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TABLE OF CONTENTS
2
CHAPTER 1
Biodiversity

3
CHAPTER 2
Classification

5
CHAPTER 3
Conservation

7
CHAPTER 4
Energy and Respiration

10
CHAPTER 5
Photosynthesis

13
CHAPTER 6
Inherited Change

18
CHAPTER 7
Selection and Evolution

21 Homeostasis
CHAPTER 8

25
CHAPTER 9
Coordination

30
CHAPTER 10
Genetic Engineering

CIE A2 LEVEL- BIOLOGY [9700]
1. BIODIVERSITY To do this we use means of Random sampling such as:
 Quadrat
1.1 Terms  Mark and release
 Species: is a group of organisms with similar  Simpson’s index
morphological and physiological features, which can The importance of random sampling is that a habitat may
interbreed to produce fertile offspring and are be too large and too great for actual counting so a sample
reproductively isolated from other species. is quick and gives a representation of the whole habitat.
 Ecosystem: is a relatively self-contained, interacting 1.5 Random Sampling
community of organisms, and the environment in which
Quadrat sampling:
they live and with which they interact.
 Marks of a specific area
 Niche: is the role of an organism in an ecosystem (it is
 Take measurement of abundance of specific species
how an organism fits into the ecosystem).
 Usually used with species that are stationary
1.2 Biodiversity  Samples are taken randomly to avoid any bias and
increase accuracy of estimate
Biodiversity: The variety of species in an area along with
their variation within species and the genetic diversity  2 ways to use your results:
between them. o Species frequency: is the measure of the chance of a
The three levels of diversity: particular species being found in any one quadrant.
 Variation of ecosystems and habitats ??. ?? ?????????
× 100
 Number of different species in the ecosystem and their ??. ?? ????????
relative abundance o Species density: is a measure of how many individuals
 Genetic variation within species there are per unit area.
????? ??. ?? ??????????
 Uses of maintaining biodiversity: Units: m-2
????? ???? ?? ??? ????????
o Maintains stability of ecosystem; preventing extinction
o Maintains large gene pool (genetic variation) A method was created due to it being difficult weather to
o Ecosystems provide ‘services’ for humans measure a plant as a whole or as not at all from its
o Species can be source of new medicines percentage cover, this is the Braun-Blanquet scale.
o Resource such as food and wood
o Leisure for humans to see in zoos; ecotourism
o Climate stability

1.3 Genetic Diversity
 Is the diversity of the alleles within the genes in the
genome of a single species
Mark-release and recapture:
 A species can all have the same genes, but different  Used with mobile animals
alleles for those genes. Genetic diversity is assessed by o As many individuals possible are caught
finding proportion of genes with different alleles and o Each individual is marked in a way that would not
how many alleles there are per gene. affect its chance of survival or reproduction
o The marked individuals are counted and returned back
1.4 Species Diversity
to their habitat to mix randomly
 The number of species in a community is known as
o After enough time elapses for mixing to take place,
species richness
capture another sample
 Species diversity, takes species richness into account, o Number of marked and unmarked counted and used
but also includes evenness of abundance of each species to calculate estimate of population
In species diversity there are two points that need to be ??. ?? 1?? ?????? (??????) × ??. ?? 2?? ?????? (?????)
found and they are distribution and abundance.
??. ?????? ?? ?????? ??????

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 Belt transect 1.7 Correlation individuals.110 C 192 0.201 Pearson’s correlation coefficient ? = 1 – 0.010 G 207 0. plot it above Number of and below the line (from 0) ? ? Species individuals . then null hypothesis is rejected.000 E 83 0.030 D 14 0.201 = 0.010 Total no. as: Over  Two variables does not matter which on x/y axis o Difficult to memorize & absorb For  Quantitate data as measurements or counts info. CLASSIFICATION Dashing  You can see this if the graph does 2.6 Systematic Sampling Spearman’s rank correlation  Used in areas where conditions such as altitude. if rs is greater. of ? 2 1.1 Taxonomic Hierarchy King not appear skewed or has  Biologists created a process called Phillip obvious outliers Came classification to arrange organisms  Must have linear correlation into groups.g.BIOLOGY [9700] 1. which involves The value of r is always between -1 and 1 placing organisms in a series of taxonomic units. use this formula will calculate the diversity ? 2 ? = 1 − (?) where n is the total number of organisms of a particular Drawing a kite diagram species.00 B 367 0.n (?) Shore A A 24 0. of each species separately ??? − ?̅ ?̅ Great ?= o Taxonomy is the study &practice ??? ?? Spaghetti of classification.035 H 108 0. 6 in this case  Value of D ranges from 0 to 1(1 being highly diverse)  Give each species 6 spaces  Advantage: do not have to identify organisms to  Draw a straight line of 0 through the middle calculate diversity  Divide the number you are plotting by two. meaning there is a correlation. N 1107 ? (?) = 0.006 F 112 0. Page 3 of 34 . pH or exposure to light intensity varies 6 × ?? 2 ?? = 1 − ( 3 )  2 types of sampling: ? −?  Line transect  The closer the value is to 1 the more likely it is that there The number of organisms found at regular points along is a correlation between the two sets of data a line are noted  The rs value you calculated is then compared with the critical value. soil  Used when data not normally distributed moisture content.8 Simpson’s Index of Diversity The abundance of organisms within quadrats placed at  After abundance of species is calculated in the area you regular intervals are studying.799 ∴ high diversity  Data must be distributed normally 2. o These taxa form a hierarchy which helps to group in order to become more specific. CIE A2 LEVEL. and N is the number of all species  Find the highest value from the table e.

with DNA arranged as Nucleus has strands of DNA and small has strands of DNA and small linear chromosomes with circular Plasmids circular Plasmids histone proteins Membrane No membrane bound organelle Present bound organelle 70S ribosomes but have 80S ribosomes in the sytosol. Ribosomes 70S ribosomes features that are similar to but also has 70S in mito/chloro eukaryotic Cell division Binary fission Mitosis Always present and contains Cell wall present. Large such a Communication by nervous mushrooms produced by system compacted masses of hyphae Page 4 of 34 . or exist as group Do not have chlorophyll so Specialized cells of similar cells cannot photosynthesize Heterotrophic nutrition. Size Usually single cell or small groups of cells colonial(group mutual benefit) and multicellular Archaea’s metabolism is similar to that of bacteria.2 Domain Three domains: Feature Bacteria Archaea Eucarya No nucleus . but no Present sometimes (cellulose) Cell wall peptidoglycan peptidoglycan and has cell membrane Many forms: unicellular . Heterotrophic nutrition- Autotrophic. but No nucleus . no histone.BIOLOGY [9700] 2.Some have Some animal like cells (no feed as parasites and rely on others to make chloroplast and cell wall)  Protozoans getting organic compounds their food or get their photosynthesize from other organisms energy Cell vacuoles are small and Plant like (cellulose cell Reproduce by means of Cells have large permanent temporary like lysosomes walls and chloroplast) algae spores vacuoles and food vacuoles. but the way transcription occurs much in common with eukarya 2. has histone. CIE A2 LEVEL. Cell wall made up of chitin Cell walls always present No cell walls or other substances and made up of cellulose May occasionally have Cells sometimes have cilia Never have cilia or flagella flagella or flagella Simple can be unicellular or made up of long threads of hyphae.3 Kingdoms Protoctista Fungi Plantae Animalia Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Multicellular. differentiated to form tissues and organs Single cell. but Present.

1 Threats to Biodiversity o Increase in Disease alien species could also introduce Five major threats to biodiversity: diseases  Habitat loss and degradation of environment  Push species to extinction  Climate change  Introduce diseases  Excessive use of fertilizers and industrial and domestic  Compete for resources forms of pollution  Impact biodiversity  Over exploitation and unsustainable use of resources  soil degradation. Page 5 of 34 . run-off. single or double. organisms and habitats of earth. It can be important for o Climate change: a simple climate change can effect studying and also income due to tourism.BIOLOGY [9700] Viruses are not classified in the 3 domain classes as they o Coral reefs alone are one of the most diverse are considered dead (they don’t undergo MRS GREN). o Also some non-biodegradable such as plastic can be Taxonomic system for viruses: mistakenly eaten by turtles mistaking it for jelly fish. CIE A2 LEVEL. they use the biochemical machinery of PBCs enter our food chains and this effects our immune the host cells to copy their nucleic acids and make their systems and reduces fertility. from organic waste to factories. Also organic wastes can act like fertilizers for crops nutrition requirements. This has happened by trading 3.  Structure only visible by electron microscope o Pollution caused by industries and domestic such as  Acellular. fishing and poaching. RNA is single stranded but in viruses both can be either o Over exploitation: hunting. They have they do not have any of the features that are used in the been destroyed due to overfishing. also ecosystems. yielding and useful characteristics. As it material e.  Whether nucleic acid is double/single stranded o Air pollution causes acid rain and as mentioned earlier Note: in cellular organism’s DNA is double stranded and would affect aquatic life and vegetation. o Alien species: are invasive species that moved from one ecosystem to another.g. Substances such a  When infected. as they value are displaced (habitat fragmentation) or destroyed. plants and animals as they may not be able to adjust. oxygen and carbon levels constant.2 Why does Biodiversity Matter? functionally unable to support the species present.  Is based on the diseases which they cause o Fertilizers can drain into rivers causing eutrophication  Type of nucleic acid they contain (DNA or RNA) which kills all species life in that ecosystem. CONSERVATION animals. In  Moral and ethical: some people believe we have no this process. mining and fertilizer classification. o Acidification/temp rise of the oceans can destroy the  Other services: plants have an important role in keeping aquatic life such as coral reefs. algae and molluscs. selective/genetic/inter breading of crops acts as a barrier that traps heat causing global warming and animals to introduce more useful alleles to increase which in return causes rise in sea levels. other species and believe we must share the planet. reducing biodiversity and leading to extinction in  Ecological: loss of species can cause an unbalance which extreme cases. unwittingly carrying them on ships and finally used to control pests.  Social and commercial: animals or plants that are This change is also caused by greenhouse gases that we important to the economy of countries for food or raw emit to the air. effecting  Infectious but have no metabolism when they are free animals’ metabolism or excretion. o Deforestation: leads to severe land degradation as a  Aesthetic: many people like to enjoy the variety of result of soil erosion. We rely on them for protection. proteins  destruction of host cell. the organisms that previously used the site right to cause extinction of other species. and erosion  Alien species o Habitat loss: process in which habitat is rendered 3.they do not have cellular structure like sewage and toxic industrial waste is sometimes with no bacteria and fungi treatment leaked into the environment. may have implications for the survival of other species. 3.

