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GLENCOE LANGUAGE

ARTS

Sentence
Diagraming

To the Teacher
Sentence Diagraming is a blackline master workbook that offers samples, exercises,
and step-by-step instructions to expand students’ knowledge of grammar and sentence
structure. Each lesson teaches a part of a sentence and then illustrates a way to diagram
it. Designed for students at all levels,
Sentence Diagraming provides students with a tool for understanding written and
spoken English.

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PART I Simple Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Lesson 1 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Simple subject and simple predicate
Understood subject
Lesson 2 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Simple subject or simple predicate having more than one word
Simple subject and simple predicate in inverted order
Lesson 3 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Compound subject
Lesson 4 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Compound predicate
Lesson 5 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Compound subject and compound predicate
Lesson 6 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Direct object
Lesson 7 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Compound direct object
Lesson 8 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Indirect object
Lesson 9 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Compound verb with direct and indirect objects
Lesson 10 Adjectives and Adverbs I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Adjectives
Lesson 11 Adjectives and Adverbs II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Adverbs
Adverbs modifying verbs
Lesson 12 Adjectives and Adverbs III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Adverbs that modify other modifiers
Lesson 13 Adjectives and Adverbs IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Modifiers with compound subjects, verbs, and objects
Lesson 14 Subject Complements I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Predicate noun
Lesson 15 Subject Complements II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Predicate adjective
Lesson 16 Subject Complements III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Compound subject complements
PART II Simple Sentences with Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Lesson 17 Appositives and Appositive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Appositives and appositive phrases
Lesson 18 Prepositional Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Used as adjectives
Lesson 19 Prepositional Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Used as adverbs
Lesson 20 Prepositional Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Used to modify other prepositional phrases
Lesson 21 Participles and Participial Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Participles
Lesson 22 Participles and Participial Phrases II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Participial phrases

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Lesson 23 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Used as subjects
Lesson 24 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Used as direct objects
Lesson 25 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Used as predicate nouns
Lesson 26 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Used as objects of prepositions
Lesson 27 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Used as adjectives
Lesson 28 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Used as adverbs
Lesson 29 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Used as subjects
Lesson 30 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Used as direct objects
Lesson 31 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Used as predicate nouns
PART III Compound and Complex Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Lesson 32 Compound Sentences I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Clauses connected by a semicolon
Lesson 33 Compound Sentences II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Clauses connected by a conjunction
Lesson 34 Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Adjective clauses introduced by relative pronouns
Lesson 35 Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Adverb clauses that modify verbs
Lesson 36 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Used as subjects
Lesson 37 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Used as direct objects
Lesson 38 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Introduced by that
Lesson 39 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Used as objects of prepositions
Lesson 40 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Used as predicate nouns
ANSWER KEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Adverbs that modify other modifiers Lesson 13 Adjectives and Adverbs IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Compound direct object Lesson 8 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Predicate noun Lesson 15 Subject Complements II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Compound subject and compound predicate Lesson 6 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Simple subject or simple predicate having more than one word Simple subject and simple predicate in inverted order Lesson 3 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates I . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Adverbs Adverbs modifying verbs Lesson 12 Adjectives and Adverbs III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Compound subject Lesson 4 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates II .8 Direct object Lesson 7 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects II . . 13 Adjectives Lesson 11 Adjectives and Adverbs II. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Simple subject and simple predicate Understood subject Lesson 2 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates II . . . . . . . . .6 Compound predicate Lesson 5 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and objects Lesson 14 Subject Complements I . . . . . . . . . . 10 Indirect object Lesson 9 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Compound verb with direct and indirect objects Lesson 10 Adjectives and Adverbs I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Sentences Lesson 1 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Compound subject complements Sentence Diagraming 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Predicate adjective Lesson 16 Subject Complements III . . . . . . 18 Modifiers with compound subjects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

like the one shown here. but it is understood. vertical line Simple Subject and Simple Predicate Every sentence has two parts: a subject and a predicate. Inc. 2 Sentence Diagraming . However. To diagram a sentence with a simple subject and simple predicate. Robins fly simple subject simple predicate In a diagram. Make the vertical line that cuts through the baseline baseline equally long above and below the baseline. keep capitalization as it is in the sentence. The simple subject of a sentence is the key noun or pronoun in the subject. 1. Turn. To diagram any sentence. It shows how the words and parts of a sentence relate to each other and to the sentence as a whole. 2. leave out any punctuation. write the simple subject on the baseline to the left of the vertical line. The subject tells what a sentence is about. Write the simple predicate on the baseline to the right of the vertical line. The predicate says something about the subject. 3. Understood Subject Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Wait! 4. The predicate appears on the right. Example Sit. Dolphins swim. begin with a diagram frame. Example Robins fly. Place the understood subject in parentheses to the left of the vertical line.Name Date 1 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates I A sentence diagram is a chart of a sentence. the subject you is not stated. In some sentences. The simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase that expresses the essential thought about the subject. (you) Sit (understood simple subject) simple predicate EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Tiffany jogs. The subject of the sentence appears on the left side of the diagram frame.

comes between the words of the verb phrase. Have guests been invited? Sentence Diagraming 3 . she. such as President William Henry Harrison. Ms. or auxiliary. An example is have been voting. verbs is called a verb phrase. Remember that capitalization stays the same as in the original sentence but that punctuation is not used. however. A simple predicate. In a diagram. Dr. or a person’s full name. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. was crying. Name Date 2 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates II Simple Subject or Simple Predicate Having More than One Word A simple subject may have more than one word. the locations of the simple subject and the simple predicate always stay the same—the subject at the left of the vertical line and the predicate at the right. Study the example below. in which the main verb is voting and the helping verbs are have and been. Sojourner Truth was speaking simple subject simple predicate Simple Subject and Simple Predicate in Inverted Order In some questions. Hurry! 2. For example. such as White House. Example Sojourner Truth was speaking. Hector has been exercising. may also have more than one word. A main verb with its helping. the simple subject appears between a helping verb and the main verb. it may be a compound noun. Inc. 4. Did you forget? 5. In a diagram. Example Is anyone listening? anyone Is listening simple subject simple predicate EXERCISE 1 Diagram each sentence. or verb. Alice Cummins interrupted. 1. place all the words of a simple subject or simple predicate on the baseline on the correct side of the vertical rule. 3. An example is Was she crying? The simple subject. Lee has been calling. 6.

Senator Adams will have retired. Did Aunt Emily go? EXERCISE 2 In each of these sentences. the simple subject and the verb are shown in boldface type. some water. Inc. 1. the Doans have been 6. the broken window? at the garden center. One of these statements is false. 2. At the end of the race. 10. Were you planning to fix 5. Diagram only the boldfaced simple subject and verb of each sentence. drink sidewalks and roads. 3. Sleet is falling on the 4.Name Date 2 Continued 7. Plants of many kinds are sold Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4 Sentence Diagraming . Work! 9. remodeling their old house near the seashore. Who called? 8. All year long.

