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Jazz

ImprOVisation
2~
Jazz Rhythm and
. the Improvised Line
By John Mehegan

Preface by Harold Arlen


AMSCO '~" - t'uBLISHING COMPANY
JAZZ RHYTHM
AND THE
IMPROVISED LINE
JAZZ RHYTHM
AND THE
IMPROVISED LINE
Jazz Improvisation II

John Mehegan

Watson-Guptill Publications/New York

. ~
Amsco Publications
New York/London/Sydney
To Doris" Carey, and GretclLen

Copyright @ 1962 by Watson-Guptill Publications

First published 1962 in New York by Watson-Guptill Publications,


a division of Billboard Publications, Inc.,
1515 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10036

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Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 58-13525
ISBN 0-8230-2572-1

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14 15 16 17190 89 68
CONTENTS
PREFACE by Harold Arlen
INTRODUCTION 9

SECTION I - JAZZ RHYTHM


Lesson 1 - General 17
Lesson 2 - Tempo 22
Lesson 3 - Melodic Time Values .25
Lesson 4 - Harmonic Time Values 40
NEW ORLEANS 41
"Dippermouth Blues"
"Mandy Lee Blues"
"High Society"
CHICAGO 42
"Singin' the Blues Till My Daddy Comes Home"
"Sweet Sue-Just You"
"Dixieland One Step"
"I Wish I Could Shimmy Like My Sister Kate"
"Jazz Me Blues"
SWING 43
"Oh Lady Be Good"
"Just You, Just Me"
"Tea for Two"
"Whispering"
PROGRESSIVE 44
"I Can't Get Started"
"Night in Tunisia"
"Lady Bird" ("Half Nelson")
"Bernie's Tune"
Lesson 5 - Syncopation 47
SECTION n- TIlE IMPROVISED LINE (1923-1958)
PART I-NEW ORLEANS

""Gin House Blues" - Bessie Smith 61


"High SOCiety" - Johnny Dodds 62
""Dippermouth Blues" - Joe Oliver 63
"West End Blues" - Louis Armstrong 64
"M uggles" - Louis Armstrong 66
"Basin Street Blues" - Louis Armstrong 68
PART 2 - CHICAGO
"Sweet Sue - Just You" - Bix Beiderbecke 69
"Singin' the Blues Till My Daddy Comes Home" -
Bix Beiderbecke 70
"Original Dixieland One-Step" - Miff Mole 71
"There'll Be Some Changes Made" - Frank Teschemacher 72
"I'm Coming Virginia" - Bix Beiderbecke 74
"Jazz Me Blues" - Bix Beiderbecke 76
PART 3 - SWING
"Mter You've Gone" - Roy Eldridge 77
"Sweet Sue - Just You" - Teddy Wilson 80
"Aunt Hagar's Blues" - Art Tatum 83
"Soft Winds" - Benny Goodman 90
"Crazy Rhythm" - Coleman Hawkins and Bennyearter 91
PART 4-EARLY PROGRESSIVE
"Just You, Just Me" - Lester Young 94
"I Can't Get Started" - Dizzy Gillespie 96
"Lady Bird" ("Half Nelson") - Miles Davis 98
"Nice Work 1 You Can Get It" - Bud Powell 100
"Cherokee" ("Ko Ko") - Charlie Parker 103
"Just Friends" - Charlie Parker 109
PART 5-LATE PROGRESSIVE
"Lover Man" - Lee Konitz 111
"All the Things You Are" - Chet Baker 115
"Wrap Your Troubles in Dreams" - Stan Getz 116
"I Don't Stand a Ghost of a Chance With You"-Cliford Brown 119
"Opus De Funk" - Horace Silver 122
"I've Got the World on a String" - Oscar Peterson 129
PREFACE
The reader's first thought upon scanning this might well be: "Why was
a song writer asked to write this preface?" Well now, if I may quote
John Mehegan's inscription to me in his brilliant first volume of JAZZ
IMPROVISATION - "To Harold Arlen, whose tunes are a source of inspira-
tion to all jazz men" - it would seem that there is some contingent area
where song writers and jazz musicians meet to draw from a common
source. Perhaps this wellspring is the blues, which, I am told, finds its
home in some of my music. I am pleased to discover that at times my music
may act as an emissary in the fascinating conversation which occurs be-
tween the jazz musician and his audience.

Yes, I'm human enough to take pride in his inscription, but more than that
it reveals the absolute truth about the collaboration of composers and im-
provisors. One may improvise to his heart's content, but the listener cannot
fully appreciate the magic of the stylists and their improvisations unless
they take flight around a theme or melody with which the listener is already
familiar. Only then is their work understood, and all their flights take on
a new meaning when they have a base, or perhaps I should say "bass,"
to depart from and come home to.

It was an improvisation of a traditional vamp that was responsible for my


first hit, "Get Happy." That melody has been the base for many original
inventions, and I bow to the superb talents of the men in this volume who
have collaborated (although they may not know it) with many a song
writer in keeping their songs interestingly alive. Let no one who thinks
he knoW~-1lything about jazz improvisation or the various piano styles
that have evolved through the years slough off this volume as something
to rest in a dusty archive. Jazz is distinguished by its urgent vitality, and
it seems to me that the author has captured this special quality of jazz by
chOOSing the individualists - the innovators; for in every generation there
are those who follow and the blessed few who lead.

It is quite unusual to find one so devoted, knowledgeable, and unstinting


as John Mehegan in his efforts to bring musical order to this most driving,
unique, and universal art form so lovingly shared by so many.

Harold Arlen
New York City
1962
INTRODUCTION
Volume II of Jazz Improvisation deals with the schematic history of
two important facets of jazz:
1. Rhythm
2. The improvised line
It is in the areas of rhythm that the jazzman has achieved his most
magnificent expression; it is in the improvised line that he has given this
rhythm vitality and mea:ping. As the jazz musician calls forth his resources
of imagination, technique, and taste to generate that elusive quality called
swing, he also learns that the sum total of the resources he deals with
eventually are transformed into the common denominator of all jazz -
rhythm. Volume I of Jazz Improvisation explored the tonal aspects of this
problem. The present volume deals first with the rhythmic genesis of
improvisation, and second with reproductions of outstanding recordings
created by jazz musicians over the past thirty-five years. Various sche-
matic outlines trace the evolution of jazz rhythm, harmony, and the im-
provised line.
The subject of jazz rhythm has been of major concern to all jazzmen
throughout the history of the art form. Jazzmen usually refer to jazz
rhythm in all its manifestations as time. Time encompasses all of the
aspects of tempo, beat, pulse, and, above all, the elusive element called
swing. For one jazzman to acknowledge that another jazzman swings
is to confer the highest accolade. What is swing? Tempo may be metro-
nomically determined; pulse and meter rest within the notation of a com-
position; but the swing or lack of swing of a performance is very. difficult
to evaluate objectively.
The performance of a Bach Fugue, a Strauss waltz, a Sousa march,
or a rhythm and blues recording - each can be said to swing within its
own context. The problem of evaluating the swing of a jazz performance
lies in recognizing the multiple levels of pulsation which must converge in
the performance to create swing.

MELODIC SWING:
The presence or absence of swing in an improvised line is determined
by the following factors:
1. Relationship of improvisi~g units (eighth, sixteenth, thirty-second
notes) to the basic beat.
2. Punctuation in relation to stresses within the bar.
3. Punctuation in relation to the bar-line.

9
4. Constant transitions from unit to unit (eighth, sixteenth, eighth-
note triplet to thirty-second, etc.) to sustain melodic interest.
S. Direction changes within a phrase in order to avoid one-directional
((
runs. "
6. Accent placements capable of falling at any point of opposition
to the basic pulse.
7. Interesting interval textures employing all units of the interval span
from the minor second t-o the major ninth.
8. . Constant tonal transitions from release (modal) to tension (non-
modal) or the opposite transition (tension to release). The result-
ing line, by constantly alternating between these two factors, will
avoid the oppressive monotony of total release (modal) or total
tension (non-modal). It is well to remember that the ear (like all
sensory organs) functions on a premise of Opposition, i.e. release
is non-tension, tension is non-release. One can only exist effectively
by the presence of the other.
9. Constant transitions between tile basic quallty 'tones of a chord
(root, third, fifth, and seventh) and the ornamental tones (ninth,
eleventh, and thirteenth).
10. Use of sequence, retrograde motion, diminution, and augmentation
to enhance musical order.
11. Use of dynamiCS in order to clearly establish the rise and fall of
musical sentences.
12. Contrasting touch or tonal timbres in order to achieve an emo-
tional palette.
HARMONIC SWING:
The swing of a harmonic progression or chord chart can hardly be
underestimated, since it is the transmission belt of any jazz performance.
Harmonic swing is essentially based upon the procession of patterns ap-
pearing in a tune. (See Volume I, Lesson 62, 63, 64). These circles of
fifths, diatonic and chromatic patterns have all evolved from the
Baroque, Classical, and Romantic traditions and represent a distillation of
the harmonic deSigns most conducive to a propelling beat. A badly organ-
ized chord chart may quite easily dispel the effectiveness of a jazz per-
formance that might otherwise (melodically and rhythmically) possess the
necessary qualifications of swing. The circle of fifllis, of course, takes
precedence over either diatonic or chromatic deSigns in creating harmonic
swing. The reason for this lies in a fundamental fact of all tonality -
namely that the basic cadence design of the circle of fifths (II - V - I) is
the most effective means of establishing harmonic tension, which demands

10
an inevitable resolution. Orderly diatonic and chromatic patterns act pri-
marily as connective material joining the circle of fifths.
Chromatic harmonic designs usually possess the tension of inevitable
resolution more than diatonic patterns and are often employed as "substi-
tute" structures for the circle of fifths: For instance:
Circle pattern: III - VIx - II - V - I
Chromatic substitute: III - bIIIx - II - bIIx - I
The subject of "substitute" chords is one that consumes the interest
of many immature jazz musicians, who seem to feel that the acquisition
of a few "substitute" chords will automatically transform them into devel-
oped performers. The term "substitute" as used by these people actually
means the correct chords for a jazz chart, as opposed to the incorrect
chords often appearing in sheet music or numerous "fake" books. This
whole .idea is, of course, an illusory one that only at best can "patch up"
an otherwise faltering array of resources. The only authentic "substitute"
chord is the chromatic substitute for the circle of fifths (bIIIx for VIx),
the so-called "augmented fourth substitute." A correct chord cannot under
any circumstances be considered a "substitute" for an incorrect chord.
RHYTHMIC SWING:
Music theorists have usually centered their interest upon the rhythmic
aspects of jazz, since they have quite correctly established that the jazzman
has not been an innovator in the areas of harmony and melody. In the
realm of voicing existing harmonic materials, jazz pianists have been
singularly inventive (i.e. Tatum, Wilson, Powell, and Shearing). But for
the most part jazzmen have been content to borrow their tonal resources
from such diverse areas as Lutheran hymns and Stravinsky's Sacre du
Printemps
As indicated in the introductory notes to Volume I, the rhythmic
engine found in all jazz, regardless of period or style, is a form of florid
counterpoint involving three levels of time. Each level represents one of
the three basic elements of all music:

j- melodic time

J- harmonic time

J - rhythmiC time
As indicated in Volume I and further explored in the present volume,

