stopping Sight Distance
V2
h1 height of driver s eyes above the roadway surface ft SSD = 1.47Vt +
30 dc 32.2 m ! G n
h2 = height of object above the roadway surface (ft) a
L = length of curve (ft)
Ls = spiral transition length (ft) ISD = 1.47 Vmajor tg
R = radius of curve (ft)
ea our actor
SSD = stopping sight distance (ft)
ISD = intersection sight distance (ft) Hourly Volume Hourly Volume
PHF Hourly Flow Rate 4 # Peak 15- minute Volume
tg = time gap for vehicle entering roadway (sec)
t = driver reaction time (sec) Queueing models are found in the Industrial Engineering
V = design speed (mph) section.
v = vehicle approach speed (fps)
W = width of intersection, curb-to-curb (ft)
l = length of vehicle (ft)
y = length of yellow interval to nearest 0.1 sec (sec)
r = length of red clearance interval to nearest 0.1 sec (sec)

S T D ST C
Vertical Curves: Sight Distance Related to Curve Length

S L S > L
Crest Vertical Curve AS 2 2
General equation:
L =
100( 2h1 + 2h2 ) 2 L = 2S
200 ( h1 + h2 )
A

Standard Criteria:
AS2 2,158
h 1 = 3.50 ft and h2 = 2.0 ft: L = L = 2S
2,158 A

Sag Vertical Curve

AS2
criteria)
L =
400 + 3.5 S
L = 2S ( 400 + 3.5 S
A )
Sag Vertical Curve AV 2
L =
(based on riding comfort) 46.5
Sag Vertical Curve AS2
under an overhead structure to see an
L =
800 C (
h1 + h2
)
L = 2S
800
A
C ( h1 + h2
2 )
2
object beyond a sag vertical curve)
C = vertical clearance for overhead structure (overpass) located within 200
feet of the midpoint of the curve

Horizontal Curves

V2
0.01e + f =
Side friction factor (based on superelevation) 15 R

3.15V 3
Ls =
Spiral Transition Length RC
C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration
[use 1 ft/sec3 unless otherwise stated]

Sight Distance (to see around obstruction)

HSO = R [ 1 cos ( 28.65 S
R
)]
HSO = Horizontal sight line offset
Compiled from AASHTO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 6th ed., 2011.

169 CIVIL ENGINEERING

asic reeway Seg ent ighway Capacity

Flow Rate Range

FFS Breakpoint
(mi/h) (pc/h/ln) 0 Breakpoint > Breakpoint Capacity
75 1,000 75 75 0.00001107 (vp 1,000)2
70 1,200 70 70 0.00001160 (vp 1,200)2
65 1,400 65 65 0.00001418 (vp 1,400)2
60 1,600 60 60 0.00001816 (vp 1,600)2
55 1,800 55 55 0.00002469 (vp 1,800)2
Notes: FFS = free-flow speed, vp = demand flow rate (pc/h/ln) under equivalent base conditions.
Maximum flow rate for the equations is capacity: 2,400 pc/h/ln for 70- and 75-mph FFS;
2,350 pc/h/ln for 65-mph FFS; 2,300 pc/h/ln for 60-mph FFS; and 2,250 pc/h/ln for 55-mph FFS.

LOS Density (pc/mi/ln)

A 11
B >11 18
C >18 26
D >26 35
E >35 45
Demand exceeds capacity
F
>45

FFS = 75.4 fLW fLC 3.22 TRD0.84

where
FFS free flow speed of basic freeway segment mi/h
fLW = adjustment for lane width (mi/h)
fLC = adjustment for right-side lateral clearance (mi/h)
TRD = total ramp density (ramps/mi)

Average Lane Width (ft) Reduction in FFS, fLW (mi/h)

12 0.0
11 12 1.9
10 11 6.6

Right-Side
Lanes in One Direction
Lateral
Clearance (ft) 2 3 4 5
6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1
4 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.2
3 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.3
2 2.4 1.6 0.8 0.4
1 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.5
0 3.6 2.4 1.2 0.6

HCM 2010: Highway Capacity Manual, Vol 2, Uninterrupted Flow, Transportation Research Board of the National Academics, Washington, DC, 2010.

