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DESIGNING ENGLISH PROCEDURAL TEXT MATERIALS

FOR ELEVENTH GRADE MULTIMEDIA STUDENTS OF SMK

A. Background of the Study


In English for Vocational High School students, there are several
genres which are studied. It means that those genres still have an essential
space within english teaching and learning process in Curriculum 2013
specifically for Vocational High School. It can be viewed in
Permendikbud No. 70 tahun 2013 tentang Kerangka Dasar dan Struktur
Kurikulum SMK/MAK. In English subject Curriculum 2013 eleventh grade
SMK/MAK particularly in second semester, there are several genres text
stated such as procedural, factual report, analytical exposition, and
biography. Each texts contains four core competences, consist of spiritual,
attitude and social competence included as affective competence,
pedagogical as cognitive competence and skills as psychomotoric
competence.
In learning those genres, it can not be separated from the roles of
learning materials. It is clear that, English learning materials have a
significant role for english learners. Their study goals and objectives can
be achived by its assistance. Its forms limited not only in form of printed
books published for language learning purpose but a goods which are not
proposed to language learning (authentic) also can be used. Tomlinson
(1998: 2) points out that materials can be anything which is deliberately
used to facilitate the learners knowledge and/or experience of language in
order to achieve the goal of learning. Therefore, the instructional materials
should be specifically designed to meet the students needs so that the
goals of the instructional process can be achieved.
Based on the researchers observation at SMKN 1 Lemahabang
while holding PPL, particularly in eleventh grade Multimedia Study
Program, The materials which is used to eleventh grade Multimedia Study
Program is actually similar to all study programs available such as
Pemasaran, Akuntansi, Administrasi Perkantoran, Teknik Komputer dan
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Jaringan dan Multimedia. This language learning materials entitled
Bahasa Inggris Kurikulum 2013 SMA/MA-SMK/MAK kelas XI semester II
published in 2014 by Kemendikbud RI are produced massively by
Kemendikbud RI as a partial project of Curriculum 2013 implementation in
entire country. On the other words, this materials produced and proposed
to all high school level such as SMA/MA-SMK/MAK which retract
Curriculum 2013. The English learning materials contain general english
since it is used for all study programs. However, based on Indonesian Law
Number 20 Year 2003, the instructional process in Vocational High School
aims to equip students with the skills and knowledge of particular fields
and prepare them to be able to work in line with the fields. Therefore, the
English learning materials used of Multimedia Study Program at SMKN 1
Lemahabang do not meet the students needs.
Then, researcher interviewed a related english teachers at SMKN 1
Lemahabang. It can be known that the primary materials which are used to
all study programs available actually to eleventh grade is entitled Bahasa
Inggris Kurikulum 2013 SMA/MA-SMK/MAK kelas XI semester II
published in 2014 by Kemendikbud RI. it can help a teaching and learning
activities due to its practicality and availability. On the other hand, it is
better if there are a specialized materials which contain a specific terms,
vocabularies and exercises based on four basic language skills listening,
speaking, reading and writing related to each study programs in each units.
In line with this circumstances, Harsono (2005) says that english teachers
usually teach their students by using available textbooks. However, the
english learning materials which are really suitable with the needs of the
students are not always available.
Furthermore, they stated that Vocational High School students
learning goals and objectives are not similar to Senior High School
students. They are prepared to face a specific workplace as same as
subjects they have been learned. It is irrelevant if language learning
materials which are used in Vocational High School students are actually
similar to Senior High School students because probably they will not

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meet a technical terms, and materials being taught in Bahasa Inggris
Kurikulum 2013 SMA/MA-SMK/MAK kelas XI semester II which is
similarly used in Senior High School at industrial place (target place) they
work. While Senior High School students are more prepared to have a
higher educational level after graduation. Teachers also sometimes adapted
and adopted supplementary materials from the internet. However, the input
texts still do not meet the students needs. Furthermore, It can be
concluded that the materials provided at this moment are not relevant to
Vocational High School students since they carry out general english
instead of specific english related to the students study program.
The content of the language learning materials entitled Bahasa
Inggris Kurikulum 2013 SMA/MA-SMK/MAK kelas XI semester II
published in 2014 by Kemendikbud RI is all about grammar, speaking,
reading, and writing which are not related to their expertise. Since it
contains a several genres that have to be taught to eleventh grade
Vocational High School students as conveyed in Permendikbud No. 70
tahun 2013 tentang Kerangka Dasar dan Struktur Kurikulum SMK/MAK.
A various text genres conveyed in this materials are procedural, factual
report, analytical exposition, and biography. The pattern of the tasks is
reading comprehension then followed by the tasks. There are no particular
input texts and technical term related to each study programs. The
language learning materials contain six chapters. Each chapters is
generally begins with a reading passages related to the main topics that
students going to be learned and main topics followed by grammar,
vocabulary building and exercises.
One of genre being compulsory materials contained in Bahasa
Inggris Kurikulum 2013 SMA/MA-SMK/MAK kelas XI semester II is
procedural text. A procedure text is a text designed to describe how
something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps. Here,
the procedure text is not only a text learned at school but also the one
found in the daily life. Students can find procedure texts in game rules,
cooking recipes, using atm machines. Those are examples of the authentic