J to} ...
the melodic and harmonic units both employ a number of variables rang-
ing on the melodic level from .d on the harmonic level

11
from J to 0-0--00 It is in the creative use of these variables
j,

that the ordinary harmonic and rhythmic resoltrces of jazz are transformed
into the sensuality, the lyricism, the pathos, and the savagery of the
art form.
Probably the most representative point of view of the serious musician
toward the question of jazz rhythm has been expressed by Igor Stravinsky
Responding to an inquiry by Robert Craft concerning his attitude toward
jazz, Stravinsky expressed an admiration tinged with affection for the vir-
tuosity 9f jazz musicians. He also pOinted out that jazz is by far the finest
form of popular musical culture in America today. One curious comment of
Stravinsky's which seemed to reveal his attitude toward jazz rhythm, was
his statement that jazz rhythm did not "really exist" since it possessed
neither "proportion" nor "relaxation:'
Actually, jazz rhythm falls into two basic segments:
SUPERSTRUCTURE (melodic and harmonic units and
their variables)
SUBSTRATUM (basic pulse or beat)

Tnte, the basic pulse or beat, by definition, is without "proportion" or


"relaxation;" however, the superstructure of melodic and harmonic vari-
ables is, by definition, constantly subject to the identical concepts of "pro-
portion" and "relaxation" that prevail in serious music. The fact that these
levels of "proportion" and "relaxation" are not always maintained is part
of the relentless diScipline of the art form, which, as in all art forms, takes
its toll of faltering heros. This can never in any way repudiate the abso-
lutes (relative to style and period) established by such master figures as
Armstrong, Beiderbecke, Hawkins, Goodman, Tatum, Parker and Powell.
This brings us to the second section of this present volume dealing
with a schematic history of the improvised line.
, The final and most severe commitment of the jazz musician is to
"blow a line" on the changes of a tune. This line should represent an im-
aginative design built upon the rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic inflec-
tions implicit in the composition. Volume II will document some of the
greatest lines played in the thirty-five years from 1923 to 1958.
Each period produces its own monumental achievements of the im-
provised line, which in time become a pOint of departure for succeeding
generations. For convenience, it is well to use the following period break-
down.

-Igor StraVinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Igor Stravill.sky (Garden City,
New York: Doubleday & Co., 1959).

12
ARCHAIC: 1875-1915 Bunny Berigan
gospel songs Vic Dickenson
work songs Benny Goodman
hollers Benny Carter
medicine shows Johnny Hodges
minstrels Coleman Hawkins
ragtime Chu Berry
blues Ben Webster
NE\V ORLEANS: 1915-1925 Harry Carney
Louis Armstrong Charlie Christian
King Oliver Django Reinhardt
Nick LaRocca Red Norvo
Jelly Roll Morton Hershel Evans
Kid Ory EARLY PROGRESSIVES: 1940-1948
Honore Dutrey Bud Powell
Leon Rapallo Dizzy Gillespie
Johnny Dodds Miles Davis
Jimmie Noone Bill Harris
Bessie Smith Charlie Parker
J. J. Johnson
CHICAGO: NEW YORK: 1925-1935 Stan Hasselgard
Earl Hines
Lester Young
James P. Johnson Serge Chaloff
Fats Waller LATER PROGRESSIVES: 1948-1958
Bix Beiderbecke
Horace Silver
Miff Mole
Oscar Peterson
Jack Teagarden Hampton Hawes
Frank Teschemacher
Chet Baker
Pee M'tRussell Clifford Brown
Bud Freeman
Bob Brookmeyer
Eddie Lang
Lee Konitz
Jimmy Harrison
John Coltrane
Tommy Ladnier
Gerry Mulligan
SWING: 1935-1940 Tal Farlow
Art Tatum George Shearing _
Teddy Wilson Stan Getz
Roy Eldridge Milt Jackson

Instruments represented in the above outline include trumpet; piano; trombone;


alto, tenor, and baritone saxophones; clarinet; xylophone; Vibraphone; and the human
voice. Instruments auxiliary to the improvised line (bass, drums, etc.) and those upon
which no major developments have occurred (Bute, organ, etc.) have been omitted.

13
That this list of the melodic giants of jazz is incomplete is immedi-
ately obvious to even the casual reader. Most people naturally feel that
anyone they like is very good and a candidate for the jazz Valhalla, but
the exigencies of history are fortunately a little more demanding, primarily
because in retrospect the contribution is distilled from the performance.
The average listener is rightfully concerned with the immediate per-
formance and has little patience or interest in the eventual, dry summing-
up. The author is solely responsible for the arbitrary selections herein, and
he feels that the reader rightfully deserves some explanation of the pitfalls,
whimSies, and, above all, prejudices of the author.
First, it is believed in this quarter that the lyrical line abounding in
sensitive melodies and harmonic inflection, in addition to that elusive
element swing, is the most demanding, most rare, and most important ele-
ment in jazz. Respectfully excluded are all types of styles based upon slurs,
growls, wa-waing, honking, or slap-tongue. Furthermore, styles employing
in an essential way the use of plungers,haU-valve, mutes, or hats expressing
some degree of bathos, onomatopoea, or some such figures of musical
speech, have been omitted on the grounds of being either too specifiC or
too topical.
Many melodic instruments upon which jazz can be played have been
ignored on the basic grounds that no major achievement has been initially
presented on such instruments and also on the further basis that just as
there are major and minor figures in jazz, so there are major and minor
instruments, and major figures tend to play major instruments probably
because they offer a wider spectrum of sound and emotion.
In the labyrinthian maze of the jazz discography, which had its in-
ception in 1921 and has flourished into a multi-million dollar industry, the
historian faces a tremendous task of ferreting out some continuity of de-
velopment in the art form. Who are the major figures, the minor figures,
the innovators, the consolidators, the creators, the contributors, the popu-
larizers, the recreators? What is the mainstream; which are the tributaries?
Where are the lines of influence? For one thing, the lines of influence
crisscross from one instrument to another: Louis Armstrong to Earl Hines;
Benny Carter to Teddy Wilson; Art Tatum to Charlie Parker; Charlie
Parker to Bud Powell; Horace Silver to Chet Baker.
Actually, new, fresh, completely original ideas in any art form are
extremely rare. In a sense, the entire history of jazz could probably be
summed up with three names: Armstrong, Hawkins, and Parker. But this
would telescope the entire history of jazz to a dusty litany of unrelated
g'Iants"

With the spate of reissues in recent years, precious 78's and even cyl-
inders and piano rolls have been faithfully re-recorded on LP's which re-

14
moves living moments of jazz history from archives and collections, making
them available for the general public. Many apocryphal figures come
to mind who could never be recorded and whose art remains a legend -
Buddy Bolden, Porter King, Emmet Hardy, and Tony Jackson. Others
like Freddie Keppard, Bunk Johnson, Alphonse Picou, and Larry Shields,
who were recorded long after their prime, remain shadowy figures of a
dim past. Still other tragic figures like Leon Rappalo, Joe Smith, Bix
Beiderbecke, Hershal Evans, Fats Navarro, Clifford Brown, and Wardell
Gray were stilled by permanent illness or untimely death.
Important contributors or consolidators like Henry "Red" Allen, Sidney
Bechet, Charlie Shavers, Buck Clayton, Harry Edison, Lucky Thompson,
Orner Simeon, Zoot Sims, Sonny Stitt, Jess Stacy, Bobby Hackett, Shorty
Rogers, John Lewis, Frankie Newton, Joe Sullivan, and Mary Lou Williams
have been excluded due to the exigencies of space. Although it is a truism
that a creator is seldom if ever excelled by one of his diSciples, the very
term "creator" is open to question.
By definition a creator must transcend (Parker, Mole, Armstrong),
consolidate (Peterson, Wilson, Noone), alter (Silver, Davis, Konitz), or
even demolish (Powell, Young, Eldridge) previous levels of expression.
Each creator does not arbitrarily choose the role to be followed; rather
this role is assigned by history. At the same time no creator alone can
make his achievement; he is constantly aided by figures of probably less
stature who often pOint the way toward a new imaginative level. From
this point of view, the sum total of these minor figures is extremely im-
portant and refutes the myth of the solitary "cultural hero."
To assume that the best of jazz has been captured on records is, of
course, ridiculous; and the painful remembrance which we all have felt
of past, lost. moments only pOints up the inescapable silence of history.
Like any art form, jazz displays an inevitable dialectic toward more com-
prehenSive modes of expression - but it is also well to keep in mind that
any invidious comparisons in which one period (either the earliest or the
latest) is chosen as an absolute of expression in distinction to another
period, or all other periods, is to miss completely the intrinsic worth
of every period. It must be remembered that each line chosen is a fair
representation of the finest conception for that particular period, and in
no way is to be deemed a series of progreSSive steps from bad to good or
inept to skilled.
The obvious extension and refinement of skills and techniques must
be thought of as representative of a comparable progressive extension of
feeling and thinking on the part of the successive generation of people who
listened to this music.

15
H a King Oliver chorus seems archaic and limited to a modem lis-
tener, it is well to remember that Charlie Parker would have appeared as
incomprehensible emotionally and intellectually to the audiences atChle-
ago's Lincoln Gardens in 1928.
This is the natural evolution of any art form, and if the art form
possesses an intrinsic worth, eac~ period should retain some permanent
value relative to all periods besides its absolute value to its own particular
space-time. In other words, Armstrong's "Potato Head Blues" should and
does possess a universality for all periods. This universality will probably
never completely recapture the excitement of the moment of creation, but
some permanent verity must always reside in Louis' achievement.
Here, then, is a book which permanently records the evolution of the
improvised line and the history of jazz rhythm with the hope that future
generations may find here knowledge to aid them in their efforts toward
continuing and deepening the jazz art. .

JOHN-MEHEGAN

16
SECTION I

Jazz Rhythm
LESSON 1.
General
All jazz involves three levels of time (rhythmic pulsation) played
simultaneously against each other. It is the constant conflict of these
three time levels and their superimpositions which results in the endless
tension present in jazz.
The idea of rhythmic "counterpoint" is, of course, present in all music
(Western and Eastern), so that this fact alone would not account for the
unique qualities associated with jazz. However, jazz deals almost exclu-
sively with a specific relationship of time values which immediately dis-
tinguishes it from a large segment of other musical forms. This specific
relationship of time values can best be expressed through their application
to melody, harmony, and rhythm.
As a general statement, it can be said that all jazz from 1900 to the
present day has employed the following ratio of time values:
1. A quarter-note pulse. the rhythmic unit, representing the rhythmic
center of gravity of any jazz performance.
2. A slower set of time values representing the harmonic unit (half-
...note) .
3. A-tftticker set of time values representing the melodic unit (eighth-
note).
In Lesson 34 of Volume I, we learned that the melodic unit employs
variables ranging from eighth-note to thirty-second-note. This range was
incomplete and was established for study purposes. The following outline
illustrates the variables for the three basic units which have been employed
through the years from New Orleans polyphony to modem jazz.