3 Protecting Endangered Species  Disadvantages: Zoo: has a variety of functions in addition to providing o Possibility of altering genetic diversity enjoyment and interest for visitors who can study o Gene pool decreases animals they would not be able to see otherwise. eggs. CIE A2 LEVEL. for later use to be reintroduced to 3. o Teaches how conservation takes place habitat requirements and ways to increase genetic o Animals are not moved from natural environment diversity o Closer feel to wildlife than zoos  Disadvantages:  Disadvantages: o Not all conservation attempts are a success o Threats are still so great some species have to be o Animals can refuse to breed in captivity moved o Sometimes not possible to create suitable habitats o Animals are restricted in specific area (cannot migrate) o Difficult for animals to adapt to wildlife as they were used to being cared for.  Culling: is the process of killing/moving animals from a  Advantages: breeding stock based on specific criteria or due to it o Protect endangered plant species becoming a fast growing population o Research methods of reproduction and growth. seeds or cuttings are collected from species in the wild and stored.BIOLOGY [9700] 3. 3. so the embryo is Botanic gardens: are similar to zoos for endangered flushed out and transferred to surrogate mothers.g.4 Methods of Assisted Reproduction o Does not have the skills required to survive: Assisted reproduction is a solution for inbreeding problems.90% success.5 Culling and Contraceptives their natural habitats. and where human activity is breed so that in the long term they could reintroduce limited. o Agreement signed by 145 countries Page 6 of 34 . When injected antibodies against glycoproteins o Educate public in the roles of plants in our ecosystem stop sperm from fertilizing the egg . sperm. Zoos do not have to transport large mammals  Avoid predators for their captive breeding programs instead their sperm is  Find food taken and stored in a sperm bank.  Advantages: o Maintain genetic diversity by breading with different o Restricts humans from fishing and hunting males. and environment have some form of protection o Provide protection for endangered species and captive controlled by government.  Rear their own  Artificial insemination (AI): is where a sperm is inserted Frozen zoos & seed banks: storage facility in which into the vagina and inserted in the uterus using a genetic materials taken from animals (e. o Some plants are difficult to be dried and frozen  Advantages: Conserved areas (national parks): set areas where wildlife o Protected. Each 5 years seeds  CITES carry out germination tests.6 Non-Governmental Organizations that if any plant becomes extinct there would be seeds. DNA. and cannot be risked with pregnancy. properly fed and given veterinary attention. o Tourism gains money to the country o Research to better understand breeding habits. embryos and live tissue) are gathered and stored at very low temperatures for optimal preservation over a  Embryo transfer: is used when the animal is endangered long period. catheter. so  Birth control: they can be grown in appropriate conditions o Vasectomy (cutting male sperm duct) o Research conservation methods so plants introduced o Steroid hormones to new habitats o Vaccine which targets layer of glycoprotein around the o Reintroduce species egg. plants. International conservational organization like: which they can be grown from. them to their natural habitat. and their economic value o Contains seed banks where plant seeds are stored so 3.

 Small scale e. is when a farmer decides to plant trees on land that is no longer needed or has become 4. after centuries of deforestation. chemical potential energy therefore if oxygen available but from changes in chemical potential energy. Oxidative phosphorylation Glycolysis 4. Page 7 of 34 . or lysis.g. soil erosion and as a fuel severe land degradation in Haiti.BIOLOGY [9700] o Controls trade in endangered and products from them  ATP is readily hydrolysed to release energy e. of glucose to form 2 molecules of pyruvate (3C) which occurs in the Cytoplasm of the cell 4.g.7 Restoring degraded habitats Only oxidative phosphorylation requires oxygen as the it is needed to combines with electron/proton in the  Conservation involves restoring areas that have been final acceptor. About 70% of the countries land is 2. such as protein synthesis  Active transport of substances such as the sodium potassium pump  Muscle contraction and cellular movement such as flagella or cilia  Maintaining body temperature 4. ENERGY AND RESPIRATION Is the splitting. CIE A2 LEVEL.5 KJ mol-1 Net Gain 2 ATP and 2 Reduced NAD Pi Pi Pi  The end product. Glycolysis restore forests.1 Energy  First stage is phosphorylating glucose using 2 ATP. Link reaction unsuitable for agriculture. 3.g. still contains large amount of Note: Energy does not come from breaking these bonds. Krebs cycle oxygen present 4. skin and ivory  Immediate source of energy o It has appendices which list endangered species  Small and water soluble. this is Energy is needed for work in living organisms e. fur. then Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is continued to make use of this energy.3 Respiration degraded by overuse Respiration is the process in which organic molecules act e.5 KJ mol-1 30. No ETC would mean no proton gradient degraded by human activity or by natural catastrophes produced ∴ Chemiosmosis does not occur. easily transported around cell according to set criteria  Pi is a good leaving group. efforts are made to 1. then practice to obtain  Links anabolic and catabolic reactions this product rises. pyruvate. There are numerous tree planting projects to rescue the agriculture.5 KJ mol-1 30. as ATP synthase can efficiently Species don’t always benefit from this organization as reattach the Pi to ADP.g: done so that the reaction is easier  Anabolic reactions: synthesizing complex substances from its monomers.  ATP is produced from a variety of reactions  WWF .World Wide Fund of Nature ATP synthesis o Campaigning group for wildlife conservation ATP can be synthesized by two routes o Funds conservation projects Substrate linked Chemiosmosis o Publicizes environmental issues  Glycolysis  Oxidative o Campaigns to save ecosystems  Krebs cycle phosphorylation & ETC 3.2 ATP Adaptation for Universal Energy Currency ATP + H2O ADP + H2O AMP + H2O Adenosine 30. when a product becomes illegal.

some energy to transport ADP into the Reduced FAD mitochondrion and ATP into the cytoplasm ∴ 5C Realistically NAD FAD  Reduced NAD produces 2.5 molecules of ATP Reduced  Reduced FAD produces 1. it acts as  H+ then move down conc.5 molecules of ATP ATP NAD CO2 Net Gain  Most ATP produced 28 molecules of ATP ADP Balance Sheet of ATP produced 4C ATP used ATP made Net ATP  2CO2 Glycolysis -2 4 +2  1 Reduced FAD Link reaction 0 0 0 Net Gain Krebs Cycle 0 2 +2  3 Reduced NAD Oxidative  1 ATP 0 28 +28 phosphorylation Note: Remember there is 2 acetyl CoA molecules so net gain is 2 times Total -2 34 +32 Page 8 of 34 . also occurs while the hydrogen passes  Reduced NAD through the ATP synthase and uses hydrogens electrical Note: Remember there is 2 pyruvate molecules formed potential energy for chemiosmosis in glycolysis so net gain is 2 times Krebs Cycle Closed pathway of enzyme controlled reactions which also occurs in the matrix  Although reaction is part of aerobic respiration the reactions make use of no oxygen it is only necessary for oxidative phosphorylation Acetyl (2C) CoA CoA Oxaloacetate 6C Reduced NAD NAD Theoretically CO2  Reduced NAD produces 3 molecules of ATP NAD  Reduced FAD produces 2 molecules of ATP Reduced NAD However. which is the removal of CO2 inner mitochondrial membrane (Cristae)  Dehydrogenation also occurs: removal of H2  Reduced NAD and FAD are passed to the electron Pyruvate (3C) transport chain NAD  Reduced NADs and FADS release Hydrogen which then Reduced NAD CO2 splits up into H+ and 2e-  Electrons flow down ETC release energy to pump H+ ions Acetyl (2C) CoA from the matrix to the intermembrane space producing  Coenzyme A is a complex molecule composed of a proton gradient nucleoside (adenine plus ribose) with Vitamin. gradient through ATP synthase a carrier for acetyl groups to the Krebs cycle and form H2O by combining with oxygen and the 2e- Net Gain  CO2  ADP + Pi  ATP .BIOLOGY [9700] Link Reaction Oxidative Phosphorylation and the Electron transport  Occurs in the Matrix of mitochondrion therefore must chain (ETC) require pyruvate to actively be transported into matrix This stage chemiosmosis occurs which takes place in the  Decarboxylation occurs. CIE A2 LEVEL.

0  Then pyruvate is decarboxylated to ethanal and then Lipid 0. An alternative  This is because most of the energy liberated in H acceptor (pyruvate) is reduced hence producing lactate respiration comes from oxidation of hydrogen to water In plants  To calculate the energy value of a substance burn a known mass with oxygen in a calorimeter  The energy is determined by the rise in temp of the water Carbohydrate Protein Lipid Respiratory quotient (??) it is used to show what substrate is being used in respiration. it can also show whether or not anaerobic respiration is occurring ?????? ?? ??2 ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? = ?????? ?? ?2 ????? ?? ??? ???? ????  Glycolysis takes place normally Respiratory substrate Respiratory quotient (RQ) Carbohydrate 1.5 Respiratory substrate When no oxygen is present hydrogen can not be disposed  The more hydrogens per molecule a substance has the in the ETC therefore chain stops and reduced NAD not more energy or energy density oxidised hence soon Krebs cycle also stops.BIOLOGY [9700] 4.9 dehydrogenase  When values are closer to infinity or higher than 1.7 reduced to ethanol by the enzyme alcohol Protein 0. always has parts such as leaves and flowers above water  Contains loosely packed aerenchyma cells in the cortex of stems (formed by cell death) allowing diffusion for oxygen to be transported easily to areas deprived  Contains ridges to trap oxygen underwater  Can tolerate high levels of ethanol  Produce more alcohol dehydrogenase which breaks  Pyruvate is reduced to lactate by the enzyme lactate down ethanol dehydrogenase  Ethanol stimulates gibberellin.0 this  Reaction can not be reversed shows that aerobic respiration is occurring  This conversion is called alcoholic fermentation  No RQ value for muscle cells as only lactate is produced In animals with no CO2 being produced 4.4 Respiration without Oxygen 4. CIE A2 LEVEL. which in turn stimulates  Reaction could be reversed also by the same enzyme cell division hence increasing length  This happens by transporting the lactate produced to the liver by the blood plasma and is converted back to pyruvate  Some (about 20%) is oxidized directly to form CO2 and H2O in the liver when oxygen is available  The remainder is converted by the liver to form glycogen Page 9 of 34 .6 Adaptations of rice for wet fields  Can respond to flooding by growing taller.

