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17 views8 pagesTransportation section of FE reference manual

Apr 26, 2017

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Transportation section of FE reference manual

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Transportation section of FE reference manual

© All Rights Reserved

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y= t+

a = deceleration rate (ft/sec2) 2a ! 64.4 G

A = absolute value of algebraic difference in grades (%) r = W v+ l

e = superelevation (%)

f = side friction factor Stopping Sight Distance

G = percent grade divided by 100 (uphill grade "+")

V2

h1 height of driver s eyes above the roadway surface ft SSD = 1.47Vt +

30 dc 32.2 m ! G n

h2 = height of object above the roadway surface (ft) a

L = length of curve (ft)

Ls = spiral transition length (ft) ISD = 1.47 Vmajor tg

R = radius of curve (ft)

ea our actor

SSD = stopping sight distance (ft)

ISD = intersection sight distance (ft) Hourly Volume Hourly Volume

PHF Hourly Flow Rate 4 # Peak 15- minute Volume

tg = time gap for vehicle entering roadway (sec)

t = driver reaction time (sec) Queueing models are found in the Industrial Engineering

V = design speed (mph) section.

v = vehicle approach speed (fps)

W = width of intersection, curb-to-curb (ft)

l = length of vehicle (ft)

y = length of yellow interval to nearest 0.1 sec (sec)

r = length of red clearance interval to nearest 0.1 sec (sec)

S T D ST C

Vertical Curves: Sight Distance Related to Curve Length

S L S > L

Crest Vertical Curve AS 2 2

General equation:

L =

100( 2h1 + 2h2 ) 2 L = 2S

200 ( h1 + h2 )

A

Standard Criteria:

AS2 2,158

h 1 = 3.50 ft and h2 = 2.0 ft: L = L = 2S

2,158 A

AS2

(based on standard headlight

criteria)

L =

400 + 3.5 S

L = 2S ( 400 + 3.5 S

A )

Sag Vertical Curve AV 2

L =

(based on riding comfort) 46.5

Sag Vertical Curve AS2

(based on adequate sight distance

under an overhead structure to see an

L =

800 C (

h1 + h2

)

L = 2S

800

A

C ( h1 + h2

2 )

2

object beyond a sag vertical curve)

C = vertical clearance for overhead structure (overpass) located within 200

feet of the midpoint of the curve

Horizontal Curves

V2

0.01e + f =

Side friction factor (based on superelevation) 15 R

3.15V 3

Ls =

Spiral Transition Length RC

C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration

[use 1 ft/sec3 unless otherwise stated]

HSO = R [ 1 cos ( 28.65 S

R

)]

HSO = Horizontal sight line offset

Compiled from AASHTO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 6th ed., 2011.

asic reeway Seg ent ighway Capacity

FFS Breakpoint

(mi/h) (pc/h/ln) 0 Breakpoint > Breakpoint Capacity

75 1,000 75 75 0.00001107 (vp 1,000)2

70 1,200 70 70 0.00001160 (vp 1,200)2

65 1,400 65 65 0.00001418 (vp 1,400)2

60 1,600 60 60 0.00001816 (vp 1,600)2

55 1,800 55 55 0.00002469 (vp 1,800)2

Notes: FFS = free-flow speed, vp = demand flow rate (pc/h/ln) under equivalent base conditions.

Maximum flow rate for the equations is capacity: 2,400 pc/h/ln for 70- and 75-mph FFS;

2,350 pc/h/ln for 65-mph FFS; 2,300 pc/h/ln for 60-mph FFS; and 2,250 pc/h/ln for 55-mph FFS.