ELEMENT UNIT VARIABLES


'3' '3'
Melodic eighth-note 0, J, J, ~, ~ ~, ), j
Harmonic. half-note J, 0, OQ, 00-0-0

Rhythmic quarter-note none


17
In the above outline, dotted values are assumed to be included; synco-
pation will be discussed in a later lesson.
As we trace the history of jazz, we find that the rhythmic unit has
seldom if ever varied through the course of some sixty years. We will also
discover in.this and succeeding lessons that the harmonic and melodic
variables have gradually expanded through the years from the complex
to the more complex.
It is also apparent that the rhythmic assignments" for certain jazz
instruments have drastically changed -- some -to the point of altering the
role of the instrument from one level of time to another;

INSTRUMENT BEFORE NOW

Piano rhythmic harmonic


Bass harmonic rhythmic
Guitar rhythmic melodic ana/.,9r rhythmic
Drums rhythmic melodic and/or rhythmic

RHYTHMIC SUPERIMPOSITION

As the range of variables has increased on the melodic and harmonic


levels, so also has the superimposition of these units and their variables,
one level over another. The idea of rhythmic superimposition has always
existed in jazz and can even be found in examples of archaic folk idioms.
For instance:

Fig. 1.

Melodic Superimposition J J J J J J J J
BarmoD1c UD1t II V

Rhythmlc UD1t 4
4

18
Fig. 2.

3 3 3 3

Melodic Superimposition J J J JJ J J J JJ JJ 12
8

Harmonic Unit n v

Rhythmic Unit

These functional superimpositions have existed in jazz and pre-jazz


for probably 75 years. The first example is common to nearly all boogie-
woogie; the second is common to archaic folk guitar and remains the
rhythmic staple of rock and roll.
Sometimes the superimposed factor is the rhythmic unit (quarter-
note), which may appear on either the melodic level (especially Armstrong
and Beiderbecke) Fig. 3; or on the harmonic level (especially Tatum-
Wilson swing bass) Fig. 4.

Fig. 3.

Rhythmic Superimposition

Melodic Unit_ J.
Harmonic Unit n v

- Rhythmic Unit t

In Fig. 3 the rhythmic superimposition over the melodic unit was em-
ployed by Armstrong and Beiderb~cke to build the rhythmiC tension later
to be released into the eighth-note melodic unit.
It is of course apparent that the major superimpositions in rhythmic
units have been melodic over harmonic (Fig. 1 and 2) and in relation to

19
the piano the gradual transition from a rhythmic to a harmonic and finally,
a melodic instrument. Melodic over rhythmic has played a major role in
the emergence of modem drumming (e.g. the drum solo). The necessary
"static" value of the harmonic unit has resulted in few displacements to
the other levels. Fig. 5 is a broad outline of the essential displacements
of each level.

Fig. 4.

Melodic UDlt J J J J J J J J
J t
Rhythmic Superimposition
J J (Swing Bas.)

BarmoDlc UDlt n V

4
Rbythm1c UDlt 4

Fig. 5. Superimposition Chart

Melodic over harmonic:


Boogie-woogie (Fig. 1)
12/8 time (rock and roll) (Fig. 2)
Modem solo piano
Locked hands
New Orleans clarinet obligato
Left hand arpeggiation
Banjo
Melodic over rhythmic:
Wood block or cymbal
Drum solo
Rhythmic over melodic:
New Orleans - Chicago "ride out" (Fig. 3)
Rhythmic over harmonic:
Guitar
Ragtime
Swing bass
"Walking" bass lines
ErroIl Gamer (left hand "strumming" in quarter-note units)

20
The device of superimposition of one level over another raises the
question as to what is a melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic instrument. Al-
though each instrument in a jazz group (except the drum) is concerned
with harmonic materials, there actually is no such thing as a harmonic
instrument in jazz (the exception might be the New Orleans trombone).
In each case the harmonic materials are transformed into melodic or
rhythmic elements. In essence, all factors ultimately emerge as rhythmic.
The follOWing designations indicate the roles of the basic jazz instru-
ments in the history of jazz:

NelD Orleans:
Melodic: cornet (1)
Melodic-Harmonic: clarinet
comet (2)
banjo
Harmonic: trombone
Rhythmic-Harmonic: piano
tuba-bass
Rhythmic: drums

-The banjo represents a curious anomaly of factors: It is essentially a


"harmonic" instrument d'it utilizes "melodic" units)J, yet it is tradi-
tionay considered a component of the "rhythmic" section ~

Chicagot:
M~lodic: trumpet
..
Melo<lic-Harmonic: clarinet
saxophone
trombone
piano (R. H.)
Rhythmic-Harmonic: piano (L. H.)
banjo-guitar
bass
RhythmiC: drums

tThe term "Chicago" refers to the small polyphonic ensembles existing


from 1924 to 1932. The New York scene of the "'20's" is generally one of
experimentation with resources destined to become the large ensemble
structure of the "'30's." The unique development of the Ellington band is
beyond the scope of this book.

21
Swing:
Melodic: brass or reeds
Melodic-Harmonic: brass or reeds
Rhythmic-Harmonic: piano
guitar
bass
Rhythmic: drums
Progressive:
Melodic: saxophone-trumpet unison
Melodic-Harmonic: piano
Rhythmic-Harmonic: bass
Rhythmic: drums

At no time should this material be interpreted as indicating a general


progress from "bad" to "good" (as some believe) or "good" to "bad" (as
others believe). Each style portrays emotions and feelings in context to
its particular space-time. Armstrong's "West End -Mues" is as valid as
Parker's "Koko," and Beiderbecke's "Singin' the Blues'~~is comparable to
either of the previously mentioned performances. Each represents a mile-
stone of achievement in context to a particular period, style, and point
of view.

SUMMARY: Jazz is an improvised indigenous American folk music


employing eighth-, half-, and quarter-note rhythmic units moving through a
diatonic system of harmony in 4/4 time.

LESSON 2.
Tempo
Tempo in jazz has always been a primary consideration for the per-
former in choosing the pulsation best suited for "swing" and urgency. How-
ever, tempo has often been affected by factors not directly connected with
rhythm, such as individual virtuosity. A performer naturally chooses a
tempo which will allow him to achieve his ideas with clarity and precision.
In this case, a tempo might be considered "too slow" if the performer felt
unable to create the necessary "ideas" to fill the large spatial areas created
by a "slow" tempo. On the other hand, a tempo would probably be con-
sidered "too fast" if the performer's ability with the eighth-note unit,
the sine qua non, were over-taxed.
Two other factors extraneous to the performer come into play in de-
termining tempo:

22
1. Social function
2. Prevailing harmonic materials
Social functions such as the New Orleans funerals and weddings, also
prevailing dance styles (Charleston, Lindy, etc.), may determine to a large
extent the permissible tempo range.
Prevailing harmonic materials (the chord chart) also affect tempo.
If a chord chart employs long sustained harmonic units (c:>ooo ), a cer-
tain pulsation rate must be maintained in order to achieve any urgency.
On the other hand, the use of quick harmonic units ( J J.ItJ tJ ~ ~ )
would neceslSarily mean some moderation in tempo in oraer for the
perfo~er to 'realize" each chord.

The following outline illustrates the history of tempo in jazz from the
early Twenties to the present day. In each case the metronome marking
(mm) refers to the rhythmiC unit (quarter-note).
These estimates are based on arbitrary samplings and indicate only
the general trends.

New Orleans Groups (1920-1928 )


Average- rom - J -.-:. 166.7

Tempo span = 104 - J= 248

Chicago Groups (1924-1930)

Aver:rge mm - J = 179

Tempo span - J= 108 --'- J= 264

New York Swing Bands (1924-1940 )

Average rom - J = 213

Tempo span - J - 80-J =324

Progressive Groups (1942-1960 )

Average mm - J = 184.5

Tempo span - J = 44- J =360


Many conclusions can be drawn from the above outline: 23
Tempo averages gradually increased until the Progressive period when
a noticeable decline occurred. There were many reasons for this decline
in the Forties.
a) More complex harmonic materials
b) Growing emphasis on mood and formal structure
c) A probing of the "slow sound barrier" (below mm; -= 1(0) to
hitherto unheard areas (rom ~ - 44)
d) General abandonment of the eighth-note as the sole improvising
unit with an accompanying exploration of the sixteenth-note triplet
and thirty-second-note at slower tempi; trend toward introspection
e) The "fast sound barrier" ( ~ -= 3(0) has maintained to some ex-
tent, but the average drops because of the slow tempi. (Note:
the fastest recorded solo known to the author is "Indiana" by
Oscar Peterson (~- 360 )

Contrary to popular opinion, Chicago jazz was not much faster than
New Orleans jazz; the tradition from Chicago to Swiftg is much more
accelerated. The tempo spans of the New Orleans and:-Ghicago groups
are fairly similar. The explanation of the "fast" Chicago myth may lie in
the fact that the levels of mUSiCianship in the Chicago groups were uneven
and the slower efforts have not withstood the ravages of time, whereas the
"enthusiastic" quicker tempi have survived. This dictum would of course
exclude Beiderbecke, Trumbauer, Lang, and "Miff' Mole.
It is doubtful if the modem tempo span of ;.., 44-360 can be
broadened. Below mm~ -44, "swing" becomes questionable; above mm
~ -360 would seem to tax human limitation and probably also the pos-
sibilities of "swing."
LESSON 3.
Melodic Time Values

As previously indicated, the melodic instruments (trumpet, clarinet,


saxophone) have from the beginning enjoyed the most freedom in terms
of rhythmic units (eighth-note - thirty-second-note).
The following outline illustrates the over-all development of the melo-
dic time unit in the improvised line:
UNIT RANGE

Bessie Smith 0 to j
"King" Oliver 0 to rh
Louis Armstrong J to ~
Roy Eldridge
Be~~y Goodman
...
}
J to ~
Cha.r:u.--'Parker
Dizzy Gillespie }J to
~
This outline reveals the gradual abandonment of the "vocal" line im-
provisation in favor of the "instrumental" line. The quarter-note unit ap-
pearing in each unit range represents the superimposition of the rhythmiC
over the melodic (see Fig. 3, Lesson 1).
Fig. 1 illustrates a schematic outline of the improvised line from Bessie
Smith to Hampton Hawes, employing the ~ternal 12-bar blues. It will be
noted that several of the soloists (especially Young and Davis) indicate
a reaction against the generally expanding 1evels of virtuosity. These solos
represent an interpretive attempt to explore new levels of harmonic and
melodic inSight, areas of equal importance. The varying signatures are all
applicable to the figured bass appearing at the bottom.