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texts of procedure texts that students can find in the daily life. It is helpful
for the students in learning procedural text. As in line with Permendikbud
No. 70 tahun 2013 tentang Kerangka Dasar dan Struktur Kurikulum
SMK/MAK, procedural text becomes an essential ganre. It can be viewed
from basic competences 3.6, 4.9 and 4.10.
In Bahasa Inggris Kurikulum 2013 SMA/MA-SMK/MAK kelas XI
semester II procedural text is a genre being taught earlier than another
genres. It comes in chapter 6 entitled The Story of Writing!. However, the
materials contained in such chapter is not suitable for related study
program in Vocational High School specifically Multimedia, the reading
passage discussing story of technical writing is not relevant to the
discussion conveyed in the main topics. The content in this chapter is also
dominated by a food recipes procedural text while students come from
Multimedia Study Program. However, this chapter has a good graphical
aspects. It can be seen from color and graphic combination in each page
attracting students reading interests. classical writing utensils pictures
expressing the process of writing related to reading passage discussing
story of technical writing. Furthermore, in the main topics discussing
procedural text explanation is delivered by using an arial fonts size 12
which is standarized as a fonts for educational purposes coursebook.
Considering the fact that chapter 6 entitled The Story of Writing!
discussing procedural text contained in language learning materials used at
SMKN 1 Lemahabang particularly eleventh grade students of Multimedia
Study Program does not meet students target needs and the English
teachers believed that approppriate English learning materials that suited
to Multimedia Study Program is one of essential factors that needed to be
considered. In relation to this, Therefore, designing English learning
materials for students of Multimedia Study Program was the ultimate aim
in order to build a good starting point in involving them to the nature of
good English learning activities that accommodate students particular
field, that is, Multimedia Study Program.

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Furthermore, there is a related research conducted by Raharja,
Ernita entitled Developing English Learning Materials For The Eleventh
Graders Of Multimedia Study Program At SMKN 2 Sewon In The First
Semester Of The Academic Year Of 2015/2016 which the needs analysis
findings show that 1) students learned English mainly to be able to
communicate in English in both spoken and written manner, 2) they were
in needs to understand text related to the multimedia field to support future
career, 3) they preferred multimedia field as the topic to be involved in the
instructional materials, 4) they needed spoken text in dialog and monolog,
5) they preferred written texts related to the multimedia field.
Then, in order to provide a relevant procedural text materials which
meet students target and learning needs actually for eleventh grade
students of Multimedia Study Program the researcher conducts a research
entitled Designing English Procedural Text Materials for Eleventh Grade
Multimedia Students of SMK based on Permendikbud No. 70 tahun 2013
tentang Kerangka Dasar dan Struktur Kurikulum SMK/MAK, basic
competences 3.6 Analyzing a social function, text structures and
linguistics elements of procedural text accordance with its utilizing
context, 4.9 Comprehending spoken and written procedural text, 4.10
Redacting procedural text by considering its social function, text structures
and linguistics elements approppriately accordance with its utilizing
context.

B. Scope and Limitation


1. Scope
Designing procedural text is specified for eleventh grade students of
multimedia study program at Vocational High School in the second
semester. The writer prefers this genre (procedure text) than the other
genres because procedural text is the genre that has to be learned by
eleventh grade students of multimedia in second semester earlier than
the other genres in and its content in the existing coursebook is
irrelevant with the students learning and target needs.
2. Limitation

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In order to get focus on conducting this study, the researcher focuses
on designing procedural text materials for eleventh grade students of
multimedia study program at Vocational High School in the second
semester. The designed materials are in the form of coursebooks
chapter which consists of two sections; spoken (Listening & Speaking)
and written (Reading & Writing) in its unit. the material is focused on
procedure text how to operate.