A 11

B >11 18

C >18 26

D >26 35

E >35 45

Demand exceeds capacity

F

>45

where

FFS free flow speed of basic freeway segment mi/h

fLW = adjustment for lane width (mi/h)

fLC = adjustment for right-side lateral clearance (mi/h)

TRD = total ramp density (ramps/mi)

12 0.0

11 12 1.9

10 11 6.6

Right-Side

Lanes in One Direction

Lateral

Clearance (ft) 2 3 4 5

6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

5 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1

4 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.2

3 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.3

2 2.4 1.6 0.8 0.4

1 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.5

0 3.6 2.4 1.2 0.6

HCM 2010: Highway Capacity Manual, Vol 2, Uninterrupted Flow, Transportation Research Board of the National Academics, Washington, DC, 2010.

V

vp PHF # N # fHV # fp

where

vp demand flow rate under equivalent base conditions pc/h/ln

V = demand volume under prevailing conditions (veh/h)

PHF = peak-hour factor

N = number of lanes in analysis direction

fHV adjustment factor for presence of heavy vehicles in traffic stream

fp = adjustment factor for unfamiliar driver populations

1

fHV =

1 PT _ ET 1 i + PR _ ER 1 i

+

where

fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor

PT proportion of trucks and buses in traffic stream

PR proportion of s in traffic stream

ET passenger car equivalent P of one truck or bus in traffic stream

ER P of one in traffic stream

Vehicle Level Rolling Mountainous

Trucks and buses, ET 1.5 2.5 4.5

RVs, ER 1.2 2.0 4.0

vp

D S

where

D = density(pc/mi/ln)

vp demand flow rate pc/h/ln

S mean speed of traffic stream under base conditions mi/h

Traffic low Relationships Logit odels

n

reenshields odel

Ux = / aiXi

i=1

Sf Sf

where

SPEED (mph)

SPEED (mph)

DO U = utility of mode x

SO SO

n = number of attributes

Xi = attribute value (time, cost, and so forth)

Dj

0 DO Dj 0 Vm

ai coefficient value for attributes i negative, since the

DENSITY (veh/mi/ln) FLOW (veh/h/ln)

values are disutilities)

If two modes, auto (A) and transit (T), are being considered,

SO

Vm Sf the probability of selecting the auto mode A can be written as

FLOW (veh/h/ln)

P_ Ai = P_ x i =

eUA eUx

n

e + eUT

UA

/ eUxi

e=1

0 DO Dj

Traffic Safety quations

DENSITY (veh/mi/ln)

Crash Rates at Intersections

Oversaturated flow

A # 1, 000, 000

RMEV = V

Sf where

S = Sf D D

j RMEV = crash rate per million entering vehicles

Sf 2 A = number of crashes, total or by type occurring in a

V = Sf D D D

j single year at the location

D jS f V = ADT 365

Vm = 4 ADT average daily traffic entering intersection

Dj Crash Rates for Roadway Segments

Do = 2

A # 100, 000, 000

RMVM = VMT

where

D = density (veh/mi) where

S = speed (mi/hr) RMVM = crash rate per hundred million vehicle miles

V flow veh/hr A = number of crashes, total or by type at the study

Vm maximum flow location, during a given period

Do = optimum density (sometimes called critical density) VMT = vehicle miles of travel during the given period

Dj = jam density = ADT (number of days in study period)

So = optimum speed (often called critical speed) (length of road)

Sf theoretical speed selected by the first driver entering ADT average daily traffic on the roadway segment

a facility i.e., under zero density and zero flow rate Crash Reduction

conditions) _ ADT after improvement i

_ ADT before improvement i

Crashes prevented = N # CR

ravity odel where

Tij = Pi > /

AjFijKij H

AjFijKij N = expected number of crashes if countermeasure is

not implemented and if the traffic volume

j

remains the same

where CR = CR1 + (1 CR1)CR2 + (1 CR1)(1 CR2)CR3 +. . .

Tij = number of trips that are produced in zone i and attracted + (1 CR1). . . (1 CRm 1) CRm

to zone j = overall crash reduction factor for multiple mutually

Pi = total number of trips produced in zone i exclusive improvements at a single site

Aj = number of trips attracted to zone j CRi crash reduction factor for a specific

Fij = a friction factor that is an inverse function of travel time countermeasure i

between zones i and j m = number of countermeasures at the site

Ki = socioeconomic adjustment factor for interchange ij Garber, Nicholas J., and Lester A. Hoel, Traffic and High ay Engineering, 4th ed., Cengage

Learning, 2009.

