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Adapted for the Principles of Effective Pedagogy

Kara, Nancy

Transition to Fractions

Day 2

Connection to Students:

This previous week, we once again started with the seeing numbers activity.

This has become our beginning activity. Throughout the weeks, it continues to

engage and prepare the students for the rest of the math lesson. Students

attempted to solve the dots in multiple ways and many wanted to continue this

activity for the rest of the lesson. This week, we will expand on this once again.

We will go through the beginning section of this as routine, but towards the end

we will attempt to give the students a variety, as well as (deciding for themselves

what to do) by creating their own dot cards for others in the group to share.

This past week, we began a discussion of fractions. We had worked with

contextual word problems, a variation of a number string, with the last two

problems requiring the students to split some of the items into fractions. For

example, we had three pizzas divided between two people. One of the students

realized straight away that this was one and a half. He explained he knew this

because each person got one then you split the third one. However, because he

shouted the answer in the beginning we believe this influenced the work of the

other students. Within these word problems, the students understood that the

pizzas or brownies had to be split between the people, this was the word they

used often- split, but they did not touch on the topic of these parts being equal.

This is what we believe we should expand on. Although our end activity from the

last week would have clarified this, we ran out of time to move on. This is why we

are moving it to our main activity for the week, to ensure that students will be

able to get to this.

As an ending activity, we are doing fraction war in an effort to have the

students discuss the size of fractions compared to one another. We chose this

activity because it is somewhat of a game to end these lessons on a positive note.

As well, we have done a similar activity with multiplication war that the students

enjoyed and were engaged in.

Learning Objectives: What are the Assessments: How will the students

students supposed to know, understand and I know how they are progressing

and/or be able to do? on the learning objectives?

parts

SWBAT able to apply different strategies During the seeing the numbers

when counting dots on dot cards and will activity, I will take notes on their

be able to explain why those strategies multiplication, addition, and division

work. strategies, and ensure they are using

different strategies. I will also take

notes on the strategies they use

when partitioning the shapes. They

will be able to do these activities with

at least two different strategies. I

will also ask them questions to

confirm their understanding of the

activity. I will ask the students to

share one of their strategies they

used to ensure that they have an

understanding of why they are

solving it this way.

number of parts, and they will have to fractions, I will ensure that the

explain their reason behind their fractions they create using the

partitioning. cutting fractions activity do, in fact,

create equal fractions. I will be

looking particularly for the correct

number of pieces or equal sizes and

the ability to explain or prove their

thinking.

SWBAT develop a deeper understanding of During the ending game, I will also

which fractions are bigger than others and be taking notes on their reasoning

why, in the ending game. behind choosing which was larger.

Language: Language:

SWBAT listen to other students ideas and I will be checking for students

reasoning share their strategies for solving understanding of their strategies by

the seeing numbers based activity and the their ability to explain their thought

partitioning shapes activity. They will be process. The students will be able to

able to use vocabulary relevant to this write the other students equation as

lesson such as divide, grouping, half, explained through their circling. I

fraction, and share. will also be ensuring that they are

using the vocabulary properly when

the opportunity arises. Note which

words students are using.

Social/Affective:

SWBAT work with each other, help each Social/Affective:

other, and also respect each others ideas. I will be able to ensure that students

They will be able to actively listen to the are working well together during the

person talking. activities. The students will be asked

how well they expressed their ideas

and how well they felt they listened

during activities by giving a thumbs

up, down, or sideways.

Identify content and process standards.

PS.1, 4.NS.1, 4.NS.3, 4.NS.5

Resources/Materials:

Pencil, Paper, Colored Pencils/Markers, Scissors, Shape Sheets, Partitioned Shape

Cards, Graph Paper, Deck of cards (minus the face cards), Template for game

actions in detail. teacher actions in detail.

Students will discuss their week and lives I will begin by asking students how

with the teachers. Such as how their their week is going and discussing

Spring Break was. their lives. Such as how their Spring

Break was.

