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April 2008

Plasma Arc Cutting

Critical Evaluation of Pipe Welds
Friction Stir Welding Spherical Parts
Bonus: The American Welder
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CONTENTS April 2008 Volume 87 Number 4 AWS Web site

30 Features
30 Electrode Life: A Measure of System Performance in
Plasma Cutting
Washington Watchword ..........4
Press Time News ................6
Reasons for electrode erosion and ways to prevent
it are discussed Editorial ............................8
N. Hussary and T. Renault News of the Industry ............10
34 Pipeline Weld Discontinuities Too Small to Matter Brazing Q&A ......................20
The use of Engineering Critical Assessment on pipeline
welds can help reduce costs and delays in large pipe
Aluminum Q&A ..................22
construction projects New Products ....................24
K. Y. Lee
Coming Events....................48
36 Plasma Cutting Systems Combine Versatility with Efficiency Society News ....................53
The plasma process offers manufacturers multiple
options in metal fabrication Tech Topics ......................54
R. Madden Errata A5.22 ..................55

40 Friction Stir Welding of Thick-Walled Aluminum Pressure Guide to AWS Services..........73
New Literature....................76
The challenges of friction stir welding circumferential
parts were met head on and resolved Personnel ........................80
E. Dalder et al.
American Welder
Behind the Mask ............94
The American Welder Learning Track................96

36 88 Addressing the Welder Shortage: Lessons from Alberta

Natural-resource-rich Alberta, Canada, is investing
heavily in welding facilities and recruiting to meet the
growing demand for skilled welders
Fact Sheet ....................98
Classifieds ......................111
Advertiser Index ................114
M. Langier and S. MACKay

100 Welding Instruction

More than 50 welding schools offer a glimpse at their
programs and services

Welding Research Supplement

85-s Measurement and Analysis of Three-Dimensional
Specular Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Pool Surface
A method of rebuilding a 3-D weld pool surface off-line was
Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published
devised and verified monthly by the American Welding Society for

H. S. Song and Y. M. Zhang $120.00 per year in the United States and posses-
sions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
96-s Predicting Resistance Spot Weld Failure Modes in per single issue for domestic AWS members and
Shear Tension Tests of Advanced High-Strength $10.00 per single issue for nonmembers and
$14.00 single issue for international. American
Automotive Steels Welding Society is located at 550 NW LeJeune Rd.,
Experiments indicate that the mode of failure should not be the Miami, FL 33126-5671; telephone (305) 443-9353.
only judge of spot weld quality in advanced high-strength steels Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and addi-
D. J. Radakovic and M. Tumuluru tional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address
changes to Welding Journal, 550 NW LeJeune Rd.,
Miami, FL 33126-5671. Canada Post: Publications
106-s Characterization of Welding Fume from SMAW Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be
Electrodes Part I sent to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box 25542, Lon-
Fume particles and generation rates were characterized as don, ON N6C 6B2
a function of size for three different covered electrodes
Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of
J. W. Sowards et al. articles for personal, archival, educational or re-
search purposes, and which are not for sale or re-
On the cover: An apprentice at Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, sale. Permission is granted to quote from articles,
Calgary, Canada, practices gas tungsten arc welding on stainless steel. (Photo provided customary acknowledgment of authors
courtesy of Miller Electric Mfg. Co., Appleton, Wis.) and sources is made. Starred (*) items excluded
from copyright.

Washington Watchword April 2008:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:27 PM Page 4



Enforcement Procedures for Hexavalent Federal Regulations Recommended for

Chromium Standards Review
The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration Small business owners and representatives have nominated
(OSHA) has issued a new compliance directive for occupational more than 80 federal regulations for review and reform in re-
exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) that provides guid- sponse to the U.S. Small Business Administrations (SBA) Of-
ance for enforcement of the final rule on hexavalent chromium fice of Advocacys Regulatory Review and Reform (r3) initiative.
standards. The directive, OSHA Instruction CPL 02-02-074, In- The r3 program is designed to identify and address existing fed-
spection Procedures for the Chromium (VI) Standards, became ef- eral regulations that should be revised because they are ineffec-
fective Jan. 24, 2008. The Cr(VI) standards were originally pub- tive, duplicative, or out of date. It is a tool for small business
lished in the Feb. 28, 2006, Federal Register. stakeholders to suggest needed reforms. The program includes
The Cr(VI) standards, which lower the permissible exposure the process under Section 610 of the Regulatory Flexibility Act
limit for hexavalent chromium to 5 micrograms of Cr(VI) per for agencies to consider whether their current regulations are
cubic meter of air as an 8-h time-weighted average, are applica- still needed, and the degree to which technology, economic con-
ble to general industry, construction, and shipyards (Sections 29 ditions, or other factors have changed since their rules were first
CFR 1910.1026, 29 CFR 1926.1126, and 29 CFR 1915.1026, re- promulgated. Also, it includes a process by which interested stake-
spectively). Highlights of the new Cr(VI) directive include pro- holders can nominate existing regulations for reform, and moni-
cedures for reviewing an employers air sampling records to de- tor the progress that agencies make toward achieving those
termine exposure levels; guidance on how employers can imple- reforms.
ment effective engineering and work practice controls to reduce The SBA will transmit the Top 10 list to agencies in the spring
and maintain exposure below approved permissible exposure lim- and will work to ensure that the listed rules will be reviewed and
its; requirements for employers to provide hygiene areas to min- reformed. In order to track agency progress, the recommended
imize employees exposure to Cr(VI); guidelines requiring em- reforms will be posted on the SBAs Web site and an update on
ployers to maintain exposure and medical surveillance records; the status of reforms will be published twice a year. SBA will ac-
and a requirement that Compliance Safety and Health Officers cept r3 nominations for 2009 from now until Dec. 31.
(CSHOs) evaluate portland cement wherever it is being used.
The standards became effective May 30, 2006. Employers with
20 or more employees were given six months from the effective Paperwork Burden Unfairly Falls on Small
date to comply with most of the provisions. Employers with fewer
than 20 employees were allowed 12 months from the effective Business
date to come into compliance with most of the provisions. All
employers were given four years from the effective date to install Recent hearings before the U.S. House Committee on Small
feasible engineering controls. Business concluded that the requirements of the federal Paper-
work Reduction Act fall disproportionately on small businesses.
In 2007, the Federal Register grew to 70,000 pages, roughly the
equivalent of 39 New York City phone books. The committee es-
Stimulus Legislation Benefits Businesses timates that the federal regulatory burden translates into approx-
imately $8000 per employee in annual costs.
The Economic Stimulus Act of 2008, signed into law in early The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 was signed into law to
February, has two provisions that may be beneficial to businesses. clarify government communications while easing related burdens
First, the legislation gives companies a 50% bonus deduction on on U.S. business. The law established the Office of Information
new equipment that would normally be depreciated over many and Regulatory Affairs at the Office of Management and Budget,
years, and, second, the law increases to $250,000 from $128,000 and charged the Small Business Administration with mitigating
in 2008 the limit on expenses that small businesses can deduct the impact of federal information requests. Despite this, small
from annual income, with a total cap of $800,000. firms now spend 15% more time on paperwork than they did just
Companies that purchase less than $800,000 of capital assets three years ago.
in a year now can expense (i.e., deduct currently) the first $250,000
of capital investment, effective for purchases made in 2008 (the
prior limits for 2008 were $128,000 and $510,000, respectively).
The new law also includes a new 50% expensing allowance Workplace Injury and Illness Rates at
(also known as bonus or accelerated depreciation) that generally Record Lows
applies to capital equipment purchased and placed in service dur-
ing 2008. This incentive is available to all companies, regardless The U.S. Department of Labor reports continued declines in
of the size of their investment. serious workplace injuries and illnesses. The rates for calendar
Under this provision, companies are eligible for a bonus year 2006 were the lowest ever reported. In calendar year 2005,
first-year depreciation totaling 50% of the cost of the investment the rate of fatal work injuries was 4.0 fatalities per 100,000 em-
and can depreciate the remaining basis of the asset under the ployees. In calendar year 2006, the rate of fatal work injuries was
regular depreciation rules. Smaller companies get even more of 3.9 fatalities per 100,000 employees. This decreased rate is the
a bonus. As described above, they can first take advantage of all-time low achieved since the Bureau of Labor Statistics insti-
expensing and then also use the 50% expensing allowance. tuted its Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries in 1992.

Contact the AWS Washington Government Affairs Office at

1747 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006; e-mail; FAX (202) 835-0243.

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Publisher Andrew Cullison
AWS Names World Engineering Xchange as
International Auditor Editorial
Editor/Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
The American Welding Society (AWS), Miami, Fla., recently announced World En- Senior Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
gineering Xchange, Ltd. (WEX), has been engaged as the Societys international audit- Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward
ing agency, effective immediately. Assistant Editor Kristin Campbell
WEX will be responsible for auditing AWS certification seminars and exams that Peer Review Coordinator Erin Adams
take place outside of the United States. Additionally, the company will assist AWSs in-
ternational certification agencies with the development of strategies to improve and Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
promote AWS interests within the international market.
Graphics and Production
We have enjoyed a successful relationship with WEX since it became our fulfill-
Managing Editor Zaida Chavez
ment partner for AWS codes, standards, and other publications, said Cassie Burrell,
Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
AWS deputy executive director. WEXs focus on quality, dependable service, first-class
reputation, and knowledge of our industry make them particularly well suited to take an Advertising
additional role as AWSs international auditor. We look forward to working with WEX National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein
in all phases of its auditing activities as we continue to expand and enhance our interna- Advertising Sales Representative Lea Garrigan Badwy
tional certification base. Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson
WEX will conduct ongoing quality control and technical compliance analyses of all
AWS international agencies. Also, it will help to maintain open communication streams Subscriptions
between AWS and its international agencies while ensuring that AWS best practices and
procedures are followed.
American Welding Society
550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126
Westinghouse Subsidiary Wins Machining and (305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353
Welding Services Contract
Westinghouse Electric Co. subsidiary WEC Welding and Machining has won a major Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee
contract from CalEnergy, Calipatria, Calif., a large geothermal power producer, to com- D. L. Doench, Chair
plete the 2507 Superduplex Pipe Replacement Project. Its Carolina Energy Solutions Hobart Brothers Co.
(CES) will provide all machining and welding services for the assignment. T. A. Barry, Vice Chair
Specifically, CES will provide orbital welding of 2507 superduplex stainless steel uti- Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
J. D. Weber, Secretary
lizing 686CPT Inconel filler material for the replacement of the customers existing
American Welding Society
carbon steel pipeline. The 14,000-ft-long pipeline will require more than 600 welds. The
R. L. Arn, WELDtech International
project will last approximately four months. S. Bartholomew, ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
CES met the stringent weld properties established by CalEnergy for this project by J. Deckrow, Hypertherm
repetitively producing 100% flawless welds. J. Dillhoff, OKI Bering
J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co.
Kobe Steel to Establish Welding Company in China J. Horvath, Thermadyne Industries
D. Levin, Airgas
Kobe Steel, Ltd., plans to establish a company to produce welding materials in Qing- J. Mueller, Thermadyne Industries
R. G. Pali, J. P. Nissen Co.
dao, Shangdong Province, China. It will make flux cored welding wire for welding car-
J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
bon steel used in shipbuilding. S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products
The joint venture, called Kobe Welding of Qingdao Co., Ltd., will be formed this D. Wilson, Wilson Industries
month. Production is scheduled to begin in April 2009. The plant will have a capacity of J. C. Bruskotter, Ex Off., Bruskotter Consulting Services
1000 metric tons per month. H. Castner, Ex Off., Edison Welding Institute
The new company will employ about 90 people and be capitalized at about $29 L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrup Grumman Ship Systems
million. G. E. Lawson, Ex Off., ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
E. C. Lipphardt, Ex Off., Consultant
Alcoa Completes Modernization Project in Hungary S. Liu, Ex Off., Colorado School of Mines
C. Martin, Ex Off., Phoenix International
E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
Alcoa has completed a $83 million modernization investment project at Alcoa-Kfm, R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
its operations in Szkesfehrvr, Hungary. The project began in November 2005.
The core of the investment is the modernization of Alcoa European Mill Products,
involving expanding brazing sheet capability to offer a full range of gauges.
Copyright 2008 by American Welding Society in both printed and elec-

Lincoln Electric Forms Agreement with Petty Enterprises

tronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or
opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors
of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not in-
tended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the
The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio, recently formed a team-supplier agree- part of potential users.
ment with Petty Enterprises, a two-car team with Kyle Petty driving the #45 Marathon
Dodge and Bobby Labonte driving the #43 Cheerios/Betty Crocker Dodge.
Lincoln is supplying the team with a full range of welding and cutting equipment, tech-
nical training, and welding application support. The program will also help ensure the team
maintains a high standard of safety, weld integrity, and performance both on the track and
in the shop. MEMBER

6 APRIL 2008
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Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science,
Technology and Application of Welding

The Hands-on Experience: Is Officers

President Gene E. Lawson

It Losing Its Touch?

ESAB Welding & Cutting Products

Vice President Victor Y. Matthews

The Lincoln Electric Co.
There was once a vision that we would become a paperless society. That template
never quite materialized, but we have moved a lot closer to its fulfillment with many busi- Vice President John C. Bruskotter
ness and consumer transactions taking place electronically without a piece of paper in Bruskotter Consulting Services, LLC
sight. The question that now looms is will we become a printless society? Will there be
a time when a printed periodical is as obsolete as atomic hydrogen welding? Will there Vice President John L. Mendoza
be a time when picking up the Welding Journal, flipping through its pages and resting CPS Energy
comfortably to read what interests you will be as archaic as a 1000-lb welding machine?
Treasurer Earl C. Lipphardt
Four years ago, I would have said, Youre crazy. Three years ago it was Never.
Two years ago Im thinking, Could it really happen? Today, I see where reading publi-
cations online is a foregone conclusion. Im still old school enough to think that the tac- Executive Director Ray W. Shook
tile hands-on experience still has appeal when it comes to reading the Welding Journal. American Welding Society
Picking it up, sensing something of substance in your hands, feeling the texture of the
page and hearing it rustle as its turned, carrying the whole of it to wherever you want,
all have an allure that is not quite dead. But, then again, I also think, Am I kidding Directors
myself? B. P. Albrecht (At Large), Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
For someone who has used a slide rule and has had a large chunk of his life unadul-
O. Al-Erhayem (At Large), JOM
terated by personal computers, I may not be the best in gauging what a generation that
has never been without the Internet might want. There is an age group that is used to A. J. Badeaux Sr. (Dist. 3), Charles Cty. Career & Tech. Center
getting all its information from the Web, and who see anything not accessible electroni- J. R. Bray (Dist. 18), Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
cally as old generation, and to be avoided. Text messaging, blogs, podcasts, webinars, H. R. Castner (At Large), Edison Welding Institute
vlog, YouTube, all have become a common means of obtaining information in our evolv-
N. A. Chapman (Dist. 6), Entergy Nuclear Northeast
ing society. The pace of information access and the technology to deliver it are moving
at mach speed. So it might not be so unbelievable that one day all periodicals will be read J. D. Compton (Dist. 21), College of the Canyons
online and that printing will be obsolete. G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Gonzalez Industrial X-Ray
Today, now, this minute, I still think a print publication is desirable and will be around D. A. Flood (Dist. 22), Tri Tool, Inc.
for many years, but I am not ignorant of the multiple advantages a digital version of the
Welding Journal offers. For one, it is immediate no waiting for delivery, no uncertain- M. V. Harris (Dist. 15), Reynolds Welding Supply
ty of its availability. The digital page offers instant links to related information, is search- R. A. Harris (Dist. 10), Consultant
able, archiveable, incorporates animation and video, and the list goes on and on. D. C. Howard (Dist. 7), Concurrent Technologies Corp.
That is why I am investigating new ways to offer the Welding Journal in digital form J. Jones (Dist. 17), Thermadyne
with all the unique features it affords. One of the core competencies of the American
Welding Society is the dissemination of information and knowledge, and my goal is to do W. A. Komlos (Dist. 20), ArcTech LLC
that with the Welding Journal in the most efficient way possible. The present printed D. J. Kotecki (Past President), The Lincoln Electric Co.
Welding Journal will remain the stalwart member benefit, but the future is a multimedia D. Landon (Dist. 16), Vermeer Mfg. Co.
platform of presentation.
R. C. Lanier (Dist. 4), Pitt C.C.
Excuse me now while I find a nice cozy corner and a
comfortable chair to sit down in and read my BlackBerry. J. Livesay (Dist. 8), Tennessee Technology Center
D. L. McQuaid (At Large), DL McQuaid & Associates
S. Mattson (Dist. 5), Mattson Repair Service
S. P. Moran (Dist. 12), Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
R. L. Norris (Dist. 1), Merriam Graves Corp.
T. C. Parker (Dist. 14), Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
W. R. Polanin (Dist. 13), Illinois Central College
W. A. Rice (At Large), OKI Bering, Inc.
Andrew Cullison N. S. Shannon (Dist. 19), Carlson Testing of Portland
Publisher, Welding Journal E. Siradakis (Dist. 11), Airgas Great Lakes
K. R. Stockton (Dist. 2), PSE&G, Maplewood Testing Serv.
G. D. Uttrachi (Past President), WA Technology, LLC
D. R. Wilson (At Large), Wilson Industries

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Mobile Welding Center Provides Onsite Training in Northern New England

The Mobile Weld Training Center (MWTC), created by the New quency and pulse. Arc gouging, oxyfuel, and plasma have also
England School of Metalwork (NESM), can be delivered to a train- been taught in the MWTC, said Warren Swan, welding direc-
ing site and be ready for instruction in ten minutes. In operation tor, NESM. In addition, the booths can be removed to demon-
since October 2007, the center currently services northern New strate a large piece of welding or cutting equipment. The 82-
England (Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts), but the kW generator that sits in the front of the trailer provides all of
school is hopeful it may be able to expand into more areas. the power we need for any of these applications.
The school established the center because it wanted to in- The eight-booth self-contained unit is outfitted with up-to-
crease the availability of weld training to its clients and intro- date equipment. It further features a welding fume extraction
duce welding to high school and nontraditional students think- system; heat and air conditioning; and a classroom. It also of-
ing of different career choices. Also, the NESM can promote fers customized weld, safety, and gas apparatus training; welder
qualification; and welding procedure specifications developed
in accordance to specific code.
Approximately 350 individuals have utilized the center since
it opened. So far, a large percentage has been high school stu-
dents participating in career days, women exploring the welding
trade as an occupation, or individuals attending trade shows pro-
moting the welding field. The remaining percentage have been

Instruction in various welding processes is offered at the New

England School of Metalworks Mobile Weld Training Center.
This facility allows a company to train its employees at its facil-
ity, and schools as well as vocational programs can also benefit
from the services available.

employees of companies requesting training for a specific process

or application. This instruction has ranged from a two-day semi-
Top, Mobile Weld Training Center instructor Ron Guimond nar in gas tungsten arc welding to an intensive two-week pro-
watches as student Bob Smith runs a bead. Bottom, student Mike gram designed for a local contractor that needed to increase the
Covert uses the gas metal arc welding process to practice in the skills of its employees in welding open root pipe.
center. The ages represented by students of the center follow what
the school has seen at its Auburn, Maine, and Hooksett, N.H.,
welding by visiting schools with the center and giving hands-on locations. Area schools are sending students during career days
demonstrations to students during career days. ranging from 14 to 19 years old, and employees sent by compa-
We have built a tremendous amount of flexibility into the nies for training can be anywhere from 20 to 60 plus years old.
MWTC. Our basic training includes shielded metal arc weld- The school is extremely pleased with the all of the positive
ing, gas metal arc welding, flux cored arc welding, and gas tung- comments from people who have spent time with us training in
sten arc welding on a variety of materials. By switching power the MWTC, added Swan. For more information, contact Swan
sources, instruction can incorporate such features as high fre- at

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Weldmex Attracts a Crowd

At the recent Weldmex show in Mexico City, the American Welding

Societys publications booth received many visitors.

Weldmex, the only exhibition in Latin America devoted to-

tally to welding, is growing in popularity if the most recent show
held in Mexico City Jan. 2931 is any indication. Net exhibit space
increased by 5000 sq ft from the 2007 show to a record 22,000 sq
ft in 2008. The 6100 attendees who visited the 240 exhibitors were
the highest number in the shows five-year history.
American Welding Society (AWS) President Gene Lawson
and Vice President John Mendoza attended the event. Lawson
took part in the opening ceremony welcoming the attendees.

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The American Welding Society purchased controlling inter-

est in the show prior to the 2008 exhibition, and the Society will
be marketing it and selling exhibit space. Trade Show Consult-
ants, the Societys partner, will manage the show for the next five
years. The Society and its publications fulfillment partner WEX
Ltd. both had booths at the show, and there was strong interest
in AWS publications, membership, and certification products.
The next Weldmex is scheduled for June 24, 2009, in Mon-
terrey, Mexico.

Robotic Hybrid Laser-Gas Metal

Arc Pipe Welding Demonstrated
At the recent meeting of the National Shipbuilding Research
Programs SP-7 Welding Technologies Panel, held at General Dy-
namics (GD) NASSCO Shipyard in San Diego, Calif., a robotic
hybrid laser-gas metal arc (GMA) pipe welding system was
demonstrated. This capped an effort funded by the Office of General Dynamics NASSCO welders prepare to weld a joint using
Naval Research through the Center for Naval Shipbuilding Tech- a hybrid welding system.
nology to develop the technology. The project team consisted of
the Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State Univer- jected to a seven-month evaluation on the production floor. Nu-
sity; GD NASSCO; and Wolf Robotics. merous production pipe spools were manufactured using the sys-
It was the first qualification of hybrid laser-GMA welding by tem as well.
the American Bureau of Shipping in the United States; first
demonstration of hybrid welding in a U.S. shipyard; first produc-
tion components hybrid welded in a U.S. shipyard; and first hy-
brid welded components installed on a U.S. ship. AWS Calls for Nominations for Sixth
The hybrid process was developed for this application and Annual Image of Welding Awards
qualified by the American Bureau of Shipping for a wide range
of pipe schedules in this project. A system to realize this applica- The American Welding Society (AWS), Miami, Fla., and the
tion was specified, designed, built, and implemented, and sub- Welding Equipment Manufacturers Committee (WEMCO) seek

For info go to

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nominations for the Sixth Annual Image of Welding Awards. The

winners will be announced at the Image of Welding Awards Cer-
emony to be held during the FABTECH International & AWS
Welding Show Oct. 68 at the Las Vegas Convention Center in
Las Vegas, Nev.
The awards categories are as follows: Individual; Section
(AWS local Section); Large Business (200 or more employees);
Small Business (less than 200 employees); Distributor (welding
products); Educator; and Educational Facility. All individuals,
organizations, and groups may be nominated for multiple
WEMCO will judge the nominations. Deadline for submis-
sions is June 15. To nominate an individual, group, or organiza-
tion for an award, send a written description of the nominees
qualifications and contact information, along with your name,
phone number, e-mail, and mailing address, to Adrienne Zalkind
at, or mail to AWS Image of Welding Awards,
550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126.

Welding Metallurgy Subsidiary of

Air Industries Wins Contracts
Air Industries Group, Inc., Bay Shore, N.Y., recently an-
nounced its Welding Metallurgy subsidiary has won $1.07 mil-
lion of new contracts during January.
A majority of the contracts in terms of value was received
from the Boeing Co.s Helicopter division for welding assem-
blies on the CH-47 Chinook, a multimission, heavy-lift transport
The other development based on the contracts awarded is the
first purchase order from Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., a subsidiary
of United Technologies Corp. The company received a quality
supplier approval.

GraviKor Announces Partnership to

Commercialize Military Vehicle
Spaceframe Technology
GraviKor, Inc., Madison Heights, Mich., recently announced
a development and licensing agreement with southeastern Michi-
gan-based SpaceForm, Inc., to commercialize advanced vehicle
spaceframe technology for security and military markets. The
multiyear agreement involves an exclusive field of use license for
military vehicles to GraviKor for SpaceForms patented defor-
mation resistance welding technology.
During the early product validation stages, the companies will
collaborate through SpaceForms Detroit-based design studio
with engineering and testing occurring at GraviKor locations in
Madison Heights and Columbus, Ohio.

Fleming College to Develop Welding

Techniques Program
Fleming College, Peterborough, Ont., Canada, will offer a
new two-semester Welding Techniques program beginning in
September. This will provide graduates with the skills needed to
obtain well-paying jobs in the welding trade.
Students will learn many welding processes and gain exten-
sive hands-on experience on shielded metal arc, gas metal arc,
flux cored arc, and gas tungsten arc welding. Also, basic blue-
print reading, trade math, weld symbols, metallurgy, oxyfuel, and
plasma cutting will be introduced.

For info go to

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Gathered in one place at one time:
Tony Anderson, ESAB Welding &
The best and the brightest minds
Cutting Products in aluminum welding
Peter Pollak, The Aluminum
Association, Inc.
Welding Aluminum 2008
METALLURGY Tony Anderson,
The 11th AWS/AA
ESAB Welding & Cutting
Products Aluminum Welding Conference
ALUMINUM WELDING April 15-16, 2008
William Christy, Novelis Inc.
Tony Anderson, ESAB Welding &
Mark Burke, Indalco
ALUMINUM William Christy,
Novelis Inc.
AND CURES Kyle Williams,
Alcoa Technical Center
Tony Anderson, ESAB Welding &
Cutting Products
Williams, Alcoa Technical Center
Jay Ginder, ESAB Welding &
Cutting Products
William Christy, Novelis Inc.
Ginder, ESAB Welding & Cutting
Products Aluminum lends itself to
OVERVIEW OF SOLID STATE a wide variety of industrial applications, but because
ALUMINUM Kyle Williams, its chemical and physical properties set it apart from other
Alcoa Technical Center metals, welding of aluminum requires special processes, techniques,
FRICTION STIR WELDING: and expertise. At this conference, a distinguished panel of aluminum-industry
experts will survey the state of the art in aluminum welding technology and practice.
Leanna M. Micona, The Boeing
Sponsored by
ALUMINUM Don Butler, High
Energy Metals
For more information, please call and
1-800-443-9353, ext. 455, or visit us
online at
2008 American Welding Society
ESAB 2:FP_TEMP 3/7/08 7:35 AM Page 15

For Info go to

Letter counselor:Layout 1 3/7/08 8:23 AM Page 16

Friends and Colleagues:

The American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize

individual members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has
enhanced the image and impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be
based on an individuals career of outstanding accomplishment.

To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her

leadership in the welding industry by one or more of the following:

Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution

to the welding industry. The individuals organization shall have shown an ongoing
commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees in
industry activities.

Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution

to training and vocational education in the welding industry. The individuals organization
shall have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of
participation of its employee in industry activities.

For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at
AWS headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Counselor
nomination form in this issue of the Welding Journal. The deadline for submission is
July 1, 2008. The committee looks forward to receiving these nominations for 2009


Alfred F. Fleury
Chair, Counselor Selection Committee
KOIKE:FP_TEMP 3/5/08 1:56 PM Page 19

For Info go to

Brazing Q+A April:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:49 PM Page 20

Q: With the price of gold now above $900 for determining the degree of full diffu- less steels. It should also be pointed out
per troy ounce, we are looking for a less- sion of various clearances (gaps) is the ta- that BNi-6, which contains no chromium,
expensive brazing filler metal as a re- pered-joint-test specimen. This specimen has been used successfully to braze carbon
placement. We are testing BNi-7, and should be made of the base metal to be steels in 80F (26.8C) dew point exother-
would like to learn the physical properties used in the final brazed assembly so the mic atmosphere in continuous furnaces.
of this material: tensile strength, yield diffusion rate with desired brazing filler This is a brazing process that can be tai-
point, ductility, coefficient of expansion metal will represent the production lored to survive many engineering service
vs. temperature, etc. brazed assembly. requirements.
Two strips of metal, approximately For additional information on diffu-
A: The physical properties of the brazing 0.5 0.01 23 in. long (12.7 0.254 sion brazing, get a copy of the new and im-
filler metal prior to brazing are not rele- 50.876.2 mm), are assembled as follows. proved AWS Brazing Handbook, 5th edi-
vant since the brazing filler metal, as such, The two 0.5-in. (12.7-mm) surfaces are tion, revised by the AWS C3 Committee
is not the same material found in the joint placed side by side then tack welded at one on Brazing and Soldering. Chapter 17 dis-
after the diffusion brazing process. end with zero joint clearance, then the op- cusses diffusion brazing. One of the more
It should be remembered when brazing posite ends are tack welded together with interesting sections is on diffusion brazing
with pure-gold brazing filler metal that a clearance of 0.006 in. (0.162 mm) stan- of machined, press-fit BNi-7 joints brazed
gold is approximately twice as heavy as dard. Larger end-joint clearances may be at 1950F (1066C). A microphotograph
nickel, and therefore, twice as much gold used if additional investigation is desired. of the completed joints indicates that ap-
brazing filler metal, by weight, as nickel After brazing, the variable clearance proximately 50% of the joint is solid base
filler metal, will be needed to fill the same specimen is cut and polished for metallo- metal and the remaining small pools of
joint. graphic inspection. Normally, the zero- brazing filler metal are of a new composi-
To produce high-strength nickel- clearance joint end will be a single-phase tion of interdiffusion. This again shows
brazed joints, it is necessary to employ the amorphous structure. When moving along that the original physical properties of the
diffusion brazing process. This process re- the tapered specimen, the single-phase brazing filler metal are not usable.
quires holding the brazed assemblies at a amorphous structure will continue until It is important to require testing of the
suitably high brazing temperature, which the maximum full-diffusion (MBC) point new joint, to ensure that the brazing
allows interdiffusion of the base metal and is reached. This is the point at which the process variables are suitable for the in-
brazing filler metal to take place. With single-phase amorphous diffusion is com- tended service requirements.
BNi-7, I recommend 1950F (1066C) as plete, and above the center phase where An interesting paper on the subject is
the standard brazing and diffusion tem- some of the harder original brazing filler High-Temperature Brazing of Stainless
perature for 60 minutes at heat. metal starts to appear. Continuing farther Steels with Nickel-Base Filler Metals BNi-
The diffusion temperature can be de- up the wider clearance, more of the center 2, BNi-5, and BNi-7, published in the
creased or increased as desired. When the phase is apparent. Welding Journal, June 1983, p. 164-s. Its
brazing temperature is decreased, the To increase the clearance at the MBC authors, Erich Lugscheider and K-D
time held at the brazing/diffusion temper- point, it will be necessary to revise the Partz, University of Aachen, Germany,
ature must be increased to produce the brazing cycle to allow for more diffusion made good use of the tapered-joint test
same results. When the brazing tempera- time. specimen to obtain diffusion brazing data.
ture is increased, the time held at the braz- Is diffusion brazing always a require- Any comments and suggestions will be
ing/diffusion temperature can be de- ment? It is definitely not necessary in appreciated.
creased to produce the same results. many cases, and some Japanese brazing
With normal machining and fabricat- shops have demonstrated this over and
ing processes, the joint clearance (gap) over again while using vacuum and con- R. L. PEASLEE is vice president emeritus, Wall
can vary considerably. A very useful tool tinuous belt furnaces that can braze stain- Colmonoy Corp., Madison Heights, Mich.
Readers may send questions to Mr. Peaslee
c/o Welding Journal, 550 NW LeJeune
Rd., Miami, FL 33126 or via e-mail to

Bend Testers - Bend Specimen Cutting

Fixtures - Coupons -Tensile Testers
Visit our website
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Make sure delivery of your Welding
Journal is not interrupted. Contact the
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BT1C ! (937)754-1750
9353, ext. 217;
For info go to

20 APRIL 2008
THERMADYNE:FP_TEMP 3/5/08 2:00 PM Page 21

For Info go to

Aluminum Q and A April 2008:Layout 1 3/6/08 11:25 AM Page 22

Q: I have heard the terms an- son that an anodized part can take
odized and hardcoat anodized on color in the dyeing process).
used to describe the surface condi- The film thickness can range
tion on aluminum. What exactly is from under five microns on bright
this type of coating, and can you decorative work up to 150 microns
weld aluminum when it has this for architectural applications.
type of coating on it?
Different Types of Anodizing
A: An oxide film can be grown on
certain metals such as aluminum, Type I Chromic Acid Anodizing
niobium, tantalum, titanium, tung-
sten, and zirconium by an electro- The oldest anodizing process
chemical process called anodizing. uses chromic acid. It is widely
For each of these metals there are known as Type I because it is so des-
process conditions that promote ignated by the MIL-A-8625 stan-
growth of a thin, dense barrier oxide dard, but it is also covered by AMS
of uniform thickness. The thickness 2470 and MIL-A-8625 Type IB.
of this layer and its properties vary Chromic acid produces thinner
greatly depending on the metal. Fig. 1 Anodized aluminum rings being removed from a (0.00002 to 0.0007 in. or 0.5 to 18
Aluminum is unique among these processing tank. Photograph courtesy of the Aluminum microns), more opaque films that
metals in that, in addition to the thin Anodizing Council (AAC). are softer, ductile, and to a degree
barrier oxide, anodizing aluminum self-healing. They are harder to dye
alloys in certain acidic electrolytes and may be applied as a pretreat-
produces a thick oxide coating, con- ment before painting. The method
taining a high density of microscopic anodization: Type I (Chromic Acid An- of film formation is different from
pores. This coating has diverse and im- odization), Type II (Sulfuric Acid An- using sulfuric acid in that the voltage is
portant applications including architec- odization), and Type III (Sulfuric Acid ramped up through the process cycle.
tural finishes and prevention of corrosion. Hardcoat Anodization).
When exposed to the atmosphere, alu- Type II Sulfuric Acid Anodizing
minum naturally forms a passive oxide How Is It Performed?
layer that provides moderate protection Sulfuric acid is the most widely used
against corrosion. In its pure form alu- Before anodizing, wrought aluminum solution to produce anodized coatings.
minum self-passivates very effectively; is cleaned in either a hot soak cleaner or Coatings of moderate thickness (0.00007
however, aluminum that is alloyed with in a solvent bath and may be etched in to 0.001 in. or 1.8 to 25 microns) are
other elements is more prone to atmos- sodium hydroxide (normally with added known as Type II.
pheric corrosion and can therefore bene- sodium gluconate), ammonium bifluo- Standards for thin sulfuric acid anodiz-
fit from the protective quality of anodiz- ride, or brightened in a mix of acids. In ing are given by MIL-A-8625 Types II and
ing. Aluminum alloy parts are anodized aluminum anodization, this aluminum IIB, AMS 2471 (undyed), and AMS 2472
to increase the thickness of the oxide layer oxide layer is made thicker by passing a (dyed).
in order to improve corrosion resistance, direct current through an acid solution,
improve abrasion resistance, and/or allow with the aluminum object serving as the Type III Hardcoat Anodizing
for dyeing of colors Fig. 1. anode (the positive electrode).
The current releases hydrogen at the Also produced by using sulfuric acid
What Is Anodizing? cathode (the negative electrode) and oxy- anodizing, these coatings are thicker than
gen at the surface of the aluminum anode, 0.001 in. and are known as Type III, hard-
Anodizing is a process that produces creating a buildup of aluminum oxide. An- coat, or engineered anodizing. Thick coat-
an oxide film or coating on metals and al- odizing at 12 V DC, a piece of aluminum ings require more process control and are
loys by electrolysis. The metal to be with an area of one square decimeter produced in a refrigerated tank near the
treated is made the anode in an elec- (about 15.5 in.2) can consume roughly 1 freezing point of water with higher volt-
trolytic cell, and its surface is electro- A of current. In commercial applications, ages than the thinner coatings. Hardcoat
chemically oxidized. Anodization can im- the voltage used is more normally in the anodizing can be made between 25 and
prove certain surface properties, such as region of 15 to 21 V. 150 microns or 0.001 to 0.006 in. thick.
corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, Conditions such as acid concentration, The increased anodizing thickness in-
hardness, and appearance. The most com- solution temperature, and current must creases wear resistance, corrosion resist-
mon material anodized is aluminum. All be controlled to allow the formation of a ance, ability to retain lubricants, and elec-
of the above properties are improved consistent oxide layer, which can be many trical and thermal insulation. Standards
when aluminum is anodized. Further- times thicker than would otherwise be for thick sulfuric acid anodizing are given
more, since the surface film is porous after formed. This oxide layer increases both by MIL-A-8625 Type III, AMS 2469, and
anodizing, the aluminum metal can be the hardness and the corrosion resistance the obsolete AMS 2468.
easily colored by the application of pig- of the aluminum surface. The oxide forms
ments or dyes into the pores. The most as microscopic hexagonal pipe crystals Sealing
widely used anodizing specification, MIL- of amorphous alumina, each having a cen-
A-8625, defines three types of aluminum tral hexagonal pore (which is also the rea- Chromic acid and sulfuric acid

