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HEALTH CONDUCT IN INTERCOURSE
TAKEN FROM RABBI MOSHE MAIMON

MORDECHAI L. WILENSKY
Hebrew College, Boston, Mass.

It is well known that Maimonides, who was one of the greatest


Halakhic sages and philosophers in the history of our people,
was a great physician as well. He studied medicine during his
sojourn in Morocco after having fled from Spain due to reli-
gious persecutionby the Almohads.
In 1165, he settled in Egypt and practiced medicine for a
living. Aroundthe year 1181, he was appointedphysicianof the
Royal Court at Fustat in Cairo. He also continued to practice
medicine privately.
Not only did Maimonides practicemedicine, he wrote medi-
cal books as well, and some of these became well known already
duringhis lifetime. We know of ten or eleven medical treatises
that he wrote, all of them in Arabic.1The exception are the
medical matters which he discussed in Hilkhot De'ot2 (nl;n
nly') and also briefly in Shmonah Peraqim 3 (11'p5 r1Dinw)which
was written in Hebrew.
The Rambam's medical writings, some of which were trans-
lated shortly after his death together with those that remained
in the original Arabic, have only been published in scientific
editions duringthe past fifty years.

On Maimonides' medical writings see S. Muntner's article: r:ni: 5'lu


rn"i'n 7?2D,"Kl1nI;in the monthly "nXKSin",
vol. 47, 1953.
2
4, 19; 3, 2; 5, 4.
3 Chapter4.
102 MORDECHAI L. WILENSKY [2]
Among those writings,the most famous is PirqeiMoshe ('j7p
rnwn).This book, writtenin 1189, was translatedinto Hebrewin
1272 by Rabbi Zerahia Ben Shaltiel from Barcelona,and was
translated a second time, a few years later, by the physician
Rabbi Nathan ha-Meati (from the city of Cento in Italy) who
was called the Italian Ibn Tibbon. It was first published in
Hebrew (Lemberg, 1834) and was republished in a scientific
edition by Dr. Susman Muntner,Jerusalem, 1961.4
A second work by Maimonides, Hanhagat Ha-briut (n~nan
nlm'ln ) was writtenat the requestof the Sultanof Hamat (nrn)
Syria, Al-Facal Nur Al-Din, the eldest son to the famous
Saladin. This book was translatedinto Hebrew by Moshe Ibn
Tibbon in the year 1244, and was first published in Kerem
Hemed5 ('nn n1r) and republished in a scientific edition by
Muntner,Jerusalem, 1957.6
Before I discuss an unpublishedtreatise, which is the subject
of my presentation,I will discuss briefly two treatises of Mai-
monides whose subject is man's sexual life. Maimonides dis-
cusses this subject also in his other medical writings but these
two treatisesdeal with this subjectexclusively.The firsttreatise,
entitled Fi'L-Jima ("on intercourse"), contains ten short
chapters,and was written aroundthe year 1190, at the request
of the SultanAl Muzzafar,the nephew of Saladin,who ruled in
Hamat, Syria,duringthe years 1186-1191. The Sultanwho had
many wives and concubines consulted with Maimonides about
his sexual life. Maimonides counseled him regardinghis con-
duct and suggested various remedies to increase his sexual
desire.
This treatise was translated into Hebrew by the above-
mentioned Rabbi Zerahia Ben Shaltiel, entitled:A Treatiseon
the Frequencyof Intercourse(^rnn by lnn), and by an anon-