The students will once again be working

with a version of seeing numbers, which We have been continuing a tradition

has been our beginning routine for our of seeing numbers with our students

division, and now our division into because they really enjoy it, get

fractions section. This is an activity that involved, and grow as

consistently engages the students and mathematicians from it. Therefore

prepares them for the rest of the lesson. this week we will continue the trend

We will do the seeing numbers with dot by looking at seeing numbers with

cards. dot cards.

Seeing Numbers

The students will be working with the Seeing Numbers

Seeing Numbers activity. The students We will have dot cards that will

will look at the dot card shown to them by contain dots in various groups

the teacher and try to figure out how (similar to those on a dice). We will

many dots are on the page. Then, they show these to the students and ask

will turn to their buddy and share what how many dots are on the page.

they got, and whether they agree or Though there will be, for example, 30

disagree with one another. They will also dots on the page. The dots will be

share how they got their answer. The arranged into six groups of five.

teachers may begin to flash the cards at This gets the students used to seeing

the students quicker, in order an attempt numbers in groups to get the whole

to get the students to group the dots number. We will show these to the

together rather than counting all. students. They will try to decide how

However, the students will still share and many dots are on the page. Once

discuss their answer and process as a everyone has a number, they will

whole group discussion. turn and talk with their buddy to see

whether they agree or disagree with

each others answers. Then they will

explain how they got their answers

as a whole group discussion. This will

be repeated with the dot cards. If

the students seem to be catching on

quickly, we may try flashing the

cards at the students to see if they

are able to quickly arrange into, and

count the groups, rather than the

dots, as is the goal. We will still

have the students sharing with one

another how many dots they got and

how they got this answer.

Expanding upon this activity, the students To expand upon this activity, we will

will create their own dot cards. They will allow the students to create their

each take a blank piece of paper and own dot cards. We will give each

create an arrangement of dots in an array, student a blank piece of paper and

randomly, or in clear groups of numbers. tell them to create an arrangement

Next, they will rotate their dot cards of dots. We will clarify that this can

around the table. They will try to solve be done in an array format,

the new group of dots that they have randomly, or in somewhat clear

using a visual method, such as circling. groups of numbers. After they are

Then they will trade with another student. given time to create this, they will

trade papers with another student. They rotate their dot cards and try to solve

will have to explain their method to their someone elses creation using only

partner, while their partner writes an circling, which the students often go

equation for their explanation and vice to first. Then, they will trade papers

versa. with another student. They will have

to explain their method to their

partner, while their partner writes an

equation for their explanation and

vice versa.

Students will divide a square printed on a In this activity all students will

piece of paper into two equal sections remain together. This activity will be

however they would like. They then will the beginning stepping stone for

discuss in pairs how they could prove that fractions as we explore partitioning

the sections are in fact of equal size. They shapes. I will give the students a

then will chose one way to share with the square printed on a piece of paper. I

whole group. They then may repeat pair will ask the students to divide the

sharing in order to come up with a plan paper into two equal sections. We

that involves scissors to prove that they will refer to the shapes and dividing

are the same size. Then students will them as if they were cakes. Cakes,

begin to actually cut their partitioned that they will be dividing into equal

squares to compare the two parts. This pieces to be shared amongst a

process will continue with five more particular number of people. After

shapes. They will be able to talk each student finishes they will give

throughout. me a thumbs up. Once all have

finished I will ask them to prove to

me that they are equal sections. I

will have them pair share ways that

they believe that they could prove

that the sections they made are

equal. I then will have them share

one idea with the big group. If the

students do not come up with the

idea of cutting them out or lining

them up I will nudge them by asking

what if I gave you all a pair of

scissors, what could you do then? I

will again allow for responses from

the whole group. If no one shares. I

will have them turn and talk with a

partner then have them share out

with the whole group again. I will

then give the students scissors. Then

the students will cut out the square

and cut out the parts they created.