22 APRIL 2008
Aluminum Q and A April 2008:Layout 1 3/6/08 11:26 AM Page 23

processes such as Types I, II, and III pro- ing an arc and would typically produce a color match after anodizing, particularly
duce pores in the anodized coat. These weld of very poor quality containing nu- on the 6xxx series base alloys.
pores can absorb dyes and retain lubri- merous discontinuities. For these reasons,
cants, but are an avenue for corrosion. it is not recommended to weld on alu- References
When lubrication properties are not criti- minum that has been anodized without
cal, these pores are usually sealed after first removing the anodized surface in the I would like to thank the Aluminum
dyeing. Long immersion in boiling-hot area to be welded. The AWS D1.2, Struc- Anodizing Council (AAC) for providing
deionized water is the simplest sealing tural Welding Code Aluminum, stipu- me information for this article and
process, although it is not completely ef- lates in the fabrication section, under strongly recommend that anyone requir-
fective and reduces abrasion resistance by preparation of base metals, that all sur- ing further information about the metal
20%. Teflon, nickel acetate, cobalt ac- faces to be welded shall be free from thick finishing process of aluminum anodizing
etate, and hot sodium or potassium aluminum oxide. Consequently, if alu- and its many inherent performance qual-
dichromate seals are common. MIL-A- minum that has been anodized is to be ities, including corrosion resistance and
8625 requires sealing for thin coatings welded, the anodized surfaces in the area decorative options for coloring aluminum,
(Types I and II) and allows it as an option to be welded must be removed before contact the AAC at or
for thick ones (Type III). welding. Removal can be performed by (847) 526-2010.
mechanical means such as grinding.
Welding on Anodized Aluminum One other area of concern relating to
TONY ANDERSON is corporate technical
the anodizing process is the effect of an-
odizing on material that has already been training manager for ESAB North America and
Anodized coatings have a much lower
thermal conductivity and coefficient of welded. The weld area will always be visi- coordinates specialized training in aluminum
linear expansion than aluminum. As a re- ble, having at least a slightly different ap- welding technology for AlcoTec Wire Corpora-
sult, they have a tendency to crack when pearance than the adjacent aluminum. tion. He is a Senior Member of TWI and a Reg-
exposed to temperatures above 80C Because the anodic oxide layer is translu- istered Chartered Engineer. He is chairman of
(176F), although they do not peel. The cent, the differing substrates will be visi-
ble and may in fact be accentuated. If you the Aluminum Association Technical Advisory
melting point of an anodized coating is
2050C (3722F), and the melting point of want the best color match after postweld Committee for Welding and holds numerous po-
pure aluminum is 658C (1216F). The an- anodizing, 4043 is not a good choice of sitions including chairman, vice chairman, and
odized coating on the surface of aluminum filler metal because it will typically turn member of various AWS technical committees.
acts as an electrical insulator. If we did dark gray in color after the anodizing Questions may be sent to Mr. Anderson c/o Weld-
manage to break through the anodized process, and the weld will become very vis-
ing Journal, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL
surface and attempt to arc weld, we would ible in contrast to the base alloy. The 5356
expect to have many problems in stabiliz- filler metal will provide a much closer 33126, or via e-mail at

For info go to

NP April 2008:Layout 1 3/6/08 8:58 AM Page 24

Stainless Steel Plate
Plasma Cutting Systems Come in Three Models
Exhibits Low Hardening
Pro-Cut plasma cut- Characteristic
ting systems include the
patented Vortech tech- 410S (UNS S41008) is a restricted car-
nology torch, which con- bon, nonhardening modification of 410
centrates the arc to deliver (UNS S41000), the general-purpose 12%
efficient performance and chromium stainless steel. The low hard-
long life. Also, the Parts- ening characteristic helps prevent crack-
in-Place torch safety fea- ing when the alloy is exposed to high tem-
tures prevent the torch peratures or in the as-welded condition.
from operating when sens- The addition of this product will allow the
ing parts are not in proper company to better service the petroleum
position. The Pro-Cut 25 is refining and petrochemical processing,
useful for hobby, farm, mining, and thermal treatment industries
HVAC, auto body shop, or and infrastructure applications. It is
sheet metal fabrication. stocked in plate thicknesses from 316
This machine weighs 29.5 through 3 in.
lb and generates 25 A of
cutting current, capable of Sandmeyer Steel Co.
cutting electrically conduc-
tive materials up to 38 in. (800) 523-3663
thick. Packed with
patented features, the Pro- Filter for Plasma Cutting
Cut 55 is for industrial
plasma cutting for HVAC,
Removes Oil, Silicone
sheet metal, and light plate Vapor
fabrication metalworking
applications. Generating
60 A of current, capable of
cutting conductive materi-
als up to 34 in. thick, the
dual winding technology delivers easy starts, lower dross levels, and quick arc trans-
fer rates for fast restrikes, even on expanded metal. It weighs 55 lb. In addition, the
95-lb Pro-Cut 80 exhibits maximum cutting ability with a full 85 A, slicing through
metal up to 114 in. thick. Using six patented technologies, the unit is good for main-
tenance, fabrication, or other applications that require cutting of thicker metals.

The Lincoln Electric Co.
(888) 355-3213

Flowmeters Give Rapid

Response Time
FlowStream OFM series mass
flowmeters provide measurement of
shielding gas for plasma arc welding and
other arc welding applications. Field se-
lectability of multiple gases is a feature of
these meters for measuring mass flow rate
of gases. Totalizing capability is offered to The M-C100 activated-carbon filter re-
increase its ability to measure, monitor, moves oil vapor from compressed air. The
and control the total amount of gas used companys Carbon-Max cartridge con-
high as 100 lb/in.2. They further feature
in a process. A rapid response time of 5 tains activated-carbon media that traps oil
built-in alarm switches and are available
ms is a selectable option for immediate and other molecules in microscopic pores
with LCD readout displays for flow, pres-
detection of flow fluctuation in robotic ap- through the adsorption process. Also, the
sure, temperature, and total.
plications and other automated systems. filter removes silicone vapor and volatile
The meters provide a 50-ms response time Universal Flow Monitors, Inc. organic compounds of all types. The ad-
as a standard feature. Additionally, they dition of this filter as the final stage in a
can accommodate operating pressures as (248) 542-9635 new or existing plasma cutting air filtra-

24 APRIL 2008
NP April 2008:Layout 1 3/7/08 12:10 PM Page 25

tion system ensures clean, fast cuts and

longer life for electrodes and tips.

Motor Guard Corp.
(800) 227-2822

Alloys Designed for

Petroleum Applications

Arcos C-22 (ERNiCrMo-10) bare wire

and Arcos C-22 (ENiCrMo-10) covered
electrodes offer good pitting and crevice
corrosion resistance. They are primarily
used to weld nickel-chromium-molybde-
num to itself, steel, other nickel-based al-
loys, and for cladding steel with NiCrMo
weld metal. Both alloys are designed for
welding a broad range of industrial appli-
cations such as petroleum, chemical, and
power-generation plants as well as off-
shore and marine facilities.

Arcos Industries, LLC
(800) 233-8460

Consumables Kit
Facilitates Four Types of
Plasma Cutting

The companys consumables kit makes

it easier for Powermax1000, 1250, or
1650 users to realize the full cutting po-
tential of their plasma system. Consum-
ables for all four types of cutting possible
with a Powermax are included in the kit.
They are as follows: shielded consumables
for everyday drag cutting that involves fol-
lowing a line or template; unshielded con-
sumables for cutting in tight places or bet-
ter arc visibility; gouging consumables for
For info go to
NP April 2008:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:00 PM Page 26

tough metal-removal jobs; and FineCut timization for a range of applications, in-
consumables for more precise cuts on thin- cluding spot welding, machine tool tend-
ner plate. A reference guide explaining ing, cutting, injection molding, and core
how to get good cut quality and consum- handling. The compactness and agility of
able life when cutting with a hand-held the 6-axis product make it possible to
torch is included with every kit. mount the robot in four positions floor,
tilted, inverted, or shelf. The robot weighs
Hypertherm, Inc. 900 kg. It can handle payloads up to 150 kg with a reach of 2.2 m, and can work with
(800) 643-0030 heavy and large parts.

Robot Mounts in ABB Robotics
Four Positions (248) 393-4600

Machinable Glass Ceramic dard cross sections ranging from 12 12 in.

Exhibits Zero Porosity to 2 2 in.; and sheets are available in
thicknesses ranging from 116 to 2 in.
MACOR machinable glass ceramic
Morgan Technical Ceramics Inc.
material can be readily fabricated into
complex shapes. It can be machined into (800) 433-0638
intricate and precision parts to meet spec-
ifications with ordinary metalworking
tools, and requires no postfiring after ma-
Replacement CO2 Nozzles
chining. It is a white, odorless, porcelain- for Lasers Machined from
like material that is nonwetting, exhibits Various Materials
zero porosity, and does not deform. Able
to withstand temperatures of up to LRO CO2 laser nozzles are compati-
The IRB 6620 is a versatile machine- 1000C, the product has low thermal con- ble with mechanical or sensor heads and
tending robot. Combining compactness, ductivity and is a good electrical insulator feature 10 m orifice size accuracy to
flexibility, and agility with the companys at high voltages and various frequencies. optimize cutting performance. They can
collision resistance, it opens up opportu- Rods are available in standard diameters be supplied in 1.2-, 1.5-, and 2.0-mm ori-
nities for improved line concepts and op- ranging from 18 to 6 in.; bars come in stan- fice sizes as well. Machined from brass,





$! $'!"!#$!#"&(!%



26 APRIL 2008 For info go to

NP April 2008:Layout 1 3/6/08 9:01 AM Page 27

Reamer Features of entry to protect against contaminants.

External setup switches are also sealed
Longer-Lasting Technology and allow for independent operation of
the sprayer and spindle to expedite man-
ual setup of the reamer. The check valve
on the sprayer is electrically operated. A
hinged access door allows internal com-
ponents to be reached without tools. The
addition of quick-disconnect wiring allows
replacement of worn valves without
rewiring. A quick-change base plate al-
lows the reamer to be removed and re-
placed quickly.

(877) 737-3111

copper, aluminum, and ceramic, the noz-

zles are available with straight and tapered Water-Soluble Spacer
tips from 0.375 to 0.96 in. long and thread Rings Provide Proper
sizes from 14 to 58 in. Alignment
Laser Research Optics
SoluGap, a water-soluble socket weld-
(888) 239-5545 ing spacer ring, features a patent-pending
design for a one-step application. Each ring
has three tabbed edges designed to secure
High-Temperature Coatings the product in place, even when sockets are
Apply Directly to Hot The next-generation TOUGH GUN positioned sideways or upside down. The
reamer cleans and removes spatter from
Surfaces GMAW nozzles to ensure longer consum-
design provides an even, premeasured 116-
in. minimum gap required for socket weld-
able life, good gas coverage, and reliable ing contractions. Made of Aquasol water-
arc starts. Features include internally soluble board, it dissolves completely and
mounted valves and seals around points rapidly in most liquids. The product is avail-

Dampney Thurmalox 218

primer/219 topcoat protective coatings
are VOC-compliant systems formulated
for the protection of metal surfaces under
insulation exposed to temperatures from
ambient to 450F and many other appli-
cations involving continuous and rapid
wet-dry-wet thermal cycling. They can be
applied directly to hot surfaces by brush,
roller, or spray methods. The primer/coat-
ings are available in 1- and 5-gal kits.

Dampney Co., Inc.
(617) 389-2805
For info go to

NP April 2008:Layout 1 3/7/08 12:11 PM Page 28

able in a variety of sizes ranging from to

2 in. in diameter.

Aquasol Corp.
(800) 564-9353

Reach Stackers Offer Tight

Turning Radius
The Hyster Yardmaster II reach
stacker series support load capacities up
to 101,000 lb and are designed to accom-
plish demanding material-handling jobs. The product has a tight turning radius.
Built with a Cummins 10.8L QSM 11 300
hp engine for an unladen lift speed of 94
ft/min, the reach stackers can move heavy
loads quickly. Additionally, the trucks
2008 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. All rights reserved. All trademarks are the property of Thermo Fisher

high-strength boom allows for lifting 9 ft

6 in. or 8 ft 6 in. containers five-high in the
first row. The series also features the Hys-
ter ComforCab II, designed to optimize
*O4UPDL5FTUJOH driver comfort and visibility.

Hyster Co.
(800) 497-8371

Hex Impact Driver Kit

Includes Lithium-Ion
Scientific Inc. and its subsidiaries.


Thermo Scientific USA

Billerica, MA USA

NITON XL3 Alloy Analyzers Tel: +1 978 670-7460 The new V18 -in. hex impact driver
delivers 2600 rev/min and 1400 in.-lb of
t *ODSFBTFQSPEVDUJWJUZ torque. The 0881-22 packs power and per-
t 'BTUFTUBOBMZTJTUJNFJOUIFJOEVTUSZ formance into a compact, lightweight
Munich, Germany package useful for a wide range of driv-
Tel: +49 89 3681 380 ing and fastening applications. It features an all-metal gear and impact mechanism
and a variable-speed trigger. A heavy-duty
18-V lithium-ion battery optimizes jobsite
t 1SFDJTFDIFNJDBMBOBMZTJTGSPNUSBDFUP performance by offering longer run time
and fade-free power. Other features in-
Central, Hong Kong
t -JHIUFMFNFOUPQUJPOFYUFOETDBQBCJMJUJFTUP Tel: +852 2869 6669 clude a built-in LED for illuminating dark
BOBMZ[F.H "M 4J 1 work spots, a fuel gauge on the battery
pack to display remaining run time, an
overmold handle that reduces operator hand fatigue, and on-board bit storage for
convenient bit changing.

Milwaukee Electric Tool Corp.
Part of Thermo Fisher Scientific (800) 729-3878

For info go to

28 APRIL 2008
HODGSON:FP_TEMP 3/5/08 1:56 PM Page 29

For Info go to

Hussary and Renault Feature April 2008:Layout 1 3/5/08 4:38 PM Page 30

Electrode Life:
A Measure of System
Performance in Plasma Cutting
Provided are descriptions for assorted electrode wear mechanisms


Plasma cutting has become a major

tool in the fabricating industry due to its
high productivity on both ferrous and non-
ferrous materials. Its performance has
seen drastic improvements in the last 20
years from cut quality and speed to con-
sumable life. Consumable life is in excess
of 1500 starts, 11-s arc on-time, at 200 A
with oxygen plasma-forming gas while
maintaining a high cut quality.
The longevity of the consumables de-
pends, among other factors, on the ero-
sion rate of the electrode (cathode) the
one component in the plasma cutting
torch that is most stressed by the plasma
arc. It is, therefore, essential to under-
stand the electrode wear mechanisms in
order to push forward the cutting system Fig. 1 Shown is a wide range of water-cooled electrode designs.
Erosion of the electrode is influenced
by many factors including, but not limited three main regions as follows: cathode re- the cathode is due to the excessive heat
to, arc current, cathode material, temper- gion in front of the cathode; arc column, flux to the emissive element from the cath-
ature and cooling method, arc chamber which stretches from the cathode region ode arc root. Therefore, properly under-
geometry and pressure, plasma-forming through the arc chamber and the nozzle standing and describing this flux as well
gas composition, arc root motion, and gas to the workpiece; and the anode region, as the arc root physics will greatly help in
dynamics. This wide range of variables which is adjacent to the workpiece (anode) improving the life of these cathodes.
leads to a large variety of designs as shown as shown in Fig. 2. A typical electrode used One might reason that the transition
in Fig. 1. in plasma cutting is made with a refractory from the cathode surface to the plasma
This discussion presents a brief material insert, often tungsten or hafnium, arc column does not happen abruptly. A
overview of the various electrode wear embedded in a water-cooled copper transition region, i.e., a near cathode
mechanisms. holder. Refractory material cathodes pro- plasma, exists between the cathode sur-
vide the arc with the electrons through a face and the bulk plasma. A simplified
Examining the Plasma thermionic emission mechanism. This form of the currently accepted descrip-
Cutting Arc mechanism comes into play when the sur- tion, starting from the cathode surface, is
face temperature of the cathode is in ex- made of a first sublayer (presheath) dom-
cess of 3000 K (values are material de- inated by a net positive space charge and
Cathode Region, Arc Column, pendent). It is worth noting that thorium high electric field, followed by a second
and Anode Region oxide is added to tungsten in order to en- layer, which is quasineutral, where the
hance its thermionic properties. needed ionization occurs to sustain the
The plasma cutting arc is divided into Intuitively, the main cause of wear of plasma arc Fig. 2.

NAKHLEH HUSSARY, PhD, and THIERRY RENAULT, PhD, are principal arc process engineers at Thermal Dynamics, a brand of
Thermadyne, St. Louis, Mo.

30 APRIL 2008
Hussary and Renault Feature April 2008:Layout 1 3/5/08 4:38 PM Page 31

In steady-state operation, the cathode

surface is hot enough to enable thermionic
emission of electrons to the space charge
layer. This space charge layer is assumed
collisionless (i.e., no collisions between
electrons and ions), resulting in no net en-
ergy exchange. The electrons are acceler-
ated through this space charge layer into
the ionization layer. The ions, on the other
hand, are accelerated from the ionization
layer through the space charge layer to the
cathode surface. Some electrons in the ion-
ization layer with sufficient energy to over-
come the electric field of the space charge
layer will diffuse back to the surface of the
cathode. The ions bombarding the surface
and the back diffusing electrons form a
large component of the total energy flux
deposited on the cathode surface. This
input energy flux in the cathode is balanced
by the energy losses due to the emission of
electrons, conduction, radiation, and va-
porization of the cathode material.
One might also consider the radiated
energy from the arc to the cathode (which
is geometry dependent), Joule heating in
the cathode, convective effects due to Fig. 2 The different plasma cutting arc regions (right-hand side) and closeup of the cath-
plasma-forming gas flow around the elec- ode region (left-hand side) where A is the cathode (emissive insert), B is the space charge
trode, condensation of neutral atoms on presheath, and C is the ionization layer.
the electrode, ejection of emissive mate-
rial droplets, and others.
element materials depending on the na- enough surface). The tungsten is locally
Theoretical models and simulation built
ture of the plasma forming gas. Tungsten molten under the arc root. The material
on such description estimate the tempera-
is used with nonoxidizing and inert gases is both evaporated and ejected due to arc
ture of the cathode under the arc root can
(N2, Ar, Ar-H2), while hafnium is pre- root instability. The ejected tungsten
reach temperatures above 3000 K (Refs. 1,
ferred when using oxidizing gases (O2 and droplets are deposited on the arc cham-
2). This is higher than the melting point of
air). The wear mechanisms of these two ber walls and the nozzle. Since there is a
the emissive insert material; hence, the
electrodes using tungsten or hafnium are little amount of molten tungsten, the
cathode under the arc root is molten. In
different because of the thermal, chemi- ejected mass is low and the electrode life
fact, this is experimentally observed on the
cal, and electrical properties of the ma- is long when compared with hafnium
cathode of the plasma cutting process.
terials (Table 1). In the case of tungsten, Fig. 3A, B.
it is experimentally observed that a crater Hafnium, on the other hand, has a
Choosing Tungsten forms under the arc root that expands lower melting point compared to tung-
vs. Hafnium with use at a constant rate. The arc root sten, and the whole surface of the emis-
occupies a small portion of the total sur- sive insert is molten (as shown in Fig. 3B)
Plasma cutting employs two emissive face area of the tungsten (given a large leading to higher wear rate and higher


Fig. 3 A 100-A tungsten electrode with 1000 starts, 11-s arc on-time, in nitrogen plasma. Tungsten wear depth is 0.008 in. (0.2 mm).
B 100-A hafnium electrode with 1000 starts, 11-s arc on-time, in oxygen plasma (arc ignition in air). Hafnium wear depth is 0.024 in. (0.6

Hussary and Renault Feature April 2008:Layout 1 3/5/08 4:39 PM Page 32

on the liquid hafnium. This force is suffi-

cient to pull away the liquid hafnium.
Therefore, thermal management of the
emissive element is key in maintaining a
low wear rate on both tungsten and
hafnium. Such management entails liquid
cooling of the electrode, use of high ther-
mal diffusivity holder materials, and min-
imization of contact resistance between
the emissive insert and the electrode
holder. Because the emissive material is
in the molten state, both the flow dynam-
ics around the electrode front end and the
arc root stability are critical. The effect of
higher pressure in the arc chamber acts in
two ways 1) it increases the ion flux
bombarding the surface and therefore in-
creases the energy input, and 2) a higher
ion pressure increases the displacement
of the liquid metal (Refs. 3, 4).

Aiming for Advances

It is interesting to note that improving
the properties of the emissive insert ma-
terial (use of new refractory metal alloys)
has yet to yield significant results.
Plasma cutting system manufacturers
continuously pursue research and devel-
opment in order to improve electrode life,
an issue that is central to many plasma
processing applications.

For info go to


1. Zhou, X., and Heberlein, J. 1994.

Analysis of the arc-cathode interaction of
Table 1 Thermal Properties of Tungsten and Hafnium
free-burning arcs. Plasma Sources Sci.
Melting Boiling Thermal Specific Heat Thermal Technol. Vol. 3: 564574.
Point [K] Point [K] Conductivity Capacity Diffusivity 106 2. Benilov, M. S., and Marotta, A. 1995.
at 298 K at 298 K at 298 K A model of the cathode region of atmos-
[W.m-1.K-1] [] [m2.s-1] pheric pressure arcs. Journal of Physics D:
Applied Physics Vol. 28: 18691882.
Tungsten 3422 5555 174 132 68.3
3. Peters, J., Yin, F., Borges, C. F. M.,
Hafnium 2233 3422 23 144 12.0
Heberlein, J., and Hackett, C. 2005. Ero-
sion mechanisms of hafnium cathodes at
high currents. Journal of Physics D: Ap-
sensitivity to arc root motion, fluid dy- During the steady-state operation, all plied Physics Vol. 38: 17811794.
namics, and electrode cooling. of the surface of the hafnium insert is 4. Nemchinsky, V. 2004. Heat flux at
At ignition, the arc root is located at molten. Evaporation of the molten mate- the refractory cathode of a high-current,
the edge of the hafnium insert (i.e., rial is the dominant wear mechanisms in high-pressure arc (two modes of cathode
hafnium/copper interface) and starts this state. However, any instabilities in the spot attachment). Journal of Physics D:
heating the metal/oxide surface. Because arc can cause additional wear. Applied Physics Vol. 37: 10481051.
the surface temperature is low, the elec- One of the main electrode wear mech-
tron emission mechanism is a combina- anisms is a significant ejection of liquid
tion of field and explosive emission. As hafnium droplets at shutdown. This is due
the temperature of the surface increases, to the swirling plasma-forming gas drag
Change of Address?
the thermionic emission mechanism takes force on the liquid metal at arc extinction.
over. The transition from room tempera- Effectively, when the arc turns off, the liq-
ture to the melting point, over a time pe- uid hafnium solidifies in about 5 to 10 ms,
Make sure delivery of your Welding
riod on the order of 100 ms, induces large while the plasma arc extinguishes in about
Journal is not interrupted. Contact the
thermal shock that may result in further 1 ms (Ref. 3).The absence of the arc in-
Membership Department with your
electrode erosion. Other droplet ejection creases the effective exit orifice area lead-
new address information (800) 443-
occurs during the transition from the start- ing to rapid depletion of the gas from the
9353, ext. 217;
ing gas (less oxidizing) to the cutting gas arc chamber. The rapid increase in gas
(oxidizing). flow momentum increases the drag force

32 APRIL 2008
MAGNATECH:FP_TEMP 3/5/08 1:57 PM Page 33

For Info go to

Lee 4 08:Layout 1 3/5/08 10:22 AM Page 34

Pipeline Weld
Too Small to Matter

growing demand for gas and oil has energy firms search-

A ing in places they never have before. As a result, the ten-

tacles of global pipelines are extending deeper into re-
mote regions of the world.
A new wave of long-distance natural gas lines has sparked a
renewed interest in construction-cost scrutiny, as energy firms
look for ways to increase productivity. But in the high-standard
industry of pipeline construction, quality cannot be compro-
mised. However, unnecessary repairs of small, innocuous weld
discontinuities result in added cost, delays, and can actually
compromise weld integrity.
Traditional acceptance standards for pipeline girth welds (such
as API 1104) have been based on what is defined as good work-
manship. This vague, yet generally accepted standard is defined
as what a reasonably competent pipeline welder can achieve
using cellulosic SMAW electrodes. Fig. 1 Automated ultrasonic testing is becoming more common
The API 1104 standard prescribes that discontinuities that do on pipeline projects.
not meet this good workmanship criteria, as detected by radi-
ography, are repaired. Ultrasonic testing is now commonly used,
and it reveals considerably more resolution to better character- The upfront costs for an Engineering Critical Assessment can
ize weld discontinuities. Specially trained experts are increas- be significant. But for larger pipeline construction projects, the
ingly analyzing this additional information and questioning the investment is worthwhile, especially for offshore pipeline con-
need to rework many imperfections deemed innocuous. struction, where the ECA method helps minimize construction
In a scientific process called Engineering Critical Assessment delays and costs.
(ECA), imperfections are evaluated based on fracture mechan-
ics, where the driving force (design loads) and the resistance force How It Works
(material toughness) are evaluated. Imperfections below the de-
termined critical defect size are safe and may remain untouched he enormity of the Trans-Alaska pipeline construction proj-
inside the finished weld.
This higher level of understanding is increasing productivity
substantially, especially on longer pipeline projects throughout
T ect prompted the need for fracture mechanics-based al-
ternative defect acceptance criteria. By 1983, API 1104
16th edition established ECA methods for steel pipeline weld-
North America. Many projects in other parts of the world, how- ing. At this time, the popular steel pipe grades ranged about 42
ever, have yet to take advantage of this method, which is grow- to 70 ksi minimum yield strength.
ing in acceptance. Much higher-strength pipe grades have since been developed

KENNETH Y. LEE is pipeline welding engineer, The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio.

34 APRIL 2008
Lee 4 08:Layout 1 3/5/08 10:22 AM Page 35

Understanding the difference between what is acceptable

and what is not means a gain in productivity
for natural gas transmission lines, allow- lulous electrodes did not work well on new line weld inspection. The benefits include
ing for thinner walls and higher operating high-strength steel. high speed, safety in the absence of radia-
gas pressure. These steels have microal- With that, welding consumable manu- tion, higher resolution, and improved siz-
loy additions and are lower in carbon, facturers are designing specialized elec- ing of weld imperfections.
which improves weldability. trodes, such as the Pipeliner series from The margin for error in automatic ul-
While the main section of API 1104 Lincoln Electric, which is manufactured trasonic testing, however, for imperfec-
places primary importance on flaw length, under lot control, with each lot weld tested tion height is important when using an
Appendix A allows an evaluation of flaw and certified for consistency. ECA. If the error is too large, allowable
length and height. These new consumables are designed imperfection sizes could be too restrictive
Conventional radiography detects the for greater fracture toughness a metals to render ECA beneficial.
length and density of weld imperfections, ability to resist extension of a crack. This Also, actual weld imperfections are
not the height. Ultrasonic testing offers is often a greater concern when welding often difficult to describe through the use
greater resolution and the ability to dis- stronger steels, which are more highly of a few simple parameters, such as length,
cern and characterize height along the stressed and more sensitive to notches and height, and depth. In actual girth welds,
length of a defect. imperfections. imperfections are rarely rectangular, as
ECA alternative defect acceptance cri- discontinuity heights can vary along its
teria for pipeline construction are detailed Testing ECA Methods length. This, of course, raises the need for
in the codes API 1104 Appendix A and better sizing and the categorization of im-
CSA Z662 Appendix K. Also, the ECA he ECA method was studied on perfections for an accurate assessment.
method is used to determine if an exist-
ing structure is fit for service and detailed
in BS 7910 and API 579.
T girth welds made on high-strength
X120 (120 ksi min yield strength)
pipe by a group of researchers and was Conclusion
Under API 1104 Appendix A, ECA al- presented at the 2004 International Con-
lows experts to determine the maximum ference on Pipeline Technology in Ostend, he Engineering Critical Assessment
size of planar imperfections that remain
stable under designed service conditions.
These flaws can, in fact, safely remain in
Belgium (Ref. 1).
Over the range of discontinuities exam-
ined, the study found that API 1104 Ap-
T method for pipeline construction
has been proven to be safe and ben-
eficial for the construction of pipelines
the completed weld, understanding that pendix A (as well as BS 7910 and CSA throughout North America. Much of the
they do not compromise the structural in- Z662) resulted in conservative ECA limits rest of the world has yet to take advantage
tegrity when the pipeline is operated compared to the fracture behavior of X120 of the process. The ECA method has
under the designed service conditions. welds in curved wide plate tests. They ob- found acceptance in other industries as
This evaluation process requires addi- served no cases of failure in curved wide well, such as evaluating bridges and pres-
tional qualification tests, CTOD testing plate specimens with stress levels lower than sure vessels, and even the high-standard
of the weld and heat-affected zone allowed by the three ECA methods. nuclear power industry.
(HAZ), stress analysis, and additional in- The study noted that improved ECA Advanced technology in the past 20
spection, but it is only applicable in cer- methods are required to minimize unnec- years has played a critical role in pipeline
tain conditions. For instance, ECA can essary and expensive weld repairs, while welding. Nearly 15 years ago, Lincoln
only be used in circumferential welds be- ensuring safety. This is even more critical Electric developed the STT process a
tween pipes of equal nominal wall thick- for modern higher-strength steels and controlled-current GMAW process that
ness. It excludes welds in pump or com- larger stress demands, where the chal- uses high-frequency inverter technology
pressor stations, as well as fittings, weld lenge is to obtain higher toughness and and waveform control. It has been suc-
repairs, and valves in the main line. higher weld strength. cessful for onshore and offshore pipelines
ECA methods intended for conven- to perform root pass welding much faster
tional stress-based applications, however, than GTAW.
Higher-Strength Pipe Steel may not be suitable for strain-based ap- But as the world, and especially fast-
plications, where high-applied strains growing economies like China and India,
ine pipe steels have steadily in- might enlarge weld imperfections. continues to increase its demand for oil

L creased in strength, incorporating

microalloy additions such as nio-
bium, vanadium, and titanium, and more
As emphasis for weld quality and weld
strength overmatch is being placed on
strain-based design applications, where the
and gas, pipelines will grow longer into
the far corners of the earth in quest to tap
into distant reserves. As that happens, new
sophisticated pipe mill rolling and cool- pipe could experience longitudinal strains technologies will be developed to find
ing techniques. This new generation of greater than 0.5%. This is often associated ways to make it more cost effective.
steel offers lower carbon and carbon with soil displacement from seismic activ-
equivalent levels, making it easier to weld. ity, slope instability, and frost heave. Reference
Higher strength also allows increased
operating pressures, which improves op- 1. Macia, M. L., Papka, S. D., Fairchild,
erational efficiencies. The advancements Automated Ultrasonic D. P., Denys, R. M., and Leferve, A. A.
in pipeline steel have ushered in new elec- Testing 2004. Verification of fractures toughness
trode technology that optimizes alloy and defect tolerances of X120 girth welds.
chemistry and minimizes diffusible hydro- Many pipeline projects are using auto- The International Conference on Pipeline
gen. It was discovered that standard cel- mated ultrasonic testing (Fig. 1) for main- Technology. Ostend, Beldgium.