ETC  Grana: stacks of thylakoid membranes o Enclose hydrogen reservoir used in chemiosmosis  Lamella: extensions forming a network between grana  Stroma: Rubisco catalyses light independent reaction  Starch granule → insoluble storage carbohydrate product of photosynthesis Adaptation of palisade tissue:  Contain large numbers of chloroplasts 1. The Electrons then recombine with a proton to form a hydrogen atom. and  Large vacuole helps in pushing chloroplast to edge of cell the energy is passed onto primary pigment (chlorophyll?)  Chloroplasts at edge short diffusion path for carbon exciting primary pigments electrons (photoactivation) to dioxide and absorb maximum light a higher energy level causing them to escape and also  Chloroplasts can move towards light and away from causes the splitting (or photolysis) of water molecules intense light to avoid damage 2?2 ? → ?2 + 4? + + 4? −  Elongated & arranged to intercept maximum light o Oxygen diffuses out of the chloroplast and into the air  Closely packed to absorb maximum light o The protons build up in the thylakoid lumen causing a  Large surface area for diffusion of gases gradient to be formed  Moist cell surfaces for diffusion of gases o The electrons in water replace the electrons that have  Cell walls thin for maximum light penetration and left the primary pigment diffusion of gases 2. CIE A2 LEVEL. where the energy is used to pump protons from stroma to lumen. ATP is therefore photophosphorylated using the ATP synthase enzyme in exactly the same way as respiration. Page 10 of 34 . then to PSI. Accessory pigments in PSII absorb photons of light. The combination of the water splitting and the proton pumping caused protons to build up inside the thylakoid lumen.1 Light Dependent Stage They are passed from PSII to carrier proteins. PHOTOSYNTHESIS  Takes place in the thylakoid membranes  Photosystems are required to trap wavelengths of light (photons) to energize the electron found in the primary pigment  Accessory pigments are arranged in light harvesting clusters that pass on absorbed energy to the primary pigment (chlorophyll ?) at reaction center  Photosystem I absorbs wavelengths of 700nm  Photosystem II absorbs wavelengths of 680nm Non-Cyclic photophosphorylation  Chloroplast biconvex about 3-10 µm  Thylakoid membrane: where light-dependent occurs o Associated with chlorophyll. 3. generating a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. which is taken up by the hydrogen carrier NADP forming Reduced NADP 4. accessory pigments. The energized electrons are taken up by electron acceptor. and are passed down electron carrier chain.BIOLOGY [9700] 5. where more light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll molecules and the electrons is reenergised. 5.

further improving cell membranes or acetyl coenzyme A (CoA).3 Limiting Factors  Only involves Photosystem I  Electron photoactivated and instead of falling back into the photosystem and loosing energy as thermal energy. during which. the limiting factor for rate of  Photolysis occurs and produces oxygen photosynthesis is the light intensity. such as  Occurs in the stroma of chloroplast and is called the temperature or carbon dioxide supply. the excited electron is captured by electron acceptor  It is then passed on via a chain of electron carriers. allows us to manage the growth cellulose for cell of plants in protected fields increasing yield of crop. But at high light intensity. walls and sucrose for  Sensors monitor light intensity. CIE A2 LEVEL. The intermediate is then broken down to form 2 molecules of (3C) glycerate phosphate (GP). 2. Carbon dioxide binds to the 5-carbon sugar ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) to form an unstable intermediate. Without enough light.  Reduced NADP produced  At low light intensities.BIOLOGY [9700] Cyclic photophosphorylation 5. Calvin Cycle  The effects of limiting factors can be investigated using  ATP and Reduced NADP is taken from the light aquatic plants such as Elodea or Cabomba. one 5. dependent stage 1.  A better understanding of the environmental factors on starch for storage. yield Page 11 of 34 . as the intensities increase so does the rate.4 Glasshouses to form glucose. carbon dioxide concentration and  Electron emitted returns to same photosystem temperature. enough energy is released to synthesize ATP by chemiosmosis  Electron then returns back to Photosystem I Difference between cyclic and non cyclic Cyclic photophosphorylation:  Three factors can limit the speed of photosynthesis: light  Only Photosystem I takes part intensity. The ADP and NADP return to the thylakoid membrane for recycling 3. rate of photosynthesis. Most of the triose phosphate continues through a o The number of bubbles produced in unit time can be series of reactions to regenerate the RuBP using ATP and counted in different conditions complete the cycle o A better method would be to calculate the volume of a. Others converted contents vary depending on the plants stage of growth to glycerol and fatty acids to produce lipids for  Pests and fungal diseases are fewer. GP is reduced and activated to form triose phosphate (TP).2 Light Independent Stage or more other factors must be limiting. Some of the gas produced triose phosphate molecules combine 5. humidity and translocation around concentration of CO2 and control optimum conditions the plant. this is catalysed by the enzyme rubisco. even if there is plenty of  Electron emitted from PSII absorbed by PSI water and carbon dioxide.  Plants are grown in nutrient soil solution where its b. The ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions provide the energy for this step. a plant cannot Non-cyclic photophosphorylation: photosynthesise very quickly.

CIE A2 LEVEL. first Pigments) compound that it produces in the light independent  Chlorophyll is a small reaction is a four carbon compound molecule with a structure similar to haem. It is then passed onto the bundle sheath cells and CO2 absorbance at different wavelengths of light is removed forming  A low absorption means that those wavelengths are not pyruvate absorbed.5 C4 Plants 5. Carbon dioxide is absorbed by mesophyll cells that contain the enzyme PEP carboxylase which catalyses the combination of CO2 with PEP 2. The CO2 continues in its plants seem to be green as its is absorbed least normal way and joins with  An action spectrum however is a graph that shows rate RuBP by rubisco of photosynthesis at different wavelengths of light Adaptation  Higher optimum temperature than C3 plants (45 oC)  Mesophyll cells tightly packed so not allowing O2 to  Note that rate is higher at lower wavelengths this is not reach bundle sheath cells only due to greater absorption but also as lower  Avoids photorespiration wavelengths contains more energy Page 12 of 34 .BIOLOGY [9700] 5. Chlorophyll ? Blue ? carotene Orange Xanthophyll Yellow  In C4 plants the Calvin cycle occurs in the bundle sheath 1.6 Pigments and the Absorption of Light  C3 plants are known as C3 as it forms a 3 carbon  There are two groups of molecule after splitting the six-carbon compound during pigments the light independent stage of photosynthesis o Chlorophylls (Primary  C4 plants such as maize and sorghum however. Oxaloacetate is formed and is converted into malate  Absorption spectrum is the graph above and shows the 3. but a  Photorespiration: is the reaction when RuBP combines magnesium atom instead of iron to the oxygen instead of the normal CO2 so calvin cycle o Carotenoids (Accessory Pigments) can not occur Pigment Colour  This usually happens in high temperatures (as stomata Chlorophyll ? Green close to prevent water loss) and high light intensity. but instead are reflected or transmitted ∴ 4.

whereas the 22 are called autosomes  Chromosomes can be distinguished by staining it. Solvent rises up paper with each pigment traveling at different speeds hence pigments separated 6.1 Meiosis  Described as reduction division because chromosomes are halved from diploid (2n) cells to haploid (n)  This is so chromosomes don’t double every generation and so chromosome number is kept constant  Also causes genetic variation for gametes which is the raw material for natural selection in species Page 13 of 34 . with the same genes (may not be same allele) at the same loci  Gene: a length of DNA that codes for a particular protein 6.BIOLOGY [9700] Chromatography 6. Distance moved by each pigment is unique 7. Leaf extract contains mixture of pigments 3. each pair has distinctive banding patterns  Homologous chromosomes: pair of chromosomes in diploid cell that have same structure as each other. Grind leaf with solvent such as propanone 2. CIE A2 LEVEL. from the pair one comes from the mother and the other comes from the father  The 23rd pair however are non matching and are called sex chromosomes. Draw a pencil line drawn and place extract on it 4. Place paper vertically in jar of different solvent 5. INHERITED CHANGE 1. Use Rf value to identify each pigment ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? = ???????? ????????? ?? ???????  A karyogram shows chromosomes that are rearranged into homologous pairs  There are 22 similar pairs of chromosomes which is known as homologous pairs.

4 Genetics  However.3 Gametogenesis in Plants In males: In males  Takes place in the tubules of  Takes place in the anther the testes  Pollen mother cells divide by meiosis forming 4 haploid  Germinal epithelial cells divide cells. independent Four gametes produced One gamete produced No polar bodies Polar bodies assortment occurs which is the random There is a maturation No equivalent maturation lining up of homologous chromosomes across the stage stage equator and so maternal and paternal genes can mix Complete meiosis Incomplete meiosis 6. by mitosis to produce diploid  Each of these cells divide by mitosis but cytokinesis does spermatogonia which grow not take place resulting in a cell with two haploid nuclei (increase in size) to from  These cells mature into pollen grains. Spore mother cell divides by meiosis and continue with meiosis to produce four haploid cells ?? forming 4 spermatids  All but one degenerates. division is uneven the other half (Polar body)  Alleles are different varieties of the doesn’t have enough cytoplasm and so is of no more use same gene  Each month one secondary oocyte is released to get  A dominant allele is one whose effect on fertilised. CIE A2 LEVEL. one of the nuclei is primary spermatocytes the tube nucleus and the other is generative nucleus  The cells then divide by In females meiosis ? to form 2 haploid  Takes place in the ovules secondary spermatocytes  Similar to the male. it continues to divide to form an ovum the phenotype of a heterozygous is identical to one of a  If ovum is fertilised. gametes  Meiosis is started but stops at Prophase I at this stage it are not formed directly from meiosis. two Male Female chromosomes (bivalents) attach to Produces sperm Produces oocyte each other forming chiasma and Division of cytoplasm is Division of cytoplasm is switch genetic information equal unequal o During metaphase ?. then a diploid cell is formed called a homozygote zygote  embryo  fetus  A recessive allele is one who does not express itself when a dominant gene is present  Codominant alleles have both the phenotypes of each allele in a heterozygous organism Page 14 of 34 . of which one  Germinal epithelial cells divide by mitosis to produce becomes the female gamete diploid oogonia  Note: In plants.BIOLOGY [9700]  Variation caused: Difference in the processes of male and female o During late prophase ? where gametogenesis crossing over takes place. unlike animals. this cell which mature into spermatozoa develops into an embryo sac In females:  Embryo sac divides by mitosis 3 times  Takes place in the ovaries forming 8 haploid nuclei. is Primary oocyte (still diploid) instead meiosis is used in producing the  All this occurs before a baby girl is born and at birth has pollen grains and embryo sac which then around 400 000 primary oocytes forms gametes by mitosis  At puberty meiosis continues to end of first meiotic division and becomes secondary oocyte 6.2 Gametogenesis in Humans 6.

