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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background

As an international language, English becomes a compulsory subject in

formal schools in Indonesia. It should be learnt by the students from

kindergarten to university level. The aim of learning English is that the

students are able to communicate in English both in productive skills

(speaking and writing) and receptive skills (listening and reading). To reach

the goal, the students should master the four language components; those are

vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation, and grammar.

Many students consider English a difficult subject to learn. Based on

the writer’s experience in Teaching Practice Program, most students still feel

difficult, even, to make a sentence, whereas sentence is very important

because it is used to communicate with the others. Aik and Hui (1999:248)

say, “a sentence is a group of words that make sense because the words are

constructed and arranged according to the grammatical rules for expressing

statements, questions, or commands.” From the statement, it can be seen that

sentence is used to express statements, asking questions, or giving commands

which we usually do in communication.

In order to be able to communicate in English, the students have to be

able to construct sentence. Constructing sentence means putting together word

or phrases in their proper place and order. By placing the words or phrases in

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the correct order will make a good sentence and avoid misunderstanding of its

meaning.

Seeing that condition, teacher should find an interesting way in

teaching English which can motivate the students so they will not consider

English a difficult subject to learn anymore. One of the ways is through

games. Hadfield (1990: v) says, “games can play an important part in the

language learning process generally. Games are usually fun. Students who

have fun are usually motivated.”

It is clear that game can motivate students to learn because it is usually

fun. If the students feel fun, they will be relax and enjoy the learning process.

In this research, Word Association Dominoes game is chosen to be used in

teaching the students to construct sentences. According to its name, Word

Association Dominoes game belongs to word and card game. In this game, the

students should link two or more words to be a sentence. They have to find

links or associations between pair of words and then make them into a

sentence. It is believed that it can make the students enjoy the lesson so they

can increase their ability in constructing sentence. Therefore, the writer

intends to investigate whether Word Association Dominoes game can affect

students’ ability to construct sentences.

B. Statement of the Problem

The statement of the problem is: “Does Word Association Dominoes

game affect the students’ ability to construct sentences?”

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C. The Aim of the Research

The aim of this research is to find out whether Word Association

Dominoes game affects the students’ ability to construct sentences.

D. Hypothesis

The writer states the alternative hypothesis (Ha) that: there is a positive

effect of Word Association Dominoes game on students’ ability to construct

sentences.

E. Research Methodology

In conducting the research, the writer uses true experimental method.

He chooses pretest posttest control group design to investigate the cause and

effect between the experimental group and the control group with the formula:

G1 ( rd ) T1 X T2 G1= group 1 (experimental group)


G 2 ( rd ) T1 T2
G2= group 2 (control group)

X = treatment

T1 = pretest

T2 = posttest
Firstly, pre-test is given to experimental group and control group to

know their ability in constructing sentence. Then, the experimental group is

taught how to construct sentence using Word Association Dominoes game.

For the control group, students are taught through explanation only. It is given

three times. Finally, post-test is given to both experimental group and control

group.

F. Population and Sample

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The population of the research is the first grade students of SMP

Muhammadiyah Bogor. There are four classes and each class consists of 30

students, so the total number of the population is 120 students. Purposive

sampling technique is used to take 60 students as the sample. Class VII C and

VII D which have the lowest score are chosen as the sample. Class VII C is

the control group while class VII D is the experimental group.

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

A. Sentence

1. The definition of sentence

One of the aims of learning English for students is that they are

able to communicate using English in their daily life. Meanwhile, people

use sentence to communicate with the others in written form. Hence,

sentence is very important to be learnt by the students.

Tan (1997: 7) said that a sentence is a group of words, which

makes complete sense. It means that sentence is a group of words which

has meaning. It is because the words in sentence are constructed and

arranged according to the grammatical rules. As Aik and Hui (1999: 248)

say, “a sentence is a group of words that make sense because the words

are constructed and arranged according to the grammatical rules for

expressing statements, questions, or commands.” The statement also

implies that sentence is used to express statement, asking question, or

giving command.