C. Formulation of The Problem


Based on the background of the problem, the writer has formulated
the problems of this observation in the from of research questions as
follows:
1. How is the design of procedural text materials for eleventh grade
multimedia students of SMK ?
2. How is the implementation result of procedural text materials to
eleventh grade multimedia students of SMK?

D. Objectives of The Study


Related to the formulation of the problem above, the objectives of
this study are as follows:
1. To design procedural text materials for eleventh grade multimedia
students of SMK
2. To describe the implementation result of procedural text materials to
eleventh grade multimedia students of SMK.

E. Significance of The Study


Dealing with the purposes which would like to be achieved, this
study is expected to give some benefits to English teaching learning
development.
These benefits can be categorized as the followings:
1. Theoretically, this study is expected to be able to strengthen some
typically previous researches and give contribution in educational
research development in Indonesia actually in designing language
learning materials. In the other words, this study is expected to produce
a language learning materials in a form of coursebooks chapter
containing procedural text materials based on materials design

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criterion. Furthermore, materials designed related to the needs analysis
is adjusted to students characteristics. Therefore, hopefully, it can be
implemented English teaching and learning activities in eleventh grade
multimedia students of SMK retracting Curriculum 2013. Then, this
materials designed hopefully can give an innovation because language
learning materials used can be more varies.
2. Practically, in the context of teaching and learning process, this study
is expected to provide a benefit to students and teacher.
a. Students
Hopefully This procedural text designed can add a more learning
sources and references and can facilitate an effective learning source
besides procedural text materials contained in Bahasa Inggris
Kurikulum 2013 SMA/MA-SMK/MAK kelas XI semester II.
Additionally, it is expected to motivate them to study procedural text
independently. Therefore, they are able to master it easier.
b. Teachers
Hopefully This procedural text designed can add a more learning
sources and references besides the procedural text materials contained
in language learning materials provided by Kemendikbud RI.
Therefore, teachers have a varied teaching materials especially for
teaching procedural text. Furthermore, this procedural text materials
designed can assist them in delivering a materials because it can be
used by students independently. Then, the materials designed has been
adjusted by considering students needs and characteristics is expected
to assist teachers achieving learning objectives. Students are expected
to master procedural text materials.

F. Review of Related Literature


1. Materials Design
Material development refers to a process of producing and using the
materials for language learning including materials evaluation adaptation,
design, production, exploitation and research (Tomlinson, 2012:143).
Moreover, Graves (2000:149) describes materials development as the

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planning process by which a teacher can put the objectives and goals of
the course into units and tasks.
There are several things that must be considered in designing good
materials. Hutchinson and Waters (1987: 107-108) states some principles
which help the teachers to design the materials:
a. The materials provide a stimulus for learning. Good materials do not
teach: they encourage learners to learn.
b. Materials help to organize the teaching-learning process, by providing
a path through the complex mass of the language to be learnt. Good
materials should provide a clear and coherent unit structure.
c. Materials embody a view of the nature of language and learning.
d. Materials reflect the nature of the learning task.
e. Materials can have a very useful function in broadening the basis of
teacher training, by introducing teacher to new techniques.
f. The materials provide models of correct and appropriate language use.
Developing materials for a language course or language programme
has some advantages compared with using the commercial course books.
Richards (2001:261) coins four advantages of developing materials which
are presented as follows.
1) Relevance
The materials will tend to be more relevant for students and
institutional needs and reflect the local content, issues, and concerns.
2) Develop expertise
Developing materials benefit the other staffs language course to
improve their expertise, giving them a greater understanding of the
characteristic of effective materials.
3) Reputation
It will show the commitment to the language teaching because of
providing relevant, specialised, and contextualised materials for the
students.
4) Flexibility
The produced materials can be revised or adapted as needed, giving
them greater flexibility than a commercial course book.

2. The Models of Materials Design

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Dick and Carey (1996) propose Systematic Instructional Design.
This design allows the materials developers to link instructional
learning strategy with the designed learning outcome. The following
steps, which are summarised below, will be used as the guide for
designing materials in this study.