only two of  A heterozygous dihybrid cross with a homozygous which can exist in any normal. eye colour and skin)  F1 generation is crossing homozygous dominant with  When cells undergo meiosis to produce gametes. XHXh (carrier) Page 15 of 34 . females have a chance to cover the recessive allele by its other X chromosome so will only be a carrier  But males have no other X so if the mother has passed on the recessive allele the boy will have haemophilia  Genotypes of sex linked genes are always represented by symbols that are on the X chromosome e. the recessive allele causes the disease haemophilia (blood fails to clot)  This is considered to be a sex linked gene as it is found on the X chromosome but not found on the Y  When inherited females will have 2 X chromosomes and males would have 1  Therefore.7 Dihybrid Crosses is crossed with a homozygous recessive. the homozygous recessive homologous pairs line up independently of each other  F2 generation is crossing two heterozygous (F1) organisms 6. species would give a 1:1:1:1 simple ratio  A dihybrid cross of two heterozygous species is a little more complicated and longer 6.Ab. CIE A2 LEVEL.BIOLOGY [9700]  A test cross is a genetic cross in which a dominant allele 6.aB and ab occurring in equal numbers  Three or more alternative forms of a gene.3 Monohybrid Crosses  A monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus of interest  Hence we can predict gamete produced would be of 4 6.5 Sex Inheritance  But now we need to see what happens when different  Sex is determined by the autosomal chromosomes loci interact to effect one phenotypic character  There are two types of chromosomes X and Y  Y chromosome is much shorter than X and may not have some genes that X contains  A person with XX chromosomes is female and XY is male  Your gender is determined by the father’s sperm as mother always gives the X chromosome (1:1 chance) 6. the offspring  Deals with the inheritance of two separate genes on phenotypes can help judge whether its homo/hetro different chromosomes at once (e.8 Interactions Between Loci  Interactions between alleles at the same locus is what we have learnt till now 6.g.4 Multiple Alleles types AB.g. diploid individual.6 Sex Linkage  X chromosomes contain a gene that codes for blood clotting which is called the factor VIII.

(EA)(EA) instead of EEAA ? Blue colour indicates that this formula will be provided in the exam  Mating heterozygote and homozygous recessive gave us 1. We then divide each squared number by E and add them up to give us ? 2 4. CIE A2 LEVEL.10 Crossing Over 6.G. in most cases it is that. we accept the null hypothesis.9 Autosomal Linkage  Null hypothesis: Null hypothesis always goes against the  Linkage: is the presence of two genes on the same hypothesis being true chromosome.11 Chi-squared (?? ) Test alters every set of three bases (frame shift) but in base  Ratios such as the 9:3:3:1 are only probabilities of substation only effects the one substituted and this may inheriting the phenotypes not even have an effect at all (silent mutation). First work out expected (E) results by using ratio given 1:1:1:1 in dihybrid crosses but in linked we get 1:1 ?ℎ??????? × ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ?ℎ???????? 2.12 Mutation  Occurs during prophase I where  Mutation: unpredictable change of the nucleotide chiasmata formed between sequence in DNA that may be for the better or worse bivalents  Two types of mutation:  Chiasmata connects with a non sister chromatid so o Gene mutation which is change in the structure of maternal and paternal genes are exchanged DNA molecule producing different allele of a gene  When these exchanged genes form offspring they are o Chromosome mutation changes in structure or said to be recombinant offspring number of whole chromosomes in cell  Cross over value is calculated by adding the percentage  Gene mutation can occur in 3 different ways of offspring that belong to recombinant classes o Base substitution where simply one base takes  This value can be used to measure the distance apart of another bases place the two gene loci o Base addition where on/more extra bases are added Chance of cross over ∝ distance apart o Base deletion where bases are lost from sequence  Base addition and deletion always have large effects as it 6. so that they are inherited together and do  E. all mutations at times when the cause a stop close to say that the difference has arisen is due to triplet to form can have large effects as protein stopped chance we must use the Chi-squared test Page 16 of 34 . observed results are not not assort independently significantly different from expected results  Linked chromosomes written in brackets to indicate that Σ(? − ?)2 ?2 = they are on the same gene e. so to test whether the difference is sufficiently  However. almost always links are broken  And if greater or equal. meaning the results are  The dihybrid acts as though it is monohybrid cross just due to chance and so no significant difference  Total linkage is very rare. Then find the difference between observed (O) and expected and square it Giving (? − ?)2 we square to get rid of the negative sign as it is irrelevant 3. as there  Though what we observe may not always be exactly the is more than one base triplet that can form the same same as the expected probabilities but somewhat close amino acid to it. then we reject null hypothesis due to crossing over during meiosis hence difference must be significant 6. Now you look up the value in a probability table to see if null hypothesis will be accepted or rejected 5.g.BIOLOGY [9700] 6. You must find the degrees of freedom which is = number of different categories – 1  If probability lower than the probability in the table.

Meaning it has two inherited as a dominant allele binding sites and for this case lactose (substrate) binds  HD has a variable onset but occurs most commonly in into the allosteric site. skin and hair including structural genes and an operator gene and a  The condition also can be accompanied by poor vision regulatory gene causing jerky movements of the eye to avoid light  The enzyme ?-galactosidase (inducible enzyme)  It is an autosomal recessive mutation which must be hydrolyses lactose to glucose and galactose homozygous for the recessive allele to show albinism  The lac operon consists of promoter. Transcription of the gene occurs as a result of fibbers inside red blood cells.BIOLOGY [9700] 6. the middle age (30-45)  When lactose is present  It is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary o Lactose is taken up by movements and progressive mental deterioration bacterium  Brain cells lost & ventricles in the brain become larger o And binds to repressor protein  Mutation occurs on chromosome 4 on a gene that codes distorting its shape and so preventing it from binding for huntingtin to operator o unaffected have small number of triplet CAG repeats o Transcription is no longer inhibited and RNA produced o large number of CAG repeating which causes stutter  This mechanism helps avoid waste of energy and  There is an inverse correlation between number of times materials by only creating enzymes when required triplet repeats and onset age of condition Page 17 of 34 . LacY which Tyrosinase allows lactose to enter cell and lacA Tyrosine DOPA dopaquinone melanin  When no lactose present  Tyrosinase is a transmembrane protein that has two o Regulatory gene codes for repressor copper atoms in its active site which bind to oxygen o Repressor bind to operator o RNA polymerase cannot bind to DNA 6.13 Sickle Cell Anaemia 6. operator and 3  The enzyme tyrosinase is responsible for melanin structural genes which are: production as it is needed in the first two steps o lacZ which codes for ?-galactosidase.15 Huntington’s Disease ∴ No transcription occurs  This disease unlike the previous two is a mutation  The repressor protein is allosteric. the inducer (the enzyme’s substrate) interacting with the and so pull out of shape and protein produced by the regulatory gene become sickle shaped  They also get stuck in small capillaries. restricting blood flow 6. CIE A2 LEVEL.14 Albinism  Is where a dysfunctional enzyme can cause such difference in phenotype The Lac Operon  Albinism is when the pigment melanin is deficient or  An Operon is a length of DNA containing adjacent genes completely missing from our eyes.16 Gene Control in Prokaryotes  Is an example of base substitution  Structural genes are genes that code for proteins or o Where the ?-globin polypeptide mutates enzymes required by a cell o The base sequence CTT is replaced by new triplet CAT  Regulatory genes are genes that code for proteins that o Which changes the 6th amino acid from Glu to Val regulate the expression of other genes  This small difference does not effect the haemoglobin  Repressible enzymes are produced continuously unless molecule when combined with oxygen production is repressed by binding a repressor protein to  But when not combined the ?-globin molecule becomes the operator much less soluble and starts to stick  Inducible enzymes are only produced when its substrate to each other forming long is present.

there is only 4 possible ABO groups  Gibberellin does this by breaking down DELLA proteins  One or few genes control the characteristic.2 The t-test  The t-test is used to assess whether the means of two sets of data are significantly different from one another  Similar to the chi-squared test you always start with a null hypothesis stating that there is no significant difference between the two samples |?1 + ?2 | t= ?2 ?2 √ 1+ 2 ?1 ?2 o ?1/2is the mean of samples 1 and 2 o ? 21/2 is the standard deviation of samples 1 and 2 o ?1 /2 is the no.  Functions of transcription factors: plotting a frequency graph usually gives a bell shaped o Form part of protein complex that binds with distribution curve promoter region  E. of individual measurements in 1 and 2  We calculate the degrees of freedom by 7.1 Continuous and Discontinuous Variation  Transcription of a gene is controlled by transcription Continuous variation: factors. CIE A2 LEVEL. gibberellin controls seed  It is usually a one to one relation between genotype and germination by stimulating the increase of transcription phenotype of mRNA coding for amylase  E.05 as being our  Independent assortment of chromosomes critical value (also known as 5% confidence level)  Crossing over between chromatids o If probability lower than critical value. but usually one is taller this is due to the nutrition they each take which is an environmental factor 7.BIOLOGY [9700] 6. PIF to a single gene locus’s have large effects unlike continuous promoter Environmental effects on phenotype:  Transcription can then take place resulting in increase of  Two boys with the exact same genetic make up such as amylase production twins have the genes to grow a certain height. reject null hypothesis. which are proteins that bind to a specific DNA  A quantitative difference that has a wide unbroken sequence and control the flow of information from DNA range of phenotypes to RNA by controlling mRNA formation  Intermediate phenotypes are usually what is observed. Height and weight these do not have distinguishable o Activate appropriate genes in sequence allowing classes but are in a range correct pattern for body development  Many additive genes control the characteristic but is also o Responsible for the determination of sex in mammals majorly effect by the environment o Allows responses to environmental stimuli. such as Discontinuous variation: switching on correct genes in high temp  A qualitative difference that has clear distinguishable o Regulate cell cycle. so are just due to chance  Random fertilisation o If greater or equal. so alleles on which inhibit the binding of transcription factor. not due to  Mutation chance and difference must be significant Page 18 of 34 .g. SELECTION AND EVOLUTION o =adding up all the samples — 2 Genetic variation is caused by:  From the probability table we take 0.g. growth and apoptosis (cell death) categories with no intermediates  The plant hormone.17 Gene Control in Eukaryotes 7. Blood groups. null hypothesis  Random mating between organisms accepted.