4D
rSl3rin r'nr (Medical Writings), Vol. 2.
5 Vol.
3, 1838, pp. 9-31.
6
Qb' 1,'i a,:nrD,vol. 1, pp. 27-85.
[3] HEALTHCONDUCT IN INTERCOURSE 103

ymous translator. The only Arabic copy is preserved in the


Granadalibrary,Spain.
These translationsare preservedin many manuscriptsin the
libraries of Munich, Parma, Paris, Vienna, the Bodleian in
Oxford, and in the libraryof the Jewish Theological Seminary
in New York.
The second treatise of Maimonides which exclusively dis-
cusses man's sexual life, also called Fi'L-Jima', contains nine-
teen chaptersand was also written at the requestof the Sultan,
Al Muzzafar.It discusses generalhealth care for the prevention
of sexual weakness and impotence. Maimonides lists at the
beginning of the treatise twenty-two prescriptions,which con-
sist mainly of foods, to increase the Sultan'spotency.
This treatise was translated by Muntner in his book The
Sexual Life (rP,,rn o,nt), Jerusalem, 1965.7 Muntner doubts
that Maimonides is the author of the second treatise, although
his authorshipis explicitly mentioned in it. MorrisGorlin, who
translated the two treatises from Arabic into English,8agrees
with Muntner that the second treatise was not written by
Maimonides and that it is "an unabridgedversion of the first."
The firstof the modern scholarsto discuss these two treatises
was Moritz Steinschneider who positively attributed their
authorshipto Maimonides.9In his book Die ArabischeLiteratur
der Juden, Steinschneidermentions that in 1901 he gave these
two treatises to Rabbi Doctor Herman Kroner for further
research.10Kroner published the two treatises and a German
translationof them in his book: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichteder
Medizin des XII Jahrhunderts,Oberdorf, 1906. The German
translation of the first treatise is based on the translations of

7 Pp.21-43.
8
Maimonides,"On SexualIntercourse,"Brooklyn,1961.
9 Die Hebraischen
Ubersetzungendes Mittelaltersund die Juden als Dol-
metscher,Berlin, 1893 (1956 edition, SS. 763-764); DieArabischeLiteraturder
Juden, Frankfurta/M, 1902, S. 213. See also Steinschneider'sarticle in Je-
shurun,Furth, 1866, S. 185.
'0 S.213.
104 MORDECHAIL. WILENSKY [4]
Rabbi Zerahia Ben Shaltiel and the anonymous translation
accordingto the Munich and Parma manuscripts.The second
treatise was publishedby Kronerin Arabic and Hebrewletters,
and he added a German translation in his above-mentioned
book Ein Beitrag zur Geschichteder Medizin ...
Kroner,aftera thoroughresearch,agreeswith Steinschneider's
opinionthatbothtreatiseswerewrittenby Maimonides.Muntner
published the first treatise as translatedby Rabbi ZerahiaBen
Shaltiel,Jerusalem,1965." As I mentioned earlierhe translated
and publishedthe second treatise,Jerusalem,1965.12
As I have alreadypointed out, the exclusive topic of these two
treatises written by Maimonides is man's sexual life. But this
topic is also discussed in the other medical writingsof Maimon-
ides. It is treatedin the above-mentionedPirqeiMoshe, chapter
17,13and the entire ninth paragraphof chapter 4 in Hanhagat
Ha-briutdeals with sexual intercourse.14
Moreover, Maimonides discusses this subject in Hilkhot
De'ot;'s it is further treated in his commentary to Mishna
Sanhedrin,16not to mention IssureiBi'ah in the Mishne Torah,
where Maimonides deals with sexual life from an exclusively
Halakhic perspective.
My present paper concerns a short treatise whose exclusive
topic is man's sexual life. To the best of my knowledge, this
treatise has not only never been published,but is not known or
mentioned in all of the research literature on Maimonides'
medical writings or in other studies on this subject
In the summer of 1967, during my stay in Leningradwhile
pursuing my researchwork at the Friedland Collection in the

I"K1'I;nD3:n1, vol. 4, pp. 47-62.