170 CIVIL ENGINEERING

V
vp PHF # N # fHV # fp

where
vp demand flow rate under equivalent base conditions pc/h/ln
V = demand volume under prevailing conditions (veh/h)
PHF = peak-hour factor
N = number of lanes in analysis direction
fHV adjustment factor for presence of heavy vehicles in traffic stream
fp = adjustment factor for unfamiliar driver populations

1
fHV =
1 PT _ ET 1 i + PR _ ER 1 i
+
where
PT proportion of trucks and buses in traffic stream
PR proportion of s in traffic stream
ET passenger car equivalent P of one truck or bus in traffic stream
ER P of one in traffic stream

PCE by Type of Terrain

Vehicle Level Rolling Mountainous
Trucks and buses, ET 1.5 2.5 4.5
RVs, ER 1.2 2.0 4.0

vp
D S
where
D = density(pc/mi/ln)
vp demand flow rate pc/h/ln
S mean speed of traffic stream under base conditions mi/h

171 CIVIL ENGINEERING

Traffic low Relationships Logit odels
n
reenshields odel
Ux = / aiXi
i=1
Sf Sf
where
SPEED (mph)

SPEED (mph)
DO U = utility of mode x
SO SO
n = number of attributes
Xi = attribute value (time, cost, and so forth)
Dj
0 DO Dj 0 Vm
ai coefficient value for attributes i negative, since the
DENSITY (veh/mi/ln) FLOW (veh/h/ln)
values are disutilities)
If two modes, auto (A) and transit (T), are being considered,
SO
Vm Sf the probability of selecting the auto mode A can be written as
FLOW (veh/h/ln)

P_ Ai = P_ x i =
eUA eUx
n
e + eUT
UA
/ eUxi
e=1

0 DO Dj
Traffic Safety quations
DENSITY (veh/mi/ln)
Crash Rates at Intersections
Oversaturated flow
A # 1, 000, 000
RMEV = V
Sf where
S = Sf D D
j RMEV = crash rate per million entering vehicles
Sf 2 A = number of crashes, total or by type occurring in a
V = Sf D D D
j single year at the location
D jS f V = ADT 365
Vm = 4 ADT average daily traffic entering intersection
Dj Crash Rates for Roadway Segments
Do = 2
A # 100, 000, 000
RMVM = VMT
where
D = density (veh/mi) where
S = speed (mi/hr) RMVM = crash rate per hundred million vehicle miles
V flow veh/hr A = number of crashes, total or by type at the study
Vm maximum flow location, during a given period
Do = optimum density (sometimes called critical density) VMT = vehicle miles of travel during the given period
Dj = jam density = ADT (number of days in study period)
So = optimum speed (often called critical speed) (length of road)
Sf theoretical speed selected by the first driver entering ADT average daily traffic on the roadway segment
a facility i.e., under zero density and zero flow rate Crash Reduction
conditions) _ ADT after improvement i
Crashes prevented = N # CR
ravity odel where
Tij = Pi > /
AjFijKij H
AjFijKij N = expected number of crashes if countermeasure is
not implemented and if the traffic volume
j
remains the same
where CR = CR1 + (1 CR1)CR2 + (1 CR1)(1 CR2)CR3 +. . .
Tij = number of trips that are produced in zone i and attracted + (1 CR1). . . (1 CRm 1) CRm
to zone j = overall crash reduction factor for multiple mutually
Pi = total number of trips produced in zone i exclusive improvements at a single site
Aj = number of trips attracted to zone j CRi crash reduction factor for a specific
Fij = a friction factor that is an inverse function of travel time countermeasure i
between zones i and j m = number of countermeasures at the site
Ki = socioeconomic adjustment factor for interchange ij Garber, Nicholas J., and Lester A. Hoel, Traffic and High ay Engineering, 4th ed., Cengage
Learning, 2009.
AASHTO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 6th ed., 2011.
Used by permission.

CIVIL ENGINEERING
Highway Pavement Design

AASHTO Structural Number Equation

SN = a1D1 + a2D2 ++ anDn, where
SN = structural number for the pavement
ai = layer coefficient and Di = thickness of layer (inches).