nutrient levels in soil. o Significant selective pressure against a genotype o Abiotic – caused by non living organisms e. in fact they would ?2 + 2?? + ? 2 = 1 increase exponentially if there is no limiting factor o ? represents dominant allele frequency  Environmental factors however keep the population low o ? represents recessive allele frequency o Biotic – caused by living organisms e. mutant alleles such  Genetic drift is a change in allele frequency that occurs as Rht gene (reducing height) are used as they cause the by chance.4 Types of Selection Pressures operating operate  Selection pressures increase the chance of some alleles Usually faster Usually slower being passed on to the next generation Selected feature is for Selected feature is for  If the selection pressure keeps the variety of the human benefit organism’s benefit population the same this is called stabilising selection Not for survival/evolution Promotes  If a new environmental factor or a new allele to appears survival/evolution this can cause different allele frequencies to be Example of Selective breeding in produced – directional selection Improving milk yield:  Disruptive selection occurs when conditions favour both  Individuals showing desired features are chosen to breed extremes of a population (this selection maintains  Some of the alleles conferring these features are passed different phenotypes) on to the offspring  Again.  Hardy-Weinberg’s principle does not apply when there is competition for food. predation. therefore allele frequencies change hence  Inbreeding plants causes each generations gene pool to causing genetic drift and evolution of this population become progressively smaller and weaker this is known as inbreeding depression Page 19 of 34 . Incorporation of mutant alleles.g. This is caused by the gene coding  It is most noticeable by founders’ effect where a small for DELLA proteins that reduce effect of gibberellin population is isolated and so have different selection 3. etc. water o Migration of population into or out supply. as there is a great loss of yield resulting from infections 7.g. Inbreeding and hybridization: pressures. o Non-random mating  These factors reduce the rate of growth for populations as many of the population fail to survive (die) hence 7.6 Hardy-Weinberg’s Principle  All organisms have the reproductive potential to ?+? = 1 increase their population rapidly. because only some of the organisms growth of shorter stems so more energy can be used in reproduce making seeds instead.3 Natural Selection 7. forming new Increased homozygosity Decreased homozygosity species No isolation mechanisms Isolation mechanisms do 7. Introduction of disease resistance. infection.8 Artificial Selection don’t reproduce Artificial selection Natural selection  There is a variation amongst the population and so those Selection pressure applied Environmental selection who are best adapted survive and reproduce passing on is by humans pressure advantageous alleles to next generations Genetic diversity is Genetic diversity remains  This leads to changes in allele frequency and gene pool lowered high Inbreeding is common Outbreeding is common  This genetic variation leads to change in phenotype and inbreeding depression less inbreeding depression overtime produces evolutionary change. etc. most desired features are chosen for breeding  This process is continued for many generations causing the frequency of the desired alleles to increase Improving crop: There are 3 types in this case: 1.5 Genetic Drift 2.BIOLOGY [9700] 7. CIE A2 LEVEL.

11 Speciation Observation  Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new  Organisms produce more offspring than what is needed biological species arise to replace the parents (reproductive potential)  The main feature biologists use to decide whether two  Natural populations tend to remain stable in size organisms belong to different species is their inability to Deduction interbreed successfully (reproductive isolation)  There is a competition for survival  Reproductive isolation can take different forms: Observation Prezygotic  Variation amongst individuals of a given species  Individuals don’t recognise each other as mates or don’t Deduction respond to mating behaviour  The best adapted variants will be selected by natural  Physically being unable to mate conditions. and each have different differences gives a measure of how closely related the selection pressures acting on the populations species are  This results in different alleles being selected for hence  Differences in primary structure can cause dramatic overtime morphological. physiological and behavioural change in structure and function however small changes features becomes so different that the two populations can leave the overall structure and function same even if barrier is removed can no longer interbreed Example: Sympatric speciation: is when a new species is evolved Cytochrome C for example was compared between from a species that inhabits the same geographic region human. natural selection picks  Non-viable offspring (dies soon) particular alleles or groups of alleles  Viable but sterile offspring 7. CIE A2 LEVEL. these are taken from  mtDNA is inherited through the mother only companies which inbreed to produce homozygous plants  mtDNA is a circular and not protected by histone protein then cross them producing F1 generation with different chain of DNA.BIOLOGY [9700]  Out breeding produces heterozygous plants that are Comparing amino acid sequence of mitochondrial DNA: healthier and grow taller  Difference in mtDNA can be used to study the origin and  The aim is to get heterozygous and uniformity in genes spread of species  Therefore. hybrid plants are used.9 Theory of Evolution  This has provided us with evidence that the origin of Charles Darwin forwarded the original theory that natural H. but not with humans are being formed so that gametes a have two sets Page 20 of 34 . mice and rats  The most common way in sympatric speciation that can o All three consisted of 104 amino acids occur is by polyploidy o The sequence of mice and rat cytochrome is identical  A polyploidy is an organism with more than two o 9 amino acids in human are different from rat/mice complete sets of chromosomes in its cell  This comparison suggests that mice and rats shared a  This can happen if meiosis goes wrong when gametes recent common ancestor.10 Molecular Comparisons Allopatric speciation: when speciation occurs where two Molecular comparisons allows us to see how similar and populations are separated from each other geographically related species are to each other  Geographic isolation requires a barrier of some kind to Comparing amino acid sequence of proteins: arise between two populations of the same species  When amino acid sequence is compared the number of  Mixing of the two is prevented. where they knew Postzygotic nothing about genes and alleles so now we can  Failure of cell division in the zygote improve/add on to it by saying that. these are the variants that have a selective  In ability to fuse male and female gametes advantage and so ‘survival of the fittest’ occurs  Incompatibility of pollen and stigma in plants This theory was put forward in the past. that cannot undergo crossing over hence homozygous varieties the only possible way of change is through mutation  mtDNA mutates at around one mutation in 25000 years 7.sapiens was from Africa around 200 000 years ago selection might be a mechanism by which evolution is formed by his observation and deductions: 7.

specially liver swell and may burst Page 21 of 34 . of glucose.low water potential would cause hence increase the insulation as heat can be trapped water to move out of cells which slows/stops cell  Secretion of adrenaline & Thyroid stimulating hormone functions. HOMEOSTASIS receptors that sense the change in temperature of the Homeostasis is maintaining a relatively constant surroundings giving the hypothalamus an early warning environment for the cells within the body. When the environment 8.causes increase in metabolic rate. such as temperature  Autopolyploid: are polyploids with multiple chromosome  Receptor sends information to the central control in the sets derived from a single species brain or the spinal cord  The input is processed and reacts by sending instructions to the effector. can grow perfectly well & reproduce asexually  Stimuli are any changes in a factor.Low temp. this action is a corrective action  An effector such as muscles and glands cause the factor to return to its ideal value. despite Decrease in temperature changes in external environment  Vasoconstriction.causing increase in depth of fur.involuntary movement of skeletal muscle.Too less. no energy for cell to respire zygote with four complete sets which called a tetraploid too high would effect osmotic balance and disturb cells  If a diploid gamete joins with a normal gamete they form a triploid zygote 8. The skin also contains 8. making it closest to set point as possible  When a factor is increased it results in something that makes the factor decrease.blood vessel walls contract causing  Homeostasis in general is controlled by controlling the restriction in blood flow to extremities where heat is composition of blood. o Water potential.2 Control of Body Temperature changes. CIE A2 LEVEL. hunting. set point  This is done through two coordination systems: o Nervous system. slow metabolic reactions. o Temperature. climate change. High water potential however causes cells to (TSH).  The hypothalamus is the central control for body habitat loss. and hence control the tissue fluid easily lost  Tissue fluid influences cell activity in many ways such as:  Shivering.BIOLOGY [9700]  If both the gametes have two sets they fuse and form a o Conc. and vice versa Positive feedback  Is not used in keeping conditions constant as it increases effect when stimulus is increased  This is useful in other areas such as transmission of 7. electrical impulse along neurons o Endocrine system.12 Extinction nerve impulses where the factor must be increased  Living organisms are dependent on the environment and other species for their survival.1 Homeostatic Control  Polyploids are often sterile as they can not divide during  Involves receptor (sensor) that detect stimuli that is meiosis I due to it muddling up while pairing being regulated  However. in the form of chemical messengers  Allopolyploid: is an individual or strain whose (Hormones) that travel in the blood chromosomes are composed of more than two genomes Negative feedback  Negative feedback is usually to keep factors within narrow limits. organisms that cannot adapt become extinct  This process is called thermoregulation and involves  There are many factors that can cause extinction: both the nervous and endocrine systems competition for food and resources. it has thermorceptor cells that monitor the temperature of the blood. diseases temperature. generating heat for blood to absorb High temp however denatures enzymes and proteins  Raising body hairs.

hence water travels down its concentration gradient  There is a 3 cell layer lining that separates the two: o Endothelium: one cell thick cell with many holes o Basement Membrane: make up inner lining of bowman’s capsule o Podocytes: inner lining of bowman’s capsule Page 22 of 34 . o Distal convoluted tubule DCT or converted to glucose/glycogen/fat storage  Lower down in the medulla are Urea formation o Loop of henle  Since ammonia is very soluble and highly toxic o Collecting duct compound it is converted immediately to urea Medulla 2NH3 + CO2  CO(NH2)2+ H2O  Urea is the main nitrogenous excretory product. hence less insulation and more easy to lose heat  Increasing sweat production.5 Ultrafiltration  Occurs in the glomerulus and bowman’s capsule  It is caused by the hydrostatic pressure that builds up in the glomerulus due to the afferent arteriole having wider diameter than the efferent arteriole  This causes the water potential of the blood (glomerulus) to rise above the Bowman’s capsule. rather than wasting a useful energy source  Structures found above in the cortex are  The –NH2 along with a hydrogen atom are removed o Bowman’s capsule leaving behind a keto acid o Proximal convoluted tubule (PVC)  The keto acid may enter the krebs cycle and be respired.reducing depth of fur.sweat produced causing more energetic molecules to escape and carry heat away 8.3 Excretion Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a molecule. causing it to get closer to surface of the skin∴ losing heat to surroundings  Lowering body hairs. This is done in the liver when there is an excess of protein. CIE A2 LEVEL.BIOLOGY [9700] Increase in temperature  Vasodilation.vessel muscle relaxes. however we also produce creatinine and uric acid  Creatine is made in the liver from amino acids that is used as an energy store in muscles  Uric acid is made from the breakdown of purines 8.4 Structure of the Kidney 8.