12 ,,njn by, pp. 21-43.
Dri:nn
13 S.213.
14
nXlID'I;'nD:l,vol. 1, pp. 72-74; see also medicalResponsaof Maimonides
edited by Muntner, 0rDSTltn D'n3fn, vol. 4, 1965, pp. 152-153.
15 The entire
paragraphof chapter4; see also there, chapter3, 2.
16
7, 4.
[5] HEALTHCONDUCT IN INTERCOURSE 105

libraryof Asian People,17I came across a collection of Karaitic


jw* n nmrnrmnmn"
treatises,on a smallworkentitled:"n'?mprn i
"(ny irnl) y"3',31J7in nw (Health Conduct from Rabbi Moshe
Maimon, May he Rest in Peace.) Owing to my research in
Hasidism, I postponed my study on this treatise,and especially
since I am not an expert on medical matters. I admit my
reluctanceto deal with it, and would like to mention that Kroner
who publishedthe above-mentionedtwo treatisesof Maimonides
on sexual intercourse,wrote in his introduction that he post-
poned their publicationbecauseof"Heikelkeit des Themas."
This treatise No. B 104 in the Friedland collection, was
included, as stated above, in a volume of Karaitic treatises. It
consists of three pages. The name of the copyist is not men-
tioned. I determinedthat these three pages constitute the entire
treatise, since the title is given at the beginningof the firstpage;
and at the end of page three, we find the inscription:
.(n3T
;ni y onix I-w
nr rqy- 1mi3 iL n antr
11n) "^y"x1
"Blessedbe He who gives strengthto the weary,and to him
that is faint increasesvigor,"18
as is the custom of many authors to conclude their treatises.

17 On Friedlandand his collection, see A.J. Katsch'sarticlein 0'*7p,, 3, New


York, 1963, pp. 169-191; see also: "Hebrewand Judean-Arabicin The Collec-
tions of U.S.S.R.," Trudy,vol. 23, pp. 421-430, Moscow, 1962.
The outstandingbibliographerSamuelWienerwas appointedin chargeof the
collection that was donated by Friedland to the museum of the Russian
Academy of Sciences in Peterburgat the end of the 19th century. Wiener
intendedto cataloguethe entire collection, includingthe manuscripts,but due
to the Bolshevic Revolution he cataloguedonly the printed books up to the
letter 'D in his "n,w'n',7p."The scholarElijahGinzburgattemptedto continue
Wiener'swork, but without success. See also H. Schirman'sreview on poetry
and liturgyfor the year 1963, in Kirjat-Sefer,vol. 39, 1964, p. 408.
A hand-writtenlist of all manuscriptsof the Friedlandcollectionis to be found
in the Libraryof AsianPeoplein Leningrad,and I wouldlike to expressmy deep
gratitudeto ProfessorKlaudiaStarkowa,distinguishedscholarand seniorlibrar-
ian for enablingme to makeuse of it, and permittingme to makephotographsof
many manuscriptsof the Friedlandcollection,amongthem this treatise.
18 Isa, 40, 29.
106 MORDECHAIL. WILENSKY [6]
We can also be certain that there are no missing pages in our
treatise, since at the end of each page the copyist wrote the first
word of the following page; lastly, the readercan clearly sense
the smooth flow of the content of this treatise.
This copy seems to have been writtenin the 17thcentury,and
apparentlywas copied by a Karaitic sage. Such is suggestedby
the handwriting.The experts in the manuscriptdepartmentof
the HebrewUniversity concur in this opinion, which is further
strengthenedby the fact that this work is included in a collec-
tion of Karaitictreatises of the 17th century.19
The problem with which I contended was whetherthe words
in the title of our treatise "y" 'i3,wa ;wn '"i nlmp"("takenfrom
Rabbi Moses Maimonides, may he rest in peace")indicate that
the treatise was summarized from the medical writings of
Maimonides or whether this was, in fact, a separate treatise
written by Maimonides.
After readingthe treatise carefullywe may only conclude that
the treatise is largelybased on Maimonides'medical worksand
specificiallyon Hilkhot De'ot, chapter 4, 19. There are certain
sentences in our treatise that appear almost word for word in
the Hilkhot De'ot, such as the lines 6-8 of page 1:
f137?X1=r11 1%1'
,'n111 ln y l rn11l rnln (yn7n
1awtD) inr1~'
yn nrii lry nxrlp aptnlmm* 1,t3i nmrnrryi vutn inl nrf? ioX1
" . .1 D 1113
"The sperm is the strengthof his body, its life, its light, and
he who discharges it excessively, his body wastes, his
strengthis drained,his eyes become dimmed, his teeth fall
out, old age creepsup upon him, and a bad odour emanates
from his mouth..."
The advice given in our treatise concerning the improper
time for sexual intercourse is also cited almost verbatim in
HilkhotDe'ot.
.. n
D*1 KK1.118f;1'l~ ~ Tn
InK D1S:K7 Kb ". 7'iyKT,1"
1*7 lnKNDa N.
t7P;7UV
."03'1