Either Jeremy or Mark was whispering. or is used. However. The diagram for a sentence with a compound subject has a fork in the baseline at the left (subject) side of the vertical line. and or either .conj Both Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. However. and tractors part 2 of compound subject EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. . If a simple sentence has a compound subject or predicate. Compound Subject A compound subject is made up of two or more simple subjects that are joined by a conjunction—such as and. Boaters and swimmers were rescued. Its diagram uses only one baseline. Both Emma and Becky laughed. Was Phillip or Annette returning? 4. one for each part of the subject. 2. write one word of the conjunction on each side of the dotted line. Inc. Draw angled lines from both the top and bottom subject lines to join the stack to the baseline. and write the conjunction along that dotted line. the baseline is forked at the appropriate side to make space for more than one part. 3. trucks part 1 of compound subject raced verb . . Study this example: Example Both trucks and tractors raced. Trucks part 1 of compound subject raced verb conj . . it has a single subject and a single predicate. or or—and have the same verb. the subject or the predicate may have more than one part. Connect the lines with a dotted vertical line at their right. .conj . as this example shows: Example Trucks and tractors raced. Draw parallel horizontal lines. but. 1. That is. its diagram still uses only one baseline. and tractors part 2 of compound subject If a correlative conjunction such as both . Name Date 3 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates I A simple sentence has only one main clause. Sentence Diagraming 5 .

Example Icicles gleamed but dripped. She either complains or criticizes. as in the next example. but dripped part 2 of compound verb If a helping verb is not repeated. 2. Rex was growling and biting. 6 Sentence Diagraming . The diagram for a sentence with a compound verb has a fork in the baseline at the right (verb) side of the vertical line. 1. 5. Stop and listen! 6. Look at the example below. 3. but dripping part 2 of compound verb EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Elaine paused but continued. Example Icicles were gleaming but dripping. To diagram a sentence with a compound verb. write it on the baseline between the vertical line and the fork. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. gleamed part 1 of compound verb Icicles simple subject conj.Name Date 4 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates II Compound Predicate A compound predicate (or compound verb) is made up of two or more verbs or verb phrases that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject. 4. Inc. Skiers were slipping and falling. gleaming part 1 of compound verb Icicles were simple subject helping verb conj. draw a mirror image of the diagram for a compound subject. Waves rose and fell.

traveling but will return. 2. Did Ernie and you stop and look? 7. Inc. Both Angela and Rudy have been scratches or bites. Lopez fished and talked. 1. as in this example. Tina and Mr. 5. 4. Neither Midnight nor Belle the Cat 8. Nick and Lawanna swept and dusted. Sentence Diagraming 7 . Mayor Axon visited and spoke. 3. Tracey strolled part 1 of compound subject part 1 of compound verb .conj and Donna shopped part 2 of compound subject part 2 of compound verb EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Example Tracey and Donna strolled and shopped. The diagram for any of those sentences has a baseline that is forked on both ends. Name Date 5 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates III Compound Subject and Compound Predicate Some sentences have both compound subjects and compound verbs. Was Diane or Joan singing? Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 6. Letters and packages were delivered and opened.

7. Has everyone had fun? 8 Sentence Diagraming . place the direct object on the baseline to the right of its verb. 1. and other words acting as nouns may be direct objects. Both Max and I hit homers. but others pass their action on to other elements in the sentence. I like picnics subject action verb direct object EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Direct Object A transitive verb is an action verb that is followed by a word or words that answer the question what? or whom? Such words are called direct objects. Separate the object from the verb with a vertical line above the baseline only. Inc. Did anyone bring napkins? 8. 6. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Some action verbs are complete in themselves. 2. Nouns. Ants were bothering us. Tony cooked hamburgers. 5. Everyone brought food. 3. Example I like picnics. To diagram a sentence with a direct object. pronouns. Boys and girls played baseball. 4. Fran packed cookies. These elements are called the objects of the action verbs.Name Date 6 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects I Verbs that express physical or mental action are called action verbs.

Write the conjunction along that line. Mike ate both food and bugs. Campers should bring bedrolls and tents. is forked. mosquitoes. Danelle and Gina had prepared salads and rolls. 5. We saw neither rain nor clouds. 2. Parks have tables and benches. Example Herbert roasted both corn and potatoes. Sentence Diagraming 9 . Draw angled lines from both the top and bottom lines to join the stack to the baseline. Did you drink juice or cola? 7. where the direct object belongs. 3. one for each part of the compound object. the right end of the baseline. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. You use either grills or campfires. Connect the lines with a dotted vertical line at their left. Study this example. Inc. draw parallel horizontal lines.conj. corn part 1 of direct object Herbert roasted subject action verb conj. 6. Name Date 7 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects II Compound Direct Object If a verb has a compound direct object. 4. bothand potatoes part 2 of direct object EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Chang was swatting houseflies and 8. 1. To the right of the vertical line after the verb.

Varsey told us stories. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Norris assigned us jobs. 4. 3. He taught me birdcalls. 10 Sentence Diagraming . Roger lent Manny sunglasses. We made ourselves dinner. Mr. bends. a sentence with an indirect object also has a direct object. Then draw a line that slants down from the baseline under the verb. 5. Inc. verb. 6. begin by diagraming the subject. In the sentence. Place the indirect object on the horizontal segment of the line. Ms. 2. To diagram a sentence with an indirect object. the indirect object appears between the verb and the direct object. Ranger O'Brien gives directions subject action verb direct object campers indirect object EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. 1. Example Ranger O’Brien gives campers directions. as in this example. She handed everyone marshmallows. and direct object.Name Date 8 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects III Indirect Object An indirect object answers the question to whom or what? or for whom or what? after an action verb. Almost always. and extends horizontally to the right.

examined part 1 of compound verb Campers maps subject direct object conj. a direct or an indirect object completes only one part of the verb. Example Steve drew maps and made us copies. made copies part 2 of compound verb direct object us indirect object EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Make sure that each direct or indirect object is related to the correct verb or verb part. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To diagram such a sentence. In other sentences with a compound verb. and compared part 2 of compound verb The diagram shows that the campers both examined maps and compared maps. as shown below. connect the horizontal lines holding the verb parts to the baseline at both left and right. Rangers led hikes and gave hikers advice. Campers collected and buried leftovers. drew maps part 1 of compound verb direct object Steve subject and conj. 2. Sentence Diagraming 11 . connect the object(s) with only one verb part. as in this example. Inc. Then extend the baseline at the right to hold the shared direct object. all parts of the verb share a single direct object. 1. Name Date 9 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects IV Compound Verb with Direct and Indirect Objects In some sentences with a compound verb. To diagram that type of sentence. Example Campers examined and compared maps.

Weather can help or hurt vacationers. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Food can attract bears and bring campers problems.Name Date 9 Continued 3. 5. Rain gives plants nourishment but can dampen spirits. Have you camped or visited parks? 12 Sentence Diagraming . 6. 4.

place the modifiers from left to right in the order in which they appear in the sentence. an. Any noun or pronoun in a sentence may be modified by one or more adjectives. possessive nouns and pronouns can be considered adjectives because they describe nouns. brother oiled wheel subject verb direct object adjectiveadjectiv squeakybicycle e adjectiveadjectiveadjective Lucy older her ’ s 1 2 1 2 3 EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. To diagram a sentence with adjectives. Name Date 10 Adjectives and Adverbs I In addition to nouns. Did the famous cyclist win first prize? Sentence Diagraming 13 . In the example below. 2. place each adjective on a slant line below the word it modifies. The articles a. his. Dean’s. An adjective can tell what kind. this. Adjectives An adjective is a word that modifies. In addition. or describes. Inc. and less. your. If more than one adjective modifies the same word. or how much. how many. Possessive pronouns include our. Those happy fans watched a great race. and her. and Mrs. a noun or pronoun. and verbs. The two types of modifiers are adjectives and adverbs. adults’. every adjective is underlined. pronouns. Examples of possessive nouns are children’s. 1. Examples include strong. and the are also adjectives. three. Example Lucy’s older brother oiled her squeaky bicycle wheel. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. many sentences use modifiers. which one.