Madden Feature for April 2008:Layout 1 3/5/08 4:48 PM Page 36

Plasma Cutting
Systems Combine
Versatility with

Many people know that a plasma sys- definitely cuts quicker, cleaner, and allows
tem can cut, but far fewer know that it can us to do more.
gouge, or that plasma can cut any type of
electrically conductive metal, that it can be The Measures of Versatility
used on a track system, or that it can be used
to efficiently cut metal up to 112 in. thick. Plasma versatility can be measured in
Their ability to quickly But, in fact, plasma can do all this and more,
and this versatility helps make plasma a
many ways.

truly valuable productivity tool. Processes

perform a variety of When you use a tool more you better
leverage your investment, making the tool Plasma is best known as a cutting tool,
applications on different a greater value. And when that tool helps but even within cutting, plasma is more
you avoid having to switch back and forth versatile than many people realize. With
metals in various among various tools, or rely on others to
execute certain tasks, versatility translates
specialized consumables, plasma systems
can be used for drag cutting, cutting with
into greater productivity. a standoff (particularly useful when cut-
locations makes American Fire Training Systems is an ting odd-shaped pieces or when trying to
example of one company enjoying the ver- access a tight location), or even for get-
plasma arc cutting satility of plasma. The company makes ting high-quality, very narrow cuts on thin
some of the largest steel fire training struc- materials.
systems versatile tures in the United States. Its projects,
which can range in size from a single story
In addition to cutting, many owners are
now starting to leverage plasmas gouging
3200-sq-ft unit to a six-story complex, are capabilities. Specialized gouging consum-
productivity tools used to train firefighters around the coun- ables are now available for many brands
try. American Fire Training Systems of plasma systems. Plasma gouging can be
switched from oxyfuel to plasma five years used in place of carbon arc gouging and
ago and hasnt looked back. is an effective method of removing metal
Reed Steffek, the companys produc- for weld preparation or for gouging out
tion manager, said oxyfuel is used for cer- worn or cracked parts for repair or
tain things, but plasma arc cutting ma- replacement.
chines are definitely the tool of choice Plasma is also an effective piercing
around here. Theres really no beating the tool, whether by hand or on a cutting table.
productivity we get from plasma. Plasma Compared to oxyfuel, which requires pre-

REESE MADDEN is a product manager at Hypertherm, Inc., Hanover, N.H.,

36 APRIL 2008
Madden Feature for April 2008:Layout 1 3/5/08 4:48 PM Page 37

A construction worker uses plasma cutting at a job site. A shipyard employee in North Kingstown, R.I., uses plasma cut-
ting on a track system.

heating before cutting or piercing, plasma Plasmas effectiveness on painted, rusted, trically conductive metal, plasma can also
is particularly productive because it re- or dirty metals is also attractive to these efficiently cut many material forms: plate,
quires no preheating of the workpiece. and other users. rod, pipe, beam, and even grating with
The ability to cut multiple metal types no preheating required.
Material Types is a frequently cited reason why plasma Air plasma is an effective tool for cut-
owners make their initial plasma purchase. ting thicknesses from gauge to 112 in. Judg-
One of plasmas biggest advantages Whether owning a plasma system enables ing a plasma systems true capacity is not
over other thermal cutting processes is them to avoid wasting time and money sub- always easy given the lack of consistency
that it can be used on any electrically con- contracting out certain parts of a project, among various manufacturers in how they
ductive metal, including mild steel, stain- or whether it simply enables them to avoid rate their systems. There is, however, a
less steel, aluminum, galvanized steel, wasting time switching from one tool to an- common relationship between cut speed,
copper, cast iron, and others. This capa- other, plasmas material type versatility is a cut quality, and cut capacity: there is an
bility is especially attractive to users who clear productivity enhancer. optimal speed for achieving the desired
may encounter many different types of cut quality on a given metal thickness. In
metals, including farmers, scrapyards, Material Forms and Thicknesses many cases, the speed advantage of
metal fabricators/job shops, facility main- plasma over other cutting methods, such
tenance professionals, and others. In addition to cutting any type of elec- as oxyfuel cutting, is dramatic. Oxyfuel

What Is Plasma Cutting?

Plasma cutting is a high-speed thermal process that utilizes an accurately controlled electric arc
to cut most common metals. The plasma process uses a small nozzle orifice and high-velocity gas
flow to generate a very high-temperature, high-energy-density arc. Plasma cutting and gouging re-
quires a process gas, such as air or nitrogen, a DC power source, and consumables, including an
electrode and nozzle. Plasma arc cutting systems provide the following:

Fast cutting speeds

Application versatility

High productivity

Cost-effective operation

Madden Feature for April 2008:Layout 1 3/5/08 4:49 PM Page 38

cutting is, however, generally regarded as ond technology makes it possible for the
the superior method for cutting materials system to extract the maximum amount of
more than 112 in. thick. power from any given line.
The versatility of plasma also makes With Auto-Voltage, operators can
the job easier for American Fire Training start a job in their shop, plugged into their
Systems because workers can use the same regular power source, and finish it in the
plasma cutting machine for just about any- field, hooked up to a completely different
thing theyre cutting. power source. Up until about seven years
We use our Powermax1000s to cut ago, this wasnt possible. People moving
through different types of steel and alu- from site to site had to either make sure
minum whether painted, unpainted, or the same voltage levels were available at
rusted, Steffek said. And were able to all of their locations, or go through the
cut through a wide range of sizes from time-consuming process of manually
2-in.-thick tube, to 316-in.-thick quarter- rewiring their system to match the avail-
ton steel to thin 14-gauge sheets. able voltage.
Boost Conditioner technology en-
Location ables better, more consistent performance
regardless of fluctuations in input voltage.
This is especially beneficial for operators
At a macro level, plasma can be used in areas with unreliable or low line power.
in any number of locations, indoors and The technology also compensates for
out, from a garage to a shop, and from a weak or varying voltage on motor-
factory to a job site. A plasma cutting and generators, providing improved perform-
gouging system can be used almost any- ance for users in the field.
where that a process gas (compressed air Since this technology is fairly new, not
or sometimes nitrogen) and energy source all systems have it. Therefore, if your par-
are available. When hooked to a portable ticular situation requires lots of moving
motor-generator and a portable compres- around, you may want to check with your
sor or gas cylinder, a plasma system is truly distributor to find a plasma cutting ma-
mobile, making it appropriate for use in chine with these features.
the field, on a construction site, and in
many other locations. Unlike oxyfuel cut- Applications
ting, which requires a flammable process
gas such as acetylene, propylene, or
propane, plasma systems may even be With a simple change of the torch
used in some more highly regulated envi- and/or consumables, a plasma system can
ronments where flammable gases arent switch between manual and automated
permitted. cutting or gouging. With a straight ma-
American Fire Training Systems cited chine torch, a plasma system can easily be
this ability to easily move from location connected to an X-Y cutting table. Plasma
to location as another reason why it de- systems can also be used on robotic arms
pends on plasma. or, more commonly, with a track system
Some of our structures are huge and for effective long, straight cuts. Many
there is no way we can completely cut and plasma systems are used in conjunction
assemble them in one spot, Steffek said. with pipe bevellers or with hole-cutting
We do as much as we can at our plant, tools. Plasma systems can also be used
but a lot of time the final cutting and as- with metal templates or guides for effi-
sembly has to take place at a job site. Our cient replication of cuts.
work would definitely be a lot harder with-
out plasma. Conclusion
Certain plasma systems, especially
those utilizing inverter technology, are
even more portable, and can be easily car- Plasma systems are highly versatile,
ried up a ladder, taken on board a ship, highly productive cutting and gouging
or used in other tight quarters, and can tools. The plasma processs ability to per-
easily be moved from point to point, form various processes and applications,
whether in a facility or in the field. Recent to operate in various locations, and to
engineering developments also contribute work on various metal types, forms, and
to the versatility of plasma. thicknesses gives it distinct advantages
The incorporation of Auto-Voltage over competitive cutting technologies. If
and Boost Conditioner technologies you already own a plasma system, chances
into our Powermax brand of plasma sys- are you can derive greater value out of
tems really gives users much greater flex- your investment simply by expanding your
ibility, said Dennis Borowy, a principal usage occasions. And if you do not yet own
engineer at Hypertherm. The first-men- a plasma system, you may find that you
tioned technology allows people to use a can get more done, in less time, at lower
wide variety of input voltages with no cost by investing in this powerfully versa-
manual linking of any kind, while the sec- tile tool.
For info go to

38 APRIL 2008
PFERD:FP_TEMP 3/5/08 1:59 PM Page 39

For Info go to

Dalder 4 08:Layout 1 3/5/08 10:06 AM Page 40

Friction Stir Welding of

Thick-Walled Aluminum
Pressure Vessels

fects, improved fatigue resistance over welding methods, should joining of thick
fusion-welded joints, good corrosion re- (3.81 cm.) Al alloy forgings in the config-
Process parameters sistance, and less distortion than for fu- uration shown in Fig. 1 prove difficult. The

for making defect-

sion-welded joints, was balanced against alloy chosen was Alloy 2219, with a nom-
some drawbacks, such as difficulties in inal composition of 5.86.8% Cu,

free welds were

making out-of-position welds and a lack 0.20.4% Mn, 0.100.25% Zr, with trace
of information on completing welds that amounts of Ti, Si, Fe, Mg, and Zn. As

developed, and the

close on themselves. forged and heat treated to the artificially
After extensive discussions with organ- aged or -T62 condition, minimum room-

welds were izations involved in friction stir welding

in the U.S. and the UK, it was decided to
temperature tensile properties are ulti-
mate tensile strength of 400 MPA, 0.2%

evaluated for fitness work with Advanced Joining Technolo-

gies, Inc., to develop the process informa-
offset yield strength of 276 MPa and an
elongation in 5.08 cm of 6%, per Ref. 4.
for intended service tion, nondestructive examination (NDE)
methods, and mechanical property data
Because there was no readily available
mechanical property information on the
that would support the use of friction stir properties of the friction stir welds in
welding for joining the two hemispheres Alloy 2219, the forgings were purchased
Friction stir welding has been success- of the vessel. in the annealed condition, so that any
fully demonstrated to produce near full- combination of friction stir welding and
strength welds in many high-strength Al Design and Material heat treatment could be used, once devel-
alloys (Refs. 1, 2). Lawrence Livermore opment work was done.
National Laboratory and Advanced Join- Based on previous experience and ex-
ing Technologies, Inc., formed a team for tensive analyses, the shape of the vessel Friction Stir Welding
the design, development, and manufac- had evolved into that of a sphere with an
turing of polymer-matrix composite over- inside diameter of about 1 m and a wall- Development
wrapped Al alloy pressure vessels in- thickness of 3.81 cm. This basic shape was
tended for the containment of dynamic modified by the addition of cylindrical The challenge in friction stir welding
loads. Preliminary analyses showed that nozzles at the top and bottom of the (FSW) of circumferential parts is provid-
near yield-stress loads would be devel- sphere for access to the interior of the ves- ing a backing support for the part. For
oped in vessels consisting of a spherical sel. Consultation with various Al alloy fab- single-sided FSW, the forces are in the
section with two cylindrical nozzles. ricators resulted in selection of the two range of 6000 kg for this alloy and thick-
Past experiences with fusion welded Al modified spherical forgings (Fig. 1) that ness. The force has to be reacted from the
alloy pressure vessels overwrapped with would be joined at their large open ends back of the weld, making assembly and
polymer-matrix composites had shown by a single-pass friction stir weld. disassembly difficult. To back up the weld
that the defects inherent in fusion welds Given the need for relatively high from inside the vessel, several options
in these alloys compromised the perform- strength at and near the weld, as well as were considered. The approach chosen
ance of otherwise useful developmental some reservations about the availability was the bobbin tool or self-reacting tool
vessels (Ref. 3). Consideration of the ad- of friction stir welding job shops, it was (SRT). The SRT uses a second FSW shoul-
vantages of friction stir welding, such as decided to use an Al alloy that was capa- der on the backside of the weld to react
freedom from solidification-induced ef- ble of being joined by the usual fusion to the loads. This eliminates the need for

E. DALDER, J. W. PASTRNAK, and E. KOKKO are with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. J. ENGEL, R. S.
FORREST, K. MCTERNAN, and D. WALDRON are with Advanced Joining Technologies, Inc., Santa Ana, Calif.

40 APRIL 2008
Dalder 4 08:Layout 1 3/5/08 10:06 AM Page 41

internal tooling. The SRT uses a scrolled

shoulder for normal-to-the-surface weld-
ing allowing for the second shoulder to be
used on the backside of the weld. The SRT
was selected for welding of the firing ves-
sel. The FSW machine used has a rotary
device for circumferential welding. This
device was used with the SRT machine to
weld the vessels.
Initial welding development was done
on 2.54-cm-thick 2219-O and 2219-T651
material. When the 3.8-cm-thick material
became available, efforts were shifted to
the thicker material. The torque demand
became greater and some modification
of the friction stir welding machine was
Advanced Joining Technologies per-
formed circumferential weld demonstra-
tions on 2.5-cm-thick rolled plate. The Fig. 1 Alloy 2219 aluminum forgings.
plate was rolled to 102 cm outer diameter
and was 122 cm in length. The demonstra-
tion was used to test the modified rotary
drive mechanism. It was necessary to in- Mechanical Properties of
stall a planetary gear reducer in line to the Friction Stir Welds
achieve more rotary power. Upon com-
pletion of the gear reducer installation, a
successful circumferential demonstration Tensile Properties
was performed.
The room-temperature tensile prop-
Closing Out the Circumferential erties of friction stir welded 2219 Al alloy
Friction Stir Weld plate with various combinations of weld-
ing parameters and heat treatments are
Once friction stir welding is completed, summarized in Figs. 35.
a keyhole is present due to tool retraction. Room-temperature tensile and elastic-
Trimming off the keyhole is not an option plastic fracture toughness properties of
in circumferential friction stir welding. A friction stir welds that were solution-
closure method needed to be identified. treated, quenched, and artificially aged to
Examples of closure methods are a run off the -T62 condition after welding were de-
wedge, retractable pin tool (RPT), fric- termined. Tensile samples, with a 0.635-
tion plug welding, and fusion fill. The most cm diameter and 2.54-cm gauge length,
viable keyhole closure method for self- were removed from the top, center, and
reacting friction stir welding is friction bottom thirds of the welds, with the sam-
plug welding, which maintains the solid- ples oriented in the longitudinal (along
state structure of the friction stir weld. the weld axis) and long transverse (nor-
An inertia welding machine was used mal to the weld axis) directions. Tensile
to develop process parameters for the fric- tests were conducted per Ref. 5.
tion plug welded closeout. Advanced Join- Tensile properties of friction stir welds Fig. 2 A 2219-T6 aluminum plug friction
ing Technologies designed a plug and hole made in fully aged (-T62) 2219 Al alloy, stir welded into 1.5-in.-thick 2219-O alu-
configuration that allowed the entire followed by testing in the as-welded con- minum plate.
welding cycle to be completed in a single dition (actually after natural aging for 23
operation. Initial friction plug welding tri- weeks), are presented as a function of
als resulted in the 2219 Al alloy plug shear- welding speed in Fig. 3. The ductility, ex- ing yield strength of 52 to 56%. In a simi-
ing halfway through the thickness of the pressed in terms of the total elongation in lar manner, i.e., using the minimum base
friction stir weld. The plug was 2219-O to a 5-cm gauge length, is between 10.5 and metal ultimate tensile strength of 400
match that of the friction stir welded ves- 13%, and does not vary systematically with MPa, the joint efficiency based on ulti-
sel. The shearing of the plug caused the increasing welding speed. The 0.2% off- mate tensile strength ranged from 70 to
bottom half of the plug to stop rotating, set yield strength values ranged from 76%. These joint efficiency values were
creating a poorly bonded interface. It was about 145 to 155 MPa as the welding- inadequate for the intended application.
decided that a 2219-T6 plug was the next speed was increased from 7.5 to 15 The low joint efficiencies of welds in
option to be evaluated. Weld trials showed cm/min. Ultimate tensile strength values the naturally aged (-T4) condition led to
promise, but the upper portion of the weld increased from about 280 to 305 MPa as extensive weld parameter exploration fol-
was not bonded due to the harder condi- the welding speed increased from 7.5 to lowed by a complete solution treatment
tion of the plug. The welding parameters 15 cm/min. (99510F), a water quench, and artifi-
were adjusted to allow for some softening Using the base metal minimum yield- cial aging heat treatment of 37510F
of the plug at the topside. This resulted in strength of 276 MPa results in joint effi- for 36 hours, which is the heat treatment
sound plug welds being made into flat ciency values based on the ratio of as- cycle recommended for the base material
plate Fig. 2. welded yield strength to minimum forg- (Ref. 4).

Dalder 4 08:Layout 1 3/5/08 10:07 AM Page 42

Fig. 3 Tensile and elastic-plastic properties of friction stir welds as Fig. 4 Properties of friction stir welds in 2219 aluminum in as-
a function of welding speed in 2219 aluminum. Welds were solution welded condition as a function of welding speed.
treated, quenched, and artificially aged to the -T62 condition.

Tensile properties of friction stir welds responding joint efficiencies ranged from tested were several 0.5T fracture tougness
made in the annealed (-O) condition, fol- about 93% at a welding speed of 4 cm/min samples removed from drop-offs from one
lowed by the previously described heat to about 80.8% at a welding speed of 15 of the forgings. All fracture-toughness
treatment, which rendered the weld in the cm/min. samples were heat treated to the fully aged
fully aged (-T62) condition, are presented After review of the weld process devel- (-T62) condition before machining of the
in Fig. 4 as functions of welding speed. opment and tensile test results, LLNL and notch and precracking.
The ductility, expressed in terms of the AJT selected a set of weld process param- Testing was done at room temperature
total elongation in a 5-cm gauge length, eters that yielded the following mean ten- per Ref. 6, and the data analyzed to de-
varied between 0.5% at lower welding sile properties when using a welding speed termine both ductile fracture toughness
speeds (5 to 7.5 cm/min) to as high as 6.6% of 5.75 cm/min: ultimate tensile strength, (Jic) and linear-elastic (Kic) values per
at a maximum welding speed of 15 370 MPa; 0.2% offset yield strength, 293 Ref. 6. All samples yielded valid Jic val-
cm/min. The 0.2% offset yield strength MPa; and total elongation, 5.2%. These ues that ranged from 21.36 kJ/M^M to
values ranged from about 293 to about 267 strength values corresponded to a joint ef- 37.73 kJ/M^M. Kjc results, converted
MPa as the welding speed increased from ficiency of 92.5%, based on minimum ul- from the Jic values by the method de-
4 to 15 cm/min. timate tensile strength of the base metal, scribed in Ref. 8, for the forgings and fric-
Ultimate tensile strength values var- and a joint efficiency of 106%, based on tion stir welds, are compared with pub-
ied widely at lower welding speeds (from the minimum yield strength of the base lished values from friction stir welded Al
4 to 6 cm/min), with values ranging from metal. alloys (Ref. 9) in Fig. 5, in the form of a
280 to about 371 MPa. At a welding speed plot of Kjc vs. 0.2% offset yield strength.
of 7.5 cm/min, the ultimate tensile Ductile Fracture Toughness Note that the individual values for the
strength went through a minimum of heat-treated friction stir welded 2219 Al
about 259 MPa. At higher welding speeds Compact tension samples (0.5 T, Ref. alloy mostly are above the least-squares
(10 to 15 cm/min), the ultimate tensile 6) were removed from the top, center, and trend line for the other Al alloys, indicat-
strength values decreased with increas- bottom thirds of welds made with the op- ing the good fracture resistance of the
ing welding speed from about 354 to 323 timized process parameters. The notch heat-treated 2219 friction-stir welds. No
MPa. As before, using the base metal min- and precrack were located along the weld- consistent difference was seen in the Kjc
imum yield strength value of 276 MPa, axis and running from the face to the root results for friction stir welds with the crack
the joint efficiencies for the postweld of the weld (so-called TL orientation) per oriented in the TL vs. LT orientation. The
heat-treated friction stir welds ranged Ref. 7, or with the notch and precrack lo- fracture toughness values of the heat-
from 97 to 106%. In a similar manner, i.e., cated normal to the weld axis and running treated 2219 forging samples fell some-
using the base metal minimum ultimate from the face toward the root of the weld what below the least-squares trend line
tensile strength value of 400 MPa, the cor- (so-called LT orientation per Ref. 7). Also for the other alloys.

42 APRIL 2008
Dalder 4 08:Layout 1 3/5/08 10:08 AM Page 43

Fig. 5 Correlation between fracture toughness and 0.2% yield Fig. 6 Macrostructure of various friction stir welds in 2219 alu-
strength for friction stir welded aluminum alloys. minum plate.

Macrostructure and B). The same grain growth phenomenon ing was completed, the clamping mecha-
Microstructure of Friction Stir occurred in the self-reacting tool (SRT) nism was disassembled. The tack weld
Welded 2219 Aluminum Alloy welds and in the single-sided welds. Ini- supported the full weight of the free
tial SRT weld tensile specimens failed by half-vessel.
Plates welded in the annealed condi- the same transgranular mechanism. Later
tion had abnormal grain growth in the SRT weld tensile specimens displayed in-
FSW nugget due to weld-induced solution creasing amounts of a microvoid coales- Vessel Self-Reacting Tool
heat treatment Fig. 6. The large grain cence failure mode due to improved weld- Friction Stir Welding
growth in the nugget resulted in decreased ing parameters and tool geometry.
ductility and transgranular fracture. The Once a set of weld parameters was Vessel B was the first to be welded.
large grains in the nugget cause a slight found that yielded acceptable tensile test With the clamping mechanism disassem-
decrease in ultimate tensile strength. results to both LLNL and AJT, two welded bled, a through-hole was drilled at a slight
Plates welded in the -T62 condition had panels were made with these SRT weld angle toward the retreating side of the
much greater elongation than those de- parameters. weld. This was done to compensate for de-
scribed above. However, the welding- One of these welds was cut into two flection seen in the tack welding and in
induced heating caused significant de- pieces, and these pieces were used as con- the circumferential demonstration plates.
creases in both yield strength and ultimate trol samples for vessel heat treatment. Since the joint was within the pin diame-
tensile strength due to precipitate coars- Tensile and ductile fracture toughness ter path and was favoring the retreating
ening in the heat-affected and thermome- samples were removed from these heat- side of the weld, the alignment was ac-
chanically affected zones. Tensile speci- treatment witness plates, and tested as de- ceptable. The self-reacting tool was as-
mens displayed microvoid coalescence scribed above. The results are presented sembled on the outside of the part. The
fractures in the heat-affected zone, with in Figs. 4 and 5. pin was fed through the drilled hole and
less than 75% joint efficiencies based on the lower shoulder was attached. The en-
tensile yield strength. tire clamping mechanism was reassem-
Microstructures of heat-treated welds Welding of the Vessels bled and the circumferential weld was
are shown in Fig. 7. Note the swirled struc- made.
ture in the weld-region (Fig. 7, feature A), Tack Welding Vessel A was prepared in the same
as well as the large grains growing across manner as vessel B. The hole was drilled
the weld region. Contrast the coarse- The vessel halves were tack welded to- favoring the retreating side of the weld.
grained weld region (Fig. 7, features A gether using a single-sided friction stir Again the machine saw minimal deflec-
and C) with the fine-grained thermome- welding tool. The tool created a tack weld tion. Both inside and outside weld sur-
chanically affected zone (Fig. 7, feature that was 1.02 cm deep. Once tack weld- faces were satisfactory.

Dalder 4 08:Layout 1 3/5/08 10:08 AM Page 44

Fig. 7 Microstructures in friction stir welds in 2219 aluminum plate. Fig. 8 Phased-array ultrasonic examination of a friction stir

Vessel Friction Plug Welding liptical flaw, 0.25 cm deep by 0.635 cm Acknowledgments
long, was located close to the external or
Both vessels were welded using the tension surface of the vessel. Tensile We gratefully acknowledge the efforts
friction plug welding process developed stresses close to the yield strength of the of C. Henning (design of the vessel), J. R.
on flat plate. Friction plug weld tooling weld, or about 276 MPa, were obtained Hollaway (drafting support), and W.
and the inertial welding machine per- from stress analyses performed during de- Grundler, V. Switzer, and J. Rickard
formed as expected. Ultrasonic inspection sign of the vessel. The minimum linear- (technical assistance).
of the friction plug welds revealed minor elastic fracture toughness, converted in
indications, most of which were within the usual manner (Ref. 8) from the elas- References
0.64 cm of the face surfaces of the welds. tic-plastic fracture toughness values for
These indications were removed by sub- 1. Threadgill, P. 1999. Friction Stir Welding
2219 friction stir welds (Fig. 6) was used.
sequent finish machining of both vessels. The State of the Art, Report 678/1999, The
The results indicate that at stresses of 276 Welding Institute.
Nondestructive examination of the
friction stir welds and the friction plug MPa, the calculated stress intensity for the 2. Dawes, C., and Thomas, W. 1996. Fric-
welds was performed using a combination assumed flaw is about half that expected tion stir process welds aluminum alloys. Weld-
of straight-beam ultrasonic examination for an aluminum alloy with a yield strength ing Journal 75(3): 4145.
and phased-array ultrasonic examination of 276 MPa. Additional fracture mechan- 3. Pastrnak, J. 2001. Unpublished data,
(Fig. 8, Ref. 10). ics analyses, for both static and fatigue Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Ultrasonic inspection performed on the loading, will be carried out once the re- 4. Standard Specification for Aluminum and
circumferential weld on vessel B revealed sults of fatigue crack growth testing of the Aluminum Alloy Die Forgings, Hand Forgings,
a small continuous channel defect located 2219 friction stir welds is completed. and Rolled Ring Forgings, 2002, ASTM B 247-
in the bottom half of the weld. It is likely 02, American Society for Testing and Materi-
that the defect was due to the compound als.
curvature of the spherical vessel. The cir- Conclusions 5. Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing
cumferential weld had been made using of Metallic Materials, 1997, ASTM E 8-96,
process parameters that were based on re- 1. Bobbin tool friction stir welding pro- American Society for Testing and Materials.
sults obtained with the same weld param- duced satisfactory joints in 3.8-cm-thick 6. Standard Test Method for Measurement of
eters used in flat plate and cylindrical plate 2219 aluminum alloy. Fracture Toughness, 1997, ASTM E1820-96,
welding. Repairs were accomplished by 2. Friction plug welding produced sat- American Society for Testing and Materials.
rewelding the vessel with increased pres- isfactory closeout welds in the circumfer- 7. Standard Test Method for Plane-Strain
sure and increased travel speed to elimi- ential welds. Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials, 1991,
nate the channel defect. The vessel was 3. Postweld solution treatment, ASTM E 399-90, American Society for Testing
rewelded using the procedure described quenching, and artificial aging were nec- and Materials.
above. Ultrasonic inspection revealed only essary to restore the welds to near base 8. Rolfe, S., and Barsom, J. 1987. Fracture
minor indications (less than 0.14 cm2 by metal strength, ductility, and toughness. and Fatigue Control in Structures, Second Edi-
0.635 cm long) in the start and overlap 4. A combination of straight-beam and tion, Prentice-Hall, p. 548.
areas of this weld. Phased-array ultrasonic phased-array ultrasonic examination 9. Dawes, C., Kargee, S., and Przydatek, J.
examination of the circumferential weld found a few defects of about 0.14 cm2 by 2000. Fracture Toughness of Friction Stir Welds
in vessel A revealed no indications. 0.64 cm in length in the welds. in 2014A, 7075, and 5083 Aluminium Alloys.
5. Satisfactory repair welds were made Report 705/2000, The Welding Institute.
Preliminary Fracture Analysis by friction stir welding over the defective 10. Lamarre, A., and Moles, M. 2000. Ul-
region in the original weld. trasound phased array inspection technology
Some preliminary static fracture me- 6. Preliminary fracture mechanics for evaluation of friction stir welds. Proceed-
chanics analyses have been performed. It analyses indicated that the welds are fit ings of the Second International Conference on
was assumed that an undetected semiel- for the intended service. Friction Stir Welding. The Welding Institute.

44 APRIL 2008
arc one:FP_TEMP 3/5/08 1:51 PM Page 45

For Info go to

Page 46:FP_TEMP 3/6/08 5:41 PM Page 46

Conference on Automatic Welding

New Orleans
May 13-14, 2008
Automatic welding, for which the equipment requires little or no observation or manual adjustment, has enabled
industry to dramatically accelerate output and increase quality. This conference covers new technologies in automatic
controls, training and management innovations, and automation breakthroughs for the latest welding processes,
including fiber and disk lasers, friction and thermal stir welding, hot-wire tungsten arc, laser/GMAW hybrid welding,
as well as automation technologies for traditional processes, such as submerged arc.
Conference price: $680 ($550 for AWS members)
Registration code: COAWC
Registration deadline: April 12, 2008
American Welding Society 2008

Location: Hilton New Orleans Airport (call 504-465-1159 for special rates)

To register or to receive a descriptive brochure, call

(800) 443-9353 ext. 455, (outside North America, call Founded in 1919 to advance the science, technology
and application of welding and allied joining and cutting
305-443-9353), or visit processes, including brazing, soldering and thermal spraying.
ESAB 1:FP_TEMP 3/6/08 2:25 PM Page 47

For Info go to

CE April:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:52 PM Page 48


METALFORM. April 13, Birmingham-Jefferson Convention The Aluminum Assn., Inc. Call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 455, or
Complex, Birmingham, Ala. Contact: Precision Metalforming visit
Assn., (216) 901-8800, or visit,
PICALO 2008. April 1618, Capital Hotel, Beijing, China. Third
Ohio Safety Congress & Expo. April 13, Columbus Convention Pacific Intl Conf. on Applications of Lasers and Optics. Visit
Center, Columbus, Ohio. Sponsored by Ohio Bureau of Work-
ers Compensation, Div. of Safety and Hygiene. Call (800) 644-
6292; or visit IWOTE 08. April 22, 23, Hotel Munte, Bremen, Germany. Con-
ference language is English. Second Intl Workshop on Thermal
Adept Global Automation Industry Conf. 2008. April 24, Liver- Forming and Welding Distortion. Visit
more, Calif. Call Adept Technology, Inc., (925) 245-3500; or visit IWOTE08/index_html.
MicroManufacturing and NanoManufacturing Confs. & Ex-
Metef-Foundeq Conf. and Show. April 912, Garda Exhibition hibits. April 22, 23, Sheraton Framingham Hotel, Framingham,
Centre, Montichiari, Brescia, Italy. Featuring international alu- Mass. Society of Mfg. Engineers. Call (313) 425-3187, or visit
minum exhibition, high-tech die casting, foundry, extrusion, and;
finishing. Visit
INTERTECH 2008. May 57, Contemporary Resort, Walt Dis-
TechEd 2008: 13th Annual Technology in Education Intl Conf. ney World, Orlando, Fla. Topics to include practical applications
& Tech Expo. April 1316, Ontario Convention Center, Ontario, for superabrasives for machining, grinding, drilling, polishing,
Calif. Visit wear parts, wire dies, etc. Visit

Composites Manufacturing 2008. April 1416, Hilton Salt Lake Intl Laser Technology Congress, AKL 08. May 79, Aachen,
City Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Society of Mfg. Engineers. Germany. Visit
Call (313) 425-3187, or visit
Montreal Mfg. Technology Show. May 1214, Place Bonaventure,
Welding Aluminum 2008, The 11th AWS/AA Aluminum Weld- Montreal, Canada. Society of Mfg. Engineers. Call (313) 425-
ing Conf. April 15, 16, Seattle, Wash. Cosponsored by AWS and 3187, or visit

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48 APRIL 2008
CE April:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:53 PM Page 49

XXXIX Steelmaking Seminar Intl. May 1216, Estao Em-

bratel Convention Center, Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. Visit:

Automatic Welding Conf. May 13, 14, New Orleans, La. This
conference covers new technologies in automatic controls, train-
ing, and management innovations, and automation break-
throughs for the latest welding processes, including fiber and disk
lasers, friction and thermal stir welding, hot-wire tungsten arc,
laser/GMA hybrid welding, as well as automation technologies for
traditional processes. Contact American Welding Society
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 455, or visit

Automotive Laser Application Workshop, ALAW 2008. May

1315, Plymouth, Mich. Contact: The Laser Institute of Amer-
ica,; (407) 380-1553.

Sheet Metal Welding Conf. XIII. May 1416, VisTaTech Center,

Livonia, Mich. Sponsored by the AWS Detroit Section. Call (586)
466-7070, or visit for program information.

13th Beijing Essen Welding & Cutting Fair. May 1417, China
Intl Exhibition Center, Beijing. Visit

IIW Intl Regional Congress, 2nd Latin America Welding Con-

gress. May 1821, Club Transatlantico, So Paulo, Brazil. Visit

EASTEC 2008 Expo. May 2022, Eastern States Exposition

Grounds, West Springfield, Mass. Society of Mfg. Engineers. Call
(313) 425-3187, or visit

Rapid 2008 Conf. and Expo. May 2022, Disneys Coronado

Springs Resort & Convention Center, Lake Buena Vista, Fla.
For info go to

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CE April:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:54 PM Page 50

Society of Mfg. Engineers. Call (313) 425-3187, or visit

15th Intl Conf. on Textures of Materials. June 15, Carnegie

Mellon University Center, Pittsburgh, Pa. Contact: American
Ceramic Society,

Trends in Welding Research, 8th Intl Conf. June 16, Call-

away Gardens Resort, Pine Mountain, Ga. Sponsored by ASM In-
ternational,; cosponsored by the
American Welding Society,

World Congress on Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials.

June 812, Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center, Na-
tional Harbor, Md. Sponsored by Metal Powder Industries Fed-
eration and APMI Intl. Visit

Automatica 2008: Assembly-Robotics-Vision. June 1013, Mu-

nich, Germany. Visit:

20th Canadian Materials Science Conf. June 18, 19, Univ. of Al-
berta, Edmonton, Alb., Canada. Visit:

19th AeroMat Conf. & Expo. June 2326, Austin Convention

Center, Austin, Tex. Cosponsored by NASA and ASM Intl. Visit

Coatings for Africa 2008. Aug. 1921, Champagne Sports Re-

sort, Central Drakensberg, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. E-mail, or visit

2nd Intl Orthotropic Bridge Conf. Aug. 2529, Sacramento,

Calif. Sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Visit, or call (916) 961-2723.
For info go to

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50 APRIL 2008
CE April:Layout 1 3/7/08 12:06 PM Page 51

Welding in Aircraft and Aerospace Conf. Sept. 16, 17, Seattle,

Wash. Contact American Welding Society (800/305) 443-9353,
ext. 455, or visit

Canadian Manufacturing Week Metal Finishing Expo. Sept.