19 I publishedsome of these Karaitedocumentsin PAAJR,vol. 40, 1972.


[7] HEALTHCONDUCT IN INTERCOURSE 107

"Andhe shouldnot have sexualintercourse... on the day of


one's departureon a journey,nor on the day of one's return
... therefrom nor on the day one undergoes cupping."
Othercitations in our treatisefrom HilkhotDe'ot will be cited
in the notes to the Hebrewtreatiseitself at the end of this paper.
Some of the matters dealt with in our treatise are also
discussed by Maimonides in his other medical writings, in
Pirqei Moshe, chapter 17,20 and the entire paragraph 9 of
chapter4 in his Hanhagat Ha-briutdeals with the sexual life.21
At the end of our treatise, where the frequency of sexual
intercourseis discussed, we read:
*nn*?wnnwpnnlnn nslpn: ruwnunnx nmDsl 1n nx eya'onb
"He who controls his passion and decreasesthe frequency
of intercourseduringthe season of Tammuz and the season
of Tishrei is praiseworthy."
Maimonides deals with this matter, although he does not
mention specificallythe months of Tammuz and Tishrei, in his
"MedicalResponsa":
23'9nnnnlr an: n=1 22(rpn nn
rnn) ?=,~m: u'"yv
"He should decrease his sexual relations (in summer
time)22in contrastwith winter time."
Maimonidesin his above-mentionedtwo treatises,written at
the requestof the Sultan of Hamat, recommends specific foods
and beverages to increase sexual desire, and mentions others
from which one should refrain.In our treatise only one kind of
beverageis mentioned - the asparagus:
nC)l7O3bRS;1 1Xnn7
uta ra ... .lyy ^r
"and he should not have intercourse on the day that one
drinks asparagus."
20
See note. 13.
21
See note 14.
22
The words in the parenthesesdo not appearin the treatise.
23 Ib,'I'mn
U12M,vol. 4, p. 152; concerning the months preferred for sexual
intercoursediscussedin the Talmud, see in the notes to the treatise.
108 MORDECHAIL. WILENSKY [8]

This recommendationis repeated in our treatise:


m11;n ntpnn OySW?
"Nolsonlx nnwtn1 nvn 1f 91X: man tDr1
"and one who has very frequent sexual intercourseshould
limit cupping and refrainfrom drinkingasparagus."
It should be noted, however, that in Maimonides' treatises
the asparagusis recommendedto increase the Sultan'slust for
sexual intercourse24while in our treatiseasparagusis held as an
anaphrodisiac.It is not clear if "the asparagus"is the same in
both contexts. In Maimonides' treatise the asparagusis men-
tioned as a vegetable,while in our's it is clearlya beverage: r1:"
"OlD''n 1: nnttw. That the asparagus is considered as a food
and not as beverage is evident from Uvid Ibn Ali Alhakim's
treatise on sexual life.25
Towards the end of our treatise the connection between
sexual lust and the liver is discussed:
."mnn~ 11n'11l'Tw ylJlm 1= n UK: U1 1nT'1"
"Lustcomes from the liver and the sperm mainly from the
brain."
This connection between the brain and the sperm, the lust
and the liver is mentioned by the above-mentioned Arab
physician Uvid Ibn Ali in his treatise on sexual life.
26,"'~1; t~ ~llKn;J1:;5
'1~ "1; ?71 ?1"
Since our treatise, to the best of my knowledge,has never been
discussed in any study concerningMaimonides or other medi-
cal writings, we may assume that it was never published. The
experts on Maimonides may now turn their attention to this
short treatise for furtherresearch,and that will be my reward.