Name Date 10 Continued 3. Dangerous activities give him memorable thrills. Tough triathlons attract him. That adventurous teenager climbs steep mountains. My cousin enjoys extreme sports. 4. Inc. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 5. 7. 6. 14 Sentence Diagraming . Many enthusiastic people attended that recent event.

how?. inside. an adjective. place the adverbs under the verb in the order they appear in the sentence. the adverb often takes two different positions. and to what extent? In the examples below. Adverbs Modifying Verbs In a sentence. the adverbs are underlined. Immediately. everyone was seated comfortably. place each adverb on a slant line below the word it modifies. because often modifies hosts in both sentences. It may be separated from the verb by other words or phrases. Had the Lopezes been there before? warmly. Example My family often hosts parties. 4. 3. To diagram a sentence with one or more adverbs. an adverb that modifies a verb may appear either before or after the verb. Name Date 11 Adjectives and Adverbs II Adverbs An adverb is a word that modifies. When diagraming a sentence in which two or more adverbs modify the verb. Soon. Cold winds howled noisily. Adverbs answer the questions when?. The visit ended early. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where?. Sentence Diagraming 15 . My family hosts parties often. a verb. Inc. 1. The Dawsons greeted their guests 5. However. 2. or another adverb. family hosts parties subject verb direct object My often adjective adverb EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. they hurried the guests 6. or describes. In these examples. the diagrams of the sentences are the same.

Connect the two lines with a short horizontal line at the top of the lower slant line. explorers choose paths subject verb direct object adverb Verywatchful carefully their adjective adjective extremely adverb adverb Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the adverbs very and extremely modify the adjective watchful and the adverb carefully. Inc. 16 Sentence Diagraming . To diagram an adverb that modifies an adjective or another adverb shown on a slant line. Alarmingly thick bushes blocked the path almost everywhere. write the additional adverb on a slant line parallel to but slightly lower than the slant line of the word modified. The travelers looked about rather wearily. explorers choose paths subject verb direct object adjectiv Watchful carefully their adjective adverb e Also. with adjectives modifying nouns and pronouns. 2. the sentence may have other adverbs modifying these modifiers.Name Date 12 Adjectives and Adverbs III Adverbs That Modify Other Modifiers A single sentence may have both kinds of modifiers. Example Watchful explorers choose their paths carefully. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. and adverbs modifying verbs. Example Very watchful explorers choose their paths extremely carefully. In this example. 1.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. the least courageous member yelled shockingly loudly. Sentence Diagraming 17 . 4. Name Date 12 Continued 3. The group was entering a particularly dangerous area. 6. 5. The usually energetic leader walked exceedingly slowly. Suddenly. Extremely sharp hatchets cleared a path remarkably fast.

See how the diagrams differ. or object. If the modifier modifies all parts. The story fascinated adventurous delight me.Name Date 13 Adjectives and Adverbs IV Modifiers with Compound Subjects. immediately modifies both verb parts. The leader immediately turned and blew a whistle. place it under the shared baseline. verb. Inc. In the first example below. a modifier may describe one part of the compound element or all parts. If a modifier modifies only one part of the compound element. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Scary stories always frighten and 4. 1. What the modifier describes affects where it is placed in the diagram. immediately modifies blew. 18 Sentence Diagraming . place it under that part of the fork. turned part 1 of compound verb leader subject The adjectiv blew whistle e part 2 of compound verb direct object a immediately adverb adjective turned part 1 of compound verb leader subject and The adjective adver immediately blew b part 2 of compound verb direct object whistle a adjective Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The cowardly explorer shivered 3. teens and adults. In the second example. Examples The leader turned and immediately blew a whistle. sold well. 2. Verbs. and Objects In a sentence with a compound subject. Both the book and its sequel suddenly and fainted.

To diagram a sentence with a predicate noun. parrot can be pet subject linking verb predicate noun A a good adjectiv e adjectiveadjective EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Name Date 14 Subject Complements I A linking verb links. Example A parrot can be a good pet. and feel. Cockatiels are parrots. 2. or joins. The word or phrase linked to the subject is called a subject complement. Other linking verbs are appear. the subject of the sentence with a word or phrase describing or identifying the subject. 4. 3. Draw a slant line between the verb and the predicate noun that ends at the baseline. sound. It may be modified by adjectives. The most common linking verb is to be. There are two kinds of subject complements: predicate nouns and predicate adjectives. They are diagramed the same way. Predicate Noun A predicate noun is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames or further identifies the subject. place the noun or pronoun on the baseline to the right of the linking verb. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Parrots are popular pets. Kiwi is a yellow cockatiel. Inc. How long has Kiwi been Frank’s pet? Sentence Diagraming 19 . 1.

Draw a slant line between the verb and the predicate adjective that ends at the baseline. Are her tricks difficult? 3.Name Date 15 Subject Complements II Predicate Adjective A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and further describes the subject. 1. 6. Kiwi appears happy. Her birdcage is rather large. It may be modified by adverbs. To diagram a sentence with a predicate adjective. Frank’s cockatiel is very friendly. Inc. Kiwi’s owner feels extremely fortunate. 5. place the adjective on the baseline to the right of the linking verb. 4. 20 Sentence Diagraming . Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Example Many parrots are quite clever. Kiwi seems smart. parrots are clever subject linking verb predicate adjective adver Many quite adjective b EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. 2.

Name Date 16 Subject Complements III Compound Subject Complements Both predicate nouns and predicate adjectives may have compound parts. predicate noun parties are conj. subject linking verb and part 2 of comp. Republicans part 1 of comp. predicate noun our major Today Democrats adjectiveadjective adverb long part 1 of comp. 2. The diagram of a sentence with a compound subject complement has a baseline that is forked at the right of the slant line. predicate adj. is connected to the baseline before the fork. Political cartoons can be both funny and meaningful. our major parties are Republicans and Democrats. Their messages may be timely but durable. The parties’ history is quite long and colorful. history is subject linking verb conj. as appropriate. Study these examples. note how the adverb quite. and part 2 of comp. predicate adj. Examples Today. The parties quite colorful adjectiveadjective adverb ’ In the second example. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Decide first whether the sentence has a subject complement or a direct object. Sentence Diagraming 21 . and use a slant or straight line. 1. which modifies both parts of the compound predicate adjective. to separate that word from the verb. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Inc.

Inc. 5. 4. The teddy bear is still popular and lovable. Teddy Roosevelt was both a strong president and a memorable public figure. One cartoon showed Teddy and a cute bear. Wartime political cartoons are often critical or inspirational. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 6.Name Date 16 Continued 3. 22 Sentence Diagraming .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Used as adverbs Lesson 20 Prepositional Phrases III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Used as subjects Lesson 24 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Participial phrases Lesson 23 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Used to modify other prepositional phrases Lesson 21 Participles and Participial Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Used as predicate nouns Lesson 26 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases IV . 41 Used as adverbs Lesson 29 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases III . . 38 Used as objects of prepositions Lesson 27 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Used as direct objects Lesson 31 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases V . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Used as predicate nouns Sentence Diagraming 23 . . . . Simple Sentences with Phrases Lesson 17 Appositives and Appositive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Appositives and appositive phrases Lesson 18 Prepositional Phrases I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Participles Lesson 22 Participles and Participial Phrases II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Used as direct objects Lesson 25 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases III . . . 42 Used as subjects Lesson 30 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Used as adjectives Lesson 28 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Used as adjectives Lesson 19 Prepositional Phrases II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. To diagram a sentence with an appositive phrase. object a A stagecoach adjectiveadjectiveadjective adjective California Example Legends describe that colorful character. To diagram a sentence with an appositive. a fearless driver. Charley Parkhurst. obj.) verb dir. adjectiv a fearless any adjectiveadjective e almost adverb EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Any noun or pronoun may have an appositive. 1.) that colorful adjectiveadjective An appositive phrase is composed of an appositive and all the words that modify it. verb dir. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. had a secret. a tall. Inc. (appositive) verb dir. 24 Sentence Diagraming . Parkhurst (driver) could handle horse subj. Example A California stagecoach driver. Charley Parkhurst was really Charlotte Parkhurst. write the appositive within parentheses immediately after the word identified. Example Parkhurst. an orphan. object (appos. place the appositive immediately after the word it identifies. left an unfriendly orphanage. and set it off in parentheses. Legends describe character (Charley Parkhurst) subj. strong girl. driver (Charley Parkhurst) had secret subject (appos.Name Date 17 Appositives and Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun that identifies another noun or pronoun in the sentence. Charley Parkhurst. Fifteen-year-old Charlotte. and place the modifiers on slant lines under the appositive rather than under the word identified. could handle almost any horse.