Based on the statement above, it is clear that to make sentence that

has complete sense, it should be arranged according to the grammatical

rules. A grammatical sentence usually consists of a subject and predicate.

Subject is what the sentence generally about. It is usually noun or pronoun

or their equivalent. While predicate usually is verb, which is used to

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present the subject in an action or state of being, to complete the statement

about the subject.

2. Types of sentences

A common weakness in writing is the lack of varied sentences.

Otherwise, variety of sentences is needed in writing, especially in writing

for academic and professional purposes, in order that the messages which

want to be conveyed can be understood by the reader. It also can maintain

the interest of the reader.

There are four types of sentences used in formal English writing:

a. Simple sentence

The most basic type of sentence is simple sentence, which

contains only one clause. According to Voss and Keene (2000: 41), a

clause is a group of words having a subject and a predicate. So, a

simple sentence contains one subject and one predicate. For example:

The ice melts.

The subject of the sentence is ‘The ice’ and the predicate is ‘melts’.

The subject and the predicate may have modifiers. Modifier is

word that modifies the subject or the predicate. For example:

The ice melts quickly.

The word ‘quickly’ is a modifier for the predicate ‘melts’.

Although there is an addition by the word ‘quickly’ as

modifier, the sentence is still a simple sentence. As it is stated by Voss

and Keene (2000: 41), “as long as we have only one subject, predicate

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verb, and complete thought, additional non clause modifiers do not

change the sentence’s classification; it is still a simple sentence.”

Simple sentence is not always short but it also can be a quite

long sentence. For example:

The popular Grunge musician, Kurt D. Cobain,

committed suicide at his home in Seattle 15 years ago.

The sentence is still a simple sentence because it only has one subject

and one predicate.

There are four forms of simple sentences. As Greenbaum and

Quirk (1990: 231) said that simple sentence may be divided into four

major syntactic types, which use correlation largely with different

discourse function. Those are:

1) Declarative sentences

A declarative sentence is a statement or a declaration. It ends with

a period.

e.g.: The students study in the classroom.

2) Interrogative sentences

Interrogative sentence is question or interrogation. It ends with

question mark.

e.g.: Do you have money?

3) Imperative sentences

Imperative sentence is command or request. It usually ends with

period while it could in exclamation mark. Since this kind is

directed at a person or a thing, the subject of sentence is not used.

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e.g.: Sit down, please.

4) Exclamatory sentences

Exclamatory sentence is exclamation. It is always in exclamation

mark which conveys strong emotion.

e.g.: How beautiful she is!

b. Compound sentence

Compound sentence is a sentence that consists of two or more

independent clauses connected by coordinating conjunctions or a

connecting semicolon. Independent clause is a clause that can stand

alone as a complete sentence. The coordinating conjunctions are the

words: for, and, nor, but, or, yet and so.

e.g.: I went earlier yesterday but I still missed the train.

The sentence is compound sentence because it consists of two

independent clauses: ‘I went earlier yesterday.’ and ‘I still missed the

train.’ connected by ‘but’ as coordinating conjunction.

c. Complex sentence

Complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one

or more dependent clause. Dependent clause is similar to an

independent clause, or complete sentence, but it lacks one of the

elements that would make it a complete sentence. It cannot stand alone

as a sentence since it begins with subordinating conjunctions, but it can

be added to an independent clause to form a complex sentence.

e.g.: Although his house is far from the school, Bryan doesn’t ever

come late.

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The independent clause is ‘Bryan doesn’t ever come late.’, while the

dependent clause is ‘Although his house is far from the school’.

In writing a complex sentence, if the dependent clause comes

first, a comma should be used to separate it with independent clause.