2325. Intl Centre, Toronto, Canada. Society of Mfg. Engineers.
Call (313) 425-3187, or visit

Guangzhou Intl Trade Fair for Moldmaking and Tooling, De-

sign, and Application Development. Sept. 2426, Guangzhou
Intl Convention & Exhibition Center, Guangzhou, China. Visit

FABTECH International & AWS Welding Show. Oct. 68, Las

Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. This show is the largest
event in North America dedicated to showcasing the full spectrum
of metal forming, fabricating, tube and pipe, welding equipment,
and technology. Contact: American Welding Society, (800/305)
443-9353, ext. 455; or visit

Intl Thermal Spray Assn. Conf. Oct. 6, 7, Las Vegas Conven-

tion Center, Las Vegas, Nev. In conjunction with the FABTECH
International & AWS Welding Show. Contact: American Welding
Society, (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 455; or visit

Thermal Cutting Conf. Oct. 6, Las Vegas Convention Center,

Las Vegas, Nev. In conjunction with the FABTECH International
& AWS Welding Show. Contact: American Welding Society,
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 455; or visit
New Nondestructive Testing Technologies Conf. Oct. 7, Las
Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. In conjunction with
the FABTECH International & AWS Welding Show. Contact:
American Welding Society, (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 455; or visit For info go to

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Page 52:FP_TEMP 3/6/08 5:42 PM Page 52

AWS Certification Schedule

Certification Seminars, Code Clinics and Examinations
Application deadlines are six weeks before the scheduled seminar or exam. Late applications will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee.
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) 9-Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI
Oklahoma City, OK May 18-23 May 24 Pittsburgh, PA May 19-24 NO EXAM
Birmingham, AL May 18-23 May 24 San Diego, CA Jun. 9-14 NO EXAM
Long Beach, CA EXAM ONLY May 31 Orlando, FL Sept. 8-13 NO EXAM
Hartford, CT Jun. 1-6 Jun. 7 Dallas, TX Oct. 20-25 NO EXAM
Pittsburgh, PA Jun. 1-6 Jun. 7 Miami, FL Dec. 1-6 NO EXAM
Fargo, ND Jun. 1-6 Jun. 7 For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education requirements without
taking the exam. If needed, recertification exam can be taken at any site listed
New Orleans, LA Jun. 1-6 Jun. 7 under Certified Welding Inspector.
Sacramento, CA Jun. 8-13 Jun. 14
Kansas City, MO Jun. 8-13 Jun. 14 Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)
Phoenix, AZ Jun. 22-27 Jun. 28 Columbus, OH May 19-23 May 24
Orlando, FL Jun. 22-27 Jun. 28 Minneapolis, MN Jun. 23-27 Jun. 28
Miami, FL EXAM ONLY Jul.17 Atlanta, GA Jul. 14-18 Jul. 19
Philadelphia, PA Aug. 18-22 Aug. 23
Los Angeles, CA Jul. 13-18 Jul. 19
Atlanta, GA Sept. 15-19 Sept. 20
Louisville, KY Jul. 13-18 Jul. 19 Tulsa, OK Oct. 20-24 Oct. 25
Corpus Christi, TX EXAM ONLY Jul. 19 Atlanta, GA Nov. 17-21 Nov. 22
Beaumont, TX Jul. 20-25 Jul. 26 Long Beach, CA Dec. 8-12 Dec. 13
Milwaukee, WI Jul. 20-25 Jul. 26 CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.
Cleveland, OH Jul 27-Aug. 1 Aug. 2
Denver, CO Jul 27-Aug. 1 Aug. 2 Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
Philadelphia, PA Jul 27-Aug. 1 Aug. 2 LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Miami, FL Aug. 3-8 Aug. 9 Nashville, TN May 19-23 May 24
San Diego, CA Aug. 3-8 Aug. 9 Manchester, NH Jun. 9-13 Jun. 14
Charlotte, NC Aug. 10-15 Aug. 16 St. Louis, MO Aug. 18-22 Aug. 23
San Antonio, TX Aug. 10-15 Aug. 16 Denver, CO Sept. 15-19 Sept. 20
Rochester, NY EXAM ONLY Aug. 16 Philadelphia, PA Oct. 20-24 Oct. 25
Bakersfield, CA Aug. 17-22 Aug. 23 Seattle, WA Nov. 17-21 Nov. 22
Portland, ME Aug. 17-22 Aug. 23 Jacksonville, FL Dec. 8-12 Dec. 13
Salt Lake City, UT Aug. 17-22 Aug. 23 Radiographic Interpreter certification can be a stand-alone credential or
Houston, TX Sept. 7-12 Sept. 13 can exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Pittsburgh, PA Sept. 7-12 Sept. 13 Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Seattle, WA Sept. 7-12 Sept. 13 Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Miami, FL EXAM ONLY Sept. 18 Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the
Las Vegas, NV Sept. 14-19 Sept. 20 Code Clinic portion of the seminar (usually first two days).
Minneapolis, MN Sept. 14-19 Sept. 20
St. Louis, MO Sept. 14-19 Sept. 20 Senior Certified Welding Inspector (SCWI)
Corpus Christi, TX EXAM ONLY Sept. 20 Exam can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding
Anchorage, AK EXAM ONLY Sept. 20 Inspector. No preparatory seminar is offered.
Miami, FL Oct. 19-24 Oct. 25 Code Clinics & Individual Prep Courses
New Orleans, LA Oct. 19-24 Oct. 25 The following workshops are offered at all sites where the CWI
Tulsa, OK Oct. 19-24 Oct. 25 seminar is offered (code books not included with individual prep
Long Beach, CA Oct. 26-31 Nov. 1 courses): Welding Inspection Technology (general knowledge and
Newark, NJ Oct. 26-31 Nov. 1 prep course for CWI Exam-Part A); Visual Inspection Workshop
Portland, OR Oct. 26-31 Nov. 1 (prep course for CWI Exam-Part B); and D1.1 and API-1104
Cleveland, OH Nov. 2-7 Nov. 8 Code Clinics (prep courses for CWI Exam-Part C).
Atlanta, GA Nov. 16-21 Nov. 22
Dallas, TX Nov. 16-21 Nov. 22 On-site Training and Examination
Roanoke, VA Nov. 16-21 Nov. 22 On-site training is available for larger groups or for programs
Corpus Christi, TX EXAM ONLY Nov. 22 customized to meet specific needs of a company. Call ext. 219 for
Sacramento, CA Nov. 30-Dec. 5 Dec. 6 more information.
Spokane, WA Nov. 30-Dec. 5 Dec. 6
Syracuse, NY Nov. 30-Dec. 5 Dec. 6 International CWI Courses and Exams
St. Louis, MO Nov. 30-Dec. 5 Dec. 6 Please contact international seminar & testing locations directly.
Miami, FL EXAM ONLY Dec. 13
Reno, NV Dec. 7-12 Dec. 13 Mexico City, Mexico* EXAM ONLY Jul. 4
Mexico City, Mexico* EXAM ONLY Nov. 7
Monterrey, Mexico** Jul. 7-11 Jul. 12
For information on any of our seminars and certification programs, Monterrey, Mexico** Nov. 3-7 Nov. 8
visit our website at or contact AWS at (800/305)
443-9353, Ext. 273 for Certification and Ext. 455 for Seminars. Please Sao Paulo, Brazil*** EXAM ONLY Sept. 6
apply early to save Fast Track fees. This schedule is subject to change * Contact
without notice. Please verify the dates with the Certification Dept. and ** Contact
*** Contact
confirm your course status before making final travel plans.

AWS 2008 CER1324-4

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:54 PM Page 53


Annual Officers Transition

Ceremony Held in Miami

ene E. Lawson was officially in-

G troduced as AWS president for

2008 at the transition ceremony
held February 8 at AWS headquarters in
Miami, Fla. Fig. 1. Lawson spoke of
the business travel he has already under-
taken as part of his new role. We have
been home a total of a week since the first
of the year, he said, referring to how
busy he and his wife, Bette, have been. So
far, they have traveled to Chennai, India,
for Weld India 2008; Longboat Key, Fla.,
for the 12th annual Welding Equipment
Manufacturers Committee (WEMCO)
meeting; and Mexico City for the AWS-
sponsored Weldmex show.
Lawson said, Weve been over-
whelmed with the love that people show Fig. 1 Gerald Uttrachi (left), 2007 AWS
for the visiting dignitary from the Amer- president, presents Gene Lawson, incom- Fig. 2 Osvaldo (Ozzie) Rodriguez (right)
ican Welding Society. Its humbling. ing president, with his presidential ring. is congratulated by Ray Shook, AWS exec-
Gerald Uttrachi, outgoing AWS pres- ordinaire. Rodriguez fixes broken chairs, utive director, for earning the Michael A.
ident, spoke about his time served as lights, and flat tires; runs errands; sets up Rowland Employee of the Year Award.
president. Ultimately, when I added it and breaks down the classroom; hangs
up, I delivered 20 domestic talks, includ-
ing a couple hours at Ohio State, and in
pictures; paints; fixes plumbing; re-
arranges offices (etc., etc., etc.). Shook
WEMCO Welcomes
nine countries. My wife Christine and I said, On behalf of the employees and Incoming Chair
were never treated better than we were our volunteers, we congratulate you on
internationally, he said. Included among this prestigious award. Weve gotten
their travels were venues in Peru, South pretty spoiled here at AWS, and we would
Korea, and China. be lost without Ozzie.
Ray Shook, AWS executive director, As part of his award, Rodriguez re-
and Gerald Uttrachi presented the ceived $1000; a gift certificate for dinner
Michael A. Rowland Employee of the for two at an area restaurant; a desig-
Year Award to Osvaldo (Ozzie) Ro- nated parking space; and a commemora-
driguez Fig. 2. The award recognizes tive engraved clock.
an AWS employee who demonstrates ex- John L. Mendoza, attending with his
ceptional service or makes outstanding wife, Nora, was formally installed for his
contributions to the Society, as nomi- first term as an AWS vice president
nated by his/her peers. Rodriguez, who Fig. 3.
joined the AWS staff in 1980, was cited Wayne Carter, representing Miami-
as a very important part of AWS opera- Dade County Mayor Carlos Alvarez, pre- Shown at the Welding Equipment Manu-
tions. He strives to keep 98+ people com- sented a proclamation declaring Febru- facturers Committee (WEMCO) annual
fortable in their work environment. ary 8 as American Welding Society Day meeting, held Jan. 2426 in Longboat Key,
Originally hired as a warehouse shipping in the county Fig. 4. Fla., Chairman Robert Roth (left) receives
helper, he has evolved over the years into Carter said, I would like to congrat- a commemorative plaque from incoming
a building maintenance superman extra- ulate the Society for the pioneering ef- Chair Dennis Brown. Roth is president and
CEO of RoMan Mfg. Co., Grand Rapids,
Mich., and Brown is VP national acccounts
KRISTIN CAMPBELL ( is assistant editor of the Welding Journal. for Weiler Corp., Cresco, Pa.

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:55 PM Page 54

Economist Addresses
WEMCO Meeting

Fig. 4 Wayne Carter (left) presents Presi-

Fig. 3 John Mendoza (right) is introduced dent Lawson with a proclamation designat-
by Executive Director Ray Shook on begin- ing February 8 as American Welding Soci-
ning his first term as an AWS vice president. ety Day.

fort that they have consistently done over Attending were Ron Pierce, Founda-
the years. The principles, the work ethic tion chair; William Rice, vice president-
that they have embraced, and they have elect; Damian Kotecki, past president;
endured and persevered with, have obvi- Earl Lipphardt, treasurer; Victor Well-known economist Alan Beaulieu pre-
ously been a success for them. I urge you Matthews and John Bruskotter, vice pres- sented his popular and entertaining Eco-
to continue embracing those principles. idents; Neal Chapman, District 6 direc- nomic Forecast at the Welding Equipment
We thank you for the contributions that tor; Mace Harris, District 15 director; Manufacturers Committee (WEMCO) an-
you have made not just here in Miami- Dean Wilson, director-at-large; and the nual meeting. Beaulieu is with the Institute
Dade County but to industry worldwide. AWS staff members. for Trend Research,Concord, N.H.

Tech Topics

Highlights of the Duplex Stainless Steel Pipe Welding Guide


he AWS D10Y Subcommittee on A high-quality root pass weld in duplex Guide includes a list of commonly used

T Duplex Pipe Welding has com-

pleted its work on the Guide for Fer-
ritic/Austenitic Duplex Stainless Steel Pip-
stainless steels is essential for ensuring
structural strength and corrosion resist-
ance. The Guide gives considerable atten-
duplex filler metals.
The heat from welding may generate
detrimental phases, such as sigma, that in
ing and Tubing, and has recently released tion to automatic and orbital root pass turn can reduce the corrosion-resistance
it for publication. welding to provide defect-free welds with and mechanical properties. Measures to
The duplex stainless steels are finding the desired dimensional requirements. reduce sigma are addressed in the Guide.
increased use in industry where their good Typical joint designs for various wall thick- The importance of heat input control of
corrosion resistance and high mechanical ness are included. The importance of heat the root and hot pass on corrosion resist-
strength properties can offer advantages input control of the root and hot pass on ance are illustrated, and suggested con-
over the alternate alloys. However, the corrosion resistance is also illustrated and trol guides offered. Corrosion tests of du-
metallurgy of the duplex stainless steels suggested guides offered. plex welds are often a requirement and
is significantly different from the more The important need to maintain a specimen preparation can be a critical fac-
commonly used austenitic chromium- proper ferrite-austenite balance in the tor. This area and corrosion test parame-
nickel stainless steels, and these differ- weldment and measures to control this ters are also presented.
ences must be considered in order to make balance through methods such as shield- Individuals interested in welding fer-
quality pipe and tube welds. The Guide ing gas composition are covered. ritic/austenitic duplex stainless steel pip-
explains these metallurgical differences The correct weld ferrite-austenite bal- ing and tubing will find this Guide most
and modifications needed to develop suc- ance can also be achieved by using a helpful and should consider adding it to
cessful welding procedures. nickel-enriched filler metal. The new their technical libraries.

RICHARD E. AVERY ( is D10Y Subcommittee chairman and consultant to the Nickel Institute; and BARBARA K.
HENON, PhD, is manager technical publications at Arc Machines, Inc.

54 APRIL 2008
Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:55 PM Page 55

New Standards Projects C3.3:200X, Recommended Practices for

Development work has begun on the the Design, Manufacture, and Examination Errata A5.22
following two revised standards. Persons of Critical Brazed Components. $31.00. Re-
affected by these standards are invited to view expired 3/24/08. AWS A5.22-95 (R2005), Specifica-
contribute to their development. Contact tion for Stainless Steel Electrodes for
the staff engineer listed with the docu- D8.14M:200X, Specification for Auto- Flux Cored Arc Welding and Stainless
ment. Participation on AWS technical motive Weld Quality Arc Welding of Alu- Steel Flux Cored Rods for Gas Tung-
committees and subcommittees is open to minum. $30.50. Review expired 2/25/08. sten Arc Welding.
all persons.
D10.7M/D10.7:200X, Guide for the The following errata have been
B2.1-22-015:200X, Standard Welding Gas Shielded Arc Welding of Aluminum identified and corrected in current
Procedure Specification for Gas Tungsten and Aluminum Alloy Pipe. $25. Review ex- reprints of this document.
Arc Welding of Aluminum (M/P/S 22 to pires 4/14/08. Page 2, Table 1: Change content of
M/P/S 22), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As- N from 0.082.0 to 0.080.20
Welded Condition, with or without Back- ISO Standards for Public Review for AWS Classification E2209T0-X.
ing. This standard contains the essential Copies of the following two draft in-
welding variables for aluminum in the ternational standards are available for re-
thickness range of 10- through 18-gauge view and comment through your national
using manual GTAW. It cites the base met- standards body, which in the United States
is ANSI, 25 W. 43rd St., Fourth Floor, New
als and operating conditions necessary to
make the weldment, the filler metal spec- York, NY, 10036; (212) 642-4900. Send Tech Want Ads
ifications, and the allowable joint designs any comments regarding these documents
for fillet welds and groove welds. Stake- to your national standards body. C5 Committee: Arc
holders are welders and shops. Contact In the United States, if you wish to par- Welding and Cutting
Selvis Morales, ext. 313. ticipate in the development of interna-
tional standards for welding, contact An-
C3.3:200X, Recommended Practices for drew Davis, (305) 443-9353, ext. 466, The AWS C5 Committee on Arc
the Design, Manufacture, and Examination Welding and Cutting seeks volunteers
of Critical Brazed Components. This stan- to assist in the preparation of recom-
dard lists the necessary steps to ensure the ISO/DIS 5173, Destructive tests on mended practices for all of the widely
suitability of brazed components for criti- welds in metallic materials Bend tests. used arc welding and cutting
cal applications. Although such applica- processes. Much of the content of the
tions vary widely, they have certain com- ISO/DIS 18592, Resistance welding AWS Welding Handbook on arc weld-
mon considerations with respect to mate- Destructive test of welds Method for the ing and cutting processes is taken from
rials, design, manufacture, and inspection. fatigue testing of multi-spot-welded these C5 recommended practices. To
It is the intent of this document to iden- specimens. learn more about this committees
tify and explain these common considera- work, contact John Gayler, (800) 443-
tions and the best techniques for dealing New Standard Approved by ANSI 9353, ext. 472;
with them. It is beyond the scope of this D10.18M/D10.18:2008, Guide for
document to provide specific details on Welding Ferritic/Austenitic Duplex Stainless
these techniques that the user must adapt Steel Piping and Tubing. Approved 1/23/08. J1 Committee:
to fit each particular application. Stake-
holders are brazing engineers, educators, Technical Committee Meetings
Resistance Welding
general interest groups, etc. Contact All AWS technical committee meet-
Stephen Borrero, ext. 334. ings are open to the public. Persons wish- Share your expertise by contributing
ing to attend a meeting should contact the to the development of AWS standards.
staff secretary shown. Call (800/305) 443- Volunteers are needed by the J1 Com-
Standards for Public Review 9353. mittee on Resistance Welding Equip-
AWS was approved as an accredited April 8, C1 Committee on Resistance ment to help prepare standards re-
standards-preparing organization by the Welding. Novi, Mich. Annette Alonso, lated to RW consumables, compo-
American National Standards Institute ext. 299. nents, and machinery. Contact An-
(ANSI) in 1979. AWS rules, as approved April 8, D8 Committee on Automotive nette Alonso, (800) 443-9353, ext. 299;
by ANSI, require that all standards be Welding. Novi, Mich. Annette Alonso,
open to public review for comment dur- ext. 299.
ing the approval process. The five revised April 2325, D14 Committee on Ma-
standards listed have been submitted for chinery and Equipment and Subcommit- D1I Subcommittee:
public review. Draft copies may be ob-
tained from Rosalinda ONeill, (800/305)
tees. Nashville, Tenn. Kim Plank, ext. 215.
May 1, J1 Committee on Resistance
Reinforcing Bars
443-9353, ext. 451, Welding Equipment. Bowling Green, Ky. Volunteers are sought to serve on
A3.0/A3.0M:200X, Standard Welding Annette Alonso, ext. 299. the D1I Subcommittee on Reinforc-
Terms and Definitions. $102. Review ex- May 57, A2B Subcommittee on Defi- ing Bars. This subcommittee is cur-
pires 4/14/08. nitions. Cincinnati, Ohio. Annette rently revising D1.4, Structural Weld-
Alonso, ext. 299. ing Code Reinforcing Steel. To learn
A5.01M/A5.01:200X (ISO 14344:2002 May 57, A2C Subcommittee on Sym- more about this committees work,
MOD), Procurement Guidelines for Con- bols. Cincinnati, Ohio. Annette Alonso, contact Selvis Morales, (800) 443-
sumables Welding and Allied Processes ext. 299. 9353, ext. 313;
Flux and Gas Shielded Electrical Weld- May 7, A2 Committee on Definitions
ing Processes. $32.50. Review expired and Symbols. Cincinnati, Ohio. Annette
3/24/08. Alonso, ext. 299.

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:56 PM Page 56

R. Briddell, St. Louis 14

Member-Get-A-Member Campaign H. Browne, New Jersey 14
T. Geisler, Pittsburgh 14
C. Overfelt, SW Virginia 14
A. Stute, Madison-Beloit 14
isted are the members participating T. Lowe, Northwest Ohio 4 A. Wyatt, Holston Valley 13

L in the 20072008 AWS Member-

Get-A-Member Campaign for the
period between June 1, 2007, and May 31,
L. Garner, Mobile 3
C. Gilbert, East Texas 3
P. Hanley, Peoria 3
R. Munns, Utah 12
T. Buchanan, Mid-Ohio Valley 11
M. Rotary, Detroit 11
2008. For campaign rules and a prize list, T. Nielsen, Pittsburgh 3 J. Compton, San Fernando Valley 10
see page 67 of this Welding Journal. Stand- Presidents Honor Roll D. Lynn, Ozark 10
ings are as of 2/18/2008. If you have any AWS Members sponsoring 1 or 2 new R. Tully, San Francisco 10
questions regarding your member pro- Individual Members. Only those sponsor- P. Bedel, Indiana 9
poser points, call the Membership Depart- ing 2 AWS Individual Members are listed. R. Hutchinson, Long Beach/Or. Cty. 9
ment, (800) 443-9353, ext. 480. M. Beaton, North Texas D. Williams, North Texas 9
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley A. Badeaux, Washington D.C. 8
Winners Circle D. Daugherty, Indiana W. Komlos, Utah 8
Members who have sponsored 20 or R. Gaffney, Tulsa D. Kowalski, Pittsburgh 8
more new Individual Members, per year, W. Galvery Jr., Long Beach/Or. County M. Legel, Maine 8
since June 1, 1999. The superscript indi- H. Jackson, L.A/Inland Empire J. McCarty, St. Louis 8
cates the number of times the member has C. Johnson, Northern Plains C. Schiner, Wyoming Section 8
achieved Winners Circle status. J. Johnson, Northern Plains T. Smith, Utah 8
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley7 D. Landon, Iowa J. Boyer, Lancaster 7
E. Ezell, Mobile5 S. Leighton, Louisville H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley 7
J. Merzthal, Peru2 J. McCarty, St. Louis L. Smerglia, Cleveland 7
G. Taylor, Pascagoula2 T. Moffitt, Tulsa T. Strickland, Arizona 7
B. Mikeska, Houston1 J. Nieto, Corpus Christi W. Troutman, Cleveland 7
R. Peaslee, Detroit1 F. Schmidt, Niagara Frontier D. Vranich, North Florida 7
W. Shreve, Fox Valley1 T. Snider, Mobile D. Zabel, SE Nebraska 7
M. Karagoulis, Detroit1 A. Sumal, British Columbia J. Boyer, Lancaster 6
S. McGill, NE Tennessee1 J. Truitt, San Diego J. Cox, Spokane 6
L. Taylor, Pascagoula1 R. Wright, San Antonio B. Hallila, New Orleans 6
T. Weaver, Johnstown/Altoona1 P. Zammit, Spokane E. Norman, Ozark 6
G. Woomer, Johnstown/Altoona1 Student Member Sponsors T. Shirk, Tidewater 6
R. Wray, Nebraska1 Members sponsoring 3 or more new B. Wenzel, San Francisco 6
M. Haggard, Inland Empire1 AWS Student Members. P. Carney Jr., Lehigh Valley 5
Presidents Guild S. Siviski, Maine 45 B. Hardin, San Francisco 5
Members sponsoring 20 or more new D. Berger, New Orleans 38 R. Hilty, Pittsburgh 5
Individual Members. M. Reiter, Columbus 36 L. Taylor, Pascagoula 5
L. Taylor, Pascagoula 94 G. Euliano, Northwestern Pa. 34 J. Angelo, El Paso 4
E. Ezell, Mobile 20 R. Evans, Siouxland 34 J. Craiger, Indiana 4
Presidents Roundtable T. Zablocki, Pittsburgh 28 G. Ellar, Detroit 4
AWS Members sponsoring 919 new M. Anderson, Indiana 26 S. Hansen, SE Nebraska 4
Individual Members. N. Goncalo, Milwaukee 21 R. Ledford Jr., Birmingham 4
J. Sanchez, Cuautitlan Izcalli 9 G. Smith, Lehigh Valley 20 R. Olesky, Pittsburgh 4
Presidents Club J. Daugherty Louisville 19 R. Richwine, Indiana 4
AWS Members sponsoring 38 new In- G. Seese, Johnstown-Altoona 19 S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley 4
dividual Members. B. Yarrison, York-Central Pa. 19 C. Rossi, Washington, D.C. 4
R. Cook, Utah 8 J. Kacir, Detroit 18 C. Yaeger, Northeastern Carolina 4
S. Christensen, Nebraska 7 C. Kipp, Lehigh Valley 18 N. Carlson, Idaho/Montana 3
R. Ellenbecker, Fox Valley 7 D. Ketler, Willamette Valley 17 J. Crosby, Altanta 3
A. Castro, South Florida 6 M. Arand, Louisville 16 A. Kitchens, Olympic Section 3
D. Wright, Kansas City 6 J. Ciaramitaro, N. Central Florida 16 W. Galvery Jr., Long Beach/Or. Cty. 3
V. Raloff, J.A.K. 5 C. Donnell, Northwest Ohio 15 J. Geesey, Pittsburgh 3
P. Johnson, Houston 4 T. Moore, New Orleans 15 R. Purvis, Sacramento 3
K. Kotter, Utah 4 D. Roskiewich, Philadelphia 15 R. Wahrman, Triangle 3

Nominees Sought for Robotic Arc Welding Awards

ominations are solicited for the LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126. For more botic arc welding. This work can include

N 2009 Robotic and Automatic Arc

Welding Award. December 31 is
the deadline for submitting nominations.
information, contact Reeve, or call (800/305) 443-
9353, ext. 293.
at the introduction of new technologies, es-
tablishment of the proper infrastructure
(training, service, etc.) to enable success,
The nomination packet should include In 2004, the AWS D16 Robotic and and any other activity having significantly
a summary statement of the candidates Automatic Arc Welding Committee, with improved the state of a company and/or
accomplishments, interests, educational the approval of the AWS Board of Direc- industry. The Robotic Arc Welding
background, professional experience, tors, established the Robotic and Auto- Award is funded by private contributions.
publications, honors, and awards. Send matic Arc Welding Award. The award was This award is presented during the
your nomination package to Wendy Sue created to recognize individuals for their FABTECH International & AWS Weld-
Reeve, awards coordinator, 550 NW significant achievements in the area of ro- ing Show held each fall.

56 APRIL 2008
Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:56 PM Page 57


Shown at the Green & White Mountains Section vendors night program are (from left) Jerry Ouellette, Ernie Plumb, Jim Reid, Adam Fal-
lon, Gary Buckley, John Steel, Bill McKone, Geoff Putnam, Chair Ray Hendersen, Dean Donovan, Chris Bremer, Chuck Sarcia, Joe De-
Coste, Phil Wittman, Ken Alrich, instructor Rich Fuller, Gordon Snyder, John Erasseur, and Tom Ferri, Boston Section chairman.

District 1
Director: Russ Norris
Phone: (603) 433-0855

Activity: The Sections executive board
met at Artisan Industries in Waltham,
Mass. In attendance were District 1 Di-
rector Russ Norris, Chairman Tom Ferri,
Laurie Jones, Carl Richardson, Rick
Moody, Jack Paige, Gary Hyland, Jim
Reid, Bob Lavoie, and Jim Shore.


Activity: The Section hosted its first ven- Shown at the Boston Section board meeting are (seated, from left) Laurie Jones, Carl
dors night at River Valley Technical Cen- Richardson, and Rick Moody; (back row, from left) Jack Paige, Gary Hyland, Jim Reid,
ter in Springfield, Vt. Rich Fuller, head Chair Tom Ferri, Bob Lavoie, and Jim Shore.
welding instructor, hosted the event. Par-
ticipating vendors included Arc One, Hy-
pertherm, Lincoln, Miller, Thermal Dy-
namics, and J. Walter. The Section plans
to make vendors night an annual event.

Activity: The Green & White Mountains
Section members and CWI Geoff Putnam
judged the test pieces welded by Vermont
students in preparation for their Skills-
USA trials. Larry Kirchoff was presented
the District Educator Award by Russ Nor-
ris, District 1 director.

JANUARY 24 Ray Hendersen (left) receives his chair- Larry Kirchoff (left) receives the District Ed-
Activity: The Section hosted its third an- mans pin from Russ Norris, District 1 di- ucator Award from Russ Norris, District 1
nual vendors night program at Southern rector, at the January Green & White Moun- director, at the February meeting of the
Maine Community College in South Port- tains Section program. Green & White Mountains Section.

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:57 PM Page 58

Shown at the Maine Section program are (from left) Kevin Conley, Art Gallant, Nick Dimastrantonio, Boston Section Chair Tom Ferri,
Chris Bremer, Maine Section Chair Scott Lee, Chuck Sarcia, Gil Lajeunesse, Howard Lunt, Dean Donovan, and presenter Mark Legel.
land. Mark Legel, head instructor, coor-
dinated the program and conducted a
tour of his metal fabrication shop. Arthur
S. Gallant received his Silver Member-
ship Certificate for 25 years of service to
the Society. The vendors exhibiting their
wares included Advantage Gases, Bosch
Tools, Hobart, Miller Electric, Pacific
Laser Systems, Smith Cutting Equip-
ment, Thermadyne, and Bremer Sales.

Activity: The Maine Section members
met with District 1 Director Russ Norris
to plan for the Maine State SkillsUSA
tests to be held in Bangor. Vice Chair
Shown at the Maine Section SkillsUSA planning session in February are (front row, from Tom Cormier and Jeff Fields, Maine
left) Chairman Scott Lee, District 1 Director Russ Norris, Art Gallant, and Secretary Mike SkillsUSA test co-chairmen, discussed
Gendron. Back row, from left, are Adam Fallon, Vice Chair Tom Cormier, Bob Bernier, Jeff the project then assigned jobs to each at-
Fields, Fran Piccirillo, and Ray Roy. tendee to be completed by March 13. The
meeting was held at Verrillos Restaurant
in Portland, Maine.

District 2
Director: Kenneth R. Stockton
Phone: (732) 787-0805

Speaker: Frank Babish, technical mar-
keting and product manager
Affiliation: Sandvik Steel Co.
Arthur Gallant (left) receives his Silver Topic: How to weld the various alloys of
Membership Certificate from Russ Norris, Brian Nowell, a long-time supporter of the stainless steel
District 1 director, at the January Maine New Jersey Section, is shown at the Janu- Activity: The meeting was held in Moun-
Section program. ary meeting. tainside, N.J.

Nominees Solicited for Prof. Koichi Masubuchi Award

ovember 3, 2008, is the deadline velopment. The candidate must be 40 from researchers.

N for submiting nominations for the

2009 Prof. Koichi Masubuchi
Award, sponsored by the Dept. of Ocean
years old or younger, may live anywhere
in the world, and need not be an AWS
member. The nominations should be pre-
This award was established to recog-
nize Prof. Koichi Masubuchi for his nu-
merous contributions to the advancement
Engineering at Massacuusetts Institute pared by someone familar with the re- of the science and technoogy of welding,
of Technology. It is presented each year search background of the candidate. In- especially in the fields of fabricating ma-
to one person who has made significant clude a rsum listing background, expe- rine and outer space structures.
contributions to the advancement of ma- rience, publications, honors, awards, plus Submit your nominations to Prof. John
terials joining through research and de- a least three letters of recommendation DuPont at

58 APRIL 2008
Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:57 PM Page 59

Shown at the February New Jersey Section program are award winners (from left) Steve Dagnall, Al Fleury, Don Smith, George Sheehan,
Sean Bradley, and Sean Mitchell.

Frank Babish (left) receives a speaker ap-

Speaker Ben Schiavone (left) chats with Harry Ebert was the featured speaker at the preciation gift from Bob Petrone, New Jer-
Philadelphia Section Chair John DiSantis. New Jersey Section program in February. sey Section awards chairman.

Speaker: Harry Ebert, consultant, weld-
ing engineer
Topic: Discussion of welding terminology
Activity: This New Jersey Section awards-
presentation meeting honored Steve Dag-
nall, Section Appreciation Award; Al
Fleury, Section Meritorious Award; Don
Smith, District Educator Award; George
Sheehan, Section Educator of the Year
Award; Sean Bradley, Section Meritori-
ous Award; and Sean Mitchell, District
Private Sector Award.

Speaker: Ben Schiavone, president
Affiliation: Schiavone Electronics Labs Shown are the students who participated in the Lehigh Valley Sections 38th annual weld-
Topic: NASCAR welding and NDE ing competition.
Activity: The program was held in Ess-
ington, Pa., at Ramada Inn.

District 3
Director: Alan J. Badeaux Sr.
Phone: (301) 753-1759
Activity: The Section hosted its 38th an-
nual student welding competition at
Bethlehem Area Vocational Technical
School in Bethlehem, Pa. Seven area Shown at the joint York-Central Pennsylvania and Lancaster Sections program are (from
schools each provided two students for left) Ed Calaman, York-Central Pa. Section Chairman Dave Herr, speaker Matt Reiff,
the event. The competitors were Amir Dean Whitmer, and Mike Bunnell.

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:58 PM Page 60

Shown are the attendees at the joint York-Central Pennsylvania and Lancaster Sections program held at Precision Custom Components.

District 4
Director: Roy C. Lanier
Phone: (252) 321-4285

Speaker: Bill Wallace, senior account rep-
Affiliation: 3M Occupational Health and
Environmental Safety division
Topic: Hexavalent chromium safety stan-
dards affecting the welding industry
Activity: The program was held in
Roanoke, Va.

April 17: Golf outing, Ron Davis, organ-
Several Student Chapter members are izer.
shown with their instructor Josh Seitzer and Dave Averyt displayed his blacksmithing May 15: Fish fry at Ft. Monroe, shelter 5.
presenters Tom Murphy and Dave Muro at skills for the Atlanta Section members. Sept. 11: Fall kickoff picnic.
the York-Central Pennsylvania Section Oct. 9: Scott Nelson, speaker.
meeting. Contact: Jon Cookson, chair, (757) 865-
Speaker: Matt Reiff, welding engineer
Affiliation: Welding Alloys USA
Topic: Metal cored stainless steel subarc
welding wires District 5
Director: Steve Mattson
Activity: This joint meeting with mem-
bers of the Lancaster Section was held at Phone: (904) 260-6040
Precision Custom Components LLC in
Activity: The Section members observed
YORK-CENTRAL PA. Dave Averyt, senior blacksmith, use forge
FEBRUARY 7 welding to create a variety of objects. He
Activity: The Section members met at presented his techniques in a step-by-step
Shown at the York-Central Pennsylvania York County School of Technology in process to give a better understanding of
Section program in February are Chairman York, Pa., for a demonstration of pipe his art. The meeting was held at Lanier
Dave Herr (center), with presenters Tom welding. Tom Murphy and Dave Muro Technical College in Winder, Ga.
Murphy (left) and Dave Muro. of Pipefitters Local #520, Harrisburg,
Pa., performed the demonstrations, ex-
Ammary, Michael Kozlowski, Tyler Bag- plained the proper techniques to use, FLORIDA WEST COAST
gitt, Corey Virnelson, Dylan Morris, then offered attendees to try their hand FEBRUARY 13
Charles Nichols, Ronnie Bellscheidt, at welding pipe. On hand were welding Activity: Twenty-five Section members
Jake Amelio, Ryan McCollum, Kyle instructor Josh Seitzer and a number of and guests toured Lazzara Yachts fabri-
Rohner, Cody Reiss, Bryon Millham, Student Chapter members who displayed cation facility in Tampa, Fla. All phases
Rich Hoffman, and Eddie Izykowicz. some of their welding projects. of yacht building were studied, high-

60 APRIL 2008
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Florida West Coast Section members and guests are shown during their tour of the Lazzara Yachts fabrication facility.

Shown during the South Carolina Section tour of ESAB are (from left) Odell Haselden, Michael Schenk conducted the Florida
John Letki, David McLain, Nathan Carter, past AWS President Gerald Uttrachi, Joe De- West Coast Section members and guests on
Vito, and Homer Spaulding. a tour of Lazzara Yachts in Tampa, Fla.

lighted by a visit to a $6-million yacht in

Tampa Bay. Michael Schenk, general
manager, conducted the program.