stable hand. Sentence Diagraming 25 . Charley. the pretend man. Name Date 17 Continued 3. She took a man’s job. She also took a man’s name. her womanhood. 7. 6. 5. Her one vice. Inc. Death finally revealed her secret. tobacco. Charley. became the first woman voter. 4. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. gave Charley cancer.

26 Sentence Diagraming . EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Posters throughout the city announced the rock concert. Inc. Some prepositions are made up of more than one word. write them on slant lines below the object. people like music subject verb direct object Most in adjective preposition rock adjective class Emma ’ object of preposition s adjective Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Examples of prepositional phrases are “before the storm. The slant line should extend slightly beyond the horizontal line. Place the object of the preposition on a horizontal line connected to the slant line and lying at its right.” and “in front of an old barn.Name Date 18 Prepositional Phrases I A preposition is a word that indicates how a noun or pronoun relates to some other word in its sentence. Holders of particular tickets would also receive passes to backstage areas. place the preposition on a slant line below the noun or pronoun modified. and with. Used as Adjectives To diagram a prepositional phrase used as an adjective.” Prepositional phrases may act as adjectives or as adverbs. throughout. its object. A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition. Example Most people in Emma’s class like rock music. 2.” “during heavy rain. such as in front of and except for. Examples include before. and any modifiers of the object. 1. If the object of the preposition has modifiers.

Could you see the drummer with long blond hair? Sentence Diagraming 27 . Name Date 18 Continued 3. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 6. Inc. Spotlights in many different colors lit the stage. The loudspeakers behind my ears blared announcements about souvenirs. Will you get tickets for the show? 4. 5.

Example The science lab was displayed on Parents’ Night. 2. or how does or did the action occur? EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. You can identify a phrase used as an adverb if it answers this question: When. lab was displayed subject verb The science on Parents’ Night adjectiveadjective preposition object of preposition If the prepositional phrase modifies only one part of a compound element. we practiced our experiments. place it under that part only. the slant line begins beneath the shared baseline. 1. where. came part 1 of compound verb mother subject conj. prep part 2 of compound verb direct object On . adj that Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 28 Sentence Diagraming . As shown above. Example On that night. Before Parents’ Night. Study this model of a prepositional phrase used to modify a verb. . my mother came and saw the school. a prepositional phrase used as an adverb does not always immediately follow the verb. . Mrs. Note that the phrase is placed beneath the verb modified. Inc. and my saw school adj . adj night the obj. Otherwise. The preposition is placed on the slant line and its object is placed on the adjoining horizontal line.Name Date 19 Prepositional Phrases II Used as Adverbs A prepositional phrase used as an adverb is diagramed the same way as one used as an adjective. Sanchez wrote precise instructions on the chalkboard. of prep.

We recorded data and observations in our lab notebooks. 5. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Name Date 19 Continued 3. A gray mouse slept quietly inside a cardboard tube. Inc. Sentence Diagraming 29 . 6. 4. The teams performed the experiments with great care. Turtles and frogs crawled over the aquarium rocks.

2. The race was held on a day with threats of rain. of prep. so it is placed under the object of the first phrase. In this example. . the adj . Danny rowed with a winner of the previous race. The prepositional phrase “through the Scout camp” tells which river. 30 Sentence Diagraming . Inc. prep through . Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. obj. of prep. Example Boaters in canoes raced down the river through the Scout camp. the prepositional phrase “down the river” tells where the boaters raced. . camp adj adj the Scout . Be sure to determine which word is modified by each phrase. obj. obj. Boaters raced subject verb in down prep prep canoes river . river. Simply place the phrase beneath the object of the prepositional phrase that is modified. and place each phrase under the word it modifies. so it is placed under the verb raced.Name Date 20 Prepositional Phrases III Used to Modify Other Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase that modifies another prepositional phrase is diagramed like any other prepositional phrase. 1. Study this example. of prep. Any sentence may contain a series of prepositional phrases. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.

dark clouds filled the sky. Inc. Sentence Diagraming 31 . 4. Name Date 20 Continued 3. the rowers in all of the other boats stopped. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Danny and his partner sped to the goal at the fork in the river. Near the end of the race. 5. Immediately.

The hero swung a broken branch at the creature. 3. Inc. Example Growling. monster charged hero subject verb direct object G r the the w p a adj adj a p rticipl owling ounded rticiple . but some have irregular forms. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and extends horizontally to the right. as shown in this example. curving it in the angle of the line. 32 Sentence Diagraming . the monster charged the wounded hero. first identify the word that the participle modifies. A participle is a verb form that functions in a sentence as an adjective. Write the participle on the line. bends. Remember that any verb form used as an adjective is a participle. . Present participles end in – ing. Most past participles end in –ed. the monster fled from the relieved fighter. The satisfied crowd soon left the crowded theater. 2. Participles To diagram a sentence that includes a participle. e Irregular participles such as risen or caught may not be recognized easily. Defeated. Participles may be either present or past. 1. Draw a line that slants down from that word. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.Name Date 21 Participles and Participial Phrases I Not all verb forms function in sentences as verbs.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . and all words and phrases that modify the participle and its complements. of participle i le a adj . Jacob spotted a large dog. Be sure to identify which word is modified by each participial phrase. indirect objects. Name Date 22 Participles and Participial Phrases II Participial Phrases As a form of verbs. participles may take direct objects. Cheerfully adv adj . Jacob walked subject verb to store prep w h is tl p . They may also be modified by adverbs and prepositional phrases. 2. barking furiously. Participial phrases can occur almost anywhere in a sentence. Sentence Diagraming 33 . obj. first diagram the participle on its bent line. To diagram a participial phrase. The dog. and diagram the phrase so that the participle extends below that word. obj. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Looking over his shoulder. predicate nouns. and modifiers in the phrase. Example Cheerfully whistling a tune. chased the frightened boy. complements. A participial phrase is made up of a participle. any complements it may have. 1. Be sure to place every modifier under the correct element of the participial phrase. Jacob walked to the store. Inc. adding them to the bent line of the participle. and predicate adjectives. Then diagram any objects. of preposition the a rt p ng tune ici dir.

4.Name Date 22 Continued 3. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. holding his breath. giving the exhausted boy a rest. The confused dog stopped. Inc. 34 Sentence Diagraming . Thinking quickly. Jacob. 5. he noticed the dog’s wagging tail. 6. Jacob jumped over a fence. Surprised. opened the gate.