The Organization of Dick & Careys Systemic Instructional Design

No Components
Determine instructional goal what do you want learners to be
1
able to do when they have completed the instruction
Analyze the instructional goal a step-by-step determination of
2 what people are doing when they perform the goal and what
entry behaviors are needed
Analyze learners and contexts context in which the skills will
3
be learned and the context in which the skills will be used
Write performance objectives specific behavior skills to be
4 learned, the conditions under which they must be performed
and the criteria for successful performance
5 Develop assessment instruments based on the objectives
Develop instructional strategy identify strategy to achieve the
6 terminal objective; emphasis on presentation of information,
practice and feedback, testing
Develop and select instruction using the stated strategy
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produce instructional materials
Design and conduct formative evaluation testing of
instructional materials in one-to-one, small groups or field
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evaluations so that the materials can be evaluated with learners
and revised prior to distribution
Revise instruction data from the formative evaluation are
summarized and interpreted to attempt to identify difficulties
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experience by learners in achieving the objectives and to relate
these difficulties to specific deficiencies in the materials
Summative evaluation independent evaluation to judge the
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worth of the instruction

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In designing materials, there should be a consideration about the units
which are carried out in the materials. The unit normally consists of
number of activities which represents the principles and beliefs in
language teaching.

3. The Materials
According to Tomlinson (1998:2), materials can be anything which
is used by teachers or learners to facilitate language learning. Richards
and Renandya (2002:65-66) add that teaching materials as a key
component in most language programs that may in the form of (a)
printed materials, (b) non-print materials, and (c) materials that
comprise both print and non-print sources.
Tomlinson (2008:15) argues that materials are effective to help
learners to notice features of the authentic language as they are
exposed to facilitate and accelerate language acquisition. Hence,
materials should provide exposure to authentic use of English through
spoken and written texts with the potential to engage the learners
cognitively and effectively. In addition, Richards and Renandya (2002:
66) state that some teachers use instructional materials as their primary
teaching resource, for the materials provide the basis for the content of
lesson, the balance of skill taught, and the kinds of language practice
students take part in.

4. A Text
According to Feez and Joyce (1998: 4), a text is any stretch of
language which is held together cohesively through meaning. Whether
a stretch of language is a text or not has nothing to do with its size or
form. It has to do with the meanings of the stretch of language working
together as a unified whole.

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The definition above describes that a text is a combination of the
sentences that has meaning. Therefore, before learning procedure text,
we have to know the definition a text first, whether it belongs to a text
or not.
Anderson and Anderson (1997:1) state that texts are divided into
two main categories. They are:

1. Literacy texts
It is constructed to appeal the emotion and imagination. There ar
three main text types in this category: narrative, poetic and
dramatic.
2. Factual texts
It presents information or ideas, aim to show and tell or persuade
the audience. Factual texts include recount, response, explanation,
discussion, information report, exposition and procedure.
Basically, the texts are categorized in two main parts in which each
text has different meaning and function. So, we can use the texts above
based on our need.

5. Procedure Text
In writing any some kinds of text writing, one of them is procedure
text. In generally procedure text is text used to explain how to make
something by using sequence of steps or method. It is similar
according to Bachtiar (2010:398) procedure text tells how to make
something through a sequence of actions or steps. It usually uses
imperative sentences such as cut, place, use, etc. The purpose of
procedural text is to provide sequenced information or directions so
that people can successfully perform activities in safe, efficient and
appropriate ways.
` Based on the professional Development Service for Teacher (2013)
states that procedure is written to explain how something is done, in a
series of sequenced steps. They are organized by goal, material,
method and evaluation. Features of procedural writing include:
detailed factual description, reader referred to in a general way, linking

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words to do with time, tense is timeless. Whereas According to
Wadirman, et al ( 2008 : 134) the characteristics of procedural text are:
a. Goal / purpose : to give information what we need. It means, to
make procedure text the important thing that we need is the goal or the
title to make clear what we need.
b. Material : Things that you need to make an object. It is most the
important things, when you want make procedure text, because it will
help us to finish something that we make. Without material, we will be
difficult to make steps to get the final result.
c. Method / Steps : The information about making an object. After we
known the goal and materials, we should to do some steps to get the
final result. It is the last way to achieve the best result, and make us
easy to finish the goal.
From the explanation above the researcher concludes that the
procedure text is text that have the specific characteristics includes the
purpose, material and steps do the something in order make the easily
to accomplish something. They are very important things that should
we known. Beside that procedure text also have language feature, like
Mukarto, et al (2004:174) say that:
a. A procedure text uses imperative sentence. An imperative sentence
uses infinitive.
b. A procedure text also uses connector to put the steps in order. First
is a word to express the sequence of steps.
From statement above it can be concluded that to make procedure
text, not only focus on goal, mateial and steps, but the researcher must
understand language feature, like imperative sentence and connector
word.
Procedure text is one of the texts in genre based approach. In this
research, procedure text is a piece of writing that tells us information
of making or doing something through several steps or directions. The
example of procedure texts includes cooking recipes, direction to find
a place, rules game, manual instructions of a tool, science experiment.
However, the procedural texts which are used in this research are
cooking recipes and manual steps of doing something. In addition,