Activity: The Section members toured
the ESAB Welding & Cutting Systems fa-
cilities in Florence, S.C. Tim Mayhan,
plant manager, conducted the tour and Shown at the Niagara Frontier Section pro-
demonstrations of aluminum friction stir gram are (from left) speaker Tim Herzog,
welding, robotic arc welding, aluminum Chairman Mark Dryjka, Wesley Czaj- Columbus Section Chair Kevin Clear (left)
gas tungsten arc, and pulse on pulse alu- kowski, and Howard Johns. is shown with speaker David Dickinson.
minum gas metal arc welding. Gerald Ut-
trachi, past AWS president, attended the N.Y. Brewery owner Tim Herzog con- held at Mill Road Restaurant & Tavern
program. ducted the program. in Latham, N.Y., was attended by 52
members and guests.


District 6 FEBRUARY 5
Speaker: Jeff Bernath, welding research
District 7
Director: Don Howard
Director: Neal A. Chapman
engineer Phone: (814) 269-2895
Phone: (315) 349-6960
Affiliation: Edison Welding Institute
Topic: Fundamentals of friction stir weld- COLUMBUS
NIAGARA FRONTIER ing and applications in production JANUARY 17
JANUARY 22 Activity: This was a joint meeting with Speaker: David Dickinson, professor
Activity: The Section members toured members of the Eastern New York Chap- emeritus, welding engineering
the Flying Bisons Brewery in Buffalo, ter of ASM International. The program, Affiliation: The Ohio State University

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:58 PM Page 62

Shown are the attendees at the Columbus Section program.

Richard Martukanitz (far right) led the Johnstown-Altoona Section members on a tour of
the Penn State Applied Research Lab in November. Speaker Dale Anderson (right) is shown
with Bart Sickles, Johnstown-Altoona Sec-
tion chairman, at the December program.

Speaker: George Mendez, welding and
robotics field service engineer
Affiliation: Panasonic Factory Solutions
Co. of America, Buffalo Grove, Ill.
Topic: Robotic digital controls and tan-
dem wire gas metal arc welding
Activity: Fifty-two Section members and
Chattanooga Section members are shown at the January program. guests met at Komatsu America Corp. in
Chattanooga, Tenn. Following the talk,
Don Russell presented background in-
JOHNSTOWN-ALTOONA formation about Komatsu, then Mendez
NOVEMBER 6 discussed robotic arc welding and expec-
Activity: The Section members toured the tations for its applications in the future.
Applied Research Laboratory at Penn The highlight of the program was a
State University in State College, Pa. demonstration of the tandem wire gas
Richard P. Martukanitz, head of the metal arc welding process.
Laser Processing Division, made a pres-
entation and guided the tour.
Speaker: Dale Anderson, metallurgical Speaker: Denny Davis, technical repre-
engineer sentative
Affiliation: Concurrent Technologies Corp. Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
George Mendez discussed robotics controls Topic: Pattern welding Topic: Latest developments in welding
and tandem wire gas metal arc welding at Activity: The event was held in Johns- technology and equipment
the Chattanooga Section program. town, Pa. Activity: The membership determined
regular meetings will be planned for the
Topic: Overview of Project Lead the Way first Tuesday night of each month. The
Activity: Members of The Ohio State
University Student Chapter attended the
program. This meeting was held at Ar-
District 8
Director: Joe Livesay
tour of American Water Heater Co. was
canceled and will be rescheduled. The
meeting was held at Golden Corral
lington Caf in Columbus, Ohio. Phone: (931) 484-7502 Restaurant in Johnson City, Tenn.

62 APRIL 2008
Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:59 PM Page 63

Speaker Denny Davis (left) is shown with

Shown at the Mobile Section program are (from left) Chairman Randy Henderson, AWS Dale Hicks, a welding instructor at Ten-
President Gene Lawson, District 9 Director George Fairbanks, and AWS Vice President nessee Technology Center, during the Hol-
John Bruskotter. ston Valley Section program.

Rodney Dufour (center) receives a sponsor

appreciation award from District 9 Direc-
tor George Fairbanks (left) and Travis
Moore, New Orleans Section chair, at the
Shown at the February New Orleans Section program are (from left) District 9 Director February program.
George Fairbanks, AWS President Gene Lawson, AWS Vice President John Bruskotter, and
Chairman Travis Moore.

District 9
Director: George D. Fairbanks
sponsor plaque in appreciation for Air-
gass support for the Sections activities.
The lucky 50/50 raffle winner was Rene
Phone: (225) 673-6600 DeShotel. Eighty members and guests at-
tended the program.
Speaker: Gene Lawson, AWS president Speaker: Gene Lawson, AWS president
Affiliation: ESAB Welding & Cutting Affiliation: ESAB Welding & Cutting
Topic: AWS updates and developments Topic: Proposed solutions to the short- Gerard Riche discussed shop gases at the
in FCAW age of welders in the United States New Orleans Section program in January.
Activity: In attendance were District 9 Activity: Rodney Dufour from Inspection
Director George Fairbanks and AWS Specialists, Inc., was presented a spon-
Vice President John Bruskotter. The pro- sor appreciation plaque for his com-
gram was held at Saucy Q Restaurant in panys support of the Sections activities.
Mobile, Ala. About 80 people attended this program
held at Inspection Specialists in New Or-
leans, La.
Speaker: Gerard Riche
Affiliation: Airgas
Topic: Compressed gases
District 10
Director: Richard A. Harris
Shown at the January New Orleans Section
program are (from left) Bruce Hallila, Rick
Activity: Rick Myer was presented the Phone: (440) 338-5921 Myer, and Chairman Travis Moore.

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:59 PM Page 64

Speaker: Dean Phillips, manager, weld-

ing engineering
Affiliation: Hobart Brothers Co.
Topic: WPS/PQR and filler metal testing
Activity: Chuck Moore received the Dis-
trict Meritorious Award. Leon Stitt was
presented the Section Meritorious
Award, and Chairman Huck Hughes re-
ceived the District Educator Award. Dis-
trict 10 Director Rich Harris made the
presentations. The program was held at
Manor Restaurant in Austintown, Ohio.

District 11
Shown at the Mahoning Valley Section program are (from left) Secretary Rich Polenick,
Chairman Huck Hughes, speaker Dean Phillips, and Rich Harris, District 10 director.
Director: Eftihios Siradakis
Phone: (989) 894-4101

Activity: The Section held its 68th annual
ladies night party at Atheneum Interna-
tional Banquet Center in Detroit, Mich.
Vice Chair Michael Karagoulis and his
wife, Lynne, hosted the event. Ladies
night has been an important activity for
the Detroit Section for nearly 70 years.
It is an opportunity for the welding com-
munity to come together for camaraderie
and celebration. Most importantly, funds
Emcees for the Detroit Sections ladies raised from the evening are used to sup-
Gordon Carlson discussed welding alloys night event were Vice Chair Michael port the Sections scholarship program.
for the Drake Well Section members. Karagoulis and his wife, Lynne. Since its inception, the Detroit Section
has raised more than $750,000 to fund
scholarships for students pursuing ca-
reers in welding. The event attracted 350

District 12
Director: Sean P. Moran
Phone: (920) 954-3828

District 13
Director: W. Richard Polanin
The Indiana Sections welding contest committee members are shown at their January Phone: (309) 694-5404
planning meeting.

Speaker: Gordon Carlson District 14
Director: Tully C. Parker
Affiliation: Eureka Welding Alloys
Topic: Tool steel electrodes and welding Phone: (618) 667-7744
Activity: The Drake Well Section library
was presented to Venango Technical Cen- INDIANA
ter with Carol Miller, adult services co- JANUARY 23
ordinator, designated as librarian. Dis- Activity: The Sections welding contest
trict 10 Director Rich Harris presented committee members met to finalize plans
Chairman Mike Owens the District Di- for three upcoming projects. Plans were
rectors Award. The program was held at set for the SkillsUSA regional contests,
Double Play Sports Bar in Oil City, Pa. the Section-sponsored Annual Mid-West
Shown at the Saskatoon Section activity are Team Welding Tournament, and the
graduate students (from left) Williams Uju, SkillsUSA Indiana state welding contest.
Songlan Yang, Wenwen Yi, and Srinivasan MAHONING VALLEY The meeting was held at Jonathan Byrds
Sethuraman. JANUARY 10 Cafeteria in Greenwood, Ind.

64 APRIL 2008
Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 5:00 PM Page 65

District 15
Director: Mace V. Harris
Phone: (952) 925-1222

Activity: The Section members partici-
pated in a graduate student seminar at
the University of Saskatchewan in Saska-
toon, Canada. Coordinated by Qiaoqin
Yang and Fang Xiang Wu, the six-hour
program included papers presented by
Songlan Yang, Heather Huenison, Shown at the Nebraska Section bowling tournament are (from left) Monty Rodgers, Vice
Williams Uju, Yang Lin, Jeffrey King, Chair Jason Hill, Secretary Nick Weidenbach, first-place team winners Jeff Rodgers and
Wenwen Yi, Nahshon Bawolin, Chris Gary Barnes, Chairman Rick Hanny, and Treasurer Karl Fogleman.
Zhang, Srinivasan Sethuraman, and
Minggan Li. The event concluded with a
holiday party hosted by the Department
of Mechanical Engineering.

District 16
Director: David Landon
Phone: (641) 621-7476
Activity: The Section members toured the
ALMACO facilities in Nevada, Iowa, to Shown at the Nebraska Section program are (from left) Vice Chair Jason Hill, Monty
study the manufacture of custom-made Rodgers, scholarship winner Kelsey Orendach, Chairman Rick Hanny, Secretary Nick Wei-
harvesters and planters for the seed corn denbach, and Treasurer Karl Fogleman.
and soybean industry. District 16 Direc-
tor David Landon attended the program.

Speaker: Mike Ross
Affiliation: Fanuc Robotics
Topic: Advancements in robotics
Activity: The meeting was held at Mas-
terpiece Barbeque in Kansas City, Mo.

JANUARY 19 North Texas Section Chair Robert Tessier Student Angela Joldin shows off the set of
Activity: The Section hosted its second (left) presents a speaker gift to Ron Weisz. leathers she won at the North Texas Sec-
annual bowling tournament fund-raising tion program.
and scholarship awards-presentation pro-
gram at Maplewood Lanes in Omaha,
Neb. Seventeen teams competed in a
District 17
Director: J. J. Jones
Scotch doubles nine-pin, no tap contest. Phone: (940) 368-3130
More than $900 was raised for the Sec-
tions scholarship program from entry
fees, lane sponsorships, and a silent auc-
tion. The Jeff Rodgers and Gary Barnes
Speaker: Ron Weisz
team from Praxair took first-place hon-
Affiliation: 3M Corp.
ors. Kelsey Orendach, a senior at West-
Topic: Welding fumes and use of respira-
side High School, was presented the post-
secondary education scholarship for
Activity: Among the 69 attendees at the
$1000. Three $250 secondary education
program were welding students from
scholarships were awarded to Noah
local schools. ATI student Joseph Heck
Banks, Anthony Caniglia, and Andy
won a power grinder, and Tarrent County
Smith. The lane sponsors for the event
College student Angela Joldin won a set
were Davis Erection Co., Ironworkers
of welding leathers.
Local 21, Linweld, Metro Community
College, Olsson Associates, Praxair Dis-
FEBRUARY 19 Welding student Joseph Heck won a power
tribution, and TSA Manufacturing Co.
Speaker: Gene Lawson, AWS president grinder at the North Texas Section meeting.

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 5:00 PM Page 66

Shown (from left) are past AWS President Ernest Levert, past Chair Howie Sifford, Dewayne Roy, AWS President Gene Lawson, District 17
Director J. Jones, Kirk Jordan, Robert Tessier, Tim Hatten, and Firdosh Mehta, past chair, Alberta, Canada, Section.

Shown at the Ozarks Section program are (front row, from left) Terry Pryor, Brent Evans, Phil Walker, and Virginia Fagan. Back row, from
left, are Kodi Pearce, Paul Holland, Ed Norman, Fred Inman, Jim Gardner, Bryan Walker, Marcia Sommer, Dennis Flattem, Joe DeWeese,
Dick Hoffman, Sean Lambeth, and John Hauswirth.

Affiliation: ESAB Welding & Cutting Activity: The Section members toured
Topic: AWS activities and future plans the newly refurbished welding show at
Activity: Robert Tessier was presented Southwest Area Career Center in Mon-
the District 17 Meritorious Award for his ett, Mo. Ed Norman, instructor and edu-
extensive contributions to the welding cation director, conducted the program.
skills competitions and his work with The Section received an appreciation
local colleges and trade schools. The Sec- award from the Joplin Chapter of the So-
tion was cited for achieving the most ciety of Manufacturing Engineers for its
membership growth in 20052006. In at- contributions to the societys scholarship
tendance were District 17 Director J. program.
Jones, past Alberta Section Chair Fir-
dosh Mehta, and past Section Chairs
Ernest Levert (who is also a past AWS
president), Howie Sifford, Dewayne Roy, TULSA
Kirk Jordan, Robert Tessier, and Tim JANUARY 22
Hatten. This North Texas Section meet- Speaker: Mike Ross, district account
ing was held at Spring Creek Barbeque manager, arc welding and lasers
in Irving, Tex. Affiliation: Fanuc Robotics America
Robert Tessier (left) receives the District Topic: Robotics for welding
Meritorious Award from J. Jones, District Activity: The program was held at the
17 director, at the North Texas program in OZARKS Lincoln Electric district sales office in
February. JANUARY 17 Tulsa, Okla.

66 APRIL 2008
Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 5:01 PM Page 69

Ozarks Section Chairman Jim Gardner

(center) displays the SME appreciation
award presented at the January meeting.
With him are Paul Holland (left) and Ed

The Tulsa Section officers are (from left) Publicity Chair Todd Fradd, Secretary Dan Law-
son, Treasurer Paul Morgan, Chairman Barry Lawrence, Vice Chairmen Don Underwood
and Jamie Pearson, and Dave Thomas, technical representative.

Shown at the Tulsa Section program are

(from left) Program Chair Jamie Pearson,
speaker Mike Ross, and Chair Barry

Shown at the Houston Section program are past chairs (back row, from left) Ron Theiss,
Dennis Eck, Ron van Arsdale, Larry Wilmesmeier, and Roy Morton; (front row, from left)
John Bartley, Robert Anderson, Robert Hunt, Christopher Bloch, Asif Latif, and John Bray,
District 18 director.

District 18
Director: John Bray
Affiliation: Affiliated Machinery, Inc.,
Topic: District 18 activities and a report
Phone: (281) 997-7273 on the recent Weldmex Show
Activity: The program was held at The Gold Membership awardees (from left) V.
HOUSTON Spaghetti Warehouse in San Antonio, C. Reed, John Bartley, and Robert Ander-
JANUARY 16 Tex. son were honored at the Houston Section
Speaker: John Lecour, contractor program.

District 19
Affiliation: NASA
Topic: The U.S. manned space program
Activity: The Section presented Gold
Membership Award certificates for 50 Director: Neil Shannon
years of service to the Society to V. C. Phone: (503) 201-5142
Reed, past AWS President John Bartley,
and Robert Anderson. Recognized were SPOKANE
past Section chairs Ron Theiss, Dennis NOVEMBER 16
Eck, Ron van Arsdale, Larry Wilmes- Activity: The Section members toured
meier, Roy Morton, John Bartley, Robert ASC Machine Tools, Inc., in Spokane,
Anderson, Robert Hunt, Christopher Wash. Rick Eiffert, fabrication supervi-
Bloch, Asif Latif, and District 18 Direc- sor, discussed the history and evolution
tor John R. Bray. of the company, then conducted a tour
of the facility.

SAN ANTONIO JANUARY 16 San Antonio Section Chair Robert Med-

FEBRUARY 13 Activity: The Spokane Section members ina (left) presents a speaker-appreciation
Speaker: John Bray, District 18 director toured the Local Ironworkers Appren- plaque to John Bray, District 18 director.

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 5:01 PM Page 70

More than 160 students and teachers from local schools attended the Spokane Section pro- Tom Lienert (left), Albuquerque Section
gram in January. chairman, presents a speaker-appreciation
gift to Fred Hooper following the tour of
Speed of Light2 in November.

District 20
Director: William A. Komlos
Phone: (801) 560-2353

Activity: The Section members met at
Speed of Light2 in Albuquerque, N.Mex.,
for a tour of the facilities and a demon-
Rick Eiffert conducted the Spokane Section Phil Zammit, a past District 19 director, stration of laser welding. Fred Hooper,
members on a tour of ASC Machine Tools spoke at the Spokane Section program in company owner, conducted the program.
in November. January.

Speaker: John Steele, professor, PE
Affiliation: Colorado School of Mines
Topic: Should You Consider Automating
Your Welding Operations?
Activity: Steele introduced his graduate
student Gunther Schwab who has since
been awarded his PhD. The program was
held at the Colorado School of Mines in
Golden, Colo.

Spokane Section Chairman Art Sabiston IDAHO/MONTANA

Nancy Carlson accepts the Section Merito- (right) and Vice Chair Terry Sanchez intro- FEBRUARY 7
rious Award from Chairman Paul Tremblay duced the speakers at the January 16 pro- Speaker: Larry Zirker, senior engineer
at the Idaho/Montana Section program. gram held at the Local Ironworkers Ap- Affiliation: Idaho National Laboratory
prenticeship Training Center. Activity: The Section held an awards-pre-
sentation program in Idaho Falls, Idaho.
Chairman Paul Tremblay presented Tim
ticeship Training Center in Spokane, McJunkin the District Director Certifi-
Wash. The speakers included Valerie cate Award for his many contributions to
Payette, coordinator for the Workforce the Society. Nancy Carlson, a past Dis-
Development Project for Greater trict 20 director, was presented the Sec-
Spokane, Inc.; Lynn Burton, a structural tion Meritorious Award for her many
engineer for DCI Engineers; Andy services to the Section, including secre-
Philipson, apprenticeship coordinator tary and education chairman.
for the Ironworkers Union; Neil Malam,
coowner of Burley Products; David Imus,
apprenticeship coordinator for the Boil-
ermakers Union; and Phil Zammit, QA

Speaker John Steele (right) is shown with

his graduate student Gunther Schwab at the
and QC supervisor for Brooklyn Iron
Works. More than 160 high school stu-
dents and teachers from local schools at-
District 21
Director: Jack D. Compton
Colorado Section meeting in January. tended this Spokane Section program. Phone: (661) 362-3218

70 APRIL 2008
Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 5:02 PM Page 71

The Albuquerque Section members pose for a group shot during their tour of Speed of Light2.

Tim McJunkin (left) receives the District

Director Certificate Award from Paul Ed Dalder (left) receives his Gold Member-
Tremblay, chairman of the Idaho/Montana San Francisco Section Chair Tom Smeltzer ship certificate from Tom Smeltzer, San
Section. (left) chats with speaker David L. Norris. Francisco Section chairman.

District 22
Director: Dale Flood
Phone: (916) 933-5844

Speaker: David L. Norris, CWI
Affiliation: ES Geotechnologies
Topic: Case studies where following the
rules ended up in disaster
Activity: Gold Membership certificates
for 50 years of AWS membership were
presented to C. E. Witherell and E. N.
Dalder. Life Membership certificates
were awarded to Alan Demmons and
Ronald Yonekawa for 35 years of service
to the Society. Byron May and Steven
Nekimken received Silver Membership
certificates for 25 years of membership. Shown at the Idaho/Montana Section awards-presentation program are (from left) Norma
The program was held at Spengers and Scott Jensen, Ofilia and Chair Paul Tremblay, Stephanie Eaton, speaker Larry Zirker,
Restaurant in Berkeley, Calif. and Tim McJunkin.

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 5:02 PM Page 72

New AWS Supporters

Affiliate Companies
New Sustaining Companies Carolina Industrial Services of Sumter, Inc.
Irwin Industries, Inc.
PO Box 10 Membership Counts
Sumter, SC 29150
1580 W. Carson St.
Long Beach, CA 90810 Member As of
Integrated Welding Systems, Inc.
(310) 233-3000; 34314 Oak Knoll Rd. Grades 3/1/08
Representative: John D. Cotton Jr. Burlington, WI 53105 Sustaining..........................................481
Irwin Industries, Inc., is a leading in- Supporting.........................................309
dustrial construction, maintenance, and Lake Champlain Transportation
engineering service provider offering Educational.......................................451
King St. Dock Affiliate..............................................410
self-performed civil, structural, and me- Burlington, VT 05401
chanical construction on a firm-price and Welding distributor............................49
time-and-materials basis. Founded in Maccabee Industrial, Inc. Total corporate members..................1,700
Long Beach, Calif., in 1922, the company 113 Water St. Individual members.....................47,880
serves the onshore and offshore oil and Belle Vernon, PA 15012
gas, petrochemical, power-generation, Student + transitional members........5,019
and other heavy industries nationwide. Total members..............................52,899
Quality Industries, Inc.
PO Box 7016, 130 Jones Blvd.
La Vergne, TN 37086 Tiffin Loader Crane Co.
4151 W. State Rte. 18
Olsson Associates Sphere Drilling Supplies Tiffin, OH 44883
8720 S. 114th St., Ste. 107 3112 80th Ave. SE
La Vista, NE 68128 Calgary AB T2C 1J3, Canada Tradesmen International
(402) 827-7220;
1791 Tribute Rd., Ste. 6
Representative: Eric J. Nordhues Supreme Welding Inc. Sacramento, CA 95815
Since 1956, Olsson Associates has 202 2nd Ave. S.
been providing its clients with compre- Clearlake, SD 57226
hensive design and consulting enginer-
ing services. It offers expertise in many
Educational Institutions
Tower Elevator Systems, Inc. Crest High School
disciplines, including transportation, 900 RR 620 S., Ste. C-206 800 Old Boiling Springs
structural, water and waste water, me- Lakeway, TX 78734 Shelby, NC 28152
chanical, geotechnical, materials testing,
and inspections. The company special- Wyatt Resources, Inc. Des Moines Area Community College
izes in structural steel inspection and PO Box 744 2006 S. Ankeny Blvd.
testing employing certified welding in- Fulshear, TX 77441 Ankeny, IA 50023
spectors and nondestructive testing per-
sonnel and equipment. It also provides Supporting Companies Flint Hills Technical College
written procedures for procedure quali- Astec Underground 3301 W. 18th St.
fication test records, welding procedure 9600 Corporate Park Dr. Emporia, KS 66801
specifications, and welder qualification Loudon, TX 37774
test records for fabricators and erectors
Lilama Technical & Technology College 2
for AWS, AME, API, and other codes. Ameritech Machine Mfg., Inc. Km. 32 Nat. Rd. 51, Long Phuor
350 SW Industrial Way Long Than, Dong Nai, Vietnam
Bend, OR 97702
Putnam Career and Technical Center
The Tiberti Co. Cast-Fab Technologies 101 Roosevelt Blvd., Rte. 62
4975 Roger St. 3040 Forrer St. PO Box 640, Eleanor, WV 25070
Las Vegas, NV 89118 Cincinnati, OH 45209
(702) 382-7070;
Southwest Alaska Vocational and
Representative: Jerry Tanner Ernest-Spencer Metals, Inc. Education Center, Bldg. 647 KSAFB
The Tiberti Fence Co. is a full-phase 3323 E. 82nd St. King Salmon, AK 99613
general contracting company with an AB Meriden, KS 60512
Unlimited License. The company spe-
The Center of Industry & Technology
cializes in chain-link fencing, ornamen- Kriton Weld Equipments Pvt. A division of Colltech Training Institute
tal iron, playground equipment, gate op- Plot #406, GIDC Estate, Makarpura, 4801 Fulton Industrial Rd.
erators, and custom-built iron. As the Vadodara, Gujrat 390010, India Atlanta, GA 30336
largest chain-link fence contractor in Ne-
vada, it is a full-service provider from Pendarvis Mfg., Inc. Welding 101 LLC
manufacturing to installation with the 1808 N. American St. 218 S. Maple St.
most reputable warranty on the West Anaheim, CA 92801 Lebanon, TN 37087
Southwest Ironwork, Inc. Wenatchee Valley College
12312 Horseshoe Tr. SE 1300 Fifth St.
Albuquerque, NM 87123 Wenatchee, WV 98801

72 APRIL 2008
Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 5:02 PM Page 73

Guide to AWS Services

550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126; phone (800/305) 443-9353; FAX (305) 443-7559
(Phone extensions are shown in parentheses.)


Gene E. Lawson Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275) Senior Manager Managing Director Wendy S. Reeve.. . . . . . .(293)
ESAB Welding and Cutting Andrew Cullison.. . . . . .(249) Coordinates AWS awards and AWS Fellow and
25108 Margurite Pkwy. #165 Counselor nominees.
Mission Viejo, CA 92692 Welding Journal
ADMINISTRATION Andrew Cullison.. . . . . .(249) TECHNICAL SERVICES
Executive Director Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340)
Ray W. Shook.. . . . . . . . .(210) National Sales Director Managing Director
Rob Saltzstein.. . . . . . . . . . .(243) Andrew R. Davis.. . . . . . .(466)
CFO/Deputy Executive Director Intl Standards Activities, American Council of
Frank R. Tarafa.. . . . . . . . .(252) Society and Section News Editor the Intl Institute of Welding (IIW)
Howard .(244)
Deputy Executive Director Director, National Standards Activities
Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . . .(253) Welding Handbook John L. Gayler.. . . . . . . . .(472)
Welding Handbook Editor Personnel and Facilities Qualification, Comput-
Associate Executive Director Annette OBrien.. . . . . .(303) erization of Welding Information, Arc Welding
Jeff Weber.. . . . . . . . . . . . .(246) Publishes the Societys monthly magazine, Weld- and Cutting
ing Journal, which provides information on the
Executive Assistant for Board Services state of the welding industry, its technology, and Manager, Safety and Health
Gricelda Manalich.. . . . .(294) Society activities. Publishes Inspection Trends, the Stephen P. Hedrick.. (305)
Welding Handbook, and books on general welding Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of
Administrative Services subjects. Plastics and Composites
Managing Director
Jim Lankford.. . . . . . . . . . . .(214) Technical Publications
AWS publishes about 200 documents widely used
IT Network Director MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS throughout the welding industry.
Armando . . .(296) Director Senior Manager
Ross Hancock.. . . . . .(226) Rosalinda ONeill.. . . . . .(451)
Hidail . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(287) Assistant Director Staff Engineers/Standards Program Managers
Adrienne Zalkind.. . . . .(416) Annette Alonso.. . . . . . .(299)
Database Administrator Automotive Welding, Resistance Welding, Oxy-
Natalia . . . . . . . . . . . .(245) fuel Gas Welding and Cutting, Definitions and
Human Resources
Director, Compensation and Benefits MEMBER SERVICES Stephen Borrero.. . . . . .(334)
Luisa Hernandez.. . . . . . . .(266) Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480) Welding Iron Castings, Joining of Metals and Al-
loys, Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Met-
Manager, Human Resources Deputy Executive Director als and Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering
Dora Shade.. . . . . . . . . . .(235) Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . . .(253) Handbook
Director Rakesh Gupta.. . . . . . . . . .(301)
INTL INSTITUTE of WELDING Rhenda A. Mayo... . . . . .(260) Filler Metals and Allied Materials, Intl Filler
Senior Coordinator Serves as a liaison between Section members and Metals, Instrumentation for Welding, UNS Num-
Sissibeth Lopez . . . . . . . . .(319) AWS headquarters. Informs members about AWS bers Assignment
Provides liaison services with other national and benefits and activities.
international professional societies and standards Brian McGrath . . . . . .(311)
organizations. Methods of Inspection, Mechanical Testing of
Welds, Welding in Marine Construction, Piping
GOVERNMENT LIAISON SERVICES Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)
Hugh K. Webster. . . Selvis . . . . .(313)
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, DC, Managing Director, Certification Operations Welding Qualification, Structural Welding
(202) 466-2976; FAX (202) 835-0243. Identifies John . . . . . . . . . . .(222)
funding sources for welding education, re- Kim . . . . . . . . . . .(215)
search, and development. Monitors legislative Managing Director, Technical Operations Machinery and Equipment Welding, Robotic and
and regulatory issues of importance to the in- Peter Howe.. . . . . . . . . . . .(309) Automatic Welding, Sheet Metal Welding, Ther-
dustry. Manages and oversees the development, in- mal Spray
tegrity, and technical content of all certification
programs. Reino . . . . . . . . .(304)
Brazing and Soldering Welding in Sanitary Applications, High-Energy
Manufacturers Committee Director, Intl Business & Certification Programs Beam Welding, Aircraft and Aerospace, Friction
Jeff Weber.. . . . . . . . . . . . .(246) Priti Jain.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(258) Welding, Railroad Welding.
Directs all intl business and certification pro-
RWMA Resistance Welding grams. Is responsible for oversight of all agencies
Manufacturing Alliance handling AWS certification programs. Note: Official interpretations of AWS standards
Manager may be obtained only by sending a request in writ-
Susan Hopkins.. . . . . . . . .(295) ing to the Managing Director, Technical Services.
Oral opinions on AWS standards may be ren-
EDUCATION SERVICES dered. However, such opinions represent only the
WEMCO Welding Equipment Managing Director personal opinions of the particular individuals
Manufacturers Committee Dennis Marks.. . . . . . . . .(237) giving them. These individuals do not speak on
Manager behalf of AWS, nor do these oral opinions con-
Natalie Tapley.. . . . . . . . . .(444) Director, Education Services Administration stitute official or unofficial opinions or interpre-
and Convention Operations tations of AWS. In addition, oral opinions are in-
John Ospina.. . . . . . . . . .(462) formal and should not be used as a substitute for
CONVENTION and EXPOSITIONS an official interpretation.
Associate Executive Director Director, Research and Development
Jeff Weber.. . . . . . . . . . . . .(246) Professional Programs
Christopher Pollock.. .(219)
Corporate Director, Exhibition Sales Assists Government Affairs Liaison Commit-
Joe Krall.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297) tee and Product Development Committees
Organizes the annual AWS Welding Show and
Convention, regulates space assignments, regis-
tration items, and other Expo activities.

Society News April:Layout 1 3/6/08 5:03 PM Page 74

Nominees for National Office AWS Publications Sales

Purchase AWS standards, books,
nly Sustaining Members, Members, member of the Society, other than a Stu- and other publications from

O Honorary Members, Life Members,

or Retired Members who have been
members for a period of at least three years
dent Member, must be frequently available
to the national office, and should be of ex-
ecutive status in business or industry with
World Engineering Xchange (WEX), Ltd.;
Toll-free (888) 935-3464 (U.S., Canada)
shall be eligible for election as a director or experience in financial affairs. (305) 824-1177; FAX (305) 826-6195
national officer. Director-at-Large: To be eligible for
It is the duty of the National Nominating election as a director-at-large, an individ- Welding Journal Reprints
Committee to nominate candidates for na- ual shall previously have held office as Copies of Welding Journal articles may be
tional office. The committee shall hold an chairman of a Section; as chairman or vice purchased from Ruben Lara.
open meeting, preferably at the Annual Meet- chairman of a standing, technical, or spe- (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 288;
ing, at which members may appear to present cial committee of the Society; or as District
and discuss the eligibility of all candidates. director. Custom reprints of Welding Journal
To be considered a candidate for the po- Interested persons should submit a let- articles, in quantities of 100 or more,
sitions of president, vice president, treasurer, ter stating which office they seek, including may be purchased from
or director-at-large, the following qualifica- a statement of qualifications, their willing- FosteReprints
tions and conditions apply: ness and ability to serve if nominated and Toll-free (866) 879-9144, ext. 121
President: To be eligible to hold the office elected, and a biographical sketch.
of president, an individual must have served E-mail the letter to Gricelda Manalich,
as a vice president for at least one year., c/o Gerald D. Uttrachi,
Vice President: To be eligible to hold the chair, National Nominating Committee.
office of vice president, an individual must The next meeting of the National Nom-
have served at least one year as a director, inating Committee is scheduled for Octo-
other than executive director and secretary. ber 2008. The terms of office for candidates AWS Foundation
Treasurer: To be eligible to hold the of- nominated at this meeting will commence
fice of treasurer, an individual must be a January 1, 2010. The AWS Foundation, Inc., is a not-for-profit
corporation established to provide support
for educational and scientific endeavors
of the American Welding Society.
Information on gift-giving programs is
available upon request.

Honorary Meritorious Awards Chairman, Board of Trustees

Ronald C. Pierce

Executive Director, AWS

he Honorary-Meritorious Awards Committee makes recommendations for the

T nominees presented for Honorary Membership, National Meritorious

Certificate, William Irrgang Memorial, and the George E. Willis Awards. These
awards are presented during the FABTECH International & AWS Welding Show held
Ray Shook, ext. 210,
Executive Director, Foundation
Sam Gentry, ext. 331,
each fall. The deadline for submissions is December 31 prior to the year of awards pre-
sentations. Send candidate materials to Wendy Sue Reeve, secretary, Honorary Corporate Director, SOS
Meritorious Awards Committee,; 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL Monica Pfarr, ext. 461,
33126. Descriptions of the awards follow.
550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126
National Meritorious Certificate Award: International Meritorious Certificate (305) 445-6628; (800) 443-9353, ext. 293
This award is given in recognition of the Award: This award is given in recognition general information:
candidates counsel, loyalty, and devotion of the recipients significant contributions (800) 443-9353, ext. 689;
to the affairs of the Society, assistance in to the worldwide welding industry. This
promoting cordial relations with industry award reflects Service to the Interna-
and other organizations, and for the contri- tional Welding Community in the broad-
bution of time and effort on behalf of the est terms. The awardee is not required to
Society. be a member of the American Welding AWS Mission Statement
Society. Multiple awards can be given per
William Irrgang Memorial Award: This year as the situation dictates. The award The mission of the American Welding
award is administered by the American Weld- consists of a certificate to be presented Society is to advance the science,
ing Society and sponsored by The Lincoln at the awards luncheon or at another time technology, and application of
Electric Co. to honor the late William Ir- as appropriate in conjunction with the welding and allied processes,
rgang. It is awarded each year to the indi- AWS presidents travel itinerary, and, if including joining, brazing, soldering,
vidual who has done the most over the past appropriate, a one-year membership in
cutting, and thermal spraying.
five-years to enhance the American Weld- the American Welding Society.
ing Societys goal of advancing the science
and technology of welding.
Honorary Membership Award: An It is the intent of the American
George E. Willis Award: This award is ad- Honorary Member shall be a person of Welding Society to build AWS to the
ministered by the American Welding Society acknowledged eminence in the welding highest quality standards possible.
and sponsored by The Lincoln Electric Co. profession, or who is accredited with ex- The Society welcomes your suggestions.
to honor George E. Willis. It is awarded each ceptional accomplishments in the devel-
opment of the welding art, upon whom Please contact any staff member or
year to an individual for promoting the ad-
vancement of welding internationally by fos- the American Welding Society sees fit to AWS President Gene E. Lawson,
tering cooperative participation in areas such confer an honorary distinction. An Hon- as listed on the previous page.
as technology transfer, standards rationaliza- orary Member shall have full rights of
tion, and promotion of industrial goodwill. membership.