Factors Factors
Single Tandem Single Tandem
kN lb kN lb
Axles Axles Axles Axles
4.45 1,000 0.00002 187.0 42,000 25.64 2.51
8.9 2,000 0.00018 195.7 44,000 31.00 3.00
17.8 4,000 0.00209 200.0 45,000 34.00 3.27
22.25 5,000 0.00500 204.5 46,000 37.24 3.55
26.7 6,000 0.01043 213.5 48,000 44.50 4.17
35.6 8,000 0.0343 222.4 50,000 52.88 4.86
44.5 10,000 0.0877 0.00688 231.3 52,000 5.63
53.4 12,000 0.189 0.0144 240.2 54,000 6.47
62.3 14,000 0.360 0.0270 244.6 55,000 6.93
66.7 15,000 0.478 0.0360 249.0 56,000 7.41
71.2 16,000 0.623 0.0472 258.0 58,000 8.45
80.0 18,000 1.000 0.0773 267.0 60,000 9.59
89.0 20,000 1.51 0.1206 275.8 62,000 10.84
97.8 22,000 2.18 0.180 284.5 64,000 12.22
106.8 24,000 3.03 0.260 289.0 65,000 12.96
111.2 25,000 3.53 0.308 293.5 66,000 13.73
115.6 26,000 4.09 0.364 302.5 68,000 15.38
124.5 28,000 5.39 0.495 311.5 70,000 17.19
133.5 30,000 6.97 0.658 320.0 72,000 19.16
142.3 32,000 8.88 0.857 329.0 74,000 21.32
151.2 34,000 11.18 1.095 333.5 75,000 22.47
155.7 35,000 12.50 1.23 338.0 76,000 23.66
160.0 36,000 13.93 1.38 347.0 78,000 26.22
169.0 38,000 17.20 1.70 356.0 80,000 28.99
178.0 40,000 21.08 2.08
Note: kN converted to lb are within 0.1 percent of lb shown

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Superpave

PERFORMANCE GRADE PG 52 PG 58 PG 64
10 16 22 28 34 40 46 16 22 28 34 40 16 22 28 34 40

AVERAGE 7-DAY MAXIMUM PAVEMENT <52 <58 <64

DESIGN TEMPERATURE, Ca

>10 >16 >22 >28 >34 >40 >46 >16 >22 >28 >34 >40 >16 >22 >28 >34 >40
MINIMUM PAVEMENT DESIGN
TEMPERATURE, Ca

ORIGINAL BINDER

VISCOSITY, ASTM D 4402: b 135

MAXIMUM, 3 Pa-s (3,000 cP),
TEST TEMP, C

DYNAMIC SHEAR, TP5: c 52 58 64

G*/sin , MINIMUM, 1.00 kPa
TEST TEMPERATURE @ 10 rad/sec., C

ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN (T240) OR THIN FILM OVEN (T179) RESIDUE

DYNAMIC SHEAR, TP5: 52 58 64

G*/sin , MINIMUM, 2.20 kPa
TEST TEMP @ 10 rad/sec. C

DYNAMIC SHEAR, TP5:

G*/sin , MAXIMUM, 5,000 kPa 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 28 25 22 19 16
TEST TEMP @ 10 rad/sec. C

CREEP STIFFNESS, TP1: f

S, MAXIMUM, 300 MPa
M-VALUE, MINIMUM, 0.300
0 6 12 18 24 30 36 6 12 18 24 30 6 12 18 24 30
TEST TEMP, @ 60 sec., C

DIRECT TENSION, TP3: f

FAILURE STRAIN, MINIMUM, 1.0% 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 6 12 18 24 30 6 12 18 24 30
TEST TEMP @ 1.0 mm/min, C