Conversely, if the independent clause come first, comma is not

required.

d. Compound complex sentence

According to Aik and Hui (1999: 251), “in a compound-

complex sentence, there are two or more independent clauses and at

least one dependent clause.” It means that a compound complex

sentence consists of at least two independent clauses, one dependent

clause, and the appropriate conjunction.

Meanwhile, Le Tourneau (2001: 251) stated that compound

complex sentence consists of a complex sentence coordinated with an

independent clause. For example:

If I were a millionaire, I will go around the world and I

will ask my friends to accompany me.

The sentence consists of two independent clauses, those are: ‘I

will go around the world’ and ‘I will ask my friends to accompany me’,

and a dependent clause, that is: ‘If I were a millionaire’.

3. Students’ ability to construct sentences

It is very important for the students to have ability to construct

sentence because, as it is stated earlier, one of the aims of learning English

for students is that they are able to communicate using English in their

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daily life. Ability itself is usually called as a natural skill or talent that

someone has. As Farlex (2000:1) says, “ability is a natural or acquired

skill or talent.” He also added that ability is a quality of being able to

perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or

accomplishment. It means that the ability deals with capability and

competence.

Next, to construct, based on Thesaurus dictionary, can be defined

as to create by forming, combining, making and producing something. To

construct also means to put together the constituent of something in their

proper place and order. In other words, constructing is a concept to create

something in the correct order.

In conclusion, students’ ability to construct sentence is students’

skills or talents of creating sentence in the correct order. In the correct

order means it should follow the grammatical rules.

B. Game

1. The definition of game

Learning in the classroom is activity that students mostly do at

school. However, most students consider it as a boring activity. To

overcome this problem, good and enjoyable atmosphere in the classroom

should be created in order to encourage the students to learn more. One

useful strategy to encourage language acquisition is using language

games.

Game is a form of play concerning rules, competition, and an

element of fun. It is stated by Hadfield (1990: v), “game is an activity with

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rules, a goal and element of fun.” It means that in a game there must be

rules, goal and fun. Rules are things that will guide the players to play the

game. It must be obeyed by the players. Goal is the thing that the players

try to reach. Meanwhile, fun means that game should provide an

entertainment.

In line with Hadfield, Kelley (1998: 50) said that a game is a

recreational activity involving one or more players which defined by a

goal that the players try to reach and some set of rules that determine what

the players can do. He also defined the concept of “game” as a form of

recreation constituted by set of rules that specify an object to be attained

and permissible means of attaining it. It means that game is used to attain

an object where it is specified by the rules.

Based on those statements, it is clear that game involves three

factors, those are rules, goal and recreation or fun. In conclusion, game is

an activity that has some rules, a goal to reach, and it is done for fun.

2. The advantages of game

Game is an alternative technique that can be used in language

teaching and learning process in order to make the class become

enjoyable. By applying game in the teaching learning process, students

will feel fun, relax and enjoy the lesson so they will be motivated to learn.

Hadfield (1990: v) says, “games can play an important part in the

language learning process generally. Games of any kind are usually fun.

Students who are having fun are usually motivated.” In other words, using

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games during the lesson can motivate students to learn and they will not

be bored so it will be easier for them to understand what they are learning.

Games, even, can make students take a part in the lesson,

especially shy students. As Hansen (1994: 118) states, “games are highly

motivating and entertaining and they can give an opportunity for the

students who are shy to express their opinions and feelings.” This is

because, in a game, there is a pleasant and relaxed atmosphere so the

students, especially shy students, will feel relaxed and they will not be

ashamed of expressing their opinions and feelings.

Besides, relaxed atmosphere will make the students faster and

better to understand the material. As Uberman (1998: 218) states, “in the

easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students

remember things faster and better.” It means that the students will be more

focus in learning because they do not feel that they are forced to learn.

Moreover, game does not only motivate the students to learn but

also can help them to improve the four language skills and the four

language components. As Brewster et al (2003: 172) say, “they are not

only motivating and fun but can also provide excellent practice for

improving pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and the four language

skills.”