25
Pick-up bar
Bessie Smith Bartl
fl I l I ~

!
"King" OUver '*--'* -
fJ I II
.
! r
fl Ki~ Ory
~
-
!
Louis Armstrong
fl I .!l 2

!. . - .,. .... ~
fl Ja~k Teagarden
-
~ I ~11 ..
- ,
Benny Goodman
fJ I 1
-
~

fJ Lester Young - ~ I

!.

fJ
Dizzy Gillespie
I
I

b. _ _ _ I.
-- - - _I - - _I
--
~ 3
CharUe Parker
fl -
I! --: ~
fl Miles Davis

I!
fl Horace Silver

I! .. ...
fl Hampton Hawes
= qi- bi'*lj1t
:j ~ ... ~J
.. "*
3_
.,; .
n ::::--
!
n
.....
v
:;J. .. v
1+6
...... -

26
Barf2
Bessie Smith Barla
~I

.
~ I

LL r1
~V_

@
''KIng'' OUver
- ~

~
~ I
- "

-XIL
I@ I - r
Kid Ory

.I.
~ I 3
-
-
[U~
l':: [T
Ie l' 'I
-"J
#~ ~ = =
.I.
-x .1L
@
~ ,
Louis Armstrong

- - '1,,-?
.. 3

.
I 1
I -.t____V"""" ~

~ Jacrk Teagarden
.3.. ?
-"- r\.~
Lt,
~
@
....1:1

V
Benny Goodman
.. - '1- '1-~
if"
~
fI
'I"'l
I ~~ ~
- ,

!J
Lester Youug
- -
III 1
~
~ 1 i

[l

]I
IL

fli
I

Dizzy Gillespie
, ..-
- -.1 ,I
--- -
I!J 3 ........ I
~ CbarUe Parker
....... , - -
Ie
Miles Davis - 3
--J
-,
-
.. .
~ I

rU
Horace
- .-
~
, Silver .-...-t I
~

1J - ,- >~
if" qv. D~_
IeHampton Hawes ~
fl
--. >- I ::- ::- ::-

..
-
-"-
@
IVx
- 3
1+6

27
lIarH
Bessie Smith
fl L lar 1
~ ..h

It
"King" OUver
~I
-
~IL

!t! I
KidOry
fI I

, -""
- -
--
Louis Armstrong t
fI I
~
!'!>~
LL

It! v~ ~.
1'\ .Ta~k.. -....

-"-
LL "
It!
"""-,,,"" It........ ,./It . - .......
~
Benny Goodman
~ I ~
LlJ !'!>
~ lL

It! I

a
Lester Young
-- ,- ..........

-
13.

') IL

Dizzy Gillespie
-
fI I I
~

It!
!'!>.

I , I J

d~
fl CharUe Parker

!'!>.
......
it -:> . - __
I' 3
Mlles Davl.
~

'!'!>.
I@~

Horace Sliver
a
fL
I
13.
IL
1)
~~ q.'
a Hampton ~e. 3
fL

IL
v;_/-
it ...

28
Barts
Be.ale Smith
hi

''King'' Ollver
11 I -

KidOry
- I I

11 I

e;
IL
- --
f} ~. Armatroq gilA.
-
~-

- .,- -,-",,-
. /-;
- -
I@! L.... I I
Lester Young

'"
Jot_
-
@!. T
~ Dizzy GUleaple
n I I

. -

'" Hampton ~we.


..= _=..
IVx
- ..
29
Barf6

~
Bessie Smith
fl I
--- I

v
Barf7

~
.

"King" Oliver "':


fl I
-
r~ L .- I I
fl Ki~ Ory 3

I~ ...!:-*
#~ =
?;
~. ~
Louis Armstrong
f) I r-r~ ,.. '-'
~
, -
I~
f} Ja~k Teagarden
~
- r
1 -~

-- .
-~

I~ - v. 11 ---- - ., .,; ....... .~ i~ lJ:"",,- iJ.


b~ Ifl
Benny Goodman
fJ I"" l
- .". ~ I,r--

I~

f}
I

Lester Ywng
n.
;>

- . ft ...
I~ - -
Dizzy Gillesple
fl I -~. ~~
-
~ -,

.--
.!)

f)
CharUe Parker
I
- ----*_'1
I~
-~
-., &::I..
--.
,...,.
-D"'~I.~ii - - --.--,,--

-
I

fi Miles Davls
I

!)
fl Ho~ace Sllver
r -- I I

@ V" Y =
:j = _ " 1= ~ iJ. 11.;;;:.
Ji .. - it .. :j= =
"1
Hampton Hawes
fl _
- 1 I~ I !>

~ I ~ -~

IVx 1+6

30
Barts
Bessie Smlth Bart9
r. , ~

I~ . - -,..; -
"King" OUver
r. I I
- I .....

r~
fI Ki,d Dry

__4
I~
~ = ii=__ -~
11

...
Louis Armstrong
r. I 1 I
3
-
i~ ... -- 3
-
r q..... -
r. J~k Teagard~n
-~ ..........
I~ tf* .. I -i 11" .
r. I .....-..
I _ Goodman
Benny

- -
i ~
r. Lester Young ......-.. I

I~ I -
I.;~_.
fI
Dizzy
I ~t -- __~ff. - .- _ . ,..
_. ,.."'::-.-1...-
,...,,..._. LL ..
=- II
~~ ~
-
r.
CharUe Parker

-
...... ~

- -=
~

r. Miles Davia- ......iiI 111 -v--,: -:~

.....-II!
'1""

~
fI Ho~ace Silver

@
= TV =>

ntawes
fI ....
.......-t I

@
'10
. n v

31
Bar flO
Benie Smith
LlJI

!J

~
''King'' OUver
1 ...L
- .. .. *'---
~
I'} K1~ Dry

@!.
V .. -,J ~ ~ =
~
Louis Armstrong
"l l -
@.
Jack Teagarden *~
I"l I !l

@. ;f*. . . _...-.. -,j -,j---..


Benny Goodman
~ !: qll.
~ L L r- - ~
-
@!.
~. Lester Young 3

@!. I I

I'}
Dizzy Gillespie
I
3 -
I!
CharUe Parker
3 - . -.,-
_ L.._
~
_~_
II'}

l:'*
~.G*b*
@!. v-

I"l Miles Davia

\!
Horace Silver
~ I

@!.

f\ Hampton Hawes
:> - v-r - ..
@.
II
-
v
V" .. -,j ~ .. ~ .-
32
Bar III
Bess1e Smlth
~. J I

--~
~

Oliver
fI J

I~
~ K1~ Dry

fI Lo:us ".:. -
~V._

'-e
~.

3
. D*

f)
Jack Teagarden
I
- - 1
-
3
- 3

I~
-Y , v
Jf* .. .-
Benny Goodman
~ i ".

~
- t
- I

-
fI Lester Young
-
I~ I
tt -
f)
Dizzy Glllesp1e
I . -
II!
fI Charlie Park ~ .,
------
~
I

~
, .. tt .. *Lo\" "..,J'''
~ .- IIiiiiiiQIII .
fI Miles Davis
-
I~
~ Horace Silver
I
I

-
-
I~ Y V. i V. i V. ... t- -
fI Hampton Hawes

~ .
1+6 VI
. -----
33
Bar'12
Be88ie Smith
Barfl
fl I

~
''Klng'' OUver
- --- -
,., I
-- ~
"- .,;;-

!. I --.. I ..
Kid Ory

Louis Armstrong
- P.
~

fli
14I!
3
Jack Teaprden
{t 1

-
!.

="
,.. ,
BeDDy GoodmaD
ft-
i
~
- -. .. .,. ~. ~ C -
- .-.
41!
fl Lester Young

LI:
r
~ I
Dizzy Gillespie
~ I !.

!.
CbarUe Parker
-. r

~
~~.""F:iEi ~
... . -
I~ v~.'I-ui-tit - ff-'l 1I~ -, - . ' - ~

fl Miles ~v1a ~
- -
x
I!.
Horace Sliver
fl t
- -
I! ...J
fl Hampton Hawes
-
#i =
i
~ ~ ~
.?
I- ~!3=t ~ .
--i:"

~
- D v &8
-v-
34
POLYPHONY

In jazz, the ternl polyphony usually refers to the superimposing (see


Lesson 1) of the melodic unit over the harmonic unit to form a counter-
melody, obligato, or ornamentation to the melodic voices or melody. The
classic prototype of this device is, of course, the clarinet obligato found
in the New Orleans ensembles:
________________________________ Cornet 1

--------------__________________ Cornet 2 (obligato)

--_-------------- _______________ Clarinet obligato

In general, the superimposed melodic unit in New Orleans polyphony


is of a quicker value than the prevailing melodic unit. This would be true
of both the comet 2 obligato and the clarinet obligato.

CHICAGO POLYPHONY
Chicago polyphony is more florid than its New Orleans antecedent
and is usually held up to question for its disorderly ebullience. This is a
judgment beyond the scope of this text, although it should be noted that
the rampant individualism of the Chicago ensembles was an inevitable
re~ult of the expanding concepts .of melody, harmony, and rhythm. Also,
it should be remembered that the art form had to move toward more
person.iI ar~as of expression and eventually escape from the prison of New
Orleans' rOf~alism. Armstrong himself, in the "Hot Five" and "Hot Seven"
recordings, was a leading figure in this movement.

35
NEW ORLEANS

Rbythmic-Melodic
Cornet I J.

Melodic-EburD1onlc
Cornet n J n n_J J. j)
nJ
Clarinet mnmn J J J J nm
J nnn mnJ J
S

Banjo

EburD10nlc
Trombone o

Rhytbmlc-Barmonlo
PlanO J J J J J J J J
Tuba J t J t J t J t
3
Melodic-Rhytbmlc
Wood Block J n J JJJ J ., ))mn
Snare Drum nJ nJ nJ J t
Rhytbmlc
Ba88 Drum

Snare Drum

The appearance of the snare drum in both categories is to account for


the qUicker values (press-rolls, etc.) and the rhythmic pulse of quarter-
notes. The accented quarter-notes on beats 2 and 4 will be treated in the
section dealing with syncopation.