Superpave Mixture Design: Compaction Requirements

VFA REQUIREMENTS
SUPERPAVE GYRATORY COMPACTION EFFORT @ 4% AIR VOIDS
TRAFFIC, AVERAGE DESIGN HIGH AIR TEMPERATURE TRAFFIC, DESIGN
MILLION < 39 C 39 40 C 41 42 C 42 43 C MILLION VFA
ESALs N int N des N max N int N des N max N int N des N max N int N des N max ESALs (%)
< 0.3 7 68 104 7 74 114 7 78 121 7 82 127 < 0.3 70 80
<1 7 76 117 7 83 129 7 88 138 8 93 146 <1 65 78
<3 7 86 134 8 95 150 8 100 158 8 105 167 <3 65 78
< 10 8 96 152 8 106 169 8 113 181 9 119 192 < 10 65 75
< 30 8 109 174 9 121 195 9 128 208 9 135 220 < 30 65 75
< 100 9 126 204 9 139 228 9 146 240 10 153 253 < 100 65 75
100 9 142 233 10 158 262 10 165 275 10 177 288 100 65 75

VMA REQUIREMENTS @ 4% AIR VOIDS COMPACTION KEY

NOMINAL MAXIMUM
9.5 12.5 19.0 25.0 37.5 SUPERPAVE GYRATORY N int N des N max
AGGREGATE SIZE (mm) COMPACTION
MINIMUM VMA ( % ) 15 14 13 12 11 PERCENT OF Gmm 89% 96% 98%

174 CIVIL ENGINEERING

orizontal Curve or ulas
PI
D egree of urve, rc efinition I
PC = Point of Curve (also called BC)
PT = Point of Tangent (also called EC) E
T
PI = Point of Intersection T
I = Intersection Angle (also called ) 100.00
Angle Between Two Tangents M
L = Length of Curve, from PC to PT PC c LC PT
T = Tangent Distance
E = External Distance
LC = Length of Long Chord
D
M = Length of Middle Ordinate R d

R
c = Length of Sub-Chord I
d = Angle of Sub-Chord
l = Curve Length for Sub-Chord
NOT TO SCALE
R = 5729.58
D

LC
2 sin _ I 2i
R=

T = R tan _ I 2i = LC
2 cos _ I 2i
LATITUDES AND DEPARTURES
L = RI r = I 100
180 D + Latitude

M = R 81 - cos _ I 2iB
Departure + Departure
R cos _ I 2i
E+ R=

R - M = cos _ I 2i
R
Latitude
c = 2R sin _ d 2i

l = Rd b r l
180

E = R= 1 - 1G
cos _ I 2i

175 CIVIL ENGINEERING

Vertical Curve or ulas

x PVI
y E
PVT g
2
PVC FOR
TAN WARD
g1 GEN
T
CK NT
BA NGE YPVC
TA

DATUM

NOT TO SCALE

L = Length of curve g2 = Grade of forward tangent

PVC = Point of vertical curvature a = Parabola constant
PVI = Point of vertical intersection y = Tangent offset
PVT = Point of vertical tangency E = Tangent offset at PVI = AL/800
g1 = Grade of back tangent r = Rate of change of grade
= Horizontal distance from PVC K = Rate of vertical curvature
to point on curve
g1 g1L
Horizontal distance to min/max elevation on curve = -
m= 2a = g1 - g2
Tangent elevation = YPVC + g1 and = YPVI + g2 ( L/2)

Curve elevation = YPVC + g1 + a 2 = YPVC + g1 + [(g2 g1)/(2L)] 2

g2 g1 g g
E = ac 2 m r = 2 L 1
L 2 L
y = ax 2 a = 2L K= A

RT R R L S
Average End Area Formula, V = L(A1 + A2)/2
Prismoidal Formula, V = L (A1 + 4Am + A2)/6
where Am = area of mid-section
L = distance between A1 and A2

Pyramid or Cone, V = h (Area of Base)/3

AREA FORMULAS
Area by Coordinates: Area = [XA (YB YN) + XB (YC YA) + XC (YD YB) + ... + XN (YA YN 1)] / 2

Trapezoidal Rule: Area = w c + h2 + h3 + h4 + f + hn - 1m

h1 + hn
w = common interval
2

Simpson s 1/3 Rule: Area = = w >h1 + 2 e ! hk o + 4 e ! hk o + hn H 3

n- 2 n- 1
n must be odd number of measurements
k = 3, 5, f k = 2, 4, f
only for Simpson s 1/ ule