AASHTO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 6th ed., 2011.

Used by permission.

CIVIL ENGINEERING

Highway Pavement Design

SN = a1D1 + a2D2 ++ anDn, where

SN = structural number for the pavement

ai = layer coefficient and Di = thickness of layer (inches).

Gross Axle Load Gross Axle Load

Factors Factors

Single Tandem Single Tandem

kN lb kN lb

Axles Axles Axles Axles

4.45 1,000 0.00002 187.0 42,000 25.64 2.51

8.9 2,000 0.00018 195.7 44,000 31.00 3.00

17.8 4,000 0.00209 200.0 45,000 34.00 3.27

22.25 5,000 0.00500 204.5 46,000 37.24 3.55

26.7 6,000 0.01043 213.5 48,000 44.50 4.17

35.6 8,000 0.0343 222.4 50,000 52.88 4.86

44.5 10,000 0.0877 0.00688 231.3 52,000 5.63

53.4 12,000 0.189 0.0144 240.2 54,000 6.47

62.3 14,000 0.360 0.0270 244.6 55,000 6.93

66.7 15,000 0.478 0.0360 249.0 56,000 7.41

71.2 16,000 0.623 0.0472 258.0 58,000 8.45

80.0 18,000 1.000 0.0773 267.0 60,000 9.59

89.0 20,000 1.51 0.1206 275.8 62,000 10.84

97.8 22,000 2.18 0.180 284.5 64,000 12.22

106.8 24,000 3.03 0.260 289.0 65,000 12.96

111.2 25,000 3.53 0.308 293.5 66,000 13.73

115.6 26,000 4.09 0.364 302.5 68,000 15.38

124.5 28,000 5.39 0.495 311.5 70,000 17.19

133.5 30,000 6.97 0.658 320.0 72,000 19.16

142.3 32,000 8.88 0.857 329.0 74,000 21.32

151.2 34,000 11.18 1.095 333.5 75,000 22.47

155.7 35,000 12.50 1.23 338.0 76,000 23.66

160.0 36,000 13.93 1.38 347.0 78,000 26.22

169.0 38,000 17.20 1.70 356.0 80,000 28.99

178.0 40,000 21.08 2.08

Note: kN converted to lb are within 0.1 percent of lb shown

Superpave

PERFORMANCE-GRADED (PG) BINDER GRADING SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE GRADE PG 52 PG 58 PG 64

10 16 22 28 34 40 46 16 22 28 34 40 16 22 28 34 40

DESIGN TEMPERATURE, Ca

>10 >16 >22 >28 >34 >40 >46 >16 >22 >28 >34 >40 >16 >22 >28 >34 >40

MINIMUM PAVEMENT DESIGN

TEMPERATURE, Ca

ORIGINAL BINDER

MAXIMUM, 3 Pa-s (3,000 cP),

TEST TEMP, C

G*/sin , MINIMUM, 1.00 kPa

TEST TEMPERATURE @ 10 rad/sec., C

ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN (T240) OR THIN FILM OVEN (T179) RESIDUE

G*/sin , MINIMUM, 2.20 kPa

TEST TEMP @ 10 rad/sec. C

G*/sin , MAXIMUM, 5,000 kPa 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 28 25 22 19 16

TEST TEMP @ 10 rad/sec. C

S, MAXIMUM, 300 MPa

M-VALUE, MINIMUM, 0.300

0 6 12 18 24 30 36 6 12 18 24 30 6 12 18 24 30

TEST TEMP, @ 60 sec., C

FAILURE STRAIN, MINIMUM, 1.0% 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 6 12 18 24 30 6 12 18 24 30