Name Date 23 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases I A gerund is a verb form that ends in -ing and is used in a sentence as a noun. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and modifiers of the gerund phrase. 2. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. G i vi ge r n un g d speeches direct object of gerund frightens people verb direct object adj some . A gerund phrase is made up of a gerund. Draw a stepped line above the stilt and curve the gerund itself over the step. In a diagram. complements. Then diagram any objects.” and the stilt is placed where you would put a noun or pronoun used as the gerund is used. a gerund is written in a curved shape over a line with a step. 1. Hearing that joke reminds me of a funny story. Jogging tires me quickly. adding these elements to the stepped line. Example Giving speeches frightens some people. The stepped line lies at the top of a “stilt. Used as Subjects To diagram a gerund or a gerund phrase used as a subject. and all modifiers of the gerund and its complements. its complements. Gerunds and gerund phrases may be used in sentences wherever nouns may be used. Inc. Sentence Diagraming 35 . place a stilt on the baseline where the subject usually lies.

Example Armando enjoys solving difficult riddles. 2. as shown here. Draw a stepped line. while participles act as adjectives. 36 Sentence Diagraming . s ol v in g g er un d riddles direct object of gerund difficult adj Armando enjoys subject verb . 1. that verb form is a gerund. However. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Test for gerunds by asking this question: Can the verb form be replaced with the pronoun it? If so. Inc. above the stilt. I remember being lifted by my father for a better view. Add any complements or modifiers in the gerund phrase to the stepped line. Curve the gerund over the step. gerunds act as nouns. Both gerunds and present participles end in –ing. My whole family enjoyed watching the fireworks display. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.Name Date 24 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases II Used as Direct Objects To diagram a sentence with a gerund or gerund phrase as a direct object. draw a stilt on the baseline where the direct object is usually placed.

following a slant line. of gerund n chore has been subject linking verb favorite always . Study this example. Inc. . place a stilt on the baseline where the predicate noun belongs. Use the correct line before each gerund—straight or slanted— to indicate whether it is used as a direct object or as a predicate noun. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Draw a stepped line above the stilt. Elena’s hobby was repairing dolls. w as ge g windows d hi n ru dir. Name Date 25 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases III Used as Predicate Nouns To diagram a sentence with a gerund or gerund phrase as a predicate noun. adv . The first step of any job is finding the right tools. The tired workers stopped doing their best. Example My least favorite chore has always been washing windows. 2. Curve the gerund over the step. obj. 1. My adj adj adv least . Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3. Sentence Diagraming 37 . and add any other words of the gerund phrase to the stepped line.

Then place a stilt on the horizontal line where the object of the preposition belongs. Add any complements and modifiers of the gerund phrase to the stepped line. Decide first how each gerund is used. people cheered us subject verb dir. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. 38 Sentence Diagraming . obj. The ent ge e t aining adj u them dir. You win this game by popping five balloons. obj. mentally replace it with the pronoun it and decide where you would place that pronoun in a diagram. Study this example. and draw a stepped line above the stilt. Example The people cheered us for entertaining them. prep nd . Curve the gerund over the step itself. Inc. prepare space for the gerund by drawing a long slant line for that preposition. 1. The library has a policy against talking loudly. Whenever you find a gerund in a sentence to be diagramed. Then place the gerund or gerund phrase on a stilt in that position. of gerund r r for . Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and place the stilt for the gerund in the correct place. Marsha dreams of competing in the Olympics. 2. 3.Name Date 26 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases IV Used as Objects of Prepositions To diagram a sentence with a gerund or gerund phrase as the object of a preposition.

Tutoring younger children prepares you for becoming a teacher. Skiing in Colorado has been extremely enjoyable. 7. 5. 6. I found the instructions for assembling the unit. Sentence Diagraming 39 . Maynard’s habit of finding lost coins is uncanny. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Name Date 26 Continued 4.

to adj adj Band their tour . An example is “to tell. . members announced decision subject verb dir. near its lower end. 3. 40 Sentence Diagraming . It acts as an adjective modifying decision. An example is “to tell a friend the news. Study this example. 2.” Infinitives and infinitive phrases can be used in sentences as adjectives. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. or nouns. Examples Band members announced their decision to tour again. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. An overnight bag to hold essential items is a necessity. Write the base form of the verb on a horizontal line drawn to the right of the slant line. 1. The audience shouted demands to play favorite songs. On tour.” An infinitive phrase is made up of an infinitive. Write the word to on a slant line below the noun or pronoun modified by the infinitive. “to” infinitive (base form) again adv . Used as Adjectives Infinitives or infinitive phrases used as adjectives are diagramed in the same way as prepositional phrases are. Inc. adverbs.Name Date 27 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases I An infinitive is a verb form that matches the base form of a verb and is usually preceded by the word to. musicians need the ability to sleep at odd hours. The infinitive phrase “to tour again” tells what kind of decision. obj. and any modifiers of the infinitive and its complements. its complements.

3. Name Date 28 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases II Used as Adverbs Infinitives or infinitive phrases used as adjectives and those used as adverbs are diagramed in the same way. some audience members pushed others. modifying competed. 2. near its lower end. Write the word to on a slant line below the word modified by the infinitive. adj . obj. Inc. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. ”infinitive dir. of infinitive to show prep the . It acts as an adverb. 1. of prep. obj. Sentence Diagraming 41 . Guards at the auditorium worked to prevent injuries. Examples Eager fans competed to buy tickets to the show. The band played two encores to show their appreciation. To get closer to the stage. Here is an example. fans competed subject verb to adj to “ Eager buy tickets . the infinitive phrase “to buy tickets” tells how or why the fans competed. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In the example. Write the base form of the verb on a horizontal line drawn to the right of the slant line.

Study this example. 3. 1. first identify its role in the sentence. To change this tire will take twenty minutes. 2. and a short slant line at the left of that horizontal line. To buy a secondhand bike was a wise decision. To "To" build ship infinitive dir. as in the example below.Name Date 29 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases III Used as Subjects To diagram a sentence with an infinitive or infinitive phrase used as a noun. Write the word to on the slant line. If the phrase is used as a subject. 42 Sentence Diagraming . obj. draw a horizontal line above the stilt. (Make sure the verb form is directly above the stilt.) Add complements and modifiers in the infinitive phrase to the horizontal line. Next. was goal verb pred. Inc. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Examples To build the largest ship was the engineer’s goal. In good weather. and the base form of the verb on the horizontal line. . of infinitive the largest adj adj . to ride a bike to school saves time. draw a stilt on the baseline where the subject belongs. noun the engineer ’ s EXERCISE Diagram each sentence.

None of my friends can afford to buy every new video game. Next.) Add complements and modifiers in the infinitive phrase to the horizontal line. object of prep. The child refused to eat broccoli. 3. Callers to the station asked to hear your song. See the example below. draw a horizontal line above the stilt. Write the word to on the slant line. In this example. me indirect object EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. and the base form of the verb on the horizontal line. 1. “ to to infinitive go ” with prep Jean asked her subject verb . 2. (Place the verb form directly above the stilt. and a short slant line at the left of that horizontal line. Name Date 30 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases IV Used as Direct Objects To diagram a sentence with an infinitive or infinitive phrase used as a direct object. the infinitive phrase is the direct object of the sentence. draw a stilt on the baseline where the direct object belongs. Sentence Diagraming 43 . Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Examples Jean asked me to go with her.

to “ to run business ” infinitive dir. Examples Dean’s long-range plan is to run his own business. Inc. Note where the word to and the base form of the verb are placed. 3. To stick to the exact truth took courage. Alicia’s hobby is to ride trail horses. Study this example. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. except that it follows a slant line after the verb rather than a vertical line. ’ - range s EXERCISE Identify the role of the infinitive or infinitive phrase in each sentence.Name Date 31 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases V Used as Predicate Nouns An infinitive or infinitive phrase used as a predicate noun is diagramed the same way as one used as a direct object. 1. . and then diagram the sentence. his own plan is subject verb Deanlong adj adj . 44 Sentence Diagraming . 2. obj. The purpose of this booklet is to explain pet licenses. of inf.

