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Summarizing

Summaries are shorter versions of a longer piece of writing. They include all the most
important main ideas of the original. A summary includes examples or ideas found in the
original writing without any additional information. It should be brief, so it must either
generalize or eliminate many minor details and examples. It should also be clear. That means
it should not be so general that it is vague or unclear.

Here are the steps you can follow when writing a summary:

1. Read or reread the material you want to summarize.

2. Identify the main controlling idea in the original writing.

3. Identify the main supporting points.

4. Identify key words.

5. Paraphrase key words and the main ideas.

6. Check your sentences against the original writing to make sure you have included
all the main ideas.

7. Check your sentences to make sure you haven't added any new information.

8. Rewrite your sentences using appropriate transitions to link one idea to another.

Follow these steps when summarizing a paragraph:

1. Read the material you want to summarize.

Example

The Successful Language Learner

One of the most important characteristics of successful language learners is their
willingness to make mistakes. Young children learn their first language by trying to
communicate a message rather than by trying to learn grammar rules. Children are not
worried about correctness, they are concerned with the message. The message is more
important than the grammar. In the same way, second language learners must try to
communicate even when they are not certain of the correct forms or words. By using
the language to communicate, their language skills will improve. For example, if
someone else cannot understand what the learner is trying to say, then the learner must

. second language learners must try to communicate even when they are not certain of the correct forms or words. Therefore. Example One of the most important characteristics of successful language learners is their willingness to make mistakes. the more skilled they become in the language. they use the language in order to improve their speaking and writing. 2. Write a summary that repeats or paraphrases key words and the main ideas. the more learners use the language. the learner quickly learns what is correct and what is incorrect. Mistakes become learning opportunities. Identify key words and phrases. 4. the more learners use the language. the more skilled they become in the language. In this way. Young children learn their first language by trying to communicate a message rather than by trying to learn grammar rules. Identify the main supporting points. (This is an example. change the way he or she is using the language. 3. Identify the main controlling idea for the whole writing.) In the same way. Therefore. Mistakes become learning opportunities. Example • successful language learners • willingness to make mistakes • communicate • use the language = become more skilled 5. Successful language learners do not wait until they can speak or write perfectly before they use the language. Examples are not necessary in summaries. Example One of the most important characteristics of successful language learners is their willingness to make mistakes.

these words all have different meanings. nuances. Example Good language learners are willing to make mistakes and use the language in order to communicate.Example Good language learners are willing to make mistakes. 6. they improve their language skills at the same time. Check that there is no new or added information. use the language in order to communicate. and connotations.  Addition  Time  Place  Comparison  Contrast  Cause  Effect  Clarification . Finally. Check that all the main ideas are included. 8. and as a result. 7. use appropriate transitions to link one idea to another. Before using a particular transitional word in your paper. and improve their language skills at the same time. However. Transitional Words and Phrases Transitional words and phrases can create powerful links between ideas in your paper and can help your reader understand the logic of your paper. be sure you understand its meaning and usage completely and be sure that it's the right match for the logic in your paper.

 moreover  in addition  besides  even more   too  also  again  next  further  first  second. lastly  finally.reading book can entertain yourself.  Qualification  Intensification  Purpose  Summary  Conclusion  Demonstratives  Pronouns  Exemplification or Illustration Addition  Furthermore The benefit of book is to enrich your knowledge. secondly  last. etc. Furthermore. .

until now  next  following  once  then  simultaneously  so far  this time Place  here . earlier  always  when  soon  whenever  meanwhile  sometimes  in the meantime  during  afterwards  now.Time  while  immediately  never  after  later.

.g.  there  nearby  beyond  wherever  opposite to  above  below Exemplification or Illustration  to illustrate  to demonstrate  specifically  for instance  as an illustration  e. (for example)  for example  such as Comparison  in the same way  similarly  in like manner Contrast :tetapi/namun  yet  and yet  nevertheless  nonetheless .