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there are two important parts that students have to consider. They are
the generic structure and the language features of procedure text. The
generic structure of procedure text divided into three parts, such as
goal, ingridients or
Futhermore, material or ingridients are things to be prepared.
Method or steps provide sequence step in making or doing something.
Meanwhile, the language features that usually used in writing
procedural text are in the form of simple sentence, use many action
verbs for command (stir,chop,cut), use present tenses and use lingking
words (first, then, last). Here is one of the example : material and
method or steps. Goal or purpose in procedural text describes someone
wants to do. It usually states in the title of the text.

Tomato Soup
4 large tomatoes spices
teaspoon salt
teaspoon pepper
teaspoon butter
1 small onion
8 cups water
small clove garlic
1. Fry tomatoes, onion, and garlic in a pan with butter for five
minutes.
2. Add water, spices, salt, and pepper.
3. Heat until the water boils.
4. Turn down the heat and cover the lid.
5. Cook for one hour.
taken from : English in focus Artono
6. Procedural Text Materials Design
1. Core and Basic Competences
Procedural text materials design based on competences contained
in Curriculum 2013. Competences become refernces in this materials
designed taken from core and basic competences of procedural text.
In designing procedural text materials, researcher adapted to
competences contained in Permendikbud No. 70 tahun 2013 tentang
Kerangka Dasar dan Struktur Kurikulum SMK/MAK. A procedural

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text materials designed is adapted to English core and basic
competences in Curriculum 2013 specifically for eleventh garde
multimedia students of SMK in the second semester.

Core Competences (KI)


KI 1: Menghayati dan mengamalkan ajaran agama yang dianutnya
KI 2: Menghayati dan mengamalkan perilaku jujur, disiplin,
tanggungjawab, peduli (gotong royong, kerjasama, toleran,
damai), santun, responsif dan pro-aktif dan menunjukan sikap
sebagai bagian dari solusi atas berbagai permasalahan dalam
berinteraksi secara efektif dengan lingkungan sosial dan alam
serta dalam menempatkan diri sebagai cerminan bangsa dalam
pergaulan dunia
KI 3: Memahami, menerapkan, menganalisis pengetahuan faktual,
konseptual, prosedural dan metakognitif berdasarkan rasa ingin
tahunya tentang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni, budaya,
dan humaniora dengan wawasan kemanusiaan, kebangsaan,
kenegaraan, dan peradaban terkait penyebab fenomena dan
kejadian, serta menerapkan pengetahuan prosedural pada
bidang kajian yang spesifik sesuai dengan bakat dan minatnya
untuk memecahkan masalah.
KI 4: Mengolah, menalar, dan menyaji dalam ranah konkret dan
ranah abstrak terkait dengan pengembangan dari yang
dipelajarinya di sekolah secara mandiri, bertindak secara
efektif dan kreatif, serta mampu menggunakan metoda sesuai
kaidah keilmuan
Basic Competences (KD)
KD 1.1: Mensyukuri kesempatan dapat mempelajari bahasa Inggris
sebagai bahasa pengantar komunikasi International yang
diwujudkan dalam semangat belajar

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KD 2.1: Menunjukkan perilaku santun dan peduli dalam
melaksanakan komunikasi interpersonal dengan guru dan
teman.
KD 2.2: Menunjukkan perilaku jujur, disiplin, percaya diri, dan
bertanggung jawab dalam melaksanakan komunikasi
transaksional dengan guru dan teman.
KD 2.3: Menunjukkan perilaku tanggung jawab, peduli, kerjasama,
dan cinta damai, dalam melaksanakan komunikasi
fungsional.
KD 3.6: Menganalisis fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur
kebahasaan dari teks prosedur berbentuk manual dan kiat-
kiat (tips), sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya.
KD 4.9: Menangkap makna teks prosedur, lisan dan tulis, berbentuk
manual dan kiat-kiat (tips).
KD 4.10: Menyunting teks prosedur berbentuk manual dan kiat-kiat
(tips), dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks,
dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks.
In designing a procedural text materials, reasearcher develops spiritual
component in KD 1.1, social components in KD 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 cognitive
component in KD 3.6 and skills components in KD 4.9 and 4.10.
primary components that are going to be main materials contained are
cognitive component in KD 3.6 and skills components in KD 4.9 and
4.10.