5. 6. Sentence Diagraming 45 . Inc. One aim of the campaign is to raise awareness of this disease. Your first step is to notify the police of the theft. To increase sales at the store will not be easy. Everybody wanted to see the parade. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 7. Name Date 31 Continued 4.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Used as direct objects Lesson 38 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses III. . . . . 52 Adjective clauses introduced by relative pronouns Lesson 35 Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Clauses connected by a semicolon Lesson 33 Compound Sentences II . . . . . . . . . . 50 Clauses connected by a conjunction Lesson 34 Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses I . . . . . Compound and Complex Sentences Lesson 32 Compound Sentences I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Used as subjects Lesson 37 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses II . . 54 Adverb clauses that modify verbs Lesson 36 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Used as predicate nouns Sentence Diagraming 47 . . . . . 59 Introduced by that Lesson 39 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses IV . . . . . . . . . 61 Used as objects of prepositions Lesson 40 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses V . . . . . . . .

48 Sentence Diagraming . In many tales.Name Date 32 Compound Sentences I A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as a part of a sentence. as shown here. many different versions exist. 2. clause cannot stand alone. Example Folktales are always popular. Folktales are popular MAIN CLAUSE #1 verb always you have heard many MAIN CLAUSE #2 verb probably of them EXERCISE Diagram each compound sentence. clause can also stand alone in a simple sentence. Clauses Connected by a Semicolon When two main clauses in a compound sentence are joined by a semicolon. A subordinate. or independent. A main. each independent clause is diagramed separately. you have probably heard many of them. Some folktales have been told for generations. The type of connection used depends on whether the clauses are joined by a semicolon or a conjunction. animals talk. they stand for humans. or dependent. Then draw a vertical dotted line between the verbs of the clauses. then the clauses are connected. 1. A compound sentence has two or more main clauses and no subordinate clauses. first diagram the clauses separately in the order in which they appear in the sentence. The clauses are joined by a semicolon or by a comma and a conjunction. In a diagram of a compound sentence.

the Grimm brothers are among these writers. Sentence Diagraming 49 . the animals are wise. Inc. In some tales. Writers in various countries have made collections of folktales. 4. in others. Name Date 32 Continued 3. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. they are foolish or selfish.

Name Date 33 Compound Sentences II Clauses Connected by a Conjunction When the main clauses in a compound sentence are connected by a conjunction such as and. 2. but. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 50 Sentence Diagraming . Last. or do they give you nightmares? you Do likestories MAIN CLAUSE #1 verb or conj. but finally the hero Beowulf stopped him. Grendel was a terrible monster. Inc. Next. Grendel terrorized the countryside. write the conjunction on a solid horizontal line between the two main clauses. or or. 1. first diagram each clause separately. as shown in this example. they do give nightmares MAIN CLAUSE #2 verb you EXERCISE Diagram each compound sentence. In very old English tales. and his mother was equally horrible. draw vertical dotted lines to connect that solid line to the verb of each clause. Example Do you like scary stories.

Scylla and Charybdis were monstrous neighbors. or Charybdis pulled them and their crews underwater. 4. Sentence Diagraming 51 . and sailors feared them. Inc. Scylla tore ships apart. In the Odyssey. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Name Date 33 Continued 3.

Always begin the diagram of a complex sentence by diagraming the independent clause. To connect a main clause and an adjective clause that begins with a relative pronoun. 1. Inc. 52 Sentence Diagraming . who study rocks ADJECTIVE CLAUSE relative pronoun EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence. Then diagram the subordinate clause separately. A complex sentence has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Evidence that is found in rocks shows changes in the earth. 2. whose. placing it below the main clause. Information about the center of the earth is found in lava. or independent. clause can stand alone in a simple sentence. Geologists are scientists MAIN CLAUSE modified noun Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. draw a dotted line between the introductory pronoun and the word in the main clause that the adjective clause modifies.Name Date 34 Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses I A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as part of a sentence. There are three types of subordinate clauses: adjective. clause cannot stand alone. whom. and noun clauses. Finally. which is rock from volcanoes. The diagram of a complex sentence depends on the type of subordinate clause it includes. A main. even if it comes second in the sentence. or dependent. and which). that. A subordinate. Example Geologists are scientists who study rocks. connect the two clauses. Adjective Clauses Introduced by Relative Pronouns An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun in the main clause. Study this example. adverb. Most adjective clauses are introduced by relative pronouns (who.

Inc. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. She also learns about the field from other geologists who work with her father. shares his love of rocks. Valerie. 4. Sentence Diagraming 53 .Name Date 34 Continued 3. who is the daughter of a geologist.

where. diagram the adverb clause. 2. Inc. because. and whenever. Example Although land on Earth looks solid. when. EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence. Connect the clauses with a dotted line that begins under the modified verb in the main clause and slants down to the verb in the adverb clause. as. Although land lookssolid ADVERB CLAUSE verb on Earth Notice that the sentence begins with the adverb clause. although. continents are moving MAIN CLAUSE modified verb the actually conj . or an adverb in the main clause. where. how. before. An adverb clause that modifies a main clause verb usually tells when. write the conjunction on the dotted line.Name Date 35 Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses II Adverb Clauses That Modify Verbs An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb. The adverb clause “Although land on Earth looks solid” modifies are moving. but the diagram begins with the Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. even if it comes second in the sentence. Last. the continents are actually moving. land on one plate may push over the other. first diagram the main clause. Where two plates collide. Next. as if. or why. Continents move because massive plates under them shift. as soon as. main clause. an adjective. 54 Sentence Diagraming . placing it below the main clause. in order that. Study this example. Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as these: after. until. 1. To diagram a complex sentence with an adverb clause modifying a verb.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. an earthquake results.Name Date 35 Continued 3. 4. you would see the growth of a mountain. If you could watch the collision for millions of years. Inc. Sentence Diagraming 55 . When two plates pull away from each other suddenly.

56 Sentence Diagraming . where. 1. first draw a diagram frame for the main clause. placing the verb of the noun clause immediately above the stilt. It is diagramed within the main clause. Noun clauses may be used wherever nouns are used. Diagram the noun clause on that baseline. Unlike adjective and adverb clauses. and why. Whoever made this pottery did a good job. Used as Subjects To diagram a complex sentence with a noun clause used as the subject. Example Whatever you decide is fine. Others are introduced by adverbs such as how. we get NOUN CLAUSE How there Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a noun clause is a part of the main clause. How this is done depends on how the noun clause is used in the sentence. Inc. whom. On top of the stilt. and whatever. When the plane will actually depart has not yet been announced. you decide Whatever NOUN CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE is fine Example How we get there is your problem. MAIN CLAUSE isproblem your EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence.Name Date 36 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses I A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun. 2. Draw a stilt on the baseline where the subject belongs. Some noun clauses are introduced by pronouns such as who. Study these examples. draw a second baseline.

Inc. What the detective discovered about her client raised new questions. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Why rust forms on metal is easily explained. Name Date 36 Continued 3. How a room is furnished affects its noise level. 4. Sentence Diagraming 57 . 5.