TEST TEMP @ 1.0 mm/min, C

VFA REQUIREMENTS

SUPERPAVE GYRATORY COMPACTION EFFORT @ 4% AIR VOIDS

TRAFFIC, AVERAGE DESIGN HIGH AIR TEMPERATURE TRAFFIC, DESIGN

MILLION < 39 C 39 40 C 41 42 C 42 43 C MILLION VFA

ESALs N int N des N max N int N des N max N int N des N max N int N des N max ESALs (%)

< 0.3 7 68 104 7 74 114 7 78 121 7 82 127 < 0.3 70 80

<1 7 76 117 7 83 129 7 88 138 8 93 146 <1 65 78

<3 7 86 134 8 95 150 8 100 158 8 105 167 <3 65 78

< 10 8 96 152 8 106 169 8 113 181 9 119 192 < 10 65 75

< 30 8 109 174 9 121 195 9 128 208 9 135 220 < 30 65 75

< 100 9 126 204 9 139 228 9 146 240 10 153 253 < 100 65 75

100 9 142 233 10 158 262 10 165 275 10 177 288 100 65 75

NOMINAL MAXIMUM

9.5 12.5 19.0 25.0 37.5 SUPERPAVE GYRATORY N int N des N max

AGGREGATE SIZE (mm) COMPACTION

MINIMUM VMA ( % ) 15 14 13 12 11 PERCENT OF Gmm 89% 96% 98%

orizontal Curve or ulas

PI

D egree of urve, rc efinition I

PC = Point of Curve (also called BC)

PT = Point of Tangent (also called EC) E

T

PI = Point of Intersection T

I = Intersection Angle (also called ) 100.00

Angle Between Two Tangents M

L = Length of Curve, from PC to PT PC c LC PT

T = Tangent Distance

E = External Distance

R = Radius I/2 I/2

LC = Length of Long Chord

D

M = Length of Middle Ordinate R d

R

c = Length of Sub-Chord I

d = Angle of Sub-Chord

l = Curve Length for Sub-Chord

NOT TO SCALE

R = 5729.58

D

LC

2 sin _ I 2i

R=

T = R tan _ I 2i = LC

2 cos _ I 2i

LATITUDES AND DEPARTURES

L = RI r = I 100

180 D + Latitude

M = R 81 - cos _ I 2iB

Departure + Departure

R cos _ I 2i

E+ R=

R - M = cos _ I 2i

R

Latitude

c = 2R sin _ d 2i

l = Rd b r l

180

E = R= 1 - 1G

cos _ I 2i

Vertical Curve or ulas

x PVI

y E

PVT g

2

PVC FOR

TAN WARD

g1 GEN

T

CK NT

BA NGE YPVC

TA

DATUM

NOT TO SCALE

PVC = Point of vertical curvature a = Parabola constant

PVI = Point of vertical intersection y = Tangent offset

PVT = Point of vertical tangency E = Tangent offset at PVI = AL/800

g1 = Grade of back tangent r = Rate of change of grade

= Horizontal distance from PVC K = Rate of vertical curvature

to point on curve

g1 g1L

Horizontal distance to min/max elevation on curve = -

m= 2a = g1 - g2

Tangent elevation = YPVC + g1 and = YPVI + g2 ( L/2)

g2 g1 g g

E = ac 2 m r = 2 L 1

L 2 L

y = ax 2 a = 2L K= A

RT R R L S

Average End Area Formula, V = L(A1 + A2)/2

Prismoidal Formula, V = L (A1 + 4Am + A2)/6

where Am = area of mid-section

L = distance between A1 and A2

AREA FORMULAS

Area by Coordinates: Area = [XA (YB YN) + XB (YC YA) + XC (YD YB) + ... + XN (YA YN 1)] / 2

h1 + hn

w = common interval

2

n- 2 n- 1

n must be odd number of measurements

k = 3, 5, f k = 2, 4, f

only for Simpson s 1/ ule

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