so in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) ascending limb. so Na+ passively moves  Stimulating release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that into the cell from the lumen by a Co-transporter protein targets the collecting duct increasing reabsorption that brings along a molecule of glucose/amino acid Decrease in blood water level  This is considered to be a secondary active transport as 4.diffuses out initially in the ascending limb and on outer membrane of cells no water enters as ascending limb impermeable o Co-transporter proteins in membrane facing lumen Distal Convoluted Tubule  First part functions the same way as ascending limb  Second part functions the same way as collecting duct Collecting Duct  Na+ actively pumped out into tissue fluid where they pass into the blood  K+. RBCs and WBCs 8.are actively transported out of higher end of in the body. amino acids. vitamins and Na+/Cl. This activates enzyme inside cell & causes readymade reabsorbed hence increasing water potential in filtrate. CIE A2 LEVEL. This causes duct to become permeable to water hence water moves out down its conc.7 Reabsorption in Loop of Henle have large holes that allow substances to pass through it.BIOLOGY [9700]  The endothelium & podocytes 8. regulating the ions in blood 8. ADH secreted and travels through blood until reaching energy was not used for pumping sodium into the PCR receptor proteins on cell surface membrane of cell but has occurred as a result of active transport collecting duct cells  All of glucose. in tissue fluid selectively reabsorbs back into the blood 2. vesicles that contain aquaporin fuse to membrane so water and urea are also reabsorbed but only partially 6. Page 23 of 34 .6 Selective Reabsorption  The glomerular filtrate is almost identical to the plasmas concentration of substances except no plasma proteins  Many of the substances however are needed to be kept 1. monitor blood in the hypothalamus  Basal membrane is folded to give a large surface area for  When a water potential decreases below a set point many of these protein pumps nerve impulses are sent to the posterior pituitary gland  Concentration of Na+ decreases. Water is therefore lost from the descending limb and  Adaptation of PCT cells: Na+ & Cl.8 Control of Blood Water Potential  Osmoregulation: control of water potential in body fluids  Na+–K+ pumps in the basal membrane cells use ATP  Specialised sensory cells (osmoreceptors) constantly pumping 3 Na+ out and 2K+ in. basement membrane acts as a filter and stops larger molecules/cells from entering such as protein. Na+ & Cl.are 5. Na+ & Cl.ions diffuse in causing descending limb to o Microvilli to increase surface area of inner surface become very concentrated as it reaches the bottom o Many mitochondria to provide ATP for (Na+–K+) pump 3. causing increase of conc. however is actively transported into the tubule  The rate at which these two ions are moved into and out of nephron can be varied. However. gradient  Note: volume of urine decreases and become conc.

o Non insulin dependent diabetes.12 Dipsticks and Biosensors o ? responds by secreting glycogen into the blood  Dipsticks are used to measure different factors such as: o ? responds by stopping secretion of insulin pH. Type1 it’s a protein) so it binds to a receptor The pancreas is incapable of secreting sufficient insulin. glucose.BIOLOGY [9700] Increase in blood water level  Glycogen binds on to a receptor which activates.11 Urine Analysis  Much easier to collect than blood samples  Urine tests can give early indications of health problems o Diabetes: presence of excessive glucose and ketones in urine.  This stimulates the cells to to increase rate of glucose can be due to gene that codes for production. ketones and proteins Page 24 of 34 . Type 2 transporter proteins (GLUT) bind onto cell membrane Pancreas secretes insulin but liver and muscle cells do not respond properly. aquaporins moved back into cytoplasm as vesicle.  Osmoreceptors no longer stimulate ADH production. so  G protein that in turn activates. glucose is digested and passed into the blood  When Blood glucose levels rise  The ? and ? cells detect the change o ? responds by stopping secretion of glycogen o ? responds by secreting insulin into the blood  Insulin is a signalling molecule that targets the liver and  There are two forms of sugar diabetes: muscle cells and can not pass through the membrane (as o Insulin dependant diabetes. as blood glucose level rises above renal threshold and so not all reabsorbed  Increases use of glucose in respiration o High blood pressure/kidney infection: presence of  Glycogenesis. condensing glucose molecules to glycogen proteins as they are too large to be filtered out  When blood glucose levels fall (or adrenaline level rise) 8.10 Diabetes 8. or because absorption by making vesicles carrying glucose of attack on ? cells by own immune system. CIE A2 LEVEL.9 Control of Blood Glucose  When glucose is in low concentration our cells may not have enough glucose for respiration. hence might not be able to carry out its normal function  On the contrary. 8. high concentrations can effect normal behaviour of cells as they may lose water due to the concentration gradient built (cells become flaccid)  The homeostatic control is carried out in the pancreas by a tissue called the islets of Langerhans which consisting two types of cells: o ? cells which secrete glucagon o ? cells which secrete insulin  After a meal containing carbohydrates. hence  Enzyme that catalyses conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP becoming impermeable again  Cyclic AMP binds to kinase enzymes that activates other  This process is very slow because ADH molecules take enzyme cascade reactions which finally catalyses the 15-20 mins to be broken down in the blood and another break down of glycogen to form glucose 15-20 mins for aquaporins to be removed 8.

 Glucose oxidase oxidised glucose to form causing water to enter the cell gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide  The stomata has uneven cell wall thickening. COORDINATION conserves water  Stomata open when: 9.  Peroxidase catalyses reaction of walls adjacent to pore is very tick. inner cells is more glucose present. darker the colour would be hence the cells on the outer end lengthen cause the  Biosensors allow people with diabetes to monitor their guard cells to bend and open blood glucose concentration much quicker than dipsticks  Stomata closes when hydrogen ion pumps stop and  They also contain glucose oxidase which potassium ions leave the guard cells catalyses the same reaction releasing H+ so  Water then leaves the cells and cause it to become generating an electric current flaccid and so close the stomata  Current is detected and gives a reading Abscisic acid and stomatal closure within seconds  ABA also known as the stress hormone causes the  The more the glucose present the greater is closure of stomata in difficult conditions within minutes the reading  It is synthesised by any cells in the plant that contain chloroplasts 8. hydrogen peroxide and chromogen whereas the walls furthest from forming a brown compound pore is thin  The colour formed is  so water when water enters the compared to a chart.13 Homeostasis in Plants  It is believed that ABA binds to receptors that inhibit the  Stomata has daily rhythms of opening and closing even if proton pumps and stimulate movement of Ca+ ions into kept in constant light/dark the cell which stimulate channel proteins to allow  Opening during day maintains inward diffusion of CO2 negatively charged ions to move in and potassium ions and outward diffusion of O2 and water vapour to move out  Closing during the night as it does not respire and 9. the thicker so more difficult for it to bend. the cells become turgid. CIE A2 LEVEL.1 Types of Information Transfer o Increase in light intensity Nervous System Endocrine System o Low CO2 concentrations Electrical impulses Chemical Form of  Stomata close in: messengers transmission o Darkness (Hormones) o High CO2 concentrations Sensory neurone Secretory gland Formed at o Low humidity generates impulse o High temperature Travel in Neurones Blood (endocrine) o Water stress Speed Instantaneous Slow Opening and closing of stomata Duration Short-term Long lasting  Opening of stomata: Energy Large amount Less required  ATP powered proton pumps actively move H+ ions out of 9.BIOLOGY [9700]  Glucose dipsticks contain glucose oxidase and  Potassium ions enters the cell lowering solute peroxidase potential and hence the water potential.2 Neurones the guard cells 3 different types of neurones:  This causes potassium channels to to open & move into  Sensory neurone: Transmits impulses from receptor to the cell due to the electrochemical gradient produced CNS o Electrochemical gradient is the combination of an o Cell body near source of stimulus or swelling of spinal electrical gradient caused by the release of H+ ions and cord known as ganglion of a concentration gradient due to low levels of K+ Page 25 of 34 .

 Hence for an action potential to be produced the hence this is a reflex reaction.5 Transmission of Nerve Impulses  Motor Neurone: Transmit impulses from CNS to effector  Axons have a resting potential at which they are most of o Cell body lies within CNS and contains the nucleus the time unless being depolarised o Dark specks in cytoplasm are rough ER regions  Resting potential has a potential difference of about -70m? compared to the outside  Resting potential (negative nature) is achieved by: o Axon phospholipid bilayer impermeable to K+/Na+ o Sodium-potassium pumps that constantly pump out 3Na+ ions and pumps in 2K+ each time o There are also separate Na+ and K+ channels that are open all times. the uncovered regions between these cells o There is a minimum time between action potentials are called Nodes of Ranvier occurring at one place on neurone Page 26 of 34 .4 Myelin  After 1ms. if this potential other neurones which take it up to the brain whilst difference reaches -50m? then all channels open and simultaneously passing through motor neurone cause the inside to become +30m?: action potential  Therefore effector acts before brain could process. and many more of K+ channels. all voltage-gated channels close & K+ channels  About a third of axons on motor and sensory neurons open causing them to diffuse out thus repolarising are surrounded by thick dark rings called myelin which  Axons have a refractory period after it has been are made by specialised cells called Schwann Cells polarised where it is unresponsive to new stimulations  The Schwann cell (made of lipid and some proteins) wand its consequences are: wrap themselves around the axon enclosing it within o Action potentials do not merge and so are discrete many layers. with thinner axons there is greater resistance hence  Intermediate Neurone (Relay/Connector): transmit transmit slower impulse from sensory to motor neurone o Found entirely in CNS 9.BIOLOGY [9700] Speed of Conduction  Myelination causes speed of conduction to increase from 0. CIE A2 LEVEL. this is about 50 times faster than unmyelinated axon  Diameter also effects speed of transmission.5ms-1 up to 100ms-1. this is because myelin stops depolarisation to occur  Myelin also causes salutatory conduction which is when action potentials jump from one node to the next. hence K+ diffuses back out much faster than Na+ diffuses in 9. which is fast and potential must pass the threshold potential of -50m? automatic and is useful in response to danger o This is known as the all-or-nothing law as the neurones either transmit impulse or do not 9.3 Reflex Arc o Many large negatively charged molecules inside cell A reflex arc is the pathway along which impulses are Action Potential transmitted from receptor to an effector without involving  An initial stimulus causes the opening of some voltage- the ‘conscious’ regions of brain gated channels to open causing sodium ions to rush in  Impulses travel from sensory to relay (not always) and due to the electrochemical gradient finally to motor neurone  This causes the potential difference to become less  Within the spinal cord impulses will also be passed onto negative and is called depolarisation.