Once they have finished cutting out

the parts they will lay them on top of

the other to prove that they are

equal parts. This process will be

continued with other shapes. We will

then have them partition:

-a triangle into three equal parts

-a hexagon into four equal parts

-a rectangle into six equal parts

Challenges:

-a circle into nine equal parts

-an octagon into sixteen equal parts

(Including challenge problems

because our students really respond

to them and creates a sense that

they are proficient mathematicians

within themselves.It gets them

excited.)

After each shape we will discuss how

they divided the shape differently

while still creating the needed

number of equal parts. Throughout

the entire activity students will be

END allowed to discuss and talk with their

peers about the topic at hand.

Students will be playing a game in pairs.

These pairs will be made by the teacher

based on her knowledge of who works well 10-15 min. END (SUMMARIZE):

together and how they will be able to grow

as mathematicians. This game is a In this end activity, students will be

playing a game in pairs. The pairs

version of the game of war. Students will

will be Neshila and TaNia, Audrey

be flipping over two cards one on top of and Mercy, and Huggo and Jaylind.

each other onto a template. Their buddy We are pairing them this way

will also do the same. They then will work because they tend to work well and

to see which fraction is the highest. The grow as mathematicians when

person with the highest fraction will get working in such pairs. This game is a

both sets of cards. This game pattern will version of the game of war. Students

will be flipping over two cards one on

continue until a student runs out of

top of each other onto a template,

enough cards to play. Each number card one card as the numerator and one

value will remain the same and jack, card as the denominator. Their

queen, and king will be see as 10s. Aces buddy will also do the same. They

will be seen as 1s (a note will be placed then will work to see which fraction is

on each of these cards). the highest. The person with the

highest fraction will get both sets of

cards. This game pattern will

continue until a student runs out of

enough cards to play. Each number

card value will remain the same and

At the end, students will answer the jack, queen, and king will be see as

question of how well they felt they 10s. Aces will be seen as 1s (a note

will be placed on each of these

expressed their ideas and listened to one

cards).

another by using a thumbs up, down, or

sideways. At the end of this activity I will ask

the student how well they feel they

expressed their ideas and listened to

one another by a thumbs up, down,

or sideways, as per the assessments

portion.

Discuss when/how at least 3 of the principles of effective pedagogy (JPA,

LLD, CTX, CA) were addressed.

CTX: Students will be able to connect the division problems at the middle/end of

the lesson with their lives and interests. They will also bring with them any prior

knowledge they have of division, such as from activities and discussions this

previous week. As well, we attempted to expand on a previous activity (seeing

numbers and our version of the number string) that was very engaging for the

students.

LLD:Students will be involved in discussions about different strategies for division.

They will also be engaged in discussion about what fractions are, why, and what

constitutes a fraction.

JPA: We will be working to create problems and activities that will strengthen

students and will help them gain mathematical fluency. They will be working

together to discuss and solve the division problems, as well as, working together

to discuss what fractions are and how to create them.

CA: This activity is challenging because it causes the students to solve a problem

multiple ways as well as explain their thinking and reasoning behind their

strategies used. Additionally, this activity is challenging because it is beginning a

transition into fractions. This concept of fractions and dividing the whole may be

challenging for some students to grasp.

Differentiation:

Discuss how you adapted engagement activities and/or assessments to meet the

instructional needs of each student? Specifically attend to how your lesson has

been constructed to support particular students in your classroom.

Students will be again using a seeing numbers activity as our opening routine.

This can be geared up or down based on the amount of time that is given to the

students. If they are having difficulty the card may be given to them or held up

longer. On the other hand, if students are finding the task too easy, they may

have the card flashed at them, causing them to work faster to see the numbers.

The students will also have a differentiation within the cutting shapes activity. If

it is easier for them to cut, they may do that, or if folding works better they may

be able to use that as well. As a way to gear up or down is either with the shapes

used or the fraction asked to create. If the students are struggling with one

shape, they will be able to gear up or down to another one. As well, if halves

become too easy, they may gear up to fourths, eighths, etc.

The time allowed to discuss before a final answer is given is a differentiation for

the concluding activity. With this being said they do not have to make it through a

whole game, as long as they are working diligently/on task.

Shapes:

(see other attached document)

Game Template:

(see next page)

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