24 See chapter 4 of the first treatise ("m1'Sin D313D, vol. 4, p. 51) and
p. 24). See also
prescription 8 in the second treatise in Muntner's r,:,;ln "rnn;,
MorrisGorlin'stranslationsof the two Maimonidestreatises,Brooklyn,1961,
pp. 34, 36, and 64.
25 The treatisewas writtenin Arabicand was translatedinto Hebrewanony-

mously. The Hebrew translation was published in Muntner's 'rnalIn ,,nn,,


pp. 91-108, see p. 95: "IS1I'Kr' nf'1 ... lTn XIntWtn on...., "
26
See the above-mentionedtreatiseof Uvid Ibn Ali, ibid, p. 91.
7
Y" 11~Wnl
la8; 0113 111 t in ljp~ Ivnnnwain-1 P1,13"

ai13n'1 uXluOX1Inl ' '1'n 1 UI nv0'


a ^1,"X'?
X1' lKnV n 1
yK1ni1 n1T'' :3 yi
1Hlkhot De'ot,
4,? 19. See note 2 to Pth in troductiocopare
n; al15so
NIlnl rnl'1?i nD m
1 inlnl l, nK:: SyDn :WUnuyln DUY:yo 3 5^n

1tri 1 at theend of
Harizi's1VN'.T1n nlyl ,'pt i, Amsterd?am
1715;
n

.unnpnn-iYonyoptnnT
ssyvrin
KYn'
ryInwm
Compare
nni nl
i
i35 DOyi riiwyil
D'iiYp-i-i nvynn ninnix7 D:5,nnn 1
3n(Mun ytner
s eitin p.m n;se also
3
Maimonis son
tretiseon sexuallife, (Mu
ntner's p. 28; M. Gorli snMaimonides
(?)lln,
Unm^5 ny: mnlnw nrn;nll DTYlY"nYtOtU?WOl'?3yy
l'n1n lOtiDni 11U np: Kln': nulnl nuyin n5ya1? W ObYK1
K5DUn
er Brooklyn nn1961,
"oYnSexualnt course" p. 69).
Hilkhot
Dne'ot 4, ,19;comparealsoHarii
nin ' mn
ar t n
p'nm.
vlniDiinOnvn=U5ilsy 59winl xn'r3vinl pinwsv n n&T ,liy4 oxDptinn
.5'jlwnn ))n rL5y m31nn3?
5011nwsnU OX55ly= KX5v nni3i3 'Tln nX1 ox inT on 'llI pun
Q;ln
vixzi nOn11=5n l)rxIn n1n Xxvi Inlyi 1? )n ;iTwnpn ximpTmK'i1:
Q3 .b5ly:,w
wais
OKv"zi o able
iot to*identif
ny^I n "i.i isyn ?n y 11iv3ivww omin bvin
nxlvilthe
5=5
pT'n15 p4y Vunrnnn ln1) 1DWtUIn KiNl.n5l on iTni r5y 2i3nntnn
1i l5irDnlin -n)n init-tv in?t vtin nim l
=znn -)n5. .1n1i
wnb xmw