(that is)  to clarify  to rephrase it  to put it another way Cause  because  since  for that reason Effect : jadi  therefore  consequently  accordingly  thus .e..  after all  but  however  though  otherwise  on the contrary  in contrast  on the other hand Clarification  that is to say  in other words  to explain  i.

 hence  as a result Purpose : untuk/sehingga  in order that  so that  for this purpose Qualification  almost  nearly  probably  never  always  frequently  perhaps  maybe  although Intensification  indeed  of course  doubtedly  certainly  without doubt  undoubtedly  in fact  surely .

Summary  to summarize  in sum  in brief  to sum up  in short  in summary Conclusion  in conclusion  to conclude  finally Demonstratives acting as transitions  this  those  these  that Pronouns serving as links to clearly refer to a specific word or phrase  his  its  theirs  it  their  your  her .

 they  our Linking words / Transition words Because .

Because of We were bored because of the speech.Because of Effect: Sinta makes a cake because her mother wants it. (incorrect) Despite I still enjoyed the week despite the weather. As a result of I pass the exam as a result of studying hard. I enjoyed my holiday in spite of the bad weather. Contrast: In spite of A. Although However . As a result. (because of + noun) As a result I study hard. I come to the class because you call me. I pass the exam. (because + sentence/clause / S+V) I come to the class because of my homework. I enjoyed my holiday in spite of the weather was bad. (correct) B.

fifth. I will talk the last part. fourth. . Next is Teofilus.. twelfth This is Justen. Riris will tell/present you the first part. tenth. eleventh. The last is Paskalia. seventh. What I wanna do What’s else? What I wanna (want to) do To Too much two three tree plant six. In my opinion. Next to me is edo. He is edo. sick We have divided our presentation into . parts.I think.. And then Lisa will explain the second section. sixth. personally First group Second. ninth. This is Edo. eighth.. third.

I will tell you about. Please welcome Fajri.Information: there will be Q and A session At the end of our presentation. As the first presenter. We come to the next presenter. Your nice homework ^^ 1. Give your friend a job description 3.. The summary is . time is yours.. let me give you a summary.. I will invite Fajri as the first presenter.. Divide your presentation’s main points 2. there will be a question and answer session.. Fajri.. Practice (use the expressions and explain your material for presentation) at least 10 times individually . Please give applause for Fajri. Sounds good? Start your presentation: Okay. Giving summary: Okay.. Let’s start the presentation. We have five points today.

I’m from third group. 2. Do you agree with me? (A) I (disagree) agree with you because . Pertanyaan yang semua audience mungkin mengetahui jawabannya. 4.. ? (Q) What is your opinion about durian? I think.. 3 the effects of technology in education(Imran) Job des: Sandi : membuka presentasi Teo : moderator tanya jawab Imran : menutup presentasi Sesi tanya jawab: My name is Antonius.. 1.. Practice in front of your group members 5.... durian is not good for health.. ... 2 kinds of technology in education (Teo).. Asking presenter’s opinion (Q) What is your opinion about .. Get and give feedback for your friends (comment : suggestion dan appreciation) Report: Comments for Eko from Sari: (bhs Indo) Main points : 1 The meaning of technology in education (sandi)........

Wait a second Wait a minute We need one minute to discuss the answer. please? Jika ada teman yg ingin menambahkan jawaban/informasi: Do you have additional/another information? You can raise your hand. Bertanya apakah jawaban sudah pas/baik: Does my (his/her) answer (that). Louder please. Is that alright? Giving audience a chance to help presenters answer a question: Any body knows the answer? Please.. (you can) raise your hand. Could you repeat your question/answer.Personally = I think = in my opinion ..... 3.. Please let us discuss the answer first. answer your question? . What does it mean? Please clarify the statement. Clarify a statement (Q) Could you give me more detail about your statement? Your statement is “The best durian in Indonesia is from West Kalimantan”. Thanks for your question.. (A) I mean .

According to expert in education . Ok. any question? My experience says ...