The engineers finally discovered who caused the oil spill. That dog licks whomever it meets. draw a second baseline. Denton taught us how plants make sugar. 2. the verb. On top of the stilt. Inc. At the buffet. Use that baseline to diagram the noun clause. 58 Sentence Diagraming . Fill in the subject. 3. placing the verb of the noun clause immediately above the stilt. take whatever you want. begin with a diagram frame for the main clause. Denton taught us EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence. Example Mr. and a vertical line to separate the verb from the object. Then draw a stilt on the main clause baseline where the object belongs. 1. as shown in the following example. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. plants make sugar NOUN CLAUSENOUN CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE Mr.Name Date 37 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses II Used as Direct Objects To diagram a complex sentence with a noun clause used as direct object.

It often appears before a noun clause. Draw a vertical dotted line from that to the verb of the noun clause. but it doesn’t always have to. To diagram a complex sentence in which that only introduces a noun clause. The police officer claimed the car had been speeding. Sentence Diagraming 59 . that introduces a noun clause without being part of it—as in the example below. EXERCISE Diagram each sentence. Usually. 1. Example Everyone says time travel is impossible. Name Date 38 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses III Introduced by That The word that is a special introductory word. travel is impossible NOUN CLAUSE time MAIN CLAUSE Everyone says A noun clause may begin with the word that. In this example. that “that” travel is impossible NOUN CLAUSE time MAIN CLAUSE Everyone says Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. the noun clause has no introductory word. however. Example Everyone says that time travel is impossible. That I could even surf was incredible. 2. write that on its own solid line above the verb of the noun clause.

Name Date 38 Continued 3. That the club has powerful members gives it influence. We hope you will get well soon. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 60 Sentence Diagraming . Inc. 6. We regret that we arrived late. 4. The reporter noted that Rocky fouled fourteen pitches in a row. 5.

Researchers were puzzled by how cave dwellers had made paintings on the cave wall. 1. 2. Inc. Give this fruit to whoever wants it. Terry made list we needed supplies a of whateve r NOUN CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence. Place a stilt on the horizontal line where the object of the preposition belongs. Sentence Diagraming 61 . Study this example. Under the word modified by the prepositional phrase involving the noun clause. diagram the noun phrase on the second baseline. Name Date 39 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses IV Used as Objects of Prepositions To diagram a complex sentence with a noun clause used as the object of a preposition. draw a long slant line for the preposition. first diagram the other elements of the main clause. Finally. Example Terry made a list of whatever supplies we needed. and draw a second baseline on top of the stilt. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Despite what her stepmother told her. 6. 62 Sentence Diagraming .Name Date 39 Continued 3. Your school work is affected by how late you stay up at night. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. I read a book about how organic food is grown. Cinderella had hope. 5. The kitten ran to whoever rang the bell. 4.

Place a stilt on the main clause baseline where the predicate noun belongs. 3. Example A long vacation is what you need. Diagram the noun clause on that baseline. Name Date 40 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses V Used as Predicate Nouns To diagram a complex sentence with a noun clause used as a predicate noun. Then draw a slant line after the verb to separate it from the predicate noun. On top of the stilt. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. My wish is that I can visit a kelp forest someday. Inc. you need what NOUN CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE vacationis A long EXERCISE Diagram each complex sentence. This hammer is what I need for my construction project. 1. draw a second baseline. 2. Tomorrow is when we leave. first diagram the subject and verb of the main clause. Study this example. Sentence Diagraming 63 .

.

Hector has been exercising 6. (you) Work Boaters were rescued an 8. (you) Turn 2. (you) Hurry Both laughed 1. Tiffany jogs 3. Dr. Lee has been calling Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. d swimmers Jeremy 4. Who called Lesson 1 Simple Subjects 10. (you) drink and Simple Predicates II Exercise 1 5. (you) Wait 1. PART I 9. you Were planning 4. Ms. Alice Cummins interrupted Emma 4. Plants are sold 1. you Did forget Lesson 3 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates I 3. Phillip Was returning 6. Becky 5. Inc. Doans have been remodeling Lesson 2 Simple Subjects 4. or Annette 7. guests Have been invited 2. Dolphins swim Exercise 2 2. was whispering Mark Sentence Diagraming 65 . Senator Adams will have retired 3. Aunt Emily Did go and Simple Predicates I 1. Sleet is falling 3. One is 2.

anyone Did bring napkins and and 2. Everyone brought food Lesson 5 Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates III 2. but slipping Rudy will return Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Tony cooked hamburgers Lawanna dusted Tina fished 4.Lesson 4 Compound Subjects and Compound Ernie stop Predicates II Did and 3. She visited criticizes and 7. Stop packages opened and 3. 3. Fran packed cookies Nick swept and and 1. growling you look and 1. Waves Letters delivered fell were and and 5. and 6. Mayor Axon paused spoke 5. Lopez talked 5. Skiers were falling Lesson 6 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects I 1. Ants were bothering us 66 Sentence Diagraming . Elaine but Angela have been traveling continued Both 8. rose Belle the Cat bites and 2. Rex was Midnight scratches norNeither biting or 4. Inc. (you) Diane listen 6. Mr. Was singing complains Joan eitheror 4.

Mr. hit homers 8. played baseball 7. Boys food bothand 6. Roger lent sunglasses and 4. We made dinner grills ourselves either 2. Ms. We saw clouds Danelle salads had prepared and and 6. Norris assigned jobs us tables and 1. Varsey told stories us juice 3. everyone Has had fun Lesson 8 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects III Lesson 7 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects II 1. Gina rolls Sentence Diagraming 67 . Campers should bring I tents 8. She handed marshmallows or cola everyone houseflies 6. He taught birdcalls me benches 3. mosquitoes rain neithernor 5. you Did drink 5. Parks have 2. Chang was swatting Manny Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Mike ate girls bugs Max bedrolls Both and 7. You use or campfires 4.

teenager climbs mountains buried That steep attract bears adventurous and 3.Lesson 9 Direct Objects and Indirect Objects IV 3. everyone was seated the first comfortably famous Soon 68 Sentence Diagraming . enthusiastic gave advice 4. Weather can vacationers or hurt him gives nourishment Dangerous memorable plants 5. activities give thrills 4. they hurried guests 1. cyclist Did win prize 4. Cold noisily camped 6. people attended event Many that recent led hikes and Rangers 1. Inc. triathlons attract him campers Tough help 7. Campers leftovers 5. you Have 2. winds howled can dampen spirits Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. fans watched race a inside the Thosehappy great Immediately 2. Food can bring problems 6. Rain Lesson 11 Adjectives and Adverbs II but 1. cousin enjoys sports hikers My extreme collected and 2. Dawsons greeted guests or visited parks The warmly their Lesson 10 Adjectives and Adverbs I 3.

thick everywhere Scary always the delight almost Alarmingly book h and t o B the sold 2. member yelled courageous shockingly the least Suddenlyloudly Sentence Diagraming 69 . Lopezes Had been Lesson 13 Adjectives and Adverbs IV the there before shivered and visit ended 1. hatchets cleared path teens sharp fast a and 4. Inc. sequel well The about wearily its rather 3. leader walked The energetic slowly Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. group was entering area a dangerous The particularly 6. travelers looked 3. story fascinated adventurous The adults Extremely remarkably 4. 5. usually exceedingly 5. explorer suddenly 6. 2. The cowardly fainted The early Lesson 12 Adjectives and Adverbs III frighten and bushes blocked path stories me 1.

Kiwi has been pet a long strong bothand How Franks 3. 3. Teddy Roosevelt was ’ figure a Lesson 15 Subject Complements II public 1. birdcage is large popular Her rather and 5. Parrots are pets 2. tricks Are difficult cartoons are her 6. or political Wartime 6. Cockatiels are parrots timely 3. cartoons can be Political meaningful 2. Kiwi seems smart The lovable critical 5. cockatiel is friendly memorable Frank ’ very Teddy s 4. messages may be but Their durable popular president 4. owner feels fortunate often inspirational Kiwi’s extremely 70 Sentence Diagraming . cartoon showed and One bear 2.Lesson 14 Subject Complements I Lesson 16 Subject Complements III 1. Kiwi appears happy a cute Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Kiwi is cockatiel funny both a and yellow 1. bear is teddy still 4.