74 APRIL 2008
Page 75:FP_TEMP 3/7/08 8:22 AM Page 75


4th International Brazing & Soldering Conference (IBSC)
Conference dates: April 27-29, 2009

Abstract Deadline: April 30, 2008 Manuscripts Due: July 31, 2008

The American Welding Society and ASM International are again organizing its world recognized International Brazing &
Soldering Conference (IBSC). This four-day event will begin with Short Courses offered on Sunday, followed by a three-day
Technical Program Monday-Wednesday. IBSC brings together scientists, engineers and technical personnel from around the
globe involved in the research, development, and application of brazing and soldering. Parallel sessions allow us to present the
latest advances in these joining technologies and will be organized to permit interaction between the two disciplines.

IBSC 2009 Program Organizers invite to submit your work for consideration of inclusion in the technical program. They are
accepting 150-200-word abstracts describing original, previously unpublished work. The work may pertain to current research,
actual or potential applications, or new developments. Whereas commercialism must be avoided to maintain the high level of
technical quality and integrity of the IBSC conferences, the new brazing applications and case histories are most welcome.

The technical program will include a special  day session focused on practical and innovative applications of brazing and
soldering. The Tabletop Exhibit will provide a forum for commercial presentations and demonstrations of state-of-the-art brazing
and soldering materials, processes and equipment. Check our website for details. The Poster Session will allow yet another
opportunity to present the interesting developments in brazing and soldering technologies.

A Conference Proceedings containing only full manuscripts of the accepted research papers will be published to capture these
high-quality technical presentations for later reference. Presentations focused on practical applications of brazing and soldering will
also be included in the conference proceedings.

Below are some of the topical areas covered at IBSC

Aircraft and Aerospace Furnace / Vacuum Brazing Power and Electrical Equipment
Automotive and Transportation Joint Design and Reliability Sensors / Micro-Electronics
Brazing and Soldering Standards Lead Free Solders Solder Joining Methods
Ceramic / Glass to Metal Joining Light Metals Special / Advanced Brazing Processes
Chemical and Petroleum Production Materials and Process Design / Control Structural Solder Applications
Composite Materials Medical/Dental Test Methods and Evaluation
Electronic Packaging / Sensors Mining & Heavy Equipment Thermal Management
Filler Metal Properties Modeling and Process Control Vacuum Brazing
Fluxes and Atmospheres Consumer Products Gasses and Plumbing
Fixture Design and use Factory Automation LEAN Brazing Processes
Musical Instruments Job-Shop & Process Customization Low Volume Critical Components
To submit your work for consideration, visit our website at then follow the instructions at Click here to
submit your abstract. All abstracts submissions must be completed by close-of-business on Wednesday,
April 30, 2008. Before submitting your abstract, we ask that you carefully consider your ability to present your work at the
conference. Speakers are required to pay a (reduced) conference registration fee, and are totally responsible for their travel, housing
and any related expenses.
This premi ere event is truly one that anyone i nvolved in the brazi ng and solderi ng communi ty
should plan to attend.
Mark your cal endar now, and if you are interested in presenti ng your work at the conference,
submit your abstract no later tha n April 30, 2008.
Endorsing Sponsors:
New Lit April:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:57 PM Page 76

Guide to Laser Application to profit from using laser technology and
how to tap into the institutes corporate
Resources Online members expertise on all topics relating
to laser technology. The index headings
include beam delivery, job shop, laser
manufacturers, research and develop-
ment, system integrators, plus an exten-
sive glossary of laser-related terms. Twelve
pages detail laser safety information with
diagrams of the human eye and its ab-
sorption characteristics for visible, ultra-
violet, and mid-infrared radiations.

Laser Institute of America
(800) 345-2737

Abrasive Products Catalog

Updated with New Items
The Rex-Cut 20082009 Specialty finishing, tool and die, tank fabrication,
Abrasive Products Catalog features the and jewelry industries. Included are
companys complete lines of products for mounted points and wheels, Type 1
grinding, blending, and finishing stainless straight wheels, Type 27 depressed-center
The 44-page, full-color PDF, Laser Ap- steel, aluminum, mild steel, exotic alloys, wheels made from various materials, flap
plication Resource Guide, can be down- fiberglass, and composites. The catalog is discs, cotton-fiber quick-change discs,
loaded from the companys Web site. It is intended for use by the welding, aero- stainless steel cutoff wheels, hand-held
intended to help laser end users learn how space, aircraft, automotive, casting, metal- finishing sticks, accessories, and several

For info go to

76 APRIL 2008
New Lit April:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:57 PM Page 77

application-specific kits. Call to request a

copy of the literature.

Rex-Cut Products, Inc.
(800) 225-8182

Brochure Details Welding

High-Nickel Alloys
A 16-page brochure provides informa-
tion on high-nickel alloys and offers de-
tailed descriptions of the companys lines
of covered electrodes and bare wires. In-
cluded are the classifications, approvals,
diameters, typical mechanical properties,
and chemical compositions. Also speci-
fied are the broad range of welding appli-
cations for these products in petrochemi-
cal plants, offshore and marine environ-
ments, chemical processing plants,
pipelines, pressure vessels, furnace equip-
ment, nuclear power-generation facilities,
and automotive exhaust systems.

Arcos Industries, LLC
(800) 233-8460

Nicrobraz 31 Brazing
Filler Metal Described

For info go to

A new 2-page data sheet No.

provides complete information on Nicro-
braz 31 brazing filler metal. Data are
provided on burst strength, composition,
brazing range, oxidation resistance, and
application methods. The filler metal is
recommended for use in many products
including heat exchangers, exhaust gas re-
circulator coolers, honeycomb structures,
and oil coolers. Call for a copy or down-
load from the companys Web site.

Wall Colmonoy Corp.
(248) 585-6400

For info go to

New Lit April:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:58 PM Page 78

New Text Features Al-Alloy the origin of the data, fatigue testing and Brady Lockout Guide Helps
data analysis procedures, and provides
Fatigue Data guidelines for the use and interpretation
with OSHA Compliance
of the data. Detailed discussions are pre-
The text, Properties of Aluminum Al-
sented on the effect of temperature, pro-
loys: Fatigue Data and Effects of Tempera-
duction process variables, shape, orienta-
ture, Product Form, and Process Variables,
tion, and joining and finishing technolo-
edited by J. G. Kaufman, includes more
gies on aluminum-alloy fatigue. The list
than 1100 fatigue data curves, all drawn
price is $220, $176 to ASM International
to consistent formats conveniently
arranged by alloy and temper. Included
are rotating beam reverse bending fatigue,
flexural fatigue, axial-stress fatigue, tor- ASM International
sional fatigue, and modified Goodman di-
agrams. The first part of the book explains (440) 338-5151, ext. 0

The 16-page Complete LOTO Solutions

handbook is a how-to guide that lays out
a straightforward 4 Steps to Compliance
plan for creating an effective energy con-
trol program. Each step includes an ex-
planation of OSHAs basic requirements
and provides information on the related
resources that the company offers for suc-
cessful implementation of corporate lock-
out/tagout programs.

Brady Corp.
(414) 438-6904

Spanish Editions of
Welding Specs Offered
The company now offers Spanish lan-
guage editions of all of its welding prod-
uct specification sheets. The Spanish edi-
tions correlate directly to the English
specification sheets, allowing direct cor-
relations of the two documents. The spec-
ification sheets include the companys gas
metal arc welding guns, Centerfire con-
sumables, replacement necks, liners, and
direct plug kits, as well as manual weld-
ing products and parts. All of the specifi-
cation sheets may be downloaded free of
charge from the companys Web site as

Bernard Welding Equipment
(800) 946-2281

For info go to

78 APRIL 2008
arcos 2:FP_TEMP 3/5/08 1:52 PM Page 79

For Info go to

Personnel April:Layout 1 3/6/08 1:24 PM Page 80


ABB Names Division Heads tion Products divi-

sion in North Amer-
ABB, Norwalk, Conn., has appointed ica. Hepperla previ-
Greg Scheu region division manager of ously served as local
the Power Products division; Rick Hep- business unit man-
perla region division manager of the Au- ager of ABBs North
tomation Products division, ABB North American low-volt-
America; and Aaron Aleithe vice presi- age drives unit based
dent and general manager of low-voltage in New Berlin, Wis.
drives. Previously, Scheu served as senior Aleithe, with the
vice president of the companys Automa- Greg Scheu Rick Hepperla Aaron Aleithe company since 2005,
most recently served
as vice president and general manager for
the medium-voltage drives business in
North America.

Product Manager Spot

Filled at Jergens
Jergens, Inc.,
Cleveland, Ohio, has
appointed Jeff Mar-
tin as product man-
ager for Kwik-Lok
pins, inserts, and
spring-loaded de-
vices in the com-
panys Tooling Com-
ponents division. Pre-
Jeff Martin viously, Martin oper-
ated his own business
related to the machine tool industry. He
replaces Matthew Schron who earlier had
been appointed general manager of Jer-
gens Industrial Supply.

CMW Fills Two Key Posts

Cecil Taylor Sharonda Griffin

CMW, Inc., Indianapolis, Ind., a sup-

plier of highly engineered metal alloys and
composites, has named Cecil Taylor an en-
gineering laboratory specialist, and ap-
pointed Sharonda Flowers Griffin its
human resources manager. Taylor is a re-
cent graduate of the Purdue University
chemical engineering program. Prior to
joining the company, Griffin worked eight
years for International Truck and Engine
Corp. in several positions, including pro-
duction supervisor, quality manager, and
human resources generalist.

For info go to

80 APRIL 2008
Personnel April:Layout 1 3/6/08 1:24 PM Page 81

AWS Names Certification

Operations Director
The American
Welding Society,
Miami, Fla., has ap-
pointed John Filippi
managing director,
certification opera-
tions. Prior to joining
the Society, Filippi,
who has 20 years of
experience in the
John Filippi field, served as oper-
ations manager at
Ikon Office Solu-
tions, Inc., based in Miami, Fla.

Lincoln Electric Makes

Four Staff Changes

Vincent Petrella G. Blankenship

For info go to

Lincoln Electric
Holdings, Inc., has
announced the pro-
motions of Vincent
K. Petrella, senior
VP and CFO, and
George Blankenship,
senior VP, Global
Engineering and
U.S. Operations, to
Scott Funderburk expanded roles
within the company.
Petrella has been
given the additional responsibility for The
Lincoln Electric Co. of Canada. Blanken-
ship has been promoted to the newly cre-
ated position of president, Lincoln Cleve-
land, responsible for the Euclid and Men-
tor, Ohio, plants. The Lincoln Electric
Co., Cleveland, Ohio, has appointed Scott
Funderburk global business segment di-
rector pipelines. He has been with the
company since 1996. Prior to this time,
Funderburk led the Applications Engi-
neering team that focused on productivity
improvements and sharing of technology
and welding procedures on a global scale.
Michael S. Mintun has been elected vice
president, sales, North America. With the
company since 1984, Mintun previously
served as sales manager, North America.

For info go to

Personnel April:Layout 1 3/6/08 1:24 PM Page 82

ProMotion Controls Signs Obituaries G. J. (Joe) Daumeyer

on Marketing VP
G. J. (Joe) Daumeyer, 45, of Fishers,
ProMotion Con- Ind., died February 20 in an automobile
trols, Inc., Medina, Charles Burnham accident. An AWS
Ohio, has appointed member for 23 years,
Todd H. Critoph vice Charles Burnham, 87, died December he was technical rep-
president, sales and 25 at his home in Essex Junction, Vt. Born resentative and a past
marketing, for North, in Erving, Mass., Burnham served in the chairman of the Indi-
Central, and South Army Air Corps in the India and Burma ana Section.
America. Critoph pre- theater from 1942 to 1945. Following dis- Daumeyer was
viously served more charge from service, he worked as a sales- owner of Athena Plus
than 20 years in engi- man for Rods Auto Electric in Gardner, in Anderson, Ind.,
Todd H. Critoph neering management Mass. He studied mechanical engineering and president of Re-
at Koike Aronson, a at Worcester Junior College. In 1953, he Joe Daumeyer sistance Welding
supplier of thermal cutting machinery. joined General Electric Co., in Cincinnati, Equipment and Sup-
Ohio, as a specifications engineer. While ply Co. in Indianapo-
lis. A welding engineering graduate of
Specialty Gas Manager there, he worked extensively with various
community theatre groups, directing 16 The Ohio State University (OSU), he was
Appointed at ILMO plays. In 1974, Burnham transferred to an active member of the Resistance Weld-
General Electric in Burlington, Vt., where ing Manufacturing Alliance (RWMA)
ILMO Products he began service as chairman of the AWS and served on numerous AWS technical
Co., Jacksonville, Ill., A2 Committee on Definitions and Sym- committees, including the Committee on
has named Travis bols. Retiring in 1984, he spent many years Resistance Welding, Educators Commit-
Nelson specialty gas caring for his ailing wife, Eleanor, who tee, Subcommittee on Automotive Resist-
marketing manager. died in 2004. After her death, Burnham ance Welding, Handbook Chapter Com-
Prior to joining the became active in community events in- mittee on Projection Welding, and the
company, Nelson cluding volunteer work as a reader and Subcommittee on Certification of Resist-
worked as an analyti- tutor at the Hiawatha Elementary School ance Welding Technicians. Donations in
cal chemist for Scott in Essex Junction. He is survived by his his name may be made to the OSU Col-
Specialty Gases. children Michael and Deborah Lupia. lege of Engineering Scholarship Fund.
Travis Nelson Daumeyer is survived by his wife, Chris,
his parents, a son, two daughters, two sis-
EWI Names Vice Chair Chauncy C. Hart ters, and three brothers.

Edison Welding In- Chauncy C. Hart, 92, died January 12

stitute (EWI), in Helena, Mont. He was a Life Member Lloyd J. (Joe) Cole
Columbus, Ohio, has of the American
elected Richard Ro- Welding Society, Lloyd J. (Joe) Cole, 85, an AWS Life
govin vice chairman joining in 1944. He Member associated with the New Orleans
of the companys was affiliated with the Section, died February 9. Cole worked for
board of directors. Milwaukee Section more than 40 years as an applications spe-
He replaces Bruce Al- where he served cialist for Air Reduction Co. and later
brecht whose term many officer posi- with AIRCO. He provided welding dis-
expired in December. tions including chair- tributor support through KOBE Welding
Richard Rogovin Rogovin practices man, and served on Wire Co. where he served as regional rep-
corporate and inter- several AWS and resentative until his retirement. He also
national law in the law firm of Frost ASME technical was a representative for B.M.S. Corp. and
Brown Todd, LLC. Chauncy Hart committees. He is a Union Industrial Gas. During the early
coauthor of History of days of World War II, he welded ships at
Atema Fills Quality Spot Fabricating and Weld- Avondale and Delta Shipyards, then
ing of Armor Vehicles, written for the U.S. served on a ship in the U.S. Navy. Cole re-
Atema, Inc., Army Ordnance, and the ASME Welding mained a highly skilled welding consultant
Chicago, Ill., has Handbook. Hart majored in engineering until his death.
named Michael J. at Riverside Junior College and Milwau-
Mauris quality sys- kee School of Engineering. He started his
tems specialist. Mau- career as a production welder at Har- John E. Postle
ris, an AWS Certified nischfeger Corp. for eight years before
Welding Inspector joining The Heil Co. as manager of weld- John E. Postle, 84, died January 20.
and Certified Weld- ing engineering. He later served as man- Born in Buffalo, N.Y., he moved to Cleve-
ing Educator, has ager of welding engineering at Pressed land, Ohio, in 1947. From 1954 to 1967, he
more than 30 years of Steel Tank Co., before serving as general worked for Eutectic Welding Corp. He
Michael Mauris experience in the manager at Wagner Iron Works. From started his own business in 1969 where he
structural steel indus- 1954 to 1961, Hart served as manager of worked until his retirement in 1990. Pos-
try and most recently manufacturing for the Body and Hoist di- tle is survived by his wife, Phyllis, three
as an auditor for the AISC Certified Fab- vision, and manager of welding and weld- children, six grandchildren, and five great-
ricator program. ing research at The Heil Co. grandchildren.

82 APRIL 2008
CSPEC:FP_TEMP 3/5/08 1:54 PM Page 83

For Info go to

Letter fellow:Layout 1 3/7/08 8:24 AM Page 84

Friends and Colleagues:

I want to encourage you to submit nomination packages for those individuals whom you
feel have a history of accomplishments and contributions to our profession consistent with the
standards set by the existing Fellows. In particular, I would make a special request that you look
to the most senior members of your Section or District in considering members for nomination.
In many cases, the colleagues and peers of these individuals who are the most familiar with
their contributions, and who would normally nominate the candidate, are no longer with us. I
want to be sure that we take the extra effort required to make sure that those truly worthy are
not overlooked because no obvious individual was available to start the nomination process.

For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at
AWS headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Fellow nomination form
in this issue of the Welding Journal. Please remember, we all benefit in the honoring of those
who have made major contributions to our chosen profession and livelihood. The deadline
for submission is July 1, 2008. The Committee looks forward to receiving numerous Fellow
nominations for 2009 consideration.


Nancy C. Cole
Chair, AWS Fellows Selection Committee
EASTEC:FP_TEMP 3/5/08 1:54 PM Page 87

For Info go to

Langier AmWeld Feature April 2008:Layout 1 3/7/08 1:21 PM Page 88


Addressing the
Welder Shortage:
Lessons from
To offset the shortage of skilled workers, the Canadian
Fig. 1 Dan MacKinnon and Bob Clark (left), province of Alberta is aggressively recruiting young
respectively chair and associate chair of the
welding program at NAIT, stand in the lobby of people for trade positions and is investing heavily in its
the newly built Waiward Center for Steel Tech-
nologies at NAITs Souch Campus. The plaques technical schools
on the wall indicate industry supporters of
NAITs efforts.

The shortage of welders, some argue, is due to an overall declin-

ing interest in the skilled trades. Others believe welding is simply a
dirty job. Some say secondary schools discourage young people
from going into the trade, or that many young people have no knowl-
edge of the career options available.

While no one can provide the definitive share successes and insights about
answer, one thing is certain: the shortage their programs.
of weldersmore than 200,000 by 20101 NAIT operates the provinces
could limit the growth and productivi- largest welding program; SAIT oper-
ty of many industries. ates the second largest. Of the more
While U.S. federal and state gov- than 8000 apprentices requiring train-
ernment agencies dont seem to be ing this year, 1725 will attend NAIT
able to articulate a clear policy on the and 1372 will attend SAIT. NAIT
skilled trades, Canada, and particularly increased its enrollment by 60% after
the province of Alberta, has. The opening a new $15.2 million facility in
extraction of oil and other natural 2006 (Fig. 1), and it increased staff by
resources has created a boom that 63% over an 18-month period beginning
makes Alberta the Texas of the in January 2005. With 51 instructors,
Fig. 2 This SAIT apprentice practices North. You can hardly pick up a news- NAIT comes close to its goal of a 10:1
GMAW in the 3G position. Alberta breaks paper in Alberta and not see headlines student-to-instructor ratio. SAIT has
welding into two trades: wire process operators
(approved to work with GMAW, FCAW, SAW, like skilled worker shortage or doubled its staff from 10 years ago to 40
and other wire processes) and welders, who are labor shortage. instructors (to maintain its 14:1 student-
approved to work with those processes, plus To meet demand, the province to-instructor ratio), increased enrollment
GTAW, SMAW, and oxyacetylene. aggressively recruits young people into by nearly 1000 students, and totally refur-
the trades and invests heavily in techni- bished five welding labs.
cal schools. Educators at two technical
institutions that teach welding Welding Canadian Style
Northern Alberta Institute of
Technology (NAIT, in Edmonton, In the United States, anyone with a
MYLES LANGIER and SCOTT MACKAY and Southern Alberta power source can hang up a sign and
are district managers with Miller Electric Institute of Technology (SAIT, in run a welding business (assuming any
Mfg. Co., Appleton, Wis. Calgary, agreed to applicable codes and standards are
(, They respectively
serve northern Alberta (Edmonton) and
1. More details regarding the welder shortage are available from the American Welding
southern Alberta (Calgary).
Society at

88 APRIL 2008
Langier AmWeld Feature April 2008:Layout 1 3/7/08 1:21 PM Page 89


met). Not so in Alberta. To start, work-
ing in a trade is governed by the Alberta
Apprenticeship and Industry Training,
informally called the apprentice board
or AIT. (Visit for
details.) There are 51 designated trades,
including welding.
Alberta divides welding into two
branches: wire process operators and
welders Fig. 2. Basically, wire process
operators use gas metal arc welding
(GMAW), flux cored arc welding
(FCAW), submerged arc welding
(SAW), and other wire welding process-
es. Welders use those processes, plus
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas
tungsten arc welding (GTAW), oxyacety-
lene welding/brazing/cutting, and resist-
ance welding.
To work in Alberta, a welder or wire
process operator must be one of the
A registered apprentice
A certified journeyperson
Someone who holds a recognized
trade certificate
To become an apprentice, a person
must have at least an Alberta Grade 9
education or equivalent (or pass an
entrance exam) and find a suitable
employer who is willing to hire and train Fig. 3 NAIT welding instructor Freeman Thompson (left) provides first-year apprentice
an apprentice. Craig Lapointe with feedback on his welding sample.
The term of apprenticeship for
welders is three years (three 12-month
periods), which includes a minimum of just to become a journeyperson, but also component. Second-year training con-
1500 hours of on-the-job training and to obtain their Red Seal. The sists of two weeks of FCAW and GMAW;
eight weeks (240 hours) of technical Interprovincial Standards (Red Seal) two weeks of GTAW on carbon steel,
training each year. For wire process program allows qualified tradespersons stainless steel, and aluminum; and four
to pass an examination that permits weeks of SMAW. Students also complete
operators, the term is two years (two 12-
them to practice their trade in any a 16-hour estimating block and a 32-
month periods), including a minimum of
province or territory in Canada (except hour block on pattern development, lay-
1500 hours of on-the-job training and
Quebec) where the trade is designated, out, and theory.
eight weeks of technical training in the
without having to write (or take) fur- Third-year training starts off with two
first year and 1800 hours of on-the-job ther examinations. weeks of SMAW followed by two weeks of
training in the second year. GTAW. While in GTAW, students perform
Becoming an apprentice involves a
legal contract between the student,
Apprenticeship Program root, intermediate, and cover passes on
plate and pipe in various positions.
employer, and provincial government. In Alberta, ten institutions provide Students go back to SMAW for week five,
The student isnt bound to stick with one apprentice training for welders and wire with week six being designated for training
employer, but a student needs a sponsor. process operators, including NAIT and on 6-in. Schedule 80 pipe. This provides
The sponsor promises to provide on-the- SAIT. Working in partnership with pretraining for students wishing to obtain a
site training and pay the apprentice a industry and these institutions, the B Pressure certification (welding pres-
percentage of the journeyperson wage apprenticeship board (AIT) determines sure vessels and pipe) after they have com-
rate (60% for first-year apprentices, how many apprentices will train each pleted their apprenticeship. They also
75% for second year, and 90% for third year. In this manner, AIT manages the learn how to read blueprints.
year). The average journeypersons year- process so that supply will meet or catch In the last two weeks of training, third-
ly salary was $58,200 according to the up with demand. year apprentices weld coupons to get their
2005 Alberta Wage and Salary Survey. A single year of training consists of journeyperson certification. At this point,
To encourage people to enter the skilled
trades, the Alberta government subsidizes an eight-week period at one of these the Alberta government sends out its test
training by paying the technical institutions institutions. people to administer the journeyperson
on a per-student basis. This keeps tuition For those on a welder path, first-year tests. Students write their journeyperson
and material costs to less than $800 for an students typically receive one week of exam in the morning and have the oppor-
eight-week course. Considering the taxes a oxyfuel cutting and brazing, three weeks tunity to write their Red Seal exam in the
worker will pay on a $58,200 salary, its a of GMAW and FCAW training, and four afternoon of the same day.
good long-term investment. weeks of SMAW training Fig. 3. Dan MacKinnon, chair of NAITs
The goal of many apprentices is not Theyll also complete a 32-hour math welding program, said, The government

Langier AmWeld Feature April 2008:Layout 1 3/7/08 1:22 PM Page 90


Fig. 5 Digital controls, such as those on this

wire feeder and CC/CV inverter, enable students
to exactly duplicate the parameters set by weld-
Fig. 4 This NAIT student trains on SMAW in the 3G position. ing instructors. This gives them more confidence
when attempting to duplicate the procedure back
in their own welding booth.

mandate for us to train generalists has p.m., and 11:00 p.m. to 6:15 a.m. meters and digital controls for dual sched-
worked very well for the Alberta econo- George Rhodes, SAITs academic ule control, adjustable weld sequence con-
my because of our diversity. Everyone coordinator for welding/NDT and manu- trol, weld process range control, and weld
knows us for the oil and gas work in the facturing and automation, said, We program setup and storage.
tar sands, but theres welding work in trained 728 students in 2006 and told For training students on AC/DC
agricultural, transportation, mining, for- AIT we were at capacity. This year, AIT GTAW and SMAW, NAIT selected 72
est, aerospace, and aluminum boat asked us to train an additional 200 stu- inverter-based, 350-A welding machines
building industries, too. That said, dents. The only way we were going to be with GTAW controls for high-speed
pulsed DC-GTAW (up to 5000 pulses per
training heavily emphasizes the SMAW able to accommodate that was by second) and AC-GTAW controls for
process because so much of the work in upgrading our welding labs and welding independent EN and EP amperage con-
the petrochemical industry revolves equipment. trol, extended balance control (30 to
around pressure vessel welding and field Until 2006, NAIT and SAIT predom- 99% EN), AC frequency adjustment
welding Fig. 4. inantly trained students on a hodge- (20400 Hz), and four AC waveform
Once you get your journeypersons podge of old (sometimes ancient) CC- outputs (advanced squarewave, soft
ticket, thats your license to learn. It gets and CV-only equipment. This bulky squarewave, sine wave, and triangular
you on the job, and then you can go for equipment took up so much space that wave) Fig. 5.
your Canadian Welding Bureau ticket if only one machine fit in a welding booth. Digital controls help students, said
you want to do structural work. If you want In addition, teaching students on old Clark. After we demonstrate a weld
to go into the pressure and oil and gas equipment doesnt do them any favors procedure, students can go back to their
transmission lines, you need to get your B when they get on the job. booths, set the same parameters their
Pressure ticket, and this will open up As a technical institute, we can never instructor used, and feel a lot more con-
another door, explained Bob Clark, asso- let ourselves get behind industry, said fident about getting good results.
ciate chair of NAITs welding program. Clark. We have to be technology lead- To teach AC/DC GTAW and SMAW,
ers. If youre teaching, you want to be on SAIT opted for 60 compact 200-A GTAW
Out with the Old that leading edge and must have the inverters that feature AC-GTAW controls
right equipment. for extended balance control (30 to 99%
As noted, AIT asks just ten institu- For training students on SMAW, DC- EN), AC frequency adjustment (20250
tions to meet training demands. GTAW, GMAW, FCAW, and air carbon arc Hz), and controls for pulsing at up to 500
Shouldering this load required some gouging, NAIT recently installed 203 pulses per second Fig. 6. To make best
institutions to take in five new groups of CC/CV multiprocess inverters with a 350- use of welding booth space, SAIT created a
students each year. The need to share A output at 100% duty cycle. platform to mount these 45-lb GTAW
equipment among so many students Complementing these power sources are inverters on the wall Fig. 7.
required teaching on triple shifts: 7:15 66 dual wire feeders with digital meters Physical space is always a big problem.
a.m. until 2:30 p.m., 9:15 a.m. to 4:30 and 102 dual wire feeders with digital Now, because of space-saving inverters,

90 APRIL 2008
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Fig. 6 New CC/CV inverters and dual wire digital feeders keep Fig. 7 To save room in its welding booths, SAIT selected 200-A
SAIT on the leading edge of technology. Shown (from left) are SAIT AC/DC GTAW/SMAW inverters because their compact size and
personnel Mike Hildebrand, welding instructor and team leader; light weight permits mounting them on the wall. Because of the
George Rhodes, academic coordinator for welding/NDT and manu- space savings, this apprentice can practice every welding process
facturing and automation; and Jan Nielsen, welding instructor and required to earn his Red Seal, as well as AC GTAW.
team leader.

what we used to teach in three shops [with because SAIT management has invested to keep 30 old GTAW units running.
our large older equipment] we now teach more than $1 million in welding and
in one shop, said Rhodes. By making all manufacturing equipment, said
five of our weld shops multiprocess, we can Rhodes. Without that support, our Filling the Pipeline
accommodate more students and have enrollment would be limited and stu-
flexibility when scheduling class locations. dents would train on old technology. Canadas tar sands may get more than
You cant train students on vintage $48 billion of investment by 2012, accord-
SAIT also upgraded to CC/CV multi-
equipment and expect them to under- ing to Canadas National Energy Board.
process inverters with a 350-A output, pair-
stand the benefits of the advanced arc This is double the amount spent in the
ing each of its 90 power sources with a dual
controls found on todays inverters. decade ending in 2003. The tar sands in
wire feeder with digital meters. One side of Alberta hold 175 billion barrels of recover-
the feeder runs solid wire for GMAW while While NAIT and SAIT are educa-
able oil, which rivals Saudi Arabias 240
the other runs tubular wire for FCAW. tional institutions, the drivers for retir- billion barrels. Tar sands are deposits of
These processes parallel pipeline and pres- ing old equipment are that compact, bitumen, or viscous oil. About two tons of
sure vessel industry needs that require a multiprocess inverters save space, digital tar sands have to be dug up, heated, and
GMAW root and FCAW intermediate and controls help with training, and processed on location to make a single 42-
cover passes Figs. 8, 9. advanced controls tailor the welding arc. gallon barrel of oil.
We can meet the needs of industry This mimics the activities at the industri- The tar sands have profoundly
al companies for whom theyre prepar- changed Alberta society, as more people
Table 1 Average Hourly Wages in Canada ing students. In fact, like educators recognize that skilled trades are the
for Various Professions in 2004 (according to everywhere who face budget shortages, engine that runs the provinces econom- (The average wage NAIT and SAIT recognize the economic ic success.
for a journeyperson welder is about $30/h.) Its no longer an insult to be a
benefits of new technology.
tradesman, remarked Clark. If you
Accounting Clerk $16 Standardizing on just a few pieces of
look around Edmonton, a city of
Architect $26 equipment makes our stocking easier and
700,000+ people, there isnt a corner
Bookkeeper $16 cheaper to manage, as does using equip-
that doesnt have construction. People
Carpenter $19 ment thats energy efficient. In fact, new
finally recognize that buildings dont go
Computer Engineer (not software) $29 inverters use less than half the power of our
Computer/Info Systems Manager $37 up, and oil doesnt get extracted and
old rectifiers, MacKinnon said.
Data Entry Clerk $13 processed without skilled trades and
Clark noted that because all the new
Dentist $60 we have a shortage.
inverters can use three-phase, 575 VAC Attracting young people (most stu-
Electrician $20
Engineering Manager $35
primary power, We eliminated the need dents range from 19 to 25) into a skilled
Executive Assistant $20 to make major electrical upgrades to trade is easier than it used to be: just
Lawyer $40 accommodate the GTAW equipment. dangle the dollar signs.
Physiotherapist $27 Rather than spend $160,000 on outlets As noted, the average journeyperson
Plumber $19 and switching boxes, its more feasible to earns about $58,000. For welders who
Registered Nurse $27 spend that money on new machinery. specialize in GTAW, pipeline or pressure
Retail Sales /Clerk $12 Rhodes notes that old equipment costs vessel welding, salaries can range from
Social Worker $24 a lot to maintain, saying, We spent close
Truck Driver $19 $120,000 to $150,000 per year.
to $18,000 last year strictly on maintenance If a young person is ambitious and

Langier AmWeld Feature April 2008:Layout 1 3/7/08 1:23 PM Page 92


Fig. 8 SAIT instructor Derek Wilson demonstrates gas metal arc Fig. 9 GMA welds made by SAIT instructor Derek Wilson.
welding in the 3G position. This instructors area at the front of an
SAIT welding lab provides room for all the students to observe the
instructors techniques, then go back to their booths to duplicate the

wants to run a portable welding truck, job requires a lot more academic skill about todays generation of teenagers
Clark said, theyll have to outlay about nowadays because of the code-type work and twenty-somethings.
$80,000 to set it up, but the average rig the petrochemical industry requires, I think we should start training peo-
welder makes $330,000 a year right now. MacKinnon said. You have to have a ple at a younger age in the practicalities
Mike Hildebrand, a welding instruc- good academic background to make a of work, Clark said. I find that work
tor and team leader at SAIT, said, Well- good tradesperson. Then, for those who ethics are almost nonexistent nowa-
paid welders work hard for every penny have the aptitude, they want to become a days. From the time they were small,
they make. They dont work eight to five. supervisor, and those supervisors with an the parents of these educators gave them
They work 12-hour days, six days a week. entrepreneurial spirit may go on to start responsibilities around the house or
Its pretty common for a rig welder to their own company. farm. As teenagers, they worked a paper
work hard eight months out of the year, To help those in designated trades route, bagged groceries, pumped gas,
then shut down and go fishing, golfing, grow skills beyond their technical capa- and more. Kids today turn 18 and realize
or hunting for four months. bilities, Alberta offers an Achievement that society expects them to work hard,
Unlike those who attend university, in Business Competencies (Blue Seal) yet they have zero work experience.
tradespersons dont carry a heavy program. As NAITs Web site notes, If According to Hildebrand, A good
tuition-related debt load for ten years you are a certified Alberta journeyper- tradesperson has a great work ethic. Most
after graduating. Instead, they have lots son in a designated trade or occupation, of our students 75 to 80% will find
earning a Blue Seal proves that you not and hold a good job. Those who fail to hold
of ready cash.
only meet Albertas high industry stan- a job almost always fail because of poor
Theres almost no limit to how much
dards, but you also have the drive to work ethics. The hardest thing for kids who
money a young person can make, said
develop your business skills and succeed slack on the job to realize is that theyre not
Clark. Like most young people, they want in business. going to get pushed through a system like
nice toys: a truck, motorcycle, ATV, boat, Tradespeople can earn their Blue they did in school. There are conse-
or snowmobile. The difference is, welders Seal by completing 150 hours of study in quences: They wont have a job.
can afford anything and everything, espe- the following areas: accounting, adminis- In addition to ethics, Rhodes believes
cially because young people arent thinking tration, business law, operations man- that society (schools, parents, and peers)
about a family or a house. agement, organizational behavior, needs to change its attitude about per-
One common misconception all the supervision, human resource manage- sonal growth.
educators want to dispel is the myth of ment, industrial relations, leadership, There is no shame in failing, he
once a tradesperson, always a trades- economics, entrepreneurship, project said. Nobody wants to hold little
person. For example, SAIT offers a management, public administration, Johnny back because his classmates are
two-year welding engineering technolo- finance, management, and marketing. going to go on without him. Parents want
gy program accredited by the American to make it easier on themselves and their
Society of Engineering Technology. kids, but thats not right. Everybody
Graduates tend to follow career paths in Whats Wrong with Kids learns at a different rate of speed, every-
welding inspection, quality assurance, These Days? body matures at a different level, and
welding department supervision, R&D, everybody learns differently. Parents and
or technical sales support. Like many people with a touch of teachers should teach children to under-
There is always work for someone gray in their hair, the educators at the stand these differences at an early age. If
that just wants to burn rod, but even that two schools have a thing or two to say it takes 13 or 14 years to get an honest

92 APRIL 2008
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grade 12 education, thats acceptable. but its amazing when you talk to coun- Weve even gone to elementary
Clark says whats not acceptable is a selors at the junior high and high school schools and, at their request, sent an
society that puts out students who, are level and find out that they dont even instructor out to explain the welding trade
supposed to have a Grade 10 education know what welding is. I think school sys- and the careers available, Rhodes said.
yet cant read a tape measure. Canadian tems first have to realize that any trade is To encourage high school students to
blueprints will be in millimeters, but you valuable. Then, counselors have to enter the skilled trades, AIT created the
often need to order materials in imperi- advise kids that if they have a good Registered Apprenticeship Program
al. The people coming out of high school work ethic they can make a better liv- (RAP). RAP enables high school stu-
need to have practical, applied math ing as a tradesperson than some people dents to earn a high school diploma at
skills to convert between metric and impe- with a university degree (Table 1). the same time they earn credits toward
rial. It seems like kids nowadays think they What bothers me, Rhodes added, apprenticeship training, thereby gaining
can make a million dollars sitting in front of is that secondary school systems poured some real-world work experience.
a TV screen with a video game. millions of dollars into funding comput- Students are required to finish core sub-
er labs starting in the late 1990s. But now jects through grade 12. Upon gradua-
you go to these schools and find out that
Whats Wrong with all the funding was diverted from their
tion, the prospective employer will spon-
sor their apprenticeship. But if students
Schools? trade-related labs. School boards dont quit high school, the employer is not
fund machine shops, motor vehicle allowed to hire them.
Historically, parents created the stig- shops, carpentry shops, and welding labs The RAP program, Rhodes said,
ma against going into a skilled trade. any more. The money is there, but some has been extremely successful in pro-
Today, vocational educators like Rhodes school boards still look down on the moting trades to the high schools and
and Hildebrand believe that the educa- trades because they dont see the value the general public. It gives kids an incen-
tion system is now the bottleneck. of a tradesperson. tive to stay in school. It instills a work
High school and junior high school One tactic for generating interest in ethic, responsibility, and teaches kids
counselors dont realize the careers the trades at all levels is explaining what that actions have consequences, and its
available in the skilled trades, the skilled trades are and how an producing the welders Alberta desper-
Hildebrand said. Were a huge industry, apprenticeship works. ately needs.