Involved in memory and learning specialised cells which detect specific type of stimulus 4. causing Ca2+ voltage gated channels to open o Ca2+ ions cause exocytosis of Acetylcholine (ACh) vesicles (synapses that have acetylcholine are called cholinergic synapses) o ACh moves to presynaptic knob temporarily binding to the receptor proteins that have complimentary shape o This causes Na+ (chemical) channels in post synoptic knob to open. stronger stimuli have larger frequency o Also strong stimuli cause more neurones to be stimulated hence the number of neurones carrying action potential can tell us about the strength 9. 1. Decreases the overload of information in the brain  Receptor cells are often found in sense organs and are 3. Ensures one-way transmission initiating an action potential (acts as a transducer) 2.6 Receptors  A receptor cell is one that responds to stimulus by Role of synapses: converting energy from one form to electrical impulse. each papillae to be activated by just one receptor cell has many taste buds over its surface and within each taste bud lies around 50-100 chemoreceptors 9. light.BIOLOGY [9700] o Length of refractory period determines max frequency 9. calcium then enters and causes excretion of neurotransmitter vesicles  This causes action potential to form in the sensory neurone and eventually reaching the cortex brain Page 27 of 34 . Na+ enter and cause depolarisation How action potentials carry information o Ach is then recycled by enzyme acetylcholinesterase  Action potentials do not change in size whether large or which breaks the it into acetate and choline which then small stimulus & has constant peak value of +30m? recombined in the presynaptic knob  The brain receives action potential from specific position Note: If ACh is not broken down the Na+ channels will remain open so neurone will be permanently depolarised of neurones and interprets its nature such as heat. touch and so on Strength of stimulus o The brain interprets this from the frequency of the action potential. Interconnection of nerve pathways: sensory and relay Tongue have many dendrite so can cause many more neurones  The tongue is covered in many papillae.7 Synapses at which impulses are transmitted  Region where two synapses meet. CIE A2 LEVEL. there is a small gap called the synaptic cleft  The synaptic cleft contains transmitter substances (neurotransmitters) that which stimulate next neurone  How action potentials are transmitted: o Action potential arrives at presynaptic knob.8 Muscle Contraction  Ions diffuse through highly selective channels and causes  Striated muscle is multinucleate (syncytium) and is depolarisation of the membrane: receptor potential organised into parallel bundles of myofibrils that are  If sufficient enough stimulation produced voltage-gated attached to the skeleton which is controlled by neurones calcium ions open.

providing enough energy for heads to let go of actin and return  Myofibril itself is made up of smaller components of to original position and bind again to exposed actin site thick and thin filaments  This process continues as long as binding sites are open Thin  actin thick  myosin and ATP is in excess  The Z line is where the actin filaments are attached to  The M line does the same for myosin filaments  Sarcomere is the part of myofibril between two Z lines  During contraction the A band is unaffected however both H and I bands decrease in length Page 28 of 34 .BIOLOGY [9700]  The darker parts in the centre is the region of overlap of actin and myosin which is known as A bands  The white area between these dark bands is the region where only myosin is present is known as H band  The white area next to the thick black line (Z line) is the region where only actin is present and is called I band  The sarcolemma (cell surface membrane) splits into many infoldings called T-tubules 9. they have many protein pumps that Process from stimulation transport calcium ions into the cisternae of SR o Sarcolemma is depolarised by an incoming action potential which spreads along membrane and T-tubule 9.10 How muscles contract  The cytoplasm is called sarcoplasm and contains many  Muscles movement is caused by contracting and causing mitochondria that generate the ATP required for muscle Z discs to pull closer together by a process of sliding contraction  The energy comes from the ATP in myosin heads which  The endoplasmic reticulum is called sarcoplasmic also contain ATPase reticulum(SR).9 Structure of the Myofibrils o Calcium ions are released from sarcoplasmic reticulum and bind to troponin and so causing it to change shape o This intern causes tropomyosin proteins to move to a different position exposing the binding site for myosin o Myosin binds with this site forming cross-bridges o Myosin heads tilt pulling actin filaments (power stroke) towards centre of sarcomere o The heads hydrolyse the ATP molecules. CIE A2 LEVEL.

it stimulates a serge of LH and FSH causing the graffian follicle to burst and ovulation occurs 9. Birth Control  Birth control pills can contain progesterone only or both progesterone and oestrogen (combined)  The progesterone pill may not prevent ovulation to occur but they reduce the ability of sperm to reach the egg cell by increasing mucus levels in the cervix  The combined pill similar to the progesterone pill where they must take the pill everyday for contraception to be effective as missing a single day could cause ovulation  The combined pill supresses secretion of FSH and LH to a level where ovulation would not occur due to the negative feedback from high levels of progesterone  During the 7 days of menstruation pills or not taken so that progesterone levels would fall and cause menstruation. however there are lipid progesterone causing menstruation soluble hormones which pass through cell membrane IVF Hormonal control in menstrual cycle  Women are given drugs to suppress their ovulation and  The menstrual cycle is coordinated by the anterior then treated with hormones for two weeks after so that: pituitary gland and by the ovaries o Superovulation takes place and more than one follicle  The anterior pituitary gland secretes follicle stimulating matures at the same time hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) o Also prepares uterus for implantation  The corpus luteum (follicle after releasing gamete) Process of IVF secretes both oestrogen (stimulate endometrium to  oocytes are collected from mature follicles in the grow. progesterone also inhibits secreted into the blood (they are ductless) secretion of FSH and LH so that no more follicles develop  There are water soluble hormones that cannot pass into  Corpus luteum begins to degenerate and so decrease in the cell so bind to receptors. reassuring that woman is not pregnant  The combined pill can also be given by means of skin patch.11 Hormonal Communication  The corpus luteum is now formed and so oestrogen and  Hormones are made in endocrine glands and are progesterone are released. injection and implanting under the skin Page 29 of 34 .BIOLOGY [9700] Providing for muscle contraction  FSH and LH are in relatively high concentrations during  ATP can be provided from the small quantity of ATP menstruation and so cause one follicle to mature found in the muscle by respiration and lactic formation  The presence of FSH and LH stimulates oestrogen to be  ATP is used faster than it can be supplied by respiration produced by the cells surrounding the follicle  Phosphocreatine allows regeneration of ATP without  Oestrogen however. has a negative feedback on FSH and respiration LH so their concentrations decrease  Another process is to use creatine phosphate  When oestrogen reaches a level two to four times initial creatine phosphate + ADP  creatine + ATP value. thicken and develop numerous blood capillaries) ovaries. Left for 3 days during which zygotes divide to form embryos. which are then placed into the mother’s endometrium. they are then kept in a culture medium and and progesterone (to maintain the uterus lining) mixed with sperm. CIE A2 LEVEL.

GENETIC ENGINEERING Recombinant DNA (rDNA): is DNA made by joining pieces  Auxins are synthesised in growing tips/meristems from two or more different sources  Auxins inhibits growth of side shoot  Steps essential for producing genetically modified  It is transported up or down by active transport from cell organism: to cell o Identify Gene  It also moves by mass flow in the phloem  Cut from DNA  Auxins bind to a protein receptor which stimulates  Reverse transcription of mRNA ATPase to pump in H+ into cell walls causing a loosening  Synthesised from nucleotides of the bonds. CIE A2 LEVEL. viruses. the leaf shuts in about 0.BIOLOGY [9700] 9. this allows it to survive as it would not be worth the energy used up through cold winters and is only activated when enough Action of shutting the trap water is present and absorbed  When an insect lands onto the leaf and touches the hairs this causes action potentials to be generated  If another hair is stimulated in the next 20-35 seconds. liposomes o Cells with the new gene are identified and cloned Page 30 of 34 . hence mRNA coding for amylase is transcribed in the aleuronic layer 9.13 Chemical Communication in Plants  Amylase mobilises energy reserves by hydrolysing starch  Two types of plant growth regulators to maltose in the endosperm o Auxins: influence elongation of roots and shoots  Maltose molecules are then converted into glucose and o Gibberellins: seed germination and stem elongation respired to provide energy for growth Auxins  Plants make several chemicals known as auxins.3 seconds.12 Electrical Communication in Plants Gibberellins and stem elongation Venus fly trap:  The gene ?? causes the synthesis of the last enzyme that  The venous fly trap is a produces active form of gibberellin GA1 carnivorous plant that obtains its  Active gibberellin stimulates cell division and cell supply of nitrogen compounds by elongation in stem cells causing the plant to grow tall digesting small insects  Plants that are homozygous and have the recessive allele  The leaves can attract prays by ?? that produces non-functional enzyme hence don’t releasing nectar produce active gibberellin and so are genetically dwarf  Each leaf also has three stiff  Applying active gibberellin to plants that would remain sensory hairs that respond to being deflected short can stimulate them to grow tall  Outer edges have stiff hairs that trap the insect inside Gibberellins and seed germination and has gaps between to allow smaller insects to escape  Seeds are in a state of dormancy. of which the main one is IAA 10. water is absorbed by osmosis and pressure o Make multiple copies by PCR potential causes the wall to stretch hence cell elongates o Insert gene into vector for delivering it:  Auxins also inhibit lateral growth so that cells grow taller plasmids. however if not then action potential stops and first movement of hair is ignored (saving energy as it could only be a rain drop)  H+ ions are pumped into the cell walls  Calcium pepctate ‘glue’ in the cell wall dissolves  Ca2+ enters the hinge cells causing water to enter by osmosis hence expanding the hinge cells  Absorption of water stimulates embryo to produce  Lobes of the leaves flip from convex to concave rapidly gibberellins  Further deflection of hairs causes calcium ions to causing  Gibberellin causes breakdown of DELLA proteins that exocytosis of vesicles containing enzymes for digestion inhibit transcription.