2. Materials Design Aspects


This study uses the criteria which are proposed by BNSP (2011) as
follows.
a. The content of the materials
The appropriateness of the content is determined ny the
completeness, the depth and the accuracy of the materials. In
addition, the materials should refer to the most up to dated sources.

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b. The language used in the materials.
The language used should be appropriatae to learners proficiency
levels, understandable, and acceptable. Moreover, the text within
the materials should be coherent and represent the integration of
ideas.
c. The methodology
This item refers to the presentation of the materials. It includes
grading and sequencing the tasks within the materials.
d. The layout of the materials
The layout covers the description of fonts, text size, and the
consistency of illustration.

7. Steps of Procedural Text Materials Design


Dick and Carey (1996) propose Systematic Instructional Design.
This design allows the materials developers to link instructional
learning strategy with the designed learning outcome. The following
steps, which are summarised below, will be used as the guide for
designing materials in this study.

The Organization of Dick & Careys Systemic Instructional Design

No Components
Determine instructional goal what do you want learners to be
1
able to do when they have completed the instruction
Analyze the instructional goal a step-by-step determination of
2 what people are doing when they perform the goal and what
entry behaviors are needed
Analyze learners and contexts context in which the skills will
3
be learned and the context in which the skills will be used
Write performance objectives specific behavior skills to be
4 learned, the conditions under which they must be performed
and the criteria for successful performance
5 Develop assessment instruments based on the objectives
6 Develop instructional strategy identify strategy to achieve the

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terminal objective; emphasis on presentation of information,
practice and feedback, testing
Develop and select instruction using the stated strategy
7
produce instructional materials
Design and conduct formative evaluation testing of
instructional materials in one-to-one, small groups or field
8
evaluations so that the materials can be evaluated with learners
and revised prior to distribution
Revise instruction data from the formative evaluation are
summarized and interpreted to attempt to identify difficulties
9
experience by learners in achieving the objectives and to relate
these difficulties to specific deficiencies in the materials
Summative evaluation independent evaluation to judge the
10
worth of the instruction

8. Materials Evaluation
In ESP area, materials evaluation is defined as a means to measure
whether the materials meet the learners need or not. Hutchinson and
Waters (1987) state evaluation is basically a matching process among
the needs and possible solutions. It means that considerations in
evaluating English learning materials should be based on the students
needs.
Skierso in Tomlinson (1998:221) proposes three steps of materialls
evaluation, which are:
a. Identification of relevant contextual information relating to the
students, the teacher, the course syllabus and the institution,
b. Analysis of the features of the textbook followed by overall rating
of the text, and
c. The actual judging of the acceptability of the textbook, involving
both the rating and weighting of specific evaluative criteria.

According to the theories about materials evaluation above, the


preliminary efforts to start a materials evaluation is defining the

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criteria. This study uses the criteria which are proposed by BNSP
(2011) as follows.

a. The appropriateness of the content of the materials


The appropriateness of the content is determined ny the
completeness, the depth and the accuracy of the materials. In
addition, the materials should refer to the most up to dated sources.
b. The appropriateness of the language used in the materials.
The language used should be appropriatae to learners proficiency
levels, understandable, and acceptable. Moreover, the text within
the materials should be coherent and represent the integration of
ideas.
c. The appropriateness of the methodology
This item refers to the presentation of the materials. It includes
grading and sequencing the tasks within the materials.
d. The appropriateness of the layout of the materials
The layout covers the description of fonts, text size, and the
consistency of illustration.

G. Method of The Research


In this research the researcher used descriptive analysis method
because it is suitable with data in the from of description and relevant to
qualitative reserarch concept. Descriptive analysis is a method can be
conducted by describing the data collected in a form of narration and
interpret its meaning.
Therefore, the data collected based on the validation and materials
implementation can be described and analyzed exhaustively and
comprehensively. Consequently, the approppriateness of procedural text
materials for eleventh grade students of multimedia study program as a
learning materials can be known through interpreting and analyzing
process towards data resulted from questionnaires and interview the
reasearch subject.