Holders would receive 2. Inc. Charley (m a n) became voter in colors the the pretend the first woman many 6. Charley Parkhurst was Charlotte Parkhurst (orphan) throughout city an really the 2. Death revealed secret (womanhood) behind about Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Spotlights lit stage 5. PART II Lesson 18 Prepositional Phrases I 1. you Will get tickets s for show 4. you Could see drummer the with hair long blond Sentence Diagraming 71 . souvenirs finally her her ears m y 6. vice (tobacco) gave cancer different Her one Charley 5. Charlotte ( g i r l ) left orphanage of also passes a tall an tickets to areas Fifteen strong - year unfriendly particular - old backstage She took job (hand) 3. Posters announced concert Lesson 17 Appositives and Appositive Phrases the rock 1. She took name (Charley) a man the also ’ s 4. a man stable ’ 3. loudspeakers blared announcements The 7.

Sanchez wrote instructions of rain on precise 2. sped Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. to 5. mouse slept A gray quietlyinside the tube a Danny and cardboard 4. clouds filled sky the aquarium dark the Near end the of race 4. Danny rowed chalkboard with the winner a of race Turtles the previous and crawled 3. teams performed experiments partner goal at The with the his the fork care the in great river the data and 6. We recorded 5. frogs over rocks 3. Inc. racewas held Before The on day Parents' Night a with threats 2.Lesson 19 Prepositional Phrases II Lesson 20 Prepositional Phrases III 1. we practiced experiments our 1. Mrs. rowers stopped observations the in in all Immediately notebooks of boats our lab other the 72 Sentence Diagraming .

monster fled g D the his e feated from fighter r the e l i Lesson 23 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases I eve d Jo g gin g 3. is de quickly Lesson 22 Participles and Participal Phrases II He 1. crowd left theater s c tires me The a t f ied soon the r o w d 1. dog stopped by for co 2. dog chased boy b r f The arking the ght i ened Lesson 24 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases II furiously w at c h ng display i Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. family enjoyed i over T h n My whole kin g fence a quickly bei n g l ifted 4. Jacob opened gate h o l the di breath n 2. reminds me shoulder of his story a funny 2. Jacob jumped 1. Inc. Lesson 21 Participles and Participal Phrases I 5. he noticed tail S prised dog'sw ging 1. Jacobspotted dog a r i n L ing a large g joke o o k that over 2. the fireworks 3. heroswungbranch u r the a a g The at creature b oken r the 6. I remember father view The n f g my a better u s ed i v rest i n g a boy the e x h a u ste d Sentence Diagraming 73 .

step 5. Marsha dreams co m pe of ting bag is necessity 3. Inc. musicians need ability The against n g On the to sleep loudly tour at hours odd 3. has been enjoyable The first of job any extremely 6. a for Lesson 26 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases IV Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. library has policy a talki 2. You win game audience shouted demands this p 1. Lesson 27 Infinitives and Infinitives Phrases I 1. habit is uncanny Maynard's of fin workers stopped di n 2. g coins t i r ed lost The Tu tor i n g children 3. hobbywas younger b ec o Elena mi ng teacher ’ prepares you s 7. in Olympics An overnight hold items a the to essential 74 Sentence Diagraming . 4. po p i The to play songs g balloons n by five favorite 2. I found instructions Lesson 25 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases III the a ss e m b for ling unit the Sk i i n g in Colorado 1.

members pushed others to hear song audience to some To get your 1. saves time In weather good To Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. child refused 3. Inc. will take minutes twenty Sentence Diagraming 75 . Callers asked closer stage to station the the 2. Guardsworked at to to eat broccoli auditorium prevent injuries the 2. was decision a wise To change tire this 3. buy bike a secondhand 2. Lesson 28 Infinitives and Infinitives Phrases II Lesson 30 Infinitives and Infinitives Phrases IV 1. of friends my Lesson 29 Infinitives and Infinitives Phrases III to ride bike to a school 1. band played encores The The two to to buy game show appreciation every video None can afford new their 3.

purpose is the The of booklet 6. step is theft the exact Your first the 3.Lesson 31 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases V to raise awareness to of ride horses 5. 76 Sentence Diagraming . Inc. hobby is campaign Alicia the ’ s to To increase sales at store 2. Everybody wanted Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. will be easy this not To to stick notify police to truth of the 7. took courage t o see parade the 4. aim is disease trail One of this 1.

folktales have been told old English Some for and very generations versions exist mother was horrible his equally many different animals talk 2. in of Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Grendel terrorized countryside 2. countries folktales or apart them various Charybdis pulled and their brothers are underwater crews the Grimm among writers these Sentence Diagraming 77 . animals are wise the In tales Scylla were neighbors some a nd 3. Inc. In tales bu the t they stand many for hero (Beowulf) stopped him humans the finally 3. Grendel was monster In tales a terrible 1. Writers have made collections Scylla tore ships 4. and the monstrous In Charybdis Odyssey foolish they are or inothers selfish sailors feared them 4. PART III Lesson 33 Compound Sentences II Lesson 32 Compound Sentences I 1.

Lesson 34 Complex Sentences with Adjective or Adverb Clauses I
1. Evidence shows changes
in earth
that is found the
in rocks

2. Information is found
about in lava
center
the of which is rock
earth
the from
volcanoes

3. Valerie shares love
of
his rocks
who is daughter
the of geologist
a

4. She learns

also about from
field geologists
the other
who work

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
with
father
her

78 Sentence Diagraming

Lesson 35 Complex Sentences with Lesson 36 Complex Sentences with
Adjective or Adverb Clauses II Noun Clauses I
1. Continents move
Whoever made pottery

because
this
plates shift
1. did job
under a good
massive them

plane will depart

2. land may push
on the When
plate
over
Where other
one actually
the has been announced
2.
plates collide not yet
two

room is furnished

3. you would see growth a How
the of
mountain
If 3. affects level
a its noise
you could watch collision
detective discovered What
for the the
millions about
client
of her
years
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. earthquake results raised questions
4.
an new
When
plates pull
away from rustforms
two other suddenly on metal
each Why
5. is explained
easily

Sentence Diagraming 79

Lesson 37 Complex Sentences with that

Noun Clauses II Rocky fouled pitches
who caused spill reporter noted
in a fourteen
row
the oil 3.
engineers discovered
1.
The
The finally
that

you want whatever we arrived
late
2. (you) take

At 4. We regret
buffet
the
That

it meets whomever club has members
the powerful

3. doglicks
That gives influence
5.
it

Lesson 38 Complex Sentences with
you will get well
Noun Clauses III
soon
car had been speeding

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
the
6. We hope

1. officer claimed

The police

That

I could surf

even

2. was incredible

80 Sentence Diagraming

dwellers had made paintings by cave on how wall the cave 3. 5. Your school you stay by late up at night how Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies. I read book a food is grown about how organic work is affected 4. Lesson 39 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses IV 1. kitten ran The whoever rang bell to the 6. Cinderella had hope stepmother told what Despite her her Sentence Diagraming 81 . Inc. (you) Give fruit this to whoever wants it Researchers were puzzled 2.

hammer is my construction This that I can visit forest someday a kelp 3. 82 Sentence Diagraming . Inc. wishis My Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Lesson 40 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses V we leave when 1. Tomorrow is I need what for project 2.