For info go to

2Jason Niewiadomski APRIL:Layout 1 3/7/08 11:02 AM Page 94


Young Veteran Welder Tells
How Welding Changed His Life
I wanted to be the best at welding so I
could compete and win that competition.
When I told Eubank that I was inter-
ested in competing in SkillsUSA all he said
was, Get to work.
I met many good people at Auburn
who helped me expand my knowledge in
the world of welding, Jason said. I got a
lot of encouragement from people I met
from Lincoln Electric in Cleveland. They
are Dennis Klingman, Carl Peters, Joe
Kalasa, Bill West, and many others. They
all took me under their wing to help me get
better and better at welding.
The start of the senior year went more
in depth with welding. We started weld-
ing pipe and started working on assigned
projects projects like snow plows for the
local road department, and farm equip-
ment like tractors and equipment for trac-
Jason Niewiadomski (center) is shown with his mentors, his father (right) and welding in- tors, Jason explained.
structor Ryan Eubank. Eubank said, A student can learn only
so much working in a welding booth, but
to learn real-life situations you must weld
on paint, grease, oil, and dirty surfaces
Not yet 20 years old, Jason Niewiadom- welding and how to get things to fit and that will make you a welder.
ski is already fired-up to tell the world work. Jasons interest was aroused, and Eubank decided the class should build
what welding has done for him and vice he took his friends suggestion to see his a catwalk for its senior work project. The
versa. The past few years for him have counselor to discuss transferring to catwalk was to be 22.5 ft long and about 16
been complicated by personal problems Auburn Career Center so he could study ft in the air. That turned out to be a real
that, fortunately, have been since over- welding. learning experience for Jason. He said,
come by cleaning up his life and learning Auburn Career Center offers a two- The class members engineered the proj-
a profitable trade in welding. year program with the option to choose ect led by Phil Henry, and I was to be the
I have experienced so much in the last your own trade for the junior and senior main welder on the job. Ill never forget
three and a half years, Jason exclaimed. years. Jason signed up for the welding building that. All this experience helped
I was taking a metal shop class at River- class taught by Ryan Eubank. Before Jason get ready for the welding competi-
side High School (Painesville, Ohio) and teaching at the Center, Eubank worked tions to follow.
was enjoying learning something new and for The Lincoln Electric Co. in Cleveland. We had a local competition through-
working with my hands. He said, I could I thought I knew something about out the class and I took first place in that.
enjoy doing this work all day long. welding, but soon realized that I knew just Then I entered the regional welding com-
One fateful day, Jason shared his en- about nothing, Jason said. The first year petition and took first place in that com-
thusiasm for his newfound creative shop Eubank taught me the basics of gas metal petition, too. Jason said thoughts of mak-
skills with a friend who was enrolled in the arc, shielded metal arc, gas tungsten arc, ing it all the way to the national
welding class at nearby Auburn Career and flux cored arc welding; oxyfuel and competition gave me butterflies, but after
Center. He was excited about what he was plasma arc cutting; plus mill and lathe winning the regional competition I could-
learning and was confident that Jason work. He taught me about the welding nt wait to enter the state competition. Fi-
would like studying welding, too. Jason positions: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 1F, 2F, 3F, nally, when that opportunity arrived, what
did have a little experience assisting in the and 4F. Jason kept saying to himself was, Lets
assembly of a racecar. He said that work I was really excited when I heard do this.
taught me a few things about fitting and about the SkillsUSA welding competition. Jason recalled, The two-day competi-

HOWARD M. WOODWARD ( is associate editor of the Welding Journal.

94 APRIL 2008
2Jason Niewiadomski APRIL:Layout 1 3/6/08 10:49 AM Page 95


tion went great for me. Winning made it were from the U.S. They were all practic- Conesville, Ohio, so far. I like to travel and
all the more important to him to prepare ing for the international competition. It is thats what this job is all about. I have met
himself even more. All I knew was that I an experience that you have to go see and and worked with people from all over the
better get ready because I will be compet- experience. U.S. Jason noted that, As an NTL Boil-
ing with the best welders from every state Jason concluded, The outcome of the ermaker what I do is build tanks. They call
from the east coast to the west coast. national competition was very close. The us tankies. I build holding tanks, scrub-
Jason was overwhelmed by the Skills- difference between the first- and third- bers, and other projects. In just four
USA national competition. He said, I place scores was only 200 points I took months I earned $30,000. I just bought a
thought the state competition was huge; third place. His prizes included two gas brand-new 2008 Chevy Silverado 3500 Du-
just wait until you go to Kansas City, Mis- metal arc welding machines, a torch out- ramax diesel, fully loaded, I love it. The
souri. When I saw where we were going to fit, welding consumables, and two $10,000 only reason I was able to do that is by hav-
compete my jaw dropped. The building is scholarships. ing a good job making good money.
equivalent to 16 football fields and has His welding education went a long way But Jason realizes that theres more to
three floors. We would be using all brand- in turning Jasons life around. Inspired by life. To me, he said, money isnt every-
new equipment half Lincoln, half his successes, he said, I cant stress it thing. Ive got to be happy with what I do,
Miller. The competition, he added, enough how much you will get out of hard and I can see myself doing this (welding)
lasted days, and was one of the best ex- work, patience, and the will to be the best. for the next 30 years.
periences of my life. I worked two jobs while going to school. It Jason wants to thank his family, Ryan
In addition to his welding experiences, was hard but I made it through. Eubank, Dennis Klingman, Ronny
Jason said, I met all sorts of people from Jason recently landed his first career Vanscoy, and the others who taught him,
different places and different cultures. job through Ronny Vanscoy, a recruiter encouraged him, and made it possible for
During the postsecondary competition, for the International Boilermakers Union. him to succeed. His advice to young read-
which was the high school competition, I started as a Boilermaker in August ers is to get into the field of welding if you
the secondary competition was going on. 2007, he said. I have worked in Chat- like to work with your hands and build
One welder was from Australia, others tanooga, Tennessee; Wheeling, West Vir- things. So one day you can drive down the
from Great Britain and Germany, and two ginia; Maysville, Kentucky; and road and say, Hey, I built that!

For info go to

N. GA Tech College 4-08:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:55 PM Page 96


North Georgia Technical College Offers
a Variety of Welder Training Options

Located in the mountains in the north-

east corner of the state, North Georgia
Technical College (NGTC), Clarkesville
Campus, offers a variety of programs for
students studying for welding-related

NGTC Welding Programs

The college offers a two-year Associate

of Applied Science Degree with a Con-
centration in Welding; a one-year Welding
and Joining Technology diploma; and a
number of 10- to 20-week-long Technical
Certificate programs specifically for gas
tungsten arc, flat shielded metal arc, over-
head shielded metal arc, gas metal arc,
and pipe welding. Other courses within
this program include blueprint reading,
mathematics, computers, employability Welding instructor Ronnie Ayers (far left) is shown with his Welding and Joining Technology
skills, and language arts. students.
Upon completion of the program, grad-
uates receive the Welding and Joining Tech- Last fall quarter, Ayers said, we had 60
nology diploma. They are fully prepared to students in the welding program. It was
take qualification tests for positions of weld- our largest enrollment to date.
ing and joining technician. Many NGTC Jason Smith joined the teaching staff
students choose to pursue the diploma in about a year ago. He graduated from
Welding and Joining Technology because it NGTC with an AAT degree with a Con-
also develops academic, technical, and pro- centration in Welding in 2003, then
fessional knowledge, and the skills neces- worked for three years in the welding in-
sary for job retention and advancement. dustry before taking his present post.
This program emphasizes welding theory
and the practical applications that are nec- Graduates Job Placements
essary for successful employment.
Graduates of the Welding and Joining
The Welding Staff program were offered immediate job place-
CWI Ronnie Ayers (left) and Jason Smith
ments last year with starting salaries ranging provide the expert training for the Welding
Heading the teaching staff are Ronnie from $12 to $14 per hour for local manu- and Joining Technology program at NGTC.
Ayers and Jason Smith. facturing positions, and up to $25 per hour
Ayers is an AWS Certified Welding In- for construction jobs involving travel.
spector and Educator (CWI/CWE) with quarter. The cost of books and supplies for
12 years of work experience. He started Tuition and Fees the full program is approximately $350
teaching part time in 1996 and became a and the graduation fee is $35. Qualified
full-time instructor in 2000. Ayers gradu- Tuition for Georgia residents is $432 Georgia residents may receive the Hope
ated from the NGTC welding program in per quarter for a full-time student, or $36 Grant that pays for all tuition and most of
1989 and its machine tool program in per credit hour for part-time. Out-of-state the fees. Also available are Pell Grants,
1991. In 2000, he received his AAS degree student tuition is $864 per quarter. The student incentive grants, work study
from Truett-McConnell and is currently boarding fee is $900 per quarter for a grants, and various scholarships.
pursuing his BAS at Gainesville State Col- semiprivate room or $975 for a private
lege. One of Ayerss more adventurous room. Other fees include a $25 student ac- Student Services
students, Tyler Fisher (see sidebar story), tivity fee, $4 fee for accident insurance
credits Ayers with helping him achieve a coverage, $26 registration fee, and a $35 The college offers a career-placement
most rewarding career in pipe welding. instructional/technology support fee each service to assist students as they complete

HOWARD M. WOODWARD ( is associate editor of the Welding Journal.

96 APRIL 2008
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their training. The college maintains com-
munication with employers and with the Globetrotting NGTC Student Fulfills
Georgia State Employment Service to pro-
vide a wide range of employment opportu-
nities for the students. Employers also
His Dream Welding Career
send representatives to the school for per-
sonal interviews with graduating students. Just six years ago, after graduating
The college is an Internet access zone to from high school, Tyler Fisher enrolled
Americas Job Bank through the U.S. De- in the Industrial Systems Technology
partment of Labor that provides informa- program at North Georgia Technical
tion on job openings locally and nationally. College, Clarkesville, Ga., where he
The Career Discovery Center offers studied welding at night with CWI/
job search software, rsum-building soft- CWE Ronnie Ayers. It wasnt long
ware, online application to North Georgia before he realized he had a true liking
Technical College, links to newspapers, and talent for metal joining, especially
career scope software for interest and ap- pipe welding. He graduated from
titude testing, an enhanced job analyzer Ayerss class well prepared, energized,
for career exploration, and more than 100 and ready to go to work.
links to career sites. Ayers helped Fisher search for a
Assessment services provide career pipe welding job in the nationwide want
guidance and planning by means of indi- ads, where they found an interesting
vidual and group testing at various loca- position posted for a paper mill in
tions using computerized and standardized Maine. Fisher drove to Maine to take
the companys welding test. He passed
testing instruments. These services include
the test, got the job, and thus was
career exploration, interest inventories, Tyler Fisher is shown at the Museum of
launched on his career as a professional
aptitude testing, and basic skills testing.
welder. Terra Cotta Warriors in Xian, China.
Always looking for more interesting
The Presidents Word and better-paying jobs, Fisher left the
paper mill to work at several nuclear embassy other buildings were under
Dr. Ruth Nichols, NGTC president, power plants where he continued to construction using Chinese workmen.
said, Our welding program is without a hone his pipe-welding skills. While They were doing the same type of struc-
doubt one of the top programs in the state working at Surrey Nuclear Power tural welding that Fisher was doing, but
and throughout the nation. Graduates are Station he learned about high-paying they were paid an average of only $5 for
always coming back and telling us how job opportunities overseas for skilled a 12-h workday. Instead of welding hel-
thankful they are that they chose NGTC to pipe welders. Eager to explore these mets, the Chinese welders wore sun-
help them get started in their first career, jobs, Fisher applied to Zachary- glasses with cardboard cutouts around
find a new career, or learn new skills for Caddell, a firm building in Beijing, them to shield their faces, and many of
their current career. China. Tyler recalled that it took almost them wore short sleeves and flip-flops
a year to complete the necessary securi- while working high up on the buildings.
ty and background checks required by One night, while working several
the company. Once cleared, he flew to stories up on the embassy, Fisher
Texas where he passed the companys watched a magical scene of the welders
extensive tests of his welding skills. in the other buildings. It looked like
After a four-day orientation program in fireworks all over the place from all the
San Antonio, Fisher flew to Beijing welders, Fisher said. That sight is one
where he worked for a year building the of his most treasured memories.
new U.S. Embassy. He felt comfortable While he spent most of his time
with the people, their culture, and the working, he found time to travel exten-
surroundings. He even learned to speak sively. He explored the Simatai section
some Chinese. of the Great Wall of China, visited
Fisher found many advantages to Xian and its famous Museum of Qin
working in Beijing. The company fol- Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses (see
lowed U.S. Occupational Safety and figure), went trout fishing in New
Health Administration (OSHA) stan- Zealand, rode a train through the
North Georgia dards and employed quality control Himalayas to Tibet, and visited
inspectors on the job site. His work Thailand and Australia.
Technical College schedule at the embassy was demand- Now 24 years old, Fishers skills are
1500 Hwy. 197 N. ing, and he had to work occasionally in much in demand. He is, at this writing,
Clarkesville, GA 30523 tight quarters, but he was satisfied. The embarking on another pipe welding
Ronnie Ayers, instructor, welding company paid him more than $80,000 assignment at an overseas nuclear
(706) 754-7764 per year in addition to providing his power plant. Hes enthusiastic about his apartment and all of his food. What he future job prospects, and can only spec-
did have to buy was inexpensive. ulate where his welding career will take
Fisher said that all around the him next.

Am Weld Fact 4 08:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:20 PM Page 98


Carbon Steel Flux Cored Electrodes Usability
Designator AWS Classification Welding External Gas Polarity Application
A5.20 A5.20M Position Shielding

E70T-1C E490T-1C H, F CO2

E70T-1M E490T-1M H, F 7580 Ar/CO2 DCEP multipass
1 E71T-1C E491T-1C H, F, VU, OH CO2
E71T-1M E491T-1M H, F, VU, OH 7580 Ar/CO2

E70T-2C E490T-2C H, F CO2

2 E70T-2M E490T-2M H, F 7580 Ar/CO2 DCEP single pass
E71T-2C E491T-2C H, F, VU, OH CO2
E71T-2M E491T-2M H, F, VU, OH 7580 Ar/CO2

3 E70T-3 E490T-3 H, F none DCEP single pass

4 E70T-4 E490T-4 H, F none DCEP multipass

E70T-5C E490T-5C H, F CO2 DCEP

5 E70T-5M E490T-5M H, F 7580 Ar/CO2 DCEP multipass
E71T-5C E491T-5C H, F, VU, OH CO2 DCEP or
E71T-5M E491T-5M H, F, VU, OH 7580 Ar/CO2 DCEN

6 E70T-6 E490T-6 H, F none DCEP multipass

7 E70T-7 E490T-7 H, F none DCEN multipass

E71T-7 E491T-7 H, F, VU, OH

8 E70T-8 E490T-8 H, F none DCEN

E71T-8 E491T-8 H, F, VU, OH multipass

E70T-9C E490T-9C H, F CO2

9 E70T-9M E490T-9M H, F 7580 Ar/CO2 DCEP multipass
E71T-9C E491T-9C H, F, VU, OH CO2
E71T-9M E491T-9M H, F, VU, OH 7580 Ar/CO2

10 E70T-10 E490T-10 H, F none DCEN single pass

11 E70T-11 E490T-11 H, F none DCEN multipass

E71T-11 E491T-11 H, F, VD, OH

E70T-12C E490T-12C H, F CO2

12 E70T-12M E490T-12M H, F 7580 Ar/CO2 DCEP multipass
E71T-12C E491T-12C H, F, VU, OH CO2
E71T-12M E491T-12M H, F, VU, OH 7580 Ar/CO2

13 E61T-13 E431T-13 H, F, VD, OH none DCEN single pass

14 E71T-14 E491T-14 H, F, VD, OH none DCEN single pass

E71T-13 E491T-13
E60T-G E430T-G H, F not specified not specified multipass
E70T-G E490T-G H, F not specified not specified multipass
E61T-G E431T-G H, F, VD, or not specified not specified multipass
G E71T-G E491T-G VU, and OH not specified not specified multipass
E60T-GS E430T-GS H, F not specified not specified single pass
E70T-GS E490T-GS H, F not specified not specified single pass
E61T-GS E431T-GS H, F, VD, or not specified not specified single pass
E71T-GS E491T-GS VU, and OH not specified not specified single pass

H = horizontal; F = flat; OH = overhead; VU = vertical with upward progression; VD = vertical with downward progression;
DCEP = direct current electrode positive; DCEN = direct current electrode negative.
Source: AWS A5.20/A5.20M:2005, Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding.

98 APRIL 2008
Page 99:FP_TEMP 3/6/08 5:42 PM Page 99


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of equipment and industry peers to find the newest products development through
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AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 12:05 PM Page 100


Akron Testing Lab. Butte-Glenn
& Welding School Ltd. Community College
Founded 1953 Founded 1967
The Welding Technology Program is a
Employers Akron Testing Lab and Welding School vocational core of courses designed to
Ltd., has been training and qualifying produce qualified personnel for certified
Are you in need of welders for over 50 years. Founded in
good welders? welding jobs. Program performance stan-
1953 and located in Northeast Ohio, dards for certification are in accordance
offers certificate classes or a Dipolma
Students program in Welding Technology.
with those established by the American
Are you searching for a Welding Society and/or American Society
Classes offered include SMAW, Pipe of Mechanical Engineers. Courses are
way to hone your skills? welding, GMAW steel and aluminum, held in a completely modern and
GTAW, FCAW, Oxyfuel, and blue print well-equipped welding lab. This program
Welders reading. Customized training is offered is designed to produce entry-level welding
e Is it time to expand your to employers. Ohio Registration 79-01- technicians in the 6-G pipe position
al talends and knowledge? 0631T. (qualifies for all positions in plate and
s pipe). Heavy plate 3G and 4G are also
r Below are welding schools across the obtainable. The student will be able to
9 country that have taken this advertising weld with SMAW, FCAW, GMAW,
b opportunity to promote their resources GTAW, OAW, OFC, PAC and AAC in all
a both to industry in need of welders and to positions with a variety of metals and
g. those searching for a solid career path to Akron Testing Laboratory alloys. Students will be able to certify
- employment. Contact them and take and Welding School under at least one of the following codes:
r advantage of the services they can provide. 1171 Wooster Road N. API, AWS, and ASME, according to
, Barberton, OH 44203 individual skills.
You will find specific information on
welding courses offered, degrees and (888) 859-0664
certifications available, school locations Fax: (330) 753-2268
near you, fax, phone, website search data
and the like. We appreciate any ideas you
might have for making this welding 3536 Butte Campus Drive
school guide more useful to you. Please Oroville, CA 95965
send comments or requests to be on Atlantic Technical Center Don Robinson,
our mailing list to Rob Saltzstein at Founded 1973 (530) 895-2469 Fax: (530) 895-2302 or Lea Garrigan Badwy at Mike Rabo, We will be sure your Atlantic Technical Center provides a (530) 895-2360 Fax: (530) 895-2302
school is on our mailing list and e-mail list review for persons currently employed
to receive advance information on future in welding occupations who wish to take
Welding School Profile edition of Welding an AWS test to become a Certified
Journal. Thank you. Welder, or first time students who are Central Piedmont
interested in learning advanced and Community College
University of basic welding skills techniques. Shop James Turner Institute of
activities are an integral part of this Welding Technology
Alaska Anchorage Welding course and provide instruction to de- Founded 1963
and NDT Technology velop skills in Industrial, Structural, Air- CPCC offers welding training at its
Founded 1970 craft, Marine, Petroleum and Nuclear Charlotte, North Carolina campus.
Welding. At the successful completion Earn a Certificate or Associate in
The Welding/NDT program at UAA of laboratory activities, an AWS Weld- Applied Science Degree in Welding
offers a choice of certificates and an ing Certification test is available. Technology. We teach the skills needed
Associate of Applied Science degree Accredited by the Commission of the for todays work force: Oxyfuel, SMAW,
that centers on welding skills, welding Council on Occupational Education. GTAW, GMAW, FCAW and more. Key
inspection and nondestructive testing. support courses such as Metallurgy,
Program courses include skill develop- Blueprint Reading, Quality Control and
ment in major welding processes, pipe Non-destructive Examination. We have
fitting and basic metallurgy, as well as been an AWS Accredited Testing
hands-on NDT training in the RT, UT, Facility since 2000. In addition to our
MT and PT processes. Our program AWS student chapter we have an active
serves about 175 students each year. blacksmithing group on campus.

4700 Coconut Creek Parkway

3211 Providence Drive GHH 111 Coconut Creek, Florida 33063
Anchorage, AK 99508 (754) 321-5100
(907) 786-6475 Fax: (754) 321-5380
Fax: (907) 786-6474 Contact: Frank Rose, PO Box 35009 Welding Instructor, Ext. 3108 Charlotte, NC 28235 (704) 330-2722
100 APRIL 2008
AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 12:08 PM Page 101


Cosumnes River College Dabney S. Lancaster
Community College
Cosumnes River College offers a hands Founded 1967
on style welding program. The basic
Central Wyoming College welding class starts with the introduction Dabney S. Lancaster Community
to welding (WELD 100). WELD 110 College offers welding training on its
Central Wyoming College, located offers advanced SMAW and FCAW western Virginia campus. Earn a certifi-
in the beautiful Wind River Valley, training. WELD 112 offers advanced cate or associate of applied science
offers an employer-driven welding GTAW and GMAW procedures on degree. Employer-driven curriculum
curriculum designed to provide gradu- stainless and aluminum alloys. WELD teaches the skills needed in todays
ates with entry-level backgrounds in the 114 offers welder certification of AWS workforce: oxy fuel, SMAW, GTAW,
different aspects of welding. Central D1.1 to D1.8 codes. Jason Roberts is a GMAW and pipe welding. Key support
Wyoming College welding students Certified Welding Inspector, Certified courses such as metallurgy, blueprint
receive rigorous hands-on training Welding Educator, a Certified Welding reading and quality control. Benefit
in various welding and cutting processes Operator and a AWS Publicity Comittee from free qualification testing. Enjoy
including Oxyfuel, SMAW, GMAW Chairperson for the Sacramento Valley. small classes, free tutoring and personal
/FCAW, GTAW and pipe welding. The program is heavily influenced with attention. Customized courses available
Students have a choice of earning a lectures on AWS welding code and for employers. Offering quality, afford-
credential, certificate or an Associate of OSHA 510 construction safety standards. able education and training since 1967.
Applied Sciences degree. Check out our
program at

8401 Center Parkway

Sacramento, CA 95823-7146
1000 Dabney Drive,
2660 Peck Avenue Interstate 64, exit 24
Riverton, WY 82501 Clifton Forge, VA 24422-1000
(307) 855-2103 (540)863-2895 CTC Lackawanna Co, Email:
Dudley Cole, (307)855-2138 (Formerly Lackawanna Co AVTS)
Admissions (800) 865-0193 Founded in 1973

CTC serves the secondary students

and adult community of the greater Lynnes Welding Training, Inc.
College of the Canyons Scranton (PA) region. Emphasis is placed Daves Welding &
on safety as well as blueprint reading,
properties of metal, metal identification, Metal Fab. Inc.
College of the Canyons, an LADBS and Founded 2004
types and use of electrodes, welding rods,
AWS testing facility, has trained welders electrical principles, and welding
for 32-plus years. Courses cover indus- Fast track your career in just a few
symbols. Secondary and adult students weeks. Extensive hands on training
trial welding, pipe, metallurgy, welding are prepared to take AWS certification
inspection, metallurgy and metal sculp- w/blueprint reading. Small classes for
tests. Accredited by Pennsylvania State more personal attention. Customized
turing, as well as technologies such as Board of Vocational Education.
OFW, SMAW, FCAW, GMAW, FCAW, courses available for employers. Earn a
YAG and controlled atmospheric weld- certificate GMAW, GTAW, SMAW,
ing. Instructors are AWS CWI and and Pipe (Tig or Stick). Assistance with
CWE licensed. Certificates and degrees job placement. Providing training since
are offered. Courses are offered day 2004 with over 375 students.
and night, and most programs can often
be completed in less than one year.

3201 Rockwell Ave

Scranton PA 18508
(570) 346-8471
26455 Rockwell Canyon Road
Santa Clarita, CA 91355 2801 1st Ave No
(661) 259-7800 Fargo, ND 58102
Email: (888) 356-0871


AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 12:08 PM Page 102


The Divers Academy Eastern Maine
International Community College
Founded 1977 Founded 1966

DeKalb Technical College The Divers Academy offers the highest Eastern Maine Community College of-
Founded 1961 quality training in the shortest amount fers a comprehensive welding program
of time to jumpstart your career. It is in Bangor, Maine. Students may earn a
DeKalb Technical College Welding known for its full-immersion training diploma or associate degree in welding
program offers a four quarter diploma methodology and its modern training or pipefitting technology preparing them
and six Technical Certificates of Credit facilities. Underwater Cutting and to successfully enter the workplace.
in Oxyfuel, SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, Welding is just one part of a compre- SMAW, GMAW, GTAW and cutting
pipe welding and ornamental iron hensive 5-month curriculum. Founded processes in both structural and piping
worker. DeKalb Tech also offers in 1977, the Divers Academy Interna- applications are studied in a spacious
customized courses to meet employers tional trains divers for commercial deep training facility equipped with modern
needs. The majority of the Welding sea diving and wet welding, providing welding equipment. AWS testing facility
program is hands-on in the lab. If you students with an employers most offering weld testing, welder certification
like working with your hands, building sought-after qualification: on-the-job and customized training for both the
things and dont mind getting dirty, experience. Financial aid is available public and industry.
DeKalb Technical College is the place for those who qualify.
to get your training!

Lakeside Business Park 354 Hogan Road, Bangor, Maine

1500 Liberty Place 04849
Erial, NJ 08081-1139 (207) 974-4643
(800) 238-DIVE
DeKalb Technical College
495 North Indian Creek Dr.
Clarkston, GA 30021
(404) 297-9522 ext 1218 or 1570 Eastern Wyoming College Doa Ana Founded 1948 Community College Eastern Wyoming College is a compre-
Founded 1973 hensive community college. The EWC
Welding Department benefits our
The Doa Ana Community College students and area industry as an accred-
Del Mar College Welding Technology program has a ited AWS testing center. Students and
Founded 1935 national reputation for excellence, and workforce personnel learn in SMAW,
is taught by top-notch AWS CWEs and GTAW, GMAW, FCAW, OAW and
Del Mar College is a comprehensive CWIs. Our 75-90 full and part-time other processes. Students can attain
community college in Corpus Christi, students take courses in SMAW, a Certificate or Associate of Applied
Texas. The welding program offers GMAW, GTAW, FCAW, SAW, steel, Science in Welding and Joining Tech-
AWS training and certification in stainless, aluminum, pipe, metallurgy, nology, preparing them for structural,
SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, FCAW, and NDT and DT, welding Codes, welding pipe, or maintenance welding. Students
various other processes on plate and symbols and blueprint reading, pipe may also participate in competitions
pipe welding to industry standards. Cer- welding, fabrication, and welder quali- and leadership activities by joining our
tificate and Associate Degree programs fication. Graduates leave as AWS reputable SkillsUSA club. Student num-
offered. Visit us on the Web or call 1- /ASME certified welders. Courses are bers are currently averaging 60
800-652-3357 for information. offered days or evenings. Certificate full time students per semester.
and Associate Degrees offered.

101 Baldwin Blvd. Eastern Wyoming College

Corpus Christi, TX 78404-3897 3200 West C Street
(800) 652-3357 MSC 3DA, Torrington, WY 82240 3400 S. Espina St. (866) EASTWYO
Las Cruces, N.M. 88003-8001
(575) 527-7500 catalog: www
David Twitty:
Terry Mount: skills www:
102 APRIL 2008
AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 12:23 PM Page 103


Great Basin College Welding Hill College
Founded 1967 Founded 1923

Great Basin College offers an Associ- Hill College offers comprehensive

El Camino College ates of Applied Science Degree and welder training on both its Hillsboro
Founded 1947 a one-year Certificate in Welding and Cleburne, Texas campuses.
Technology, established in 1990. Students can choose from several
The El Camino College Welding De- Currently, 20 students are enrolled in a program options ranging from a
partment strives to meet diverse student program that prepare them with skills marketable skills award to an Associate
needs by providing quality instruction in to create new products; repair existing of Applied Science degree. Employer-
morning, afternoon, and evening products; and work in the mining, man- driven curriculum covers SMAW,
classes. Introductory through advanced ufacturing, construction, transportation GMAW, FCAW, GTAW, pipe welding
courses are available in oxy-acetylene and agricultural industries. Program and blueprint reading. State-of-the-art
welding and cutting, GMAW, GTAW, highlights include instruction in welding technology combined with hands-on
FCAW, and SMAW. Special contact for theory, blueprint reading, fabrication, curriculum give Hill College students
women, call Women in Industry and quality control, metallurgy, qualification the experience to jump start their
Technology Program at 310.660.6780. testing, destructive and nondestructive careers. Hill College also offers
Welding Certificate and/or Associate of testing principles, and safety. continuing education credits and
Science Degree are available. customized courses for employers.