H. Procedure of The research


This research refers to descriptive analysis process by Sudjana
(2012:202) the procedure of descriptive analysis research are: collecting

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data form the research subject, describing, and analyzing, finding a
meaningful concepts from the data analyzed. Based on these fourth step of
descriptifve analysis method, the researcher plans the research as follows:
Steps in Descriptive Analysis Research Methodology (Sudjana, 2012: 202)
1. Collecting the data fom the research subject
In collecing the data the researcher requests a teachers assisstance by
assessing the approppriateness of procedural text materials designed
and implementing it in small group consists of 10 students.
2. Describing research data
Data collected from questionnaires and interview conducted is outlined
and described transparently.
3. Analyzing the data
Data analysis is conducted based on the questionnaires scores gathered
and interview processed in a form of narration.
4. Finding a meaningful concepts from data analyzed
Based on the analyzed data, it can be found a meaningful concepts can
be interpreted. In this research, those concepts are in a form of
conclusion procedural text materials approppriatenes as a learning
materials.

I. Subject of The Research


1. Teachers
This research needs a teachers as a procedural text materials designed
judger. The judgement conducted before implementing procedural text
materials to students. In this research, teachers judging a materials are an
english teachers in eleventh grade students of multimedia study program at
Vocational High School. Teachers grade the materials by filling
questionnaires based on the analysis toward materials designed. Aspects
which are graded are the appropriateness of the content of the materials,
the appropriateness of the language used in the materials, the
appropriateness of the methodology and the appropriateness of the layout
of the materials. this is conducted to know the approppriateness of
procedural text materials for eleventh grade multimedia students as a
learning materials. then, the researcher also interviewing teachers to

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collect an information about materials approppriateness would be
implemented in teaching and learning activities.
2. Students
There is students involvement in procedural text materials designed
implementation. In this research, students being a research subject are 10
students in eleventh grade students of multimedia study program at
Vocational High School. Students examine the materials designed by
studying procedural text materials designed then giving their assessment in
a form of questionnaires. Through those questionnaires, students can give
their opinion towards materials debilities. Therefore, designer can revisite
the materials earlier. Furthermore, researcher also getting students
suggestion and opinion related to the aspects which are necessarily need to
be revisited in procedural text materials designed by conducting an
interview.

J. Technique of Data Collection


According to Fraenkel et.al (2012), the procedure or data collectioon
subsection is used to explain how the study was conducted. It describes
when, where and by whom the information was collected. In this research,
technique of data collection used are materials evaluation questionnaires
and interview
1. Questionnaire
Questionnaire is a key instrumental components used by the
researcher in collecting the data. through the questionnaire, the researcher
collects the numerical scores resulted from a judgement and suggestion
which can be analyzed and described qualitatively. Questionnaires
constructed by the researcher are in a form of expert, teacher and students
judgement questionnaire towards procedural text materials designed.
Those questionnaires conducted in a form of judgement scale and
materials revisiting suggestion.
2. Interview
In this research, an interview is proposed to gathering a further
information about an opinion and revisiting suggestion from teacher and

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students related to materials approppriateness as learning materials.
furhermore, the use of interview can result a comprehensive data.
Therefore, the data can be interpreted correctly. The interview used is
structured interview by using teacher and students interview guidelines.

K. Technique of Data Analysis


Technique of data analysis applied in this research is descriptive analysis
technique. Because the data in qualitative research has to be explained
specifically through description and analysis. In this research, data in a form
of scoresheet and revisiting suggestion collected from a questionnaires is
described and analyzed. Then, further analysis and interpretation toward
teachers and students interview data is conducted in order to support a
questionnaires data. Finally, a procedural text materials which have passed a
validity and implementation process can be revisited related to its
significances.
Likert-Scale is used as the measurement to analyze the data of expert
judgment questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire are calculated by
using the formula proposed by Suharto (2006: 52-53).

For instance, based on the results of the materials evaluation, it is found


that the highest score is 4 and the lowest is 3.
R = 4 3 = 0.25
4
The data calculation above shows that the range of each four categories is
0.25. Further, the results of the calculation are converted to descriptive
analysis by arranging its goodness as proposed by Suharto (2006: 52-53). The
indicator to measure is the Mean ().

Scales Interval Descriptive categories


1. 3.24 < X 4 Very Good
2. 2.5 < X 3.24 Good
3. 1.75 < X 2.24 Fair
4. 1 < X 1.74 Poor

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L. Data Collection Instruments
In collecting the data, the questionnaires are distributed to the teachers,
students and a materials expert. There are two types of instruments used in this
research. Those are the teachers and students assessments and expert
judgement questionnaires. While, an interview guideline is proposed to the
teacher and students.
The organization of the questionnaires and interviews is elaborated
through the tables below.