36
CHICAGO

Melodio
Trumpet ~ ~ J J:;J J ~ n~ ~

Jlelodio-BarmODio
ClarlDet mnmm ~~)), , ))
3 3 3

Saxophone JJ JJ ~ n rn~ ., j, m.
Trombone J J,-~ J J J J J ~ ,j,JJJJ
P1aDo (R. B. ) J J J J J J:;J J n~J n
llh1thm1c-Barmoll1o
P1aDo (L. B. ) J ~ J J J ~ J ~
BuJo, QIltar J ~ J ~ J J ~ ~

Baa., Tuba ~ J J J

Bhythmio
SDareDram

Baa. Dram

Low-Boy

37
SWING

Melodic
J .,j,n~ JVJn_J
Brus. Reeda
-
., .,.;,nJ
Ilelodic-~oD1c
Brus. Reeda
(rlffa)
J' -t ~ J ~ J
-
~c-BarmoDlc

Piano J J J J
Oultar J J J J ~ ~ J J
Baas J J J J J ~ J ~

Melodic-~c
Cymbal J
3
::;-:JJ
3
::;-:J J m~
3
m 3

J nJ nJ J ~
~
-
Tom-Tom J J J J J J J J J nJJJJ ,
Hi-Hat J mJ J mJ m m
J J ~ ~
llhythmic
Cymbal ~ ~ ~ ~

Baas Drum J J J J J ~ ~ J
B1-Bat ~ J ~ J ~ J ~ J
SaareDrum ~ J ~ J ~ J ~ J
The appearance of the Hi-Hat cymbal in both categories refers to the
similarly dual role of the snare drum.

38
PROGRESSIVE

Melodic
Saxophone, Trumpet j" , j,~"" m~ ~. ,j)
UnisOD J n..J jj,JJ_JJ~J_JJ

Melodic-Harmonic
Piano

Rhythmlo-Harmonio
Bass

3 3 3
Melodic-Rhythmio
Cymbal J mJ m J mJ r-;:
SDIU'e n_J ~ -J j) nJ J ~
Bass Drum J ~ ~ n J , .b...J ~
Bi-Hat J mJ mJ mJ it

The major developments indicated by this outline are as follows:

NEW ORLEANS TO CHICAGO:


1. The abandonment by the trombone of the only pure harmonic role
in jazz and its emergence as a melodic-harmonic instrument.
2. The introduction of the saxophone as a major jazz instrument.
3. The emergence of the piano as a major melodic-harmonic instru-
ment.

39
4. Abandonment of the wood-block; introduction of both the "ride"
cymbal and the Low-Boy cymbal.
S. Partial abandonment of group polyphony and emergence of the
hero-improvisor.

CHICAGO TO SWING
1. Development of brass and reed sections playing in ensemble.
2. Quarter-note unit adopted by bass (Wellman Braud).
3. Introduction of the Hi-Hat cymbal.
4. Introduction of the melodic-rhythmic figure on the "ride" cymbal
and the Hi-Hat cymbal.
S. Abandonment of the banjo; introduction of the guitar.
6. Introduction of accented 2 and 4 beats on Hi-Hat cymbal and
"ride" cymbal.

SWING TO PROGRESSIVE
1. Return to small-group polyphony with homophonic ( unison)
innovations.
2. Development of melodic-harmonic role of the piano.
3. Emergence of the bass as the sole rhythmiC instrument. Appearance
of the bass as an important solo instrument.
4. Melodic-rhythmic innovations of drums which ceased to be the
primary rhythmic instrument.

LESSON 4.
Harmonic Time Values
The history of jazz hannony concerns the dynamiC changes effected
on three levels:
1. The rhythmic procession of the chord qualities.
2. The expanding quality system joined with an equivalent expand-
ing chromaticism.
3. The gradual abandonment of an inversion system based on the
biad in favor of a root-position seventh-chord concept.

40
The following bass lines are representative charts of the New Orleans.
Chicago. Swing. and Progressive periods. T indicates a triad (root, third,
fifth. )

NEW ORLEANS

"Dippermouth Blues"
I T I IVx I I T I Ix I IVx I IVx I I T I I T I V I V I I T I I T I I
DIPPERMOUTH BLUES-
Used by permission of the copyright owner
INTERNATIONAL MUSIC, INC., 745 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

"Milenburg Joys"
4
IT I IT I IT I IT I IT I IT I va I va I va I va I va I
4 4
va I va I va I IT I IT I IT I IT / IT I IT I Ix I Ix I
IV T I IV T I IV T I #IVo I VI 2 I VIx I I1x I V I I T I I T I I

MILENBERG JOYS - by Walter Melrose, Leon Roppolo, Paul Mares, "Jelly Roll" Morton
Melrose Music Corp.
Used by permission.

"Mandy Lee Blues"


VIx I VIx I IIx I I1x I V I V I I T I I T I Vlx I VIx / I1x /
IIx I
....
,
bVlx I VI 2 Vlx I I1x V / I VIx I I1x V / I T 1/
MANDY ~iUES - by Walter Melrose & Morty Bloom
Melrose Music Corp.
Used by permission.

"High Society"
/I /. I 4
I T I I T I I T I I T I I T I I T I I T I I 'I' VI a bIllo I V 8 /

V I IT I IT I lIlt I I1x I V I V I IT / IT I IT I IT / IT /
I T I I T i l T I IV T I IVx I IT / Vlx I IIx / V I I T I I T I
IT I IT II

HIGH SOCIETY-
Used by permission of the copyright owner
INTERNATIONAL MUSIC, INC., 745 Fifth Avenue, New York Ciry.

41
CHICAGO
"Singing The Blues"
pick-up

#10 I I II I V I 1+ e V I I + e #10 I II I V I I +e I I + II I IIIx I


IIIx I VIx I VIx I IIx I VI IIx I V I V I II I V I I+e I 1+ 8 I
#10 VIx I III VIx I II VIxlS I II I IV+8 I #IVo I III I VIx I
IIx I V I I+e I I+e II

SINGIN' THE BLUES TILL MY DADDY COMES HOME-


Copyright 1920 by Mills Music. Inc.
Used by permission.

"Sweet Sue"
pick-up
, , 8 e
m blIIo I I II lIef> II I V IS V I II lIef>. I V IS VII I I I + e I I + e I
1/ I I e 8
I + 8 I I + 8 III bill I II lIef> I I V IS V I II II ef> I I V IS V I I + e I
I + II I I + 8 I I + 8 I I + 8 I III I 11Ief>
I
8 VIx I II I II I lIef> I
'" f
V III bl I I II lIef> II I V IS8 V I II lIef> II I V IS8 V I 1 + 8 I IVx I
1+ 8 I 1+ 8 II
SWEET SUE - JUST YOU -,- Words by Will J. Harris).. Music by Victor YOUDg
COPYRIGH1' MCMXXVIlI by Shapiro. Bernstein & u>. Inc.
Copyright Renewed MCMLV and Assigned to Shapiro, Bernstein & Co. Inc.
Used by permission of Shapiro. Bernstein & Co. Inc. 666 Fifth Avenue. New York 19, N. Y.

"I Wish I Could Shimmy Like My Sister Kate"

VI V I VI V I 1+ 8 VI. I 1+ 8 #10 I VI V I VI V I I+e I



1 + e #10 I V I V I V I V I 1 +. I Ix I IV + e #IVo I VI I VIx I
IIx V I 1+ 8 VIx IIIx V I 1+ 8 II
I WISH I COULD SHIMMY LIKE MY SISTER KATE-Armand J. Piron
Used by special permission of copyright owner Jerry Vogel
Music Company, Inc., New York 86, N. Y.

42
"Jazz Me Blues"

(Verse) I I + 6 VIa I I VIx I I1x V I I + 6 I 2 I VI VI 2 I


I + 6 VI a
bVo I V I +8 I 1+ 8 VI 2 I 1+ 8 VI a I I VI I I1x V I 1+ 8 12 I
VI VI 2 I bVo I V I + 6 II (Break) V I Vo I V I V II
( Chorus) Vlx I Vlx I I1x I IIx I V I V I I + 6 I I + 6 I Vlx I
4.
Vlx I IIx I IIx 11+ 6 I IIIxS I VI I Vlx I IIx I V I 1+ 8 I 1+ 8 II

JAZZ ME BLUES-
Copyright 1921 by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation
Renewed and assigned to Edward B. Marks Music Corporation
Used by permission.

SWING

"Oh, Lady Be Good"


4. 4.
I Ix 3I IVx I 1 I #10 I II I V I I + 8 VI/II V / 1 Ix 3 I IVx I
I / #10 I II I V I I + 8 I Ix I IV + 8 / #IV0 I VI a / I I VI I
4.
I1x I II I V I I Ix S I IVx I I I #10 I II I V I I + I I + 8 I I 8

OH, LADY BE GOOD-


Copyright 1924 by New World Music Corporation
Used by permission.

"Just You, Just Me"


4.
I + 8 1111/> S / I II I V / Ix I IV + IVm + I VI V I
VIx 6 6 2
4.
I + 8 I I + 8 1111/> S I Vlx I II I V I Ix I IV + 8 IVm + 8 I VI 2 V I
4.
1+ 8 I Ix I Ix I IV+8 I bVlIx I 1+ 6 I IIIxs VI / IIx I V /
4-
I 1111/> 8 l VIx I II I V I Ix / IV + 8 IVm + 8 I VI 2 V I I + 8 II
JUST YOU, JUST ME - Lyric by Raymond Klages - Music by Jesse Greer
Copyright 1929-Copyright Renewal 1957 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., New York,
N. Y. All rights controlled by Robbins Music Corporation, New York.
Used by permission.

43
"Tea For Two"
II
(Ab) II V I II V I I VI 2 I I II bIllo I II V I II V I I I I II
6
(C) II V I II V I I VI:I I I 15 blllo I II V I II V I 1 + II II
II
( Ab ) V I II V I II V I 1 VII I I bIllo I II V I II V I nlef> I
15
,
(Ab) VIx I II bllo I II Vlx I #10 II I bVef> IVm + II I VI a blllo I
(Ab) II V I 1+ 11 I 1+ 11 II
TEA FOR TWO-
Copyright 1924 by Harms. Inc.
Used by permission.

"Whispering'"

1+ 8 I 1+ 8 I bVm I VlIx I 1+ II I 1+ 11 I bVllx 1 VIx I IIx I


IIx I V I V I I + II I III bIllo I II I V I I + II I L ~ I bVm I
VlIx I 1+ 11 I 1+ 11 I bVIIx I VIx I IIx I IIx I V ( V I II I
v,a I 1+ 11 I 1+ 11 II
WHISPERING - Words and Music by John Schonberger, Richard Coburn. Vincent Rose
@ Copyright 1920-Copyright Renewal 1948 Miller Music Corporation, New York, N. ~.
Used by permission.