Similarly, Ersoz (2000: 1) states, “they can be used to give practice

in all language skills and be used to practice many types of

communication.” The statements imply that games are very useful and can

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be used to develop students' language learning and provide the students an

opportunity to practice communication.

Based on the statements above, it is clear that game has many

advantages. Using games in teaching learning process can motivate the

students to learn, lower their stress since it usually makes them relaxed

fun, and give them opportunity for real communication.

In addition, Brewster, et al (2003: 174) stated some advantages of

teaching English by using games. Those are:

a. they add variety to the range of learning situation

b. they change the pace of a lesson and help to keep pupils’

motivation

c. they lighten more formal teaching and can help to renew pupils’

energy

d. they provide hidden practice of specific language patterns,

vocabulary and pronunciation

e. they can help to improve attention span, concentration, memory,

listening skill and reading skill

f. pupils are encourage to participate; shy learners can be motivated

to speak

g. they increase pupil’s communication, which provides fluency

practice and reduce the domination of the class by the teacher

h. they help create a fun atmosphere and reduce the distance between

teacher and pupils

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i. they can help reveal areas of weakness and the need for further

language

j. they can help to motivate and improve writing skill by providing a real

audience context and purpose

3. Using games in language learning

Knowing the advantages of game, teacher can use game for

teaching in language learning. It may be challenging for teacher to try to

apply games in class in order to develop students' English proficiency of

the target language.

In teaching learning process, game can be used in some ways.

Hadfield (1990: v) suggests, “games should be regarded an integral part of

the language syllabus, not an amusing activity for Friday afternoon or for

the end of the term.” It means that games should be included in the lesson

plan, not only as a diversion or as a break to spend the time. However,

because of the limitations of the syllabus, games often cannot be used as

much as they should be. Therefore, it is important to choose an

appropriate time and integrate them into the regular syllabus and

curriculum.

According to Lewis and Bedson (1999: 6), “you can use language

games to introduce new material, to practice recently learnt language

items, to introduce or practice certain themes, or to relax or energize a

class.” Based on the statement, game can be used in pre-activity to

introduce new material. Teacher can use game to lead the students to the

material that is going to be taught. Next, it also can be used as a tool for

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the students to practice what they have just learnt. Using game in this way,

teacher can check the students’ understanding about the material that has

been given. Finally, it is used as ice-breaker activity to make the class

more alive. When the students start to feel bored, teacher can use game to

relax or energize the class.

4. Word association dominoes game

Word association dominoes game is included into word games and

card games since it uses words and dominoes in the practice. The goal of

the game is to find links or association between pairs of words and then

make it into a sentence. As Jones (1993: 6) says, “the aim is to find links

or associations between pairs of words.”

The game is played in groups of four to six players. A group will

have a set of cards containing words and each player will have six cards.

The rest of the cards are placed facing down on a table and two cards on

top are turned over. Then, the player should find links or associations

between one of the words on the table and the words on their hand.

Furthermore, Jones (1993: 6) explained the steps of playing word

association dominoes game as follows:

a. The players of a group sit facing each other around a desk or table.

b. Each group gets one set of dominoes consisting 52 words.

c. The dominoes are shuffled and each player is dealt six cards, which

are hidden from the others. The remainder of the cards are placed face

down on the table. It is called ‘the pack’.

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d. The top two cards from the pack are turned over and laid out on the

table. E.g.:

birds birthday

e. Decide who starts. Play will then continue in a clockwise direction.

Player 1 looks at his/her cards and tries to find one or two words that

can be linked to or associated with either the words on the table. If

he/she finds a link, he/she places the new word or words next to the

one on the table, at the same time explaining orally the link. Suppose

the player has the word money, he/she places it next to birthday and

says, “I was given a lot of money on my birthday.”

f. The rests of the group now decide whether to accept or reject the

association. If accepted, the word money is placed on top of birthday

so that there are always only two cards showing. Play passes to the

next player who now has to find associations for either birds or money.