.nDD5lXW5K Hia ''1A1 n 't i Ksinn?U non?2 nvn,n


1n '1n n5s3w1ypn

1 Hilkhot
De'ot, 4, 19. See note 2 to the introduction; compare also J.
Harizi's n'11 Mn xl I at the end of 15on I pl 1, Amsterdam, 1715;
see also Tractate Shabbath 152a.
2 Ecc. 1.
8, 1.
Ecc.8,
3 I was not able to identify the "UMnM".
4 Proverbs 12, 25.
5 Compare ntIn';'7
(Muntner s edition) p. 148; see also Maimonides second
treatise on sexual life, (Muntner's ivn"n arnn, p. 28; M. Gorlin s Maimonides
"on Sexual intercourse" , Brooklyn 1961, p. 69).
6 Hilkhot De'ot, 4, 19; compare also Harizi's ! T1; n i 1x l.
110 MORDECHAIWILENSKY [ 10]
1i:Dio KX1DtKm 1K j KisO1'bI yi3lXK1W1UK
I1tnTl
Na' ly-i Kx1
3I n IKllntt
13 K?;t1' 3 ,'1 I
"'TD,I , 0"1 ,n 11. ,13n. 1n:rn InltlaI 110'l
ry3 ilmtn DynwTmK K5K OX15 pIr? 51VDniwl
w lKn nlwol3n a18iiizN w
.13p3 pw11:1
D1rprw or1' K 1in 13io1 D1io immiK1K
rmn1 0 l? 1inlyn 5y' Kni
' 9 '
Dr.1* ,
ln K'1,1151 '*n15In,'"1
"11 F1 1" 1 I1".1O 'n 1 1'ini rI I51
D.1

'on*I ,151Xl.n7I0 nm1,1 1S01 '15,1'


'X1 T1 0lytl Dn1
1"",
L" t I nnMn 'm1
lJtiY"n
,n13 Wo 1 Dn
nin3$nt 13^n ,nTn n:n:n: Tl
nnDHlk3 nn nnDot4, 19;wMedicl
n f 1 0 '3 n
oMaimonides,
n5p. 151
vol.nn , reonusa
1n i tl,, Ibi dvol.
1,3n p. 75;
Harizisnl pn, a Kl 3K1;
We. alsoH.Mal nwt
Shn ra
nTolnipnJosh Falae y "Treati
(his o thy
n
w SKOI
yITnnanl nwipnsI l itnitVU3in3'oi Ul
nln'13p ryi lymi nimpnm
1Sr nK mivi 5z DannlIKi .n1 n lnw K&1
m1 n5in XI=t n'?235y lTy, n^K1
."1n1w3nTin*"wftnnlpnl l nnnnsipnMruDn?wnn nx nmDl
13"wYi1ni '53 Dn

7 Hilkhot De'ot 4, 19; Medical responsa of Maimonides, D " Io D'D' 2 n ,


vol. 5 p. 151; nmx^an. nmn3n, Ibid vol. 1, p. 75; Harizi sn'.li1 nlMMlD1;
see also H. Malter: Shem Tob Ben Joseph Falaguera (his "Treatise on the
dream" aoln, nlmK);J.Q.R., N.S. vol. 1, pp. 470-477.
8 TractateGittin 70a; nly m*nl 4, 19; Harizi s ;rnlln nlN1.
9 See the introductionand notes 24 and 25. May I add that the asparagusis
mentionedin the TractateBerakhoth51a as a medicine,but not in connection
with sexual life.
.J3ynn 133'
I?w
fp r1 D"'y? 31D131? 1V'O11n1DO
:13I1 l3n
"OurRabbistaught:Asparagusbrewis good for the heartand good for the eyes,
and needlessto say, for the bowels";see also Rashi'scommentary,ad loc.
'0 Baba Qama 82a.
" On the connectionbetweenthe liver and the spermand its implication,see
above in the introductionand note 26.
12 See above in the introductionand note 23; see also Megillah 13a:
=nnn min -bryn wnn3
In gii rzU nl ,n3r l im n rn UKettolutnx15nr Uxlnom np7nrf

"So Estherwas taken unto king Ahasverusinto his house royal in the tenth
month, which is the month Tebheth,the month when body warmsup body".
13 See introduction.
.
l..ou, . ',01:), A,,A Q)aa. .

Val I >NKh
a,~L? I9Da
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a bh ^M60h: %)s2J*i %b",s 10*4??xu p' ds


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nyas

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