PROGRESSNE

"I Can't Get Started"

( C) I VI I II V I VIIm I1Ix bVIIm bIlIx I VI IIx bVI blIx I


( C) I VI I II V I a I IIIx b II Vlx b II I IIxb II V b I I I VI I II V I
(C) VIIm IIIx bVIIm bIlIx I VI IIx bVI blIx I I VI I II VIa I
(C) 1+ 8 #1 I 1+ 8 I II (D) II V I bVef> IVo I III II I I 1+ 11 II
(C) II V I bVef> IVo I III bIIIx I Ih blh I I VI I n V I
(C) VlIm I1h bVIIm bIlh I VI Ih bVI blix I I VI I II v,a II
( C) ( Coda) 1I1ef> I VIx b 15 I lief> I V b 15 lIb I I I bI II
I CANT GET STARTED-
Copyright @ 1935 by Chappell & Co. Inc.
Used by permission.

44
"Night In Tunisia"
( c ) bIIx I 1 I blIx I I I bIIx I I VI I II blIx I 1 + e I blIx I
(c) I I blIx I I I bIIx I 1 VI I II blIx I 1+ ell (f) II I V I
(f) I+e blIx I I+e II (Eb) II I V I 1 IV II (c) II V I
(c) blIx I 1 I blIx I I I blIx I 1 VI I II blIx I 1+ ell
( c ) (interlude) II I II I blIx I blix I I I 1m I IVx b I I IVx b II I I
(Eb) VIx b II I Vlx b II I IIIx I IlIx I I (break) I I I I I / 1 I I -note
-note - break may b e optional two or four bars.
NIGHT IN TUNISIA - by Frank Paparelli, John "Dizzy" Gillespie
Copyright MCMXLIV by LEEDS MUSIC CORPORATION, 322 West 48th Street,
New York 36, N. Y.
Used by permission. All rights reserved.

"Lady Bird"

( C) I I VI I IVm I bVIIx I 1 I VI I I I V I I I I II
(.Ab) II
(C) VI I Ih I II I IVo I III bllIx I II blix I I I VI I IVm /
(C) bVIIx I I I VI I I I V I I I I II (C) VI I IIx I
(Ab) II
( C) II I b1Ix I I +. I 1 +. I I
LADY BIRD (HALF NELSON) -
Used by permission of Savoy Music Company, Newark, New Jersey.

"Bernie's Tune"
(d) l..f 1 I 111m I bVIx I II I V I 1+ e I 1+ e I I I I I 111m I
(d) ' bvtt-I II I V I I+ e I 1+ 6 II (Bb) 1+ 1 VI I II blIx I
(Bb) I +. VI I II blIx I 1+ e VI I II bIIx I I + 6 VI II (d) II blIx I
(d) I I I I 111m I bVix I II I V I 1+ 8 / 1+ 8 II
BERNIE'S TUNE-
Copyright 19531954-1955 by ATLANTIC MUSIC CORP., by arrangement with SKY VIEW
MUSIC CORP. Sole Selling Agent: CRITERION MUSIC CORP., R.K.O. Bldg., Radio City,
New York 20, N, Y.
International Copyright Secured. Used by permission.

45
THE NEW ORLEANS-CHICAGO TRANSITION

1. Abandonment of the triadic system in favor of seventh chord con-


cepts. This meant a transition from a harmonic system composed of the
follOwing factors: to one composed of:
maior triad maior added sixth chord
minor triad dominant seventh
diminished triad minor seventh
dominant seventh diminished seventh
The hill-diminished chord appeared for the first time in this transition
but was sparingly employed only in the second inversion.
2. A strong development toward the use of inversions can be explained
by an emerging modal scale and arpeggio concept increasingly employed
by tuba and bass players.

3. A general abandonment of the basic 0 - 0 New Orleans


harmonic unit in favor of the basic 0 Chicago himnonic unit in addi-
tion to the occasional use of the emerging J harmonic unit. .
4. Abandonment of the IIx (the New Orleans preparation for V)
in favor of the natural diatonic U (minor).
S. Chicago use of III and IIIx usually not present in New Orleans
style.
6. Some expanding use of keys. The C, G, F, Bb, Eb spectrum of
New Orleans jazz was extended to Ab, Db, and D in the Chicago period.

THE CHICAGO-SWING TRANSITION

1. The emergence of chromatic harmony in the extended use of such


non-diatonic factors .as bVIIx, bVm, bV4>, bUIx.
2. Partial disappearance of the x : inversion. All root pOSition domin-
ants prepared by the minor or half-diminished chord a perfect fifth above.
Initial use of the ~ inversion.
3. Initial appearance of the major seventh chord and the root-position
half-diminished chord - the final emergence of the sixty chord system.
4. Appearance of modulation in the jazz bass line.
S. Elementary twelve key facili~.
6. Consolidation of the 0, J harmonic unit.
46
7. Appearance of the professional songwriter, a specialized craftsman
challenging the performing cliches of the jazz musician.

THE SWING-PROGRESSIVE TRANSITION

1. Appearance of advanced twelve key facility.


2. Further exploration of the Junit at tempos exceeding mm-200.
3. Initial exploration of the minor scale-tone seventh chords (see
Lesson 65, Volume I).
4. Full development of the half-diminished (the sensual seventh)
chord (see Lesson 4).
5. Total disappearance of the triadic inversion accompanied by a gen-
eral adoption of the circle of fifths.
6. Appearance of bIIx (modem variant of the Neapolitan Sixth) as
a substitute chord for V.
7. Expanding vertical concepts of harmony utilizing polytonal struc-
tures.
8. Exploration of the Jharmonic unit.
Post-bop explorations of non-diatonic and asymmetrical resources have
not in general been consolidated into any permanent achievement justify-
ing inclusion here. This is not to dismiss these endeavors, but simply to
state a general position of this text to deal only with enduring diatonic
development~ conceived in 4/4 time.

LESSON 5.
Syncopation

Jazz syncopation may be sub-divided into the following categories:


1. Simple syncopation involving accent only.
2. Compound syncopation involving notation (tied notes and rest
values) and accent.

47
3. Multiple syncopation involving two or more levels of syncopation
played simultaneously.

Applied to our three units of time (J J 1') we derive the fol-


lowing:

SIMPLE RHYTHMIC SYNCOPATION


The quarter-note is the basic rhythmic unit. A bar of quarter-notes
may be sub-divided into the following sub-units:
down up down up
beat beat beat beat

The syncopated unit here is the UP BEAT ACCENT (Fig. 1), the
hallmark of all jazz; the universal catalyst identifying this music in all its
rhythmic, sensual, ethnic, and psychological implications. This syncopa-
tion has at times been implied (New Orleans), explicit (Chicago, Swing),
or concealed (Progressive), but its presence has never and probably, as
long as there is jazz, will never decline. Its essence is quite simple - the
constant interruption of the eternal symmetry of one, the beginning of
melody, harmony, and rhythm.

Fig. 1.

fl

14! :> > :> :> > :>

. .
>-
~ ttt bqI :t bb:t . .
.J
r
J J
!
IVm
J J
t
m
.J .J
Pf'
:>
~mx
J J
t
n
J J
Dr:>
~nx
J J
~
~

J J
f
I
J
foot beat

48
SIMPLE HARMONIC SYNCOPATION:
Syncopation of this unit occurs only in cases of melodic or rhythmic
superimposition (see Lesson 1). Without superimposition, the harmonic
unit cannot be syncopated.

SIMPLE MELODIC SYNCOPATION:


The eighth-note is the basic melodic unit. A bar of eighth-notes may
be sub-divided into the following sub-units:
on off on off on off on off
beat beat beat beat beat beat beat beat

J J J J J J J J
The syncopated unit here is the off-beat accent (Fig. 2) (see Lesson
58, Vol. I). The off-beat accents represent the syncopation of the melodic
unit as the up-beat represent the syncopation of the rhythmic unit. The
off-beat accent in a sense interrupts the up-beat accent which in itself is
an interruption of the basic pulse (Fig. 3). The joining of these t~o levels
of syncopation creates a pleasurable tension often referred to as the swing
of a jazz perfonnance.

Fig. 2.

~
~ ::> ::>
....
~- ~ ~-

~

f?
::> ::>

~~
-a -
6~B - --

I IVm m ~IIIx
.J .J .J .I .I .J .I .J
foot beat

~ ~ =:: 6=: =::- ~ :> ==- =:.

..L
- ~
-
IJ~
-
0
I

n ~nx I
1 .J .J .I .J .J .J .I
foot beat
49
Fig. 3.

.
offbeat >

up beat I I
I 1 J I I I

::> ::> :> :>

.I .J .1 .I .J .1 .I j

foot beat

COMPOUND SYNCOPATION:
Simple syncopation occurs either on the rhythmic ( J)or the melodic
(j) levels; compound syncopation occurs only on the melodic level and
involves either the use of the tie, or the rest, or both. !llWlY involve the
~ unit or any of its variables. .Fig. 4 illustrates examples. of compound
syncopation common to any jazz performance (see schematic outline,
Lesson 3).

Fig. 4.

~
~
.-
I> _ .H_
-- J'I-.i
3_

i@ -
:>
::>
- 5 -
5 6 -
. (7 t?~ :3 "~B

~J .J I~r .J ~ J ~~ J
foot beat

foot beat

50
'I 5 3
~ t:'I

I!. l'

.J J .J
foot beat

MULTIPLE SYNCOPATION:
On the actual performing level, only the drummer or the pianist in a
jazz group is able to execute multiple syncopation. Skill in this area is
essential to any jazz instrumentalist; first, in order to execute one syncopa-
tion level while one or more levels are being simultaneously played by
other members of the group; and secondly, in order to pre-hear one synco-
pation (to be played in the succeeding bar) while actually playing another.
The basic device in this area (aside from pre-hearing rhythmic shifts, e.g.,
eighth to sixteenth to thirty-second, etc.) is one of maintaining the pre-
vailing rhythmic unit while alternating .between duple and triple accents.
1. Duple (division of 2)
2.
...
. Triple (division of 3)
How~~ by the use of syncopation, it is possible to create a series of
hybrid rhythms, which result in the following combinations:

EXTERNAL PULSE INTERNAL ACCENT


duple division of 3
triple division of2

This is a familiar device employed by all jazz musicians. The accented


sub-divisions of the eighth-note and the sixteenth-note are the usual areas
of this technique. The thirty-second-note is usually treated .as an uninter-
ruptedflorid design to effect a contrast with the interrupted eighth- and
sixteenth-note.

51
TRIPLE 8/8 TIME
Fig. 5 illustrates a normal duple procession of eighth-notes. Fig. 6
illustrates these tones played with an internal accent of three. This design
is most effective when the accented tone appears above the two unaccented
tones (Fig. 7).

Fig. 5.

..J
-
J
-
.J J
--
.J .J J J
foot beat

Fig. 6.

- :> -

.J J 1 .J J .J .J
foot beat

Fig. 7.