If the association is rejected, the player removes the card from the

table and he/she has to take a new card from the pack until he/she can

find a word which can be linked with either birds or money.

g. The first player who gets rid of all his/her cards is the winner of the

game.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Time and Site

The research was conducted from 30th November to 4th December 2009.

It is conducted to the first grade students of SMP Muhammadiyah Bogor.

There are four classes and each class consists of 30 students, so the total

number of the population is 120 students. Purposive sampling technique is

used to take two classes which have the lowest score. Then, 60 students are

taken as the sample. They are class VII C as control group and VII D as

experimental group.

B. Research Procedure

In this research, true experimental method is used to investigate the

possible cause and effect of word association dominoes game on students’

ability in constructing sentences. The sentences are limited into simple

sentence in simple present tense form.

There are several steps in processing the research. First, the students of

the experimental group and control group are given test to measure their

ability in constructing sentences. The test consists of 20 words divided into 10

nouns and 10 verbs. The students should make sentences using the words

given. A correct answer scores 5 points, thus the total score is 100.

Next, the students of the experimental group are given treatment for

three times. They are taught how to make sentences using word association

dominoes game. For the control group, students are taught through explanation

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only without using word association dominoes game. Finally, the experimental

and control groups are given post test. The test is similar to the pretest but

different in the words given.

After the pretest and posttest data are obtained, it is analyzed using t-

test to find out the effect of word association dominoes game on students’

ability to construct sentences. The formula of the t-test is as follow:

M X − MY
t=
 SD X + SDY  1 
  + 1 
 n + n − 2  n 
 x y  x n y 

where:

t : t-test

SDx: Standard deviation of the experimental group

SDy: Standard deviation of the control group

MX : Mean score of the experimental group

My : Mean score of the control group

nx : Number of respondent of the experimental group

ny : Number of respondent of the control group

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CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

A. Research Findings

In collecting the data of the research, the writer gave the pre-test

before the students got the treatments and the post-test after the treatments.

The following table is the results of pre-test and post-test for the experimental

group.

1. The students’ pre-test and post-test results

Table 4.1

The Results of Pre-test and Post-test of Experimental Group

Pre-test Post-test Deviation


N SDx2
X1 X2 Dx
1 45 67 22 484
2 45 60 15 225
3 48 60 12 144
4 58 78 20 400
5 63 80 17 289
6 45 55 10 100
7 63 79 16 256
8 51 62 11 121
9 43 55 12 144
10 40 73 33 1089
11 56 75 19 361
12 52 71 19 361
13 53 70 17 289
14 36 55 19 361
15 55 79 24 576
16 62 77 15 225
17 51 64 13 169
18 52 63 11 121
19 54 75 21 441
20 53 70 17 289
21 26 52 26 676
22 46 72 26 676
23 48 62 14 196

19
24 29 50 21 441
25 57 74 17 289
26 34 66 32 1024
27 38 58 20 400
28 35 53 18 324
29 33 60 27 729
30 56 83 27 729
Total
1427 1998 571 11929
Score

Table 4.1 shows that the total score of the post-test is higher than

the total score of the pre-test in the experimental group. The total score of

the post-test is 1998 and the pretest is 1427.

The following table is the results of the pre-test and post-test of

control group.