however requires you to find the mRNA molecules in a cell cytoplasm Method 3:  Since proteins have now been sequenced.v light which is bacteria which can breakdown DNA of invading virus an easier method to identify bacteria and also more  ‘Endonucleases’ as they cut the DNA from the sugar economical than using antibiotic resistance genes phosphate backbone Promoters  These enzymes bind to specific target site on the DNA  Promoters allow RNA polymerase to bind to DNA start molecule where there is specific base sequence transcription of the template strand  Usually they bind to palindromic sites (site that is same  Promoters used to stop all genes from being transcribed in both directions) e. shorter fragments  In the past we used to use agar plates containing an traveling further/faster. than longer ones antibiotic to identify the bacterium with the plasmid. circular. double-stranded DNA that is and so becomes COO–.4 Electrophoresis of DNA forming rDNA  Fragments of DNA move towards the anode (+ve) as it Properties of plasmids allowing them to be used as vector: has negatively charged phosphate groups  Low molecular mass. haemoglobin in sickle cells contain one less charged  Plasmid is then cut open using same restriction enzyme R group than in normal cell. hence net charge becomes positive ∴ moves towards cathode (-ve) 10. they as. we can now  In acidic pH.2 Inserting Gene into Vector  In basic pH. saliva and so on are cooled then given heat shock to increase chances of o PCR is used to increase number of DNA plasmid passing through cell membrane o DNA cut into fragments using restriction endonuclease  Only about 1% take up the plasmid and are said to be o DNA is place on agarose gel and current is applied transformed o Fragments travel towards anode. can be taken up by bacteria easily  Genetic profiling (fingerprinting): sequencing a length of  One or more marker genes.g. blood splatter. which gets new genes into a negative ∴ moves towards anode (+ve) recipient cell  In neutral conditions the NH3+ is cancelled by the COO–  To obtain plasmids. bacteria are treated with enzymes to so it depends solely on the R group break their cell walls and are then centrifuged  E. CIE A2 LEVEL. hence net charge becomes used as a type of vector.1 Identifying the Gene  Now we use a gene that codes for the production of an Method 1: enzyme (along with a promoter) that makes green Restriction Endonuclease: enzyme that come from fluorescent protein which fluoresces in u. allowing cells that take up DNA of one organism and comparing it to another by plasmid to be identified looking at the ‘variable number tandem repeats’ (VNTRs)  An origin of replication so that they can be copied  Steps in electrophoresis: nserting and identifying bacteria with rDNA o DNA extracted from anything that contains cells such  Bacteria are put into solution with high Ca2+ conc. hence when separated sickle used for the DNA so that sticky ends are complimentary celled moves less than that of normal  Plasmid and DNA are mixed together and with DNA ligase the sugar phosphate backbone is fixed together 10. but o Due to fluorescently stained probes you could easily this had caused bacteria to grow resistant strains visualize the DNA by shining UV light on it Page 31 of 34 . the COOH groups (acids) lose their protons Plasmids: small.. root of hair. GGATCC & so waste less energy on unwanted proteins  Can form cut and form either o Blunt ends: straight cut across sugar phosphate 10. the NH2 groups (bases) gain a proton and so synthesise DNA artificially from nucleotides become NH3+.g.BIOLOGY [9700] 10.3 Electrophoresis of Proteins o Sticky ends: short unpaired staggered ends  Proteins are made up of amino acids and the charges on Method 2: these amino acids depend on R groups present and pH  As mentioned above the using reverse transcriptase enzyme we could obtain a cDNA strand (same as DNA)  This process.

v light.7 Bioinformatics  Is a method for rapid production of a particular fragment Bioinformatics is the collection. hence more efficient 10. does not have to be below (65 ?? ). so they are grown  The fluorescence in the microarray indicates that those in large fermenters and insulin is extracted genes were being transcribed and their intensities indicate the activity of each gene Page 32 of 34 . o Primer annealed onto DNA after cooling to about amino acid sequences and protein structures 65 ?? (primer is short sequence of complimentary DNA)  Gene sequencing is the order of base pairs in sections of o DNA Polymerase latches onto primer at 72 ?? and DNA and genomes of many species have been published continues to add free nucleotides along rest of DNA e. o This process is then repeated many times.) between the sequence of what they are studying and of saved sequences in the databases  DNA polymerase used is ??? polymerase because:  Sequences can be matched and degree of similarity o Is not easily destroyed by denaturing calculated.g.8 Producing Human Proteins by GE o Insulin 10. dark patches  So the advantage is that we now have a reliable supply show that DNA was washed of insulin available to the increasing demand away.6 Microarrays o Factor ???? . HIV from blood donation allowing to hybridise with the probes on the microarray Insulin  DNA that does not bind  In the past diabetics were treated with insulin extracted to the microarray is from pancreases of pigs or cattle washed off  Gene technology made it possible to synthetically make  Microarray is inspected our own insulin using u.BIOLOGY [9700] 10.blood clotting protein  Tool to identify the genes present in an organism’s o Thyroid stimulating hormone genome and which genes are being expressed o Human growth hormone  It could also be used to compare genes present in two  The general advantages of producing the proteins by different species genetic engineering is that: Process: o Low nutritional requirement  DNA is collected from each species and cut up into o Large volume of product produced different fragments and denatured to give lengths of o Production facilities do not require much space and so single-stranded DNA can take place all around the world  DNAs are labelled with fluorescent and mixed together o No risk of infection e. CIE A2 LEVEL.5 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 10.g. at each time  Researches can use these databases to find similarities doubling amount of DNA produced (exponential inc. and fluorescent patches Method of insulin production: show hybridisation has taken  mRNA from human pancreatic ? cells are extracted place (some patches can have both fluorescents those  mRNA is incubated with reverse transcriptase producing are areas where both DNA have exact same sequence) single stranded cDNA To Identify the genes present that are being expressed:  DNA polymerase used to convert into double strand  The mRNA is reverse transcripted to form cDNA  Insulin gene is then placed into a plasmid to transform  PCR can be done if cDNA is in low quantity the bacterium  Now the same process as above can be used  The bacteria can now produce insulin. processing and analysing of DNA to produce a very large number of copies of biological information & data using computer software  Steps involved in PCR  Bioinformatics combines biological data with computer o DNA is denatured by heating to 95 ?? temperature and technology and makes links double helix splits into two strands  Databases hold gene sequences. this can show if there is common ancestry o High optimum temperature: so temp. complete genomes.

Naked DNA  The water mixes with the mucus making it easy for 3. cilia trap 10.BIOLOGY [9700] Reason why mRNA is more suitable than DNA extraction: 10. causing the production of  They are then cultured in fermenters.11 Diseases and Gene Therapy  mRNA is only from gene coding for insulin. Viruses causing water to move out of cells by osmosis 2. hence 1. and sufferers usually die in infancy from  Large number of mRNA that code for insulin common infections Factor ????  Inherited eye disease this is a form of hereditary  This is a protein that is essential for blood clotting. and so they abnormal thick mucus that is difficult to be removed produce the protein  Other body parts such as pancreatic duct can become  Protein is extracted. Liposomes (spheres of phospholipid) removal by the sweeping movement of cilia Viruses Gene Therapy  Retroviruses insert their genes into host randomly. or even worse into the allele into the appropriate cells using a vector. blindness in which retinal cells die off gradually from an people who do not have it are said to be haemophilic early age Method of Factor ???? production: Cystic Fibrosis  Human gene inserted into hamster kidney and ovary  Cystic fibrosis is a recessive allele that codes for a cells transport protein called CFTR. if embryo healthy then protein that allows chloride ions to pass out of cell implanted if not then discarded  Therapeutic abortion is.10 Types of Vectors they cause concentration gradient outside. one cell can be removed  The CFTR gene codes for a faulty version of a transport and checked for diseases. so  Is the altering of a genotype and inserting the normal they may insert it within a gene. purified and regularly injected to blocked as well as reproductive ducts causing infertility patients  CFTR effects the lungs: o Due to mucus not moving effectively by cilia. producing regulatory gene and so can cause cancer a functional recombinant DNA  Lentiviruses also insert genes randomly however. they  The CFTR gene is usually the cause of a mutation of a can be modified to inactivate replication deletion of 3 bases. whereas DNA  SCID is the inability to produce the enzyme adenosine has all genes and so you must locate and extract gene deaminase (ADA) hence causes immune system to be  Restriction enzyme would be needed for DNA extraction crippled. by making it a longer check for the presence of a particular allele diffusion pathway  Adult woman can screen for gene Barca-1 and Barca-2 o Causes difficulty in breathing which increases chances of breast cancer o Lungs may get scarred  At the 8 cell stage during an IVF. so in theory inserting normal dominant allele would transcribe the normal protein Page 33 of 34 .9 Genetic Screening and its Ethics bacteria and so causing infections Genetic screening is the analysis of a person’s DNA to o Reduces gaseous exchange. terminating pregnancies for medical reasons and having advice from professional  Parents decide to have abortions even if the defect is minor and child could have normal life  Parents also abort due to the sex of their child  People that are diseased and check screen for it may never develop the disease but would have to live with the fear of knowing it can start at anytime  Chloride ions are essential to be transported out so that 10. CIE A2 LEVEL.

Also  Golden rice is meant to be forcing us to setup seed bank to preserve them healthier than white rice by having more of Vitamin A. CIE A2 LEVEL. this layer is usually o Low uptake by target cells removed so that it does not go rancid quickly o Only target lung cells at this time  Therefore. this kills weeds that o Might reduce efforts to relieve poverty would otherwise compete for space. Page 34 of 34 . water and ETC  This increases the yield of crop however.znotes. problems occur in practical situation such as:  Pro-vitamin A carotenoids are present in the aleuronic o Short natural lifespan. by Emir Demirhan This document contain images and excerpts of text from educational resources available on the internet and printed books.0 International License. effects only last for a few days layer of normal rice grains however. it has 10.13 Social Implications of Using GM disadvantages also such as: Organisms in Food Production o Genetically modified plants become agricultural weeds  Modified crop plants can become agricultural weeds o Pollen will transfer into the wild and producing  Introduced genes may be transferred by pollen to wild offspring’s that are invasive weeds offspring and so become more invasive o Herbicide resistant weeds will evolve due to the usage  Can be transferred by pollen to organic certified farms of same herbicide and so mutate  Hazard to humans as they can produce allergies Insect resistant crops  The herbicide can leave toxic residue on the crop  This is another important development that allows  Growers need to buy seeds each season which is plants to be protected against attack by insects expensive  Again crop yield increase however its disadvantages are:  Can lose traditional varieties with their desirable o Evolution of resistant insect’s pests background genes. utilized in this document and do not accept its usage then I urge you to contact me and I would immediately replace said media. so also expensive for Herbicide resistant crops people to buy  Growing herbicide resistant crops allows you to spray o May not grow well in all conditions herbicide after seed has germinated. which its deficiency can cause blindness and the immune deficiency syndrome that in turn causes a high level of mortality in children in developing countries © Copyright 2016 by Z Notes First edition © 2016. light. the document is solely meant for educational purposes and it is to remain a property available to all at no cost. If you are the owner of such media. text or visual. Under no conditions may this document be distributed under the name of false author(s) or sold for financial gain.ml. It is currently freely available from the website www. written permission of the copyright owner.12 Genetically Modified Plants o High cost of buying GM seed. projects to produce rice that contain o Side effects such as infections caused by the virus carotene in the endosperm were undertaken producing  The advantages on the other hand are: genetically modified golden rice o No physiotherapy/antibiotics are needed Disadvantages to growing Golden Rice would be: o Less time consuming than other types of treatments o GM seed could be difficult for farmers in developing countries to obtain 10. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4. hence would have to make Golden Rice programmes of growing and harvesting them.BIOLOGY [9700]  However. No part of this document may be copied or re-uploaded to another website without the express.