~ ;::>
- .
~ . :> . >- - >- :>
I I I J ......
J .J .J .J .J .J .J J J J J .J
foot bat

~ ~ ::: ;> ::>

It!. I I ::> >- - :>

J J .J .J J J .J .J J J J J
foot beat

52
DUPLE 12/8 TIME
Fig. 8 illustrates the normal appearance of a bar of 12/8 time. Fig. 9
illustrates the same bar when played with an internal accent of two.

Fig. 8. Fig. 9.

3_ 3_ 3_
1'\ 3

I~ ~-
">-
:> W ">
> :> :>

J .J I J
foot beat foot beat

TRIPLE 6/16 TIME


Fig. 10 illustrates the normal appearance of a group of six-sixteenth-
notes in a 4/4 pulse. This unit may be played in a number of ways:
1. With an internal accent on tones 1 and 4 (Fig. 11).
2. With an internal accent on tones 1, 3, and 5 (Fig. 12).
3. With an internal accent on tones 2, 4, and 6 (Fig. 13).
4. With an internal accent on tones 1 and 5 (Fig. 14).
5. With an internal accent on tones 3 and 6 (Fig. 15).

Fig. 10 Fig. 11. Fig. 12.


6

~ jJ]JUJI
:>

Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15.


r- 6 ---,

~ n~t1J "> 3

53
DRILL: The following rhythm series is to be practiced on any flat surface
for developing facility in superimposing internal accents over
external pulses:

1. RoB. JJJJJJJJ
:> :> :> ::>

L.B. ~ ~ ~ ~

2. R.B. JJJJJJJJ
:> :> :> :>

L.B. ~
:>
~ J
:>
~

3. R.B. J J J J JJJJ
:> :> :> ::>
:> :>

L.B. J ~
:>
~ ~
:>

RoB. JJJJJJJJ :> :> :> :>

L.B. J J J J

6. RoB. mmmm
:>
3

:>
3

:>
3

:>
3

L.B. J
:>
J J
:>
J

I. R.B. mmmm
::>
3

:>
3

:>
3

::>
3

L.B. J J
:>
J J
:>

54
7. R.B.
mmmm 333 3

L.B.

8. R.B. mmmm 3333>

:> :> :> :::

L.B.

8. R.B. JJJJJJJJJmJm
:> :> :> :>

L.B.

10. R.B. JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


:> :> ::: :::

L.B.

11. lLB. JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


:> :> :> :>

L.B. ~ ~ ~ ~

12. R.B. JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


:> :> :> :>

L.B. ~ ~ ~ ~
6 6 6 6

13. lLB. JJJJJJJJJ~JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


:> :> :> :>

L.B. J ~ ~ ~

55
14. ILB.

L.IL

15. ILB.

L.B.

US. ILB. ~ ~ ~ ~

L.IL JJJJJJJJ
> ::> ::> ::>

17. R.IL ~
::>
~ ~
>
J
L.B. JJJJJJJJ
::> ::> ::> >

18. R.B. ~ ~
::>
~ ~::>

L.B. J J J J J J JJ
::> ::> ::> :>

It. ILB. ~ ~ ~ ~

L.B. JJJJJJJJ
> ::> :> ;::.

ao. ILIL JJJJJJJJ JJJJ


::> ::> :> ::>

L.IL ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~

56
3 3 3 3

21. L B. mmmm
:> ;> :> ;> >- :>

L.B.

22. LB. JJJJJJJJ


>- >- >- ;>

L.B. J J J J
Foot J J J J

23. R.B. J J J J J J JJ
:> >- >- >-

L.B. J J J J
Foot J J J J
2 LB. J J JJ J J J J
> >- :> ;>

L.B. d d
Foot J J J J

25. LB. JJJJJJJJ


;> :> > ;>

L.B. d d
Foot J J
57
28. 1\.B. J J. ~J n
L.B. J J
Foot J J J

17. 1\.B. r-JJ r-Ji


L.B. ~ ~ J ~

J8. 1\.B. n n n n
L.B. mmmm
I 3----, r - - 3---,
29. 1\.B. J J ~ J ~ ~
L.B. JJJJJJJJ
Foot ~ J J J

80. 1\.8. :t ~=! Jm :t~1 1m


L.B. 1m:t:t ):t 1m:t:t ):t
Foot J ~ J J

58
SECTION II

The improvised line (1923-1958)

NEW ORLEANS
"Gin House Blues": "West End Blues":
Bessie Smith Louis Armstrong
Columbia CL 1036 Columbia CL 853
Troy-Henderson Joe Oliver
"High Society": "Muggles" :
Johnny Dodds Louis Armstrong
Folkways FP 57 Columbia CL 853
Joe Oliver Armstrong-Hines
"Dippermouth Blues": "Basin Street Blues":
Joe Oliver Louis Armstrong
Riverside RLP 12-122 Columbia CL 852
Armstrong-Oliver Spencer Williams

CHICAGO
"Sweet Sue": "There'll Be Some Changes Made":
Bix Beiderbecke Frank Teschemacher
Columbia CL 509 Folkways FP 65
Victor Young Overstreet
"Singin' The Blues": <'I'm Comin' Virginia":
Bix.. .Beiderbecke Bix Beiderbecke
Col~ia CL 845 Columbia CL 845
Robinson-Conrad Heywood-Cook
"Original Dixieland One Step": "Jazz Me Blues":
Miff Mole Bix Beiderbecke
Folkways FP 67 Folkways FP 65
Nick LaRocca T. Delaney

SWING "Soft Winds"


"Mter You've Gone": (blues in Ab):
Roy Eldridge Benny Goodman
Okeh 6278 Columbia CL 1036
Klenner Benny Goodman

59
SWING (coni'd)

"Sweet Sue": "Crazy Rhythm":


Teddy Wilson Benny Carter-Coleman Hawkins
Victor LPM 1226 Victor EP 447-0167
Victor Young Meyer and Kahn
"Aunt Hager's Blues~:
Art Tatum
.Capitol T 216
W. C. Handy

EARLY PROGRESSIVE
""Just You, Just Me": "Nice Work IT You Can Get It":
Lester Young Bud Powell
Keynote 603B Roost RLP 401
J. Greer Geot8e Gershwin
eel Can't Get Started": "Koko'l ("Cherokee"):
Dizzy Gillespie Charlie Parker
Columbia CL 1036 Savoy 12079
Ira Gershwin, Vernon Duke Ray Noble
"Half-Nelson" "Just Friends":
("Lady Bird"): Charlie Parker
Miles Davis Clet 675
Savoy MG 12009 Lewis-Klenner
"Tadd" Dameron

LATE PROGRESSIVE
"Lover Man": "Ghost Of A Chance":
Lee Konitz Clifford Brown
Pacific Jazz LP-2 Emarcy MG 36008
Davis-Ramirez-Sherman Crosby-Washington-Young
"All The Things You Are": "Opus De Funk":
Chet Baker Horace Silver
Pacific Jazz PJ 1206 Blue Note 1520
Jerome Kern Horace Silver
"Wrap Your Troubles In Dreams": "I've Got The World On A String":
Stan Getz Oscar Peterson
New Jazz 8214 Verve 8268
Barris-Koehler-Moll Harold Arlen

60
PART I
New Orleans
aIN HOUSE BLUES BESSIE SMITH

,& ,J J J I Lt.;: r .r J :J ~~ 1J
pick-up
v's 1+8 ---- 1+8

~ b)!$r 3 JOld t ~ ;jlIJ


1+8 1+8 Ix IVx
u AJ I ~, ;W9"
IVx
rr r1
~~ J - 1- ~ "I j IltJ J J J J~S 11u,.
"I
;,b "Js r ~I
1+8 1+8 V v

gUU'~

~b ;J - I- I 'I J't!j EJ r I,J IJ I "I j)1~J EJ r "J I


1+8 1+8 1+8 1+8 }+O6

- 1-
v v 1+6

o
,& 1,J?j U F J Ij
}+O6 1+6
,j 1,3 JIdti
1+8
u F J Id t '/ ~I

IVx 1+6

,~, - 1JJ'J1-tJ\@ ~ J I)J 1'/ 1.;8J$tnJjl - 1- '/I~I


1+6

v

GIN HOUSE BLUES - Words by Henry Troy - Music by Fletcher Henderson


- v 1+6 1+8

Copyright 1926 by Tune-House. Inc. -


Copyright renewed 1953 by Mrs. Fletcher Henderson and assigned to Alamo Music. Inc.
Used by permission of Alamo Music. Inc.
HIGH SOCIETY JOHNNY OODDS

'Rk tVa EfEt! Ie r llEF U IEf1!8ftprtJ I


1+6 1+6 1+6

'~11 aj E1 CE 0 I~ JgJ J CO gm I~ Jg3 J Wm I


M ' M M

,
'~11 aU j EU ICr cJ [k rrIijOEltr UIcr a [ krPI
1+6 1+6 ~ ~mo vt v

'~1. Ft:pEff EE IDbfr u[Hllqr t q:r~Ei II! r(J tail


1+6 1+6 ID2 nx

,w,. r ~ - 1- I rlttUI:EiltraEEUltterFCfI
v V 1+6 1+8 1+6

'~1, ar [j EE Qtf I, J qJ U canwl I~ J gJ U WIn I


1+8 1+6 1+6

, ~1. , au rE r; lEe rf rj rf If E(er FIt EJ Er c; I


1+6 1+6 IV+6 IVx

'~lz aaf EC*r I~Ebu~rtrlzr; IqJ


1+6 VIx nx
I [ret I(cr r[j ~ I v

,Wlz ertlHWlr~jU I Irrrfer\FIE~rEr II


1+6 1+6 1+, 1+6

HIGH SOCIETY-
Used by permission of the copyright owner
INTERNATIONAL MUSIC, INC., 74' Fifth Avenue, New York Ciry.
DIPPERMOUTH BLUES JOE OLIVER

1+6 1+6 1+6

IVx IVx 1+6 1+6


~ ~'~Ef1 t
1+6
-uTEJq 1+6
Fir [ r dr F I~ur t ~F I
1+6 Ix

~W' ~LE r [Uil&[ crt trfrroj n J IF t &[ A


IVx IVx 1+6 1+6

~w'1
II
a clJ1 v
IF &F
V
[n rtE 1+6
It (1 PI
1+6

o
~~' r r
1+6
lfr IE err FE fr rltn~
1+6 1+6
11 rE r-t- I
Ix
I

IVx IVx 1+6 1+6

II v v 1+6 1+6

DIPPERMOUTH BLUES-
Used by permission of 'the copyright owner
INTERNATIONAL MUSIC, INC., 745 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
63
WEST END BLUES LOUIS ARMSTRONG

Ad Ub. Intro

r...