Table 4.2

The Results of Pre-test and Post-test of Control Group

Pre-test Post-test Deviation


N SDy2
Y1 Y2 Dy
1 73 80 7 49
2 49 60 11 121
3 28 40 12 144
4 50 55 5 25
5 36 45 9 81
6 39 52 13 169
7 38 60 22 484
8 46 65 19 361
9 38 50 12 144
10 25 46 21 441
11 33 54 21 441
12 31 50 19 361
13 44 62 18 324
14 48 69 21 441
15 38 60 22 484
16 43 68 25 625
17 50 70 20 400
18 41 57 16 256
19 43 53 10 100
20 28 42 14 196

20
21 33 45 12 144
22 45 56 11 121
23 40 59 19 361
24 40 50 10 400
25 61 70 9 81
26 54 67 13 169
27 48 55 7 49
28 51 50 -1 1
29 65 78 13 169
30 55 69 14 196
Total
Score ∑D Y
= 434 ∑D 2
Y = 7338

Table 4.2 shows that the total score of pre-test in control group is

1303 and the score of post-test is 1737. It means that the results of post-

test in control group are higher than the results of pre-test.

2. Mean

After obtaining results of the pre-test and post-test of the

experimental group and control group, the writer calculated the mean to

find out the balance point or average of the experimental group (X) and

control group (Y) as follows:

Mx =
∑D x
M =
∑D y
y
N1 N2

434
=
30

=19 .03 =14 .46

The mean of the experimental group ( ) is 19.03 and the mean of

the control group ( ) 14.46.

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3. Standard Deviation

Having got the mean of the experimental and control group, the

writer calculated the standard deviations of the experimental and control

groups as follows:

(∑ D ) 2
(∑ D ) 2

SD x = ∑ D − SD y = ∑ D −
2 x 2 y
x y
N1 N2

(571) 2 ( 434) 2
= 11929 − = 7338 −
30 30

326041 188356
= 11929 − = 7338 −
30 30

= 11929 −10868 .03 = 7338 − 6278 .53

= 1060 .97 = 1059 .47

The standard deviation of the experimental group (SDx) is 1060.97

and the standard deviation of the control group (SDy) is 1059.47.

4. t-test value

After the writer obtained the mean and the standard deviation of

experimental group and control group, the writer put it in the t-test formula

as follows:

Mx −My
t=
 SD x + SD y  1 
  + 1 
 n + n − 2  n 
 x y  x n y 

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19 .03 − 14 .46
=
 1060 .97 + 1059 .47  1 1 
  + 
 30 + 30 − 2  30 30 

4.57
=
 2120 .44  2 
  
 58  30 

4.57
=
( 36 .55 )( 0.06 )

4.57
=
2.193

4.57
=
1.48

= 3.08

The result of t-test value is 3.08.

5. The value degree of freedom

d. f = nx + n y − 2

= 30 + 30 − 2

= 60 − 2

= 58

The degree of freedom value is 58. It is to show the number of

students who became sample in the research.

B. Discussion

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From the calculation, the writer found that the t-test value is 3.08. He

used the level of significance from t-table as a standard of comparison.

According to Arikunto (2006: 310), “the significant score of this t-table can be

checked in the distribution table at level of significance score of 0.05(5%) and

0.01(1%), which are usually used of education research.” With d.f 58 the

writer found that in t0.05 the value is 1.67 and in the value is 2.39. Since

the writer found that is higher than t-table (3.08>2.39>1.67), the

alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. It

means that there is an effect of word association dominoes game on students’

ability in constructing sentence.

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion

After conducting the research on the effect of using word association

dominoes game on students’ ability to construct sentences, the writer

concludes that word association dominoes game has a good effect on

students’ ability to construct sentences. This conclusion is supported by the

result of the t-test value which is higher than t-table. The result of the t-test is

3.08 and the t-table value with d.f 58 in t0.01 is 2.39 and in t0.05 is 1.67. It means

that the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted. Therefore, word association

dominoes game affects students’ ability to construct sentences.

B. Suggestion

Having done the research, the writer would like to give suggestions for

the students and the teacher. Firstly, the students should enrich their

vocabularies so they will have variations in making sentences. Secondly, the

teacher should give very clear explanation about the rules and steps of doing

the game in order that the students really understand how to play the game.

Next, since word association dominoes game has a good effect on students’

ability to construct sentences, the teacher can apply word association

dominoes game in teaching learning process.

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