No Data Subject Instrument


1. Trying out/ 1. English teacher in 1. Teachers judgement
procedural text Vocational High questionnaire
2. Students judgement
materials School
2. Eleventh grade questionnaire
implementation
3. Teachers interview
students of
to eleventh
guideline
multimedia study
grade students 4. Students interview
program in
of multimedia guideline
Vocational High
study program
School

There is an involvement of an english teacher and eleventh grade students


of multimedia study program in Vocational High School in around of Cirebon
as the subject of this research in trying out and implementing a procedural text
materials designed. Eventually, instruments used in this research are teacher
and students judgement questionnaires and interview guidelines.

1. Questionnaire
Questionnaire is a key instrumental components used by the researcher in
collecting the data. through the questionnaire, the researcher collects the
numerical scores resulted from a judgement and suggestion which can be
analyzed and described qualitatively. Questionnaires constructed by the
researcher are in a form of expert, teacher and students judgement
questionnaire towards procedural text materials designed. Those

22
questionnaires conducted in a form of judgement scale and materials
revisiting suggestion.

After the first draft of materials is designed, the materials are then
evaluated by an expert. The evaluation is conducted by providing a
questionnaire to the expert. The questionnaire is adapted from the Standard of
Course Book Assessment for Vocational High School by BSNP 2011 and
consists of four aspects; i.e. content appropriateness, language
appropriateness, presentation appropriateness, and lay-out appropriateness.
The materials expert who evaluated the materials is a credible lecturer
from English Education Department of Swadaya Gunung Jati Cirebon. The
expert is an M.Pd holder. He is a permanent lecturer of Swadaya Gunung Jati
Cirebon and has been teaching for many years. By looking at his experience
and expertise, his suggestions are considered to be valid.
The results of the materials evaluation are then presented in the form of
descriptive statistics. The results are also used as the basis to rewrite the
learning materials.

Example of The Organization of Expert Judegment Questionnaire


referenced by BSNP
Component
No s of Aspects
evaluation
Completeness
Depth
1. Content Accuracy
Language Features
Life Skill Development
Systematic
Balance
2. Presentation Students centered
Autonomous
Self-Evaluation

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The appropriateness at Developmental level of

3. Language Students
Language Accuracy
The Unity of Ideas
4. Lay-out Typography

Components
No
of Aspects
.
Evaluation
The designed materials are relevant to KI/KD of
procedural texts for eleventh grade studnts of
multimedia study program
The designed materials are relevant to students
daily life.
Materials (text/figures/tables) are relevant to the
topics being discussed, that is procedural text
The designed materials provide recent multimedia
issues.
1. Content The designed materials are in accordance with
students target competence of multimedia study
program.
The designed materials contain knowledge about
life skill.
The designed materials reflect attitude that is useful
for students life skill.
The designed materials lead the students to
understand the social function of the procedural
text.
The designed materials lead the students to
understand the generic structure of the procedural
text.
The designed materials lead the students to
understand the linguistic features of the procedural
text.
2. Presentation The designed tasks are well-organized,

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systematically graded, from the easiest task up to
the most difficult task.
The designed materials contain opening activities,
main activities and closing activities.
The designed tasks encourage students to perform
oral communication effectively.
The designed materials encourage students to
perform written communication effectively.
The designed tasks encourage students to think
creatively.
The designed tasks encourage students to act
creatively.
The designed materials encourage students to learn
independently.
The designed materials provide evaluation forms
for the students to check their understanding.
The designed materials contain vocabulary that is
related to the topic of the unit.
The designed materials contain technical terms that
are related to the topic of the unit.
The language used is relevant to the development of
students language ability.
The language of instruction can be easily
understood by the students.
The language of the materials provided can be
easily understood by the students.
3. Language The materials are designed in a grammatically
correct English.
The choice of words of the materials is in
accordance with word choice principle.
The designed materials in a unit/task/paragraph are
in accordance with one another.
The designed materials reflect the unity of ideas.
4. Lay-out The fonts used are not too various.
The fonts used are not too big/ too small.
The color of the materials supports the materials
delivery.

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The pictures are provided for aesthetic and
functional purposes.

2. Interview

Interview guideline is conducted to collect a depth information from the


respondent. Interview is proposed to teacher and several students after
conducting a questionnaire session. Structured interview is chosen by the
researcher because it provides guideline instruments for interviewing. In this
research there are two kind of interview conducted; (1) Teacher interview and;
(2) Students interview.

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