,Wl,rrr f
3

'~1' j E &f r J J gO ~ IJ S I,J ~a J J


i ~;]

v+ 1+6 1+6

'V" 'fO J#>Ha IbJ,-,n


---
J J J Ir.e-lQ tJ
1+6 U W+6

W+8 Wm+8 ~8

WEST END BLUES - by Oarence Wiliams, Joe Oliver


@ Copyright MCMXXVIII by PICKWICK MUSIC CORPORATION
22 West 48th Street, New York 36, N. Y.
322 West 48th Street, New York 36, N. Y.
3 -l
J j J I~
1+6 v

v 1+6 3

-:i I ~
cIr- Trombone
~~
Vocal Piano Rlde-out
.....-.....-... -
~ ~l, tr I I I I
12 12 11 0 0 0:'"
WEEP I I
3 3
I II I II I 1- I
1+6 V 1+6 1+6 1+6

Ix IV+6

, 5
IV+6

GU"

~ ~Il, ~ r F,9)
1+6
!l J~ J ;/ g Irr f E
1+6
cpa FI

Ad lib.

It ;8 J JU)I J J Itnu II
IVm+6 ho6 IVm ho6

65
MUGGLES LOUIS ARMSTRONG

'-'"
Break (Double time)

1+8 1+8

'~' r
.-

&6
I W
r II
&6
!J
~ r @- I r ...,J
&6
I W
r

IV+6 IV+6 IVm+6 IVm+6

&6 &6 &6

MUGGLES - by Louis Armstrong


Copyright MCMXXX, MCMLVII by LEEDS MUSIC CORPORATION, 322 West 48th Street,
New York 36, N. Y.
Used by permission. All rights reserved.
3

$V'I tiJ J9J II ., ~p


F r FJ J-- &Jij)
3
~mo v: bno

'-"
V' V+ 1+6 Ix 10 n.2
3


>,..-,.
., hf't~
:J 111 rr ., p II C:~
:J r ., ~. I
V 1+6 fix V

,biz T
1+6
~J~ .. ., Pit
Ix
r r r-r
..-
~r
m' IVx
~) r .,
~ I

IVx IVm+6 1+6 1+6

I ~z ,P'P
. (

~r L r r :;t .
3 V 'VIo V6 V
5

3 3

'~z iP
~ .............
r t Cd'
~

3
J j ~~ ~i
r j J j II
1+6 Ix 10 U.2 1+6 V 1+6

67
BASIN STREET BLUES LOUIS ARMSTRONG
CD

'~' .tJ j j J r~ mx'8 s


l+f

,W mx:tftt rrruilEft i 3 3 VIE


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BASIN STREET BLUES - Words &: Music - Spencer Williams Mayfair Music Corp.
Used by permission.
PART 2
Chicago
SWEET SUE - JUST YOU BIX BEIDERBECKE

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SWEET SUE - JUST YOU- Words by Will J. Harris, Music by Victor Young
COPYRIGHT MCMXXVIII by Shapiro, Bernstein & Co. Inc.
Copyright Renewed MCMLV and Assigned to Shapiro. Bernstein & Co. Inc.
Used by permission of Shapiro, Bernstein & Co. Inc., 666 Fifth Avenue, New York , 19, N. Y.
SINGIN' THE BLUES TILL MY DADDY COMES HOME BIX BEIDERBECKE

110 n v'a 1+6 V

1+6 110 n v 1+6

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SINGIN' THE BLUES TILL MY DADDY COMES HOME-


Copyright 1920 by Mills Music, Inc.
Used by permission.
ORIGINAL DIXIELAND ONE-STEP MIFF MOLE

Break
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1+6 nIx

v 1+6 1+6 VUx

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, ORIGINAL DIXIELAND ONE-STEP-


Copyrisht 1917 by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation
Copyright renewed and assi,gned to Edward B. Marks Music Corporation
Used by permission.
71
THERE'LL BE SOME CHANGES MADE FRANK TESCHEMACHER

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THERE'LL BE SOME CHANGES MADE-


Copyright 1912 by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation
Renewed 1948 and assigntd to Edward B. Marks Music Corporation
Used by permission.
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73
I'M COMING VIRGINIA BIX BEIDERBECKE
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I'M COMING VIRGINIA - Words by Will Marion Cook - Music by Donald Heywood
@ Copyright 1927 -Copyright Renewal 1955 Robbins Music Corporation, New York, N. Y.
@ Copyright 1961 Robbins Music Corporation, New York, N. Y.
Used by permission.

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75
JAZZ ME BLUES BIX BEIDERBECKE

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JAZZ ME BLUES-
Copyright 1921 by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation
Renewed and assigned to Edward B. Marks Music Corporation
Used by permission.
PART 3
Swing
AFfER YOU'VE GONE ROY ELDRIDGE

pick-up Break Break

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AFTER YOU'VE GONE-


@ Copyright 1918, Mayfair Music Corp.
Used by permission. 77
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79
SWEET SUE - JUST YOU TEDDY WILSON

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SWEET SUE - JUST YOU - Words by Will J. Harris. Music by Victor Young
COPYRIGHT MCMXXVlII by Shapiro. Bernstein Be Co. Inc.
Copyright Renewed MCMLV and Assigned to Shapiro. Bernstein Be Co. Inc.
Used by permission of Shapiro, Bernstein Be Co. Inc., 666 Fifth Avenue, New York 19. N. Y.
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AUNT HAGAR'S BLUES ART TATUM

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AUNT HAGAR'S BLUES - "Based on 'Aunt Hagar's Children' by W. C. Handy, copyright 1920
by Pace & Handy Music Co., copyright renewed by W . C. Handy (also known as 'Aunt Hagar's
Blues' and as 'Aunt Hagar's Children Blues'); published by joint arrangement for the United
States by Handy Brothers Music Co., Inc., 1650 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y. and Robbins
Music Corporation, 1540 Broadway, New York 36, N. Y., and outside the United States
by Robbins Music Corporarion; any matter from which is used here by permission of the
proprietors."
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SOFT WINDS BENNY GOODMAN

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SOFT WINDS-
Used by permission of REGENT MUSIC CORPORATION,
1619 Broadway, New York City.
CRAZY RHYTHM COLEMAN HAWKINS AND BENNY CARTER

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CRAZY RHYTHM - Meyer-Kahn


Copyngnr 1928 oy Hllcms, lac.
Used by permission.
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PART 4
Early Progressive
JUST YOU, JUST ME LESTER YOUNG
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JUST YOU, JUST ME - Lyric by Raymond Klages - Music by Jesse Greer
CopyrigJJt 1929 - Copyright Renewal 1957 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., New York
N. Y. All rights controlled by Robbins Music Corporation, New York.
Used by permission.
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I CAN'T GET STARTED DIZZY GILLESPIE
Intro

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97
LADY BIRD (HALF NELSON) MILES DAVIS

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Used by permission of Savoy Music Company, Newark, New Jersey.
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NICE WORK IF YOU CAN GET IT BUD POWELL

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Copyright @ 1937 by Gershwin Publishing Corporation
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CHEROKEE (KO KO) CHARLIE PARKER

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CHEROKEE - Words and Music by Ray Noble


Copyright MCMXXXVIII by The Peter Maurice Music Co., Ltd., London, England
Assigned to Skidmore Music Co. Inc., for U.S.A. and Canada
Used by permission of Skidmore Music Co. Inc., 666 Fifth Avenue, New York 19, N. Y.
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WRAP YOUR TROUBLES IN DREAMS STAN GETZ

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137
The Jazz Improvisation Series By John .Mehegan

1. Tonal and Rhythmic Principles Preface by Leonard Bernstein


The fundamental musical concepts used by every great jazz musician from Buddy Bolden to Dizzy Gillespie.
Here for students, professional and amateur musicians, and serious jazz enthusiasts are more than 70 lessons
that define and clearly systematize the basic principles of jazz-using more than 60 jazz standards as examples:
"Laura," "Body and Soul," "Spring is Here," "Stella by St?lrlight," "Autumn in New York," "Round Midnight,"
and others by such leading composers as Gershwin, Rodgers, Porter, Ellington and Kern. "A highly important
and valuable publication,"-Leonard Bernstein in the preface. "A great book ."-Dave Brubeck. "Fulfills a
desperate need."-Oscar Peterson. "A most valuable volume ."-Andre Previn. "The finest organization of jazz
material that I have seen." -Bill Evans .

2. Jazz Rhythm and the Improvised Line Preface by Harold Arlen


A brilliant analysis and schematic history of these two supremely important facets of jazz. Many figured bass
lines and solos are given for dozens of wellknown tunes of all periods-"High Society," "Oh, Daddy Be Good,"
"Just You, Just Me," "I Can't Get Started," "Night in Tunisia," "Bernie's Tune" and others-as well as 29
transcriptions of performances recorded from 1923 to 1958 by such artists as Bessie Smith , Louis Armstrong,
Bix Beiderbecke, Roy Eldridge, Art Tatum, Bud Powell , Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gilles . , Miles Davis, Stan Getz,
Horace Silver. "John Mehegan in this book continues the high standards of jazz teaching he has set previously
in a field that needs these standards so badly."-Nat Hentoff.

Preface by
3. Swing and Early Progressive Piano Styles Horace Silver
An analysis of the great piano styles of 1936 to 1950, a period of creative ferment which saw the culmination of
the ragtime tradition and its destruction and replacement by the innovations of the "bop" era . This volume
examines the stylistic structure of over fifty major performances by the five greatest jazz pianists of the period-
Teddy Wilson, Art Tatum , Bud Powell, George Shearing, Horace Silver~giving in unprecedented detail their
extraordinary improvisations on the basic songs of the jazz repertoire. "Brings to the aspiring jazz musician a
helping hand that will put him on the right track. " -Horace Silver in the preface.

4. Contemporary Piano Styles


A rich, instructive survey of the history of jazz piano from 1950 to the present with clear and systematic analyses
of the styles of such leading figures as Oscar Peterson, Bill Evans , George Shearing, Ahmad Jamal, Horace
Silver, Red Garland, Cecil Taylor and many others. Abundant illustrations of left hand voicings, right hand
modes, solo piano, comping, turn arounds, modern funky piano , harmonic distortions , modal fourths , minor
blues, and modal fragments enable the student to apply modern devices to his personal style .

John Meheaan, jazz pianist, teacher and critic, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, and first
played the piano at tne age of five. His distinguished career as a jazz educator began in 1945, when he
became Teddy Wilson's assistant at the Metropolitan Music School in New York. The following year, he
was appointed head of the school's jazz department. In 1947, Mr. Mehegan was named jazz instructor
at the Juilliard School of Music. He taught privately for over 25 years. He also taught at the Yale School
of Music.
Mr. Mehegan's unmatched contribution to the literature of jazz includes not only his major series on
jazz improvisation, but a unique series of jazz instruction books for elementary and secondary school
students, entitled The Jazz Pianist. From 1957 to 1960, he was jazz critic for The New York Herald
Tribune. He was a contributor to such magazines as Downbeat, Metronome, and The Saturday
Review, and a reviewer for Jazz magazine.

>ISBN 0-8230-2572-1
I