Welding Department
16007 Crenshaw Boulevard Elko, Nevada Welding Department
Torrance, CA 90506 (775) 753-2207 or (775) 753-2170 2112 Mayfield Parkway
(310) 660-3600 Rich Barton e-mail: Cleburne, Texas 76031 (817)556-2809 ext.201
Jon Licht e-mail: Email:
Technical College Hobart Institute of
Founded 1963 Harper College Welding Technology
Founded 1930
Florence-Darlington Technical College Harper College's 16 credit-hour certifi-
(FDTC) offers welding training through cate program provides students with
its Advanced Welding and Cutting Hobart Institute of Welding Technol-
entry-level skills in welding fabrication ogys Course Catalog explains in detail
Center (AWCC). The AWCC offers a and repair. The program emphasizes
one-year certificate program and a one- the wide range of welding classes and
advanced welding theory, extensive certifications offered by Hobart Insti-
year diploma program in welding. In practice in major arc welding process,
addition, through FDTCs Continuing tute of Welding Technology. More than
and out-of-position and multipass arc 25 separate welding courses are de-
Education Division, it offers a Pipe welding including GMAW, SMAW, and
Welding Academy, customer specific scribed by course objective, content,
GTAW. Upon completion of the certifi- and testing requirements. Also inside
welding classes, open enrollment cate program, students are prepared to
welding classes, and robotic welding. the catalog are course schedules, train-
pass guided bend tests to become certi- ing rates, and enrollment forms. Train-
The curriculum teaches skills in oxy fuel fied welders in accordance with AWS
cutting and welding, plasma cutting, ing may be done at our facility or yours.
(American Welding Society) D1.1 Also offered are complete training pro-
SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, FCAW, Structural Welding Code. Harper's
pipe welding, robotic welding, metal grams including DVDs, Instructor
program also provides custom training Guides, and Student Workbooks.
fabrication, blueprint reading, and in welding and fabrication for employees
more. AWS-accredited faclity. of area businesses. For more information,

Kurt J. Billsten
Coordinator of Maintenance Technology
P.O. Box 100548 1200 West Algonquin Rd.
2715 West Lucas Street Palatine, IL 60067 400 Trade Square East
Florence, South Carolina 29501-0548 (847) 925-6149 Troy, OH 45373
(843) 661-8330 Fax: (847)925-6049 (800) 332-9448
E-mail: FAX: (937) 332-5200
AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 12:25 PM Page 104


Kenai Peninsula College Lincoln Land
Community College
Kenai Peninsula College is a branch of Founded 1967
the University of Alaska located 150
Hutchinson Community miles South of Anchorage on the Kenai Lincoln Land Community College
College/AVS Peninsula. KPC offers certification on offers a welding operator program at its
AWS D1.1, D .375 steel plate 3G and eastern campus in Taylorville, Illinois
HCC offers Certificates, Associate in 4G SMAW, ASME Section IX pipe and its western campus in Jacksonville,
Applied Science Degrees and industry certification on steel 6-inch schedule 80 Illinois. Earn a certificate of achieve-
training in Welding Technology. The 6G SMAW. Our certificate program ment or certificate of completion. The
AWS Certified Program includes all includes Math, Blueprint, and English program provides skills development
welding processes, as well as experience (students must certify on pipe to in currently used welding processes
in fabrication and manufacturing meth- complete certificate). KPC students are including flat and out-of-position
ods. The welding and employability provided with 3M powered air welding. Additional skills development
skills taught result in excellent graduate purifying respirator welding hoods. offered in brazing, soldering, cutting,
placement, as well as job opportunities layout and fabrication techniques.
while students pursue their education. Activities include oxyacetylene, shielded
Morning, afternoon and evening classes metal arc, gas metal arc (MIG) / gas
are available, with multiple entry oppor- tungsten arc (TIG) welding and cutting
tunities. Our locations include Hutchin- 34820 College Drive techniques. Upon successful completion
son and Newton, Kansas. Soldotna, Alaska 99669 of certificate of achievement, AWS certi-
(907) 262-0300 fication is available. Enjoy small classes,
Fax: (907) 262-0395 personal attention and free tutoring.
Fritz Miller, Welding Instructor
(907) 262-0356
Hutchinson Community College
1300 N. Plum
Hutchinson, KS 67501
(620) 665-3502 Lincoln Electric Lincoln Land Community College
(316) 273-7000 Welding School 5250 Shepherd Road, P.O. Box 19256 in Newton Founded 1917 Springfield, IL 62794-9256 (217) 287-2061
Learn to weld at the Lincoln Electric E-mail:
Welding School. We have trained over
100,000 welders in many different
Johnson County trades (ironworkers, boilermakers, pip-
Community College efitters, sheet metal, etc). You will learn
Metal Fab. & Welding Technology to weld with the latest technology in Locklin Tech
equipment, on different base metals
JCCC welding technology/metal fabrica- (carbon steel, stainless, aluminum, Locklin Tech offers secondary and post-
tion is safety-oriented. Students learn cr/mo tubing, etc) and many different secondary training for a broad range of
practical knowledge and skill competen- processs (SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, careers in the welding industry.
cies for welding and machining. Well- FCAW, SAW). Our instructors have real NCCER Contren Learning Series
equipped JCCC laboratories enable world experiance doing trackside weld- curriculum helps students gain valuable
students to receive excellent instruction ing at motorsports events like Daytona global skills. Industry recognized cre-
using metallurgy and blueprint reading. (NASCAR,ROLEX), INDY (500, dentials are maintained through
JCCC is accredited as an AWS Participat- BRICKYARD 400), we also do job site NCCERs National Registry. Instructor
ing Organization for Entry Level Welders. training at your location. James Sullivan is active in SkillsUSA
A series of welder related certificates are and has been the recipient of the AWS
offered. Certificates and courses all lead Howard E. Adkins Instructor Award at
toward the associate of applied science the section, district and national levels.
degree. Scholarships are available.

22801 St. Clair Ave.

Cleveland, Ohio 44117
Bill West: (216) 383-2259
Jennifer Howell (216) 383-8325 5330 Berryhill Road
12345 College Blvd. ATB 157 Box # 17 Milton, FL 32570
Overland Park, KS 66210-1299 (850) 983-5700
(913) 469-8500
Richard Rowe, Ext. 3358
John Barnes, Ext. 3651
Kenneth Gregory,

104 APRIL 2008

AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 12:10 PM Page 105


NAIT Northcentral Technical
An Institute of Technology Committed College
to Student Success
At NTC, you will receive an education
Mesabi Range Community NAIT's Welding Department trains over designed to give you the hands-on
& Technical College 1700 Apprentices per year. Apprentices training and experience you need to
learn how to setup, use, and maintain succeed! Northcentral Technical Col-
Mesabi Range offers a rigorous welding equipment required for welding and cut- lege delivers state-of-the-art, industry-
curriculum following national skills ting processes. Apprentices develop the driven welding training in the SMAW,
standards developed by the American hand skills required to properly perform GMAW, FCAW, GTAW, and oxyfuel
Welding Society. The Entry Level welding and cutting operations. Basic processes, as well as robotic welding
Welder Diploma and the Advanced metallurgy, weld profiles, symbols, proce- and CNC plasma operation. Welding
Welder Diploma, established in 1997, dures, faults, and working with applicable students also gain knowledge in
give the successful graduate very mar- codes are areas covered at NAIT. Related supporting skills such as blueprint
ketable skills in the welding industry. subjects such as math, blueprint reading, reading, metallurgy, technical math,
Experienced, knowledgeable instruc- pattern development, rigging and a fully and CAD. Whether you are pursuing
tors, a great staff, up-to date equipment, functional trade science lab complete the an associate degree, technical diploma
and a modern shop provide a great scope of training. or short-term certificate, NTC offers a
learning environment. We have 100% vast range of opportunities, making us
job placement in the last ten years. the right fit at the right time for
Welding certifications are available. you. Customized training courses are
also available to meet specific
employer needs.
11762-106 Street NW
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5G 2R1
(780) 378.1100
P.O. Box 648
1100 Industrial Park Drive 1000 W. Campus Drive
Eveleth, MN 55734 Wausau, WI 54401
(218) 741-3095 (888) NTC-7144
Fax: (218) 744-7644 North Dakota State College of Science
The North Dakota State College of
Science is a two-year, residential college Northeast Wisconsin
Moraine Park that offers degrees, certificates and Technical College
Technical College diplomas in over 80 academic options
in traditional career and technical Northeast Wisconsin Technical College
Moraine Park Technical College offers a studies and in the liberal arts. NDSCS
one-year welding diploma program fo- offers training in welding, weld inspec-
offers one-year certificates, two-year tion and nondestructive testing in
cusing on GMAW, SMAW, and GTAW diplomas and A.A.S. degrees in
on steel, stainless and aluminum. The Green Bay and Marinette, Wisconsin,
Welding Technology. The college is an and by contract at worksites nationwide.
program includes Print Reading and American Welding Society S.E.N.S.E.
Fabrication courses that focus on the NWTC welding graduates can build
certified facility. Last year, 98 percent and repair metal components using
manufacturing process of a product of NDSCS graduates entered the
from conception to final production via major welding processes used by
workforce or continued their college ed- industry and knowledge of blueprints,
basic layout tools and CNC equipment. ucation. Unlike more two-year colleges,
Instruction includes AWS and ASME metallurgy and layout; can weld to AWS
NDSCS offers a university atmosphere and ASME codes; can work as
welding codes, including qualification for students residence halls, clubs and
tests and writing WPSs, with the oppor- maintenance welders, qualified welders,
organizations, fine arts, athletics and structural welders, welder/fabricators
tunity to weld-certify upon completion numerous social activities.
of the program. and pipe welders.

235 N. National Avenue,

Fond du Lac, WI 54935
Sue Silverstein, (920) 887-4490 2740 West Mason Street Green Bay, WI 54307
800 Sixth St. North (800) 422-NWTC, ext. 5444
Larry Clark, (920) 887-4494 Wahpeton, ND 58076-0002
(701) 671-2170
Jeff Beach, (920) 924-6438
AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 12:27 PM Page 106


Orange Coast College Pennsylvania College of
Founded 1947 Technology
Founded 1989
The Orange Coast College welding cur- Pennsylvania College of Technology, a
Odessa College riculum has been a part of this college
curriculum since the college was first con- Penn State affiliate since 1989, offers
ceived. Our program offerings include degrees that work in more than 100
The Welding Technology Department at both a Welding Certificate of Achieve- careers including welding. In addition to
Odessa College in Odessa, Texas, offers ment and an Associate in Science De- an associates degree and certificate,
a full range of certificate and associate gree. We are proud to offer a Penn College offers a unique bachelors
degree options. The lab areas are comprehensive welding program which degree in Welding and Fabrication
equipped with 45 modern welding sta- includes Oxyacetylene welding and cut- Engineering Technology that prepares
tions for training in SMAW, GMAW, ting, SMAW, GMAW, FCAW, GTAW, graduates for technical careers and
FCAW and GTAW processes as well as orbital welding and plasma arc cutting. positions in mid-management, supervi-
15 OFW stations. Currently, classes are On our academic side we teach sion, sales, service, and research. The
offered in the morning and evening to ac- metallurgy for welders, codes and specifi- College also is a regional partner for the
cations for welders, math and science for National Center of Excellence in Welding
commodate an average of 100 students welders and testing and inspection for Education and Training.
each semester. Odessa College received a welders. Our instructors have AWS QC-1
U.S. Department of Labor grant for CWI and CWE credentials as well as
$1.75 million in January 2007 for the California Community College teaching
Welding Training Center. This new 30 credentials. We qualify welders to ANSI
station training facility opened in January standards and we are a licensed Los
2008 and offers 8-week Introduction to Angeles City testing laboratory. Our
Welding Fundamentals courses through testing laboratory does both destructive
and nondestructive examinations. One College Avenue
the Continuing Education Division. The Williamsport, PA 17701
Welding Training Center Grand Open- (800) 367-9222
ing was featured in the March 2008 issue
of the Welding Journal.

Polaris Career Center

2701 Fairview Road
Costa Mesa, CA 92626 Polaris Career Center offers Welding
201 W. University (714) 432-5820 training in Middleburg Heights, Ohio.
Odessa, TX 79764 Earn AWS certification in SMAW and
(432) 335-6474 Certification through NCCER. These
James Mosman Coordinator courses are designed to give the
Email: Ozarks Technical students valuable theory and practical
Community College application related to Oxyfuel welding
Founded 1990 and brazing, GTAW, GMAW, and
FCAW. Course topics include Open-
Owens Community College Ozarks Technical Community College V-groove welds, pipe welds, and
offers multiple welding programs, vertical welding. The Adult Education
Owens Community College Welding providing opportunities for full- or part- /Job Training programs are conducted
Technologies provides students with time students, as well as customized at night allowing students to work
knowledge and skills for job placement in training for employers. The Welding during the day while pursuing a career
the welding industry. Students are edu- Technology program includes courses in in welding.
cated in all aspects of welding including several types of welding and welding
SMAW, MIG and TIG welding, torch inspection, leading to either a certificate
and plasma cutting as well as brazing. or an A.A.S. The College also offers an
Students who excel in their welding skills accelerated 20-week Master Welder
are encouraged to complete their plate certificate program. The Center for
and pipe welding certification. Students Workforce Development offers short-
may also chose from coursework in weld- term, non-credit welder training for local
ing fabrication, welding codes and proce- businesses. OTC is a fully equipped, fully 7285 Old Oak Blvd.
dures and Certified Welding Inspector. accredited AWS Certified Test Facility. Middleburg Hts., OH 44130
(440) 891-7750
Johnny Napier,
Welding Program Coordinator
Welding Technologies 1001 E. Chestnut Expwy
P.O. Box 10,000 Springfield, MO 65802
Oregon Road,Toledo, OH 43699 (417) 447-7500
(567) 661-7729

106 APRIL 2008

AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 12:11 PM Page 107


Rock Valley College Santa Fe
Community College
RVCs welding program currently
Serving Alachua and Bradford Counties
includes 60 students trained in the
Founded 1966
Pulaski Technical College facility which includes a lab with 28
welding booths. Welding processes
being taught include: GMAW, FCAW, The Applied Welding Technologies
The Welding Program at Pulaski Program is a one and one-half year
Technical College in North Little Rock, GTAW, SMAW, and Oxyacetylene. RVC
is an AWS Certified Accredited Testing certificate program that consists of
Arkansas focuses on structural welding SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, FCAW, Oxy
and offers AWS Level I and II certifi- Facility. The welding lab has been at
current location for six years staffed by Fuel Welding/Cutting, blueprint reading
cation. The two-semester Technical and power tool and equipment
Certificate program includes instruc- one full time and five part-time faculty.
RVC is a certified ICAR welding testing operation performed on carbon steel,
tion in welding processes, joint design stainless steel and aluminum. The
and metallurgy. The Certificate of center. For information, contact
Mike Merriman. training helps prepare students to pass
Proficiency will allow an individual to nationally recognized plate and pipe
complete certification requirements in welding certification tests. The welding
3G (vertical) positioning. lab at SFCC is an AWS Accredited
Testing Facility.

Rockford, Illinois
(815) 921-3015
(815) 921-3010
Mike Merriman 3000 NW 83rd Street
Technical and Industrial Programs Email: Gainesville, FL 32606
3000 West Scenic Drive (352) 395-5253
North Little Rock, AR 72118 Fax: (352) 395-5364
San Juan Basin
Technical College
Solano Community College
Renton Technical College Earn a certificate as a Structural Welder, Founded 1945
Founded 1942 Combination/Fitter Welder and Pipe
Welder (low/high pressure, and stainless Solano Community College offers
Renton Technical College, located just steel.) Welding Technology helps to de- welding educatioin and training at its
southeast of Seattle, Washington, offers velop individual entry level or above skills Northern California campus in Fairfield,
preparatory welder training (AAS through hands on experience under su- located between San Francisco/Oakland
degree), supplemental training and pervised instruction. Oxyfuel, SMAW, and Sacramento, California. Earn a
up-grading classes. Placement in the GTAW, GMAW, blueprint reading for Certificate or A.S. Degree with day,
industry is 98% for graduates. We offer evening, Saturday and summer classes.
welders and orbital arc pipe welding is
welder certification in all of the Industrial driven curriculum teaches skills
popular processes. Curriculum is available. We offer quality, affordable in SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, FCAW, Oxy-
constantly updated to stay current with educational training in a new facility. Acetylene and ornamental iron welding
industry. Day, evening, and weekend along with various cutting processes
classes are available in oxyfuel, utilizing manual, semiautomatic and
SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, Fabrication, and automatic processes. Customized courses
Inspection. Our instructors are are available for employers. Benefit from
AWS-CWI/CWE with over 80 years free qualification testing and tutoring,
collective experience. affordable tuition and personal attention.
Elective courses and schedules are listed
in the college website.
33057 Hwy 160
Mancos, Co 81328
(970) 565-8457
3000 NE Fourth Street Fax (970) 565-8450
Renton, WA 98056-4195
(425) 235-2352 x5554
Dave Parker at 4000 Suisun Valley Road
Fairfield, CA 94534-3197
(707) 864-7279
AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 12:11 PM Page 108


SouthWest Collegiate Trident Technical College
Institute for the Deaf Founded in 1964
of Howard College
Founded in 1980 Trident Technical College's welding
South Plains College technology program offers an associate
Founded: 1957 The Welding Technology Program is degree in occupational technology with
unique in that we specialize in a welding career path and certificates in
The SPC Welding Technology Program educating only deaf and hard of hearing shielded metal arc, gas tungsten arc, gas
offers basic and advanced certificates students. The program offers a Level I metal arc and flux cored arc welding, as
along with an Associate of Applied Sci- Certificate which requires 31 semester well as advanced certificates. The pro-
ence degree. Entry level and advanced credit hours ofcourse work. Some of the gram is an AWS S.E.N.S.E. Level I and
training certificates through AWS are courses offered are: blueprint reading, Level II program. With a student body
also awarded to those who qualify. oxyfuel welding and cutting, welding of more than 12,000 students, TTC is
Specific areas of training include: OFC, safety, shielded metal arc welding, gas committed to providing diverse and
PAC, SMAW plate and pipe, GMAW metal arc welding. innovative educational programs and
plate and pipe, FCAW plate and pipe, services in a highly technical and
GTAW sheet and pipe, welding competitive global environment.
symbols, blueprint reading, welding
metallurgy and structural and pipe
layout and fabrication.
P.O. Box 118067
Charleston, SC 29423
Randy Key (843) 574-6139
3200 Ave. C Fax: (843) 574-6173
Big Spring, Texas 79720
Pete Stracener (432) 264-3700 V/TTY
South Plains College (432) 264-3707
1401 S. College, Box 88
Levelland, TX 79336
(806) 894-9611, ext: 2284 Tulsa Welding School Founded 1949
Tri-County Technical College Tulsa Welding School is the largest
Founded 1965 accredited* welding institution in
America with training centers in Tulsa,
Southeastern Illinois College The welding department at Tri-County Okla. and Jacksonville, Fla. Founded
Founded 1960 nearly 60 years ago, diplomas and Asso-
Technical College has trained welders ciate degrees are awarded. Welding
for industry since 1965. We offer an as- competencies include structural, pipe,
Southeastern Illinois College offers sociates degree, diploma, and two
welding training leading to a one-year pipeline, and thin alloy welding. Asso-
shorter certificate programs. With two ciate degree also includes numerous
certificate or a two-year associate in ap- CWI / CWEs on staff we can provide
plied science degree. Curriculum helps NDT techniques plus QA/QC methods.
welder certification testing, as well as Graduates are available every three
students develop skills needed in today's customized company training.
workforce. SIC offers training in weeks along with thousands of alumni
shielded metal arc, gas tungsten arc, gas who contact TWS. *ACCSCT
metal arc, and oxyfuel processes. Key
support courses include metallurgy and
blueprint reading. Enjoy small classes,
free tutoring and personal attention. 7900 Highway 76
Job placement services available upon P.O. Box 587
program completion. Offering quality Tulsa, OK
Pendleton, SC 29670 Leann Roberson
training at one of the lowest tuition (864) 646-1405
costs in Illinois. Graduate Employment (918) 587-6789, ext. 260
Jacksonville, FL
Drew Duffy
Graduate Employment
(904) 646-9353, ext. 260
3575 College Road Email:
(618)252-5400 or (866) 338-2742
Fax: (618)252-2941

108 APRIL 2008

AprilSchoolProfiles2008:April School Profiles 2007 3/6/08 1:21 PM Page 109


Welder Training and Cuesta College Welding
Testing Institute Technology
Founded in 1968 Founded 1965

WTTI maintains a freestanding campus Located on the central coast of California,

The Ketchikan Campus in Pennsylvania housing a weld lab the Cuesta College Welding Technology
of the equipped with sixty-five work stations. program has a strong history of preparing
Training is provided in all major welding students for work in industry. Students
University of Alaska processes. Classrooms are fully
Southeast certify to AWS D1.1 and ASME Section
equipped to support lessons in theory, IX and have the opportunity to obtain
blueprint-reading, and fitting. Special- Associative Science degrees in Welding
The Ketchikan Campus of the Univer- ized on-site training is available to in-
sity of Alaska Southeast is the primary Technology. Our curriculum is well
dustry with the option of a 10 station rounded with courses ranging from basic
post secondary welding department in multi-process mobile welding lab.
the region. AWS Entry and Advanced welding through certification, as well as
WTTI also offers CWI and NDT train- courses in metallurgy, blueprint reading
Level classes are offered each semester. ing and certification, as well as, welder cer-
The sixteen stations are state of the art. and welding power. The shop facility
tification through our AWS Accredited includes twenty multi-process welding
Students are prepared for immediate Test Facility.
employment in entry level welding jobs. stations newly appointed with current
Classes are geared for employment in power supply technology. We recently
production and construction industries. added a metallurgy lab to our program.
Welders will be needed on new projects There are a total of 8 part-time instructors
in Alaska. Information available from and one full time instructor representing
Steve Brandow. a collective total of 175 years industry
experience and 90 years teaching
experience in welding technology. Four of
our instructors are CWI's.
729 E. Highland Street
Allentown, PA 18109
Email: P.O. Box 8106
San Luis Obispo, CA 93403-8106
(907) 228-4534 (805)546-3100 ext 2737
Steve Brandow Rob Thoresen,


Page 110:FP_TEMP 3/6/08 5:39 PM Page 110

October 6, 2008
at the FABTECH Intl & AWS Welding Show
To register or to receive a descriptive brochure, call
(800) 443-9353 ext. 455, (outside North America, call
305-443-9353), or visit

Founded in 1919 to advance the science, technology

and application of welding and allied joining and cutting
processes, including brazing, soldering and thermal spraying.
APR 2008 CLASSIFIEDS:Classified Template 3/7/08 8:32 AM Page 111



Experienced Outside/Inside National Service Manager

Sales Representative Innovative resultsoriented National Service Manager with an extensive background with
Immediate openings for gas and weld- CNC Cutting Machines, Plasma, Laser, and/ or Welding Automation. Skilled at training
ing sales personnel in Denver or Salt and supervision of equipment installation and service. Management responsibility for
Lake City. United States Welding, Inc, United States and Canada. Duties include specification work at End User firms such as
a distributor of Industrial, Medical, Steel Service Centers, Shipyards, Fabricators, etc. Set up, manage, train, evaluate and
Specialty, and Cryogenic Gases has upgrading a large distribution network; directs installation and service to Distributor and
been in business for over 70 years. Key accounts; process; application engineering; creating new opportunities.
We are seeking applicants with 3 or
more years of experience. Opportu- Must have direct transferable and or competitive experience within the Industry. Direct
nities for continued advancement responsibility for training, evaluation and performance of the distribution network, OEM's
through management in one of our 17 and select key accounts.
locations. A bachelor degree or equiv-
alent work experience. Full benets Strong Product Training & Presentation Skills. Position is based in Cleveland.
package. Interested applicants should CNC controls (Hypertherm, CMC, etc), CNC data management systems
fax resume to 1-801-972-8304. Prin- High Performance Plasma, Laser, Water Jet cutting processes
ciples only. No phone calls please. Ability to read Drawings CAD systems
Experienced Welder
Repair Technician
Immediate openings for experienced
Welder Repair Technician at our Salt Lake Weld Manufacturing Engineer
City facility. United States Welding, Inc, an
independent distributor of Gases and BAE Systems, the premier global defense and aerospace company, is seeking a profes-
Welding Equipment in the Rocky Mountain sional, experienced Weld Manufacturing Engineer for its Minneapolis Minn. facility. The
Region has been in business for over 70 ideal candidate will posess a strong background in the fabrication of large, precision,
years. We are seeking applicants with 3 or complex weldments. This challenging position requires a minimum of five years experi-
more years experience. An associate de- ence as a manufacturing engineer across a wide variety of conventional weld practices
gree or better is a denite asset. We offer and processes. A Bachelor's degree in a related field is preferred as well as familiarity
a full benets package including: competi- with AWS and/or military weld specifications. Responsibilities will include working within
tive salary, car allowance, medical and den- design teams, manufacturing process and fixture development, and providing fabrication
tal insurance, life and disability insurance, shop floor support.
401K, vacation and holiday pay, paid sick Website:
days. Some relocation expenses will be Application Instructions:
reimbursed. Interested applicants should Online Applications Address:
submit resumes via fax to 1-801-972- Job Opening ID: 10004340
8304. No phone calls please.

Sr. QA Technician
Post Jobs. Requisition # 08-29-01 SR QA TC
Open until lled.
Duties: Inspection; auditing and
Business Opportunity
Seeking business partner who has

Find Jobs. reporting; QA data/record

management; corrective and
preventive action; statistical analysis.
Requirements: BA in quality or
expertise and capability of servicing
stainless steel and aluminum in
products used by restaurants and
resorts. This business is focused in

@ technical vocation and/or 10 years

minimum of QA work experience.
Mininimum 10 years experience in
machining, manufacturing, or
Florida. Outstanding niche,100% +
potential. All clients are major
corporations, with 15 years of
dedicated service. Candidates must aluminum casting industry. Level II or
higher certication such as NDE,
be capable of expert stainless steel
and aluminum work and product
CWI, or ASQ Quality Inspector or enhancement. If you have the ability
Job categories for welders, Technician. to invest for success in a
engineers, inspectors, and more For full details and to apply go to recession-proof environment.
than 17 other materials joining
industry classifications! EEO/AA/DrugFree Workplace E-mail compedgeservices@bell- Serious responses only.


APR 2008 CLASSIFIEDS:Classified Template 3/7/08 8:33 AM Page 112


Made in U.S.A. Boiler Tube
Tank Turning Rolls Alignment Tools
10-Ton - 1000-Ton
Walhonde Wallbanger
Walhonde Wallstick
Used Equipment for Sale More alignment tools available at our website: Walhonde Tools, Inc.
800-218-9620 78%(),7 
713-943-8032 7HO)D[

United Welding
rents and sells
Turning Rolls, Positioners,
Welding Positioners & Turning Rolls
New and Used
Orbital Welding Equipment,
Large selection in stock for
immediate delivery.
Facing & Cutoff Saws, Sub-
Arc Equipment Engine Drives (Gas &
Call, Fax or Email for a free catalog. Diesel)
Phone: 269-673-6572 COMPETITION
Fax: 269-673-1644
Toll Free: 877-336-3350

WeldDistortion www.
Orbital Welding
800-Metal-29 .com

112 APRIL 2008

APR 2008 CLASSIFIEDS:Classified Template 3/7/08 8:34 AM Page 113


 Turning Rolls


2 216215$1620
0( & Manipulators
;; New and Used
672 ;;
Joe Fuller LLC

29(5  %5$1'
9(5 %5$1'1(:
326,7,21(56 ,1 67
72&. or email
%5$1' 1(: ,1 285 672&. Phone: 979-277-8343
3$1'-,5,6$521621 0%&326,7,21(566
3$1'-,5,6$521621 0%&326,7,21(56 Fax: 281-290-6184
5$1620( 0$1,38/$ 56
$7256  -(7/,1( 6($0(5
:(%% 7851,1* 52//6
WR  7 7RQV

86 08/7,3/(7,*725&+



CWI Refresher...a fresh approach!

Review and learn the most controversial, often-
misinterpreted issues facing welding inspectors.
Master quality tools to implement true quality
solutions for your clients or your company.
CWI PREPARATORY Learn more: Call for the 40 hour syllabus,
Guarantee - Pass or Repeat FREE!
comparable to the AWS body of knowledge.
2 WEEK COURSE (10 DAYS) Suitable as continuing education for CWIs
MORE HANDSON/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS or for any welding inspection personnel
Pascagoula, MS July 211 Aug. 1322 Convenient classes in Chicago and Allentown:
Charlotte, NC June 413 312-861-3000 |
Houston, TX June 1827 Sep. 312
Atlanta, GA Apr. 23May 2
Houma, LA July 23Aug. 1 visit booth #7148 AWS Show-Chicago


Pascagoula, MS July 511 Aug. 1622 Certification Committee
Charlotte, NC June 713 Is seeking the donation of sets of Shop and
Houston, TX June 2127 Sep. 612 Erection drawings of highrise buildings
Atlanta, GA Apr. 26May 2 greater than ten stories with Moment
Houma, LA July 26Aug. 1 Connections including Ordinary Moment
Resistant Frame (OMRF) and Special
MONFRI COURSE (5 DAYS) Moment Resistant Frame (SMRF) for use
GET READYFAST PACED COURSE! in AWS training and certification activities.
Pascagoula, MS July 811 Aug. 1822 Drawings should be in CAD format for
Charlotte, NC June 913 reproduction purposes. Written permission
Houston, TX June 2327 Sep. 812 for unrestricted reproduction, alteration,
Atlanta, GA Apr. 26May 2 and reuse as training and testing material
Houma, LA July 28Aug. 1 is requested from the owner and others
holding intellectual rights. For further infor-
Test follows on Saturday at same facility mation, contact:
(800) 489-2890 (631) 265-3422 (office) (516) 658-7571 (cell)


APR 2008 CLASSIFIEDS:Classified Template 3/7/08 10:33 AM Page 114

Americ Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 KMT Saw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-364-4642 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269-321-8860
American Torch Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-342-8477 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-252-5232
ArcOne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 LA-CO Industries, Inc./Markal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-223-4685 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-621-4025
Arcos Industries, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79, IBC Lincoln Electric Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-233-8460 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216-481-8100
Astro Arc Polysoude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11, 13 Magnatech Limited Partnership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .661-702-0141 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .860-653-2573
Atlas Welding Accessories, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Midalloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-962-9353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-776-3300
AWS Certification Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Miller Electric Mfg. Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-443-9353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-426-4553
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114 APRIL 2008

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Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

Measurement and Analysis of Three-

Dimensional Specular Gas Tungsten Arc
Weld Pool Surface
Two reconstruction schemes were verified as valid means of rebuilding a
three-dimensional weld pool surface off-line


ABSTRACT. Measurement of weld pool Introduction measurement is the coaxial viewing of the
surface is a difficult but urgent task in the weld pool, which was first proposed by
welding community. It plays an important Welding is a labor-intensive operation. Richardson et al. (Ref. 5). It has been
role not only in developing the next- Although welding robots can provide con- widely investigated by some researchers.
generation intelligent welding machines sistent motion to help improve productiv- In the coaxial viewing method, the elec-
but also for modeling complex welding ity, they lack the intelligence that human trode is used to block the arc, but the
processes. In recent years, different tech- welders possess to ensure quality. Since image quality is decreased by the bright
niques have been applied in this area, but skilled human welders can achieve good plasma. Agapakis and Bolstad presented
the specular characteristic of weld pool weld quality through observing the weld an innovative vision sensing system that
surface and the strong welding arc com- pool, the pool surface must contain suffi- used intense stroboscopic illumination to
promise their effectiveness. To better re- cient information to judge weld quality, overpower the arc light in the welding
solve this problem, a new vision-based such as weld joint penetration. Mean- process and produce a clear image with
sensing (measurement) system was pro- while, the precise measurement of the synchronized camera (Ref. 6). This tech-
posed in our previous study, which utilizes weld pool surface can provide critical ex- nique was further applied in the Welding
the reflection property of the weld pool perimental data to validate numerical Research Laboratory at the University of
surface. In that system, a dot-matrix pat- models of welding processes. Hence, the Kentucky by Kovacevic and Zhang.
tern of structured laser light was projected measurement of three-dimensional weld The acquired image is shown in Fig. 1A
onto the specular weld pool surface and its pool surface is a fundamental capability and an image processing algorithm has
reflection was imaged on a self-designed that the next-generation automated weld- been developed to analyze and extract the
imaging plane. Then the distorted re- ing machines and welding researchers two-dimensional boundary of the weld
flected image (pattern) was captured and must possess, and a number of early ef- pool so that control algorithms can use
processed. Based on the obtained infor- forts have been devoted to sensing weld these parameters as feedback to adjust
mation, two reconstruction schemes pool related parameters including ma- welding parameters (Ref. 7). To use this
named interpolation reconstruction chine vision, X-ray radiation, ultrasonic, system in three-dimensional weld pool
scheme (IRS) and extrapolation recon- and acoustic emission (Refs. 14). surface imaging, the structured illumina-
struction scheme (ERS), are proposed in Among these methods, noncontact vi- tion laser was projected through a frosted
this paper in order to rebuild the three- sion-based ones have been studied more glass (Ref. 8), and an image with the three-
dimensional weld pool surface off-line. extensively (Refs. 511). An important dimensional shape information of weld
The experimental results verify the effec- technique for a 2-D weld pool boundary pool surface was acquired as shown in Fig.
tiveness of the proposed methods and 1B. Because of its cost and size, this spe-
show that ERS can achieve better accu- cially designed system is not suitable for
racy than IRS. Meanwhile, the variation KEYWORDS production.
of the weld pool surface in an experiment In a separate effort, Mnich and his col-
is also analyzed by using the proposed Weld Pool Surface leagues (Ref. 9) used stereovision to deter-
measurement system and extrapolation Specular Reflection mine the three-dimensional shape of the
reconstruction scheme. Three-Dimensional weld pool in the GMAW process, but the
Interpolation complexity compromised its suitability for
Extrapolation practical application. Another effort by Yoo
H. S. SONG and Y. M. ZHANG (ymzhang@ Surface Variation and Lee (Ref. 10) used a similar principle are with Center for Manufacturing and GTAW but introduced the biprism technique to re-
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Control duce the number of needed cameras from
University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. two to one. The accuracy of the system as
mentioned by the authors is reasonable.

Song 4 08layout:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:12 PM Page 86


BFig. 2 Sensing system diagram.

power continuous structured laser pattern tained data. The first two major steps are
onto the weld pool surface and intercepts briefly reviewed in this section. Detailed
the reflection of the projected pattern procedures can be found in the literature
from the specular weld pool surface. Be- (Refs. 1214).
cause the arc radiation decays very fast The proposed weld pool surface sens-
with the travel distance while the reflec- ing system in a universal coordinate sys-
tion of the projected laser light remains tem is shown in Fig. 2 (Refs. 12, 13). The
intense, it is possible that the reflection of gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process
the projected laser can be clearly imaged without filler metal was used. The welding
on the interception plane. Since the small direction was along the positive Y axis. A
low-power laser diode is economical and 20-mW continuous illumination laser with
compact, this approach is more cost-effec- a wavelength of 685 nm was used to pro-
tive, convenient, and suitable for manu- ject a 19 19 dot-matrix structured-light
facturing applications. However, although pattern onto the weld pool area under the
the formation of the image is simply based electrode at a certain angle. The inter-
on the reflection law, the reflected image beam angle of the laser pattern was 0.77
itself does not provide an intuitive view deg. During the welding process, the
about the dimensions of the weld pool sur- molten specular weld pool surface can re-
face. Thus, a reconstruction scheme is flect the majority of the incident laser
needed to derive the three-dimensional light. Thus, on the other side of the torch,
shape of the weld pool surface. an imaging plane (a piece of glass attached
Fig. 1 Captured images for weld pool measure- In this paper, two schemes named in- with a grid paper) was placed about 50 mm
ment. A 2-D measurement (Ref. 7); B 3-D terpolation reconstruction scheme (IRS) away in order to intercept the reflected
measurement (Ref. 8).
and extrapolation reconstruction scheme laser pattern. A high-speed camera was
(ERS) are proposed. Their difference lies used to record the reflected images on the
in the methods of reconstructing the pool imaging plane. To minimize the influence
A structured light technique was used surface and determining the surface of the strong arc, the camera was fitted
by Saeed et al. to determine the profile of boundary. Experimental results verified with a 20-nm band-pass filter centered at
the weld pool surface (Ref. 4). In the ac- the accuracy of both methods, and the ex- a wavelength of 685 nm.
quired image, the distortion of the pro- trapolation reconstruction scheme proved In one of the experiments, the laser was
jected laser line clearly showed the shape the better performer. projected onto the workpiece at 31.14 deg
of the weld pool, while the unavoidable with a distance of 31.48 mm to the origin
bright arc affected the observation. An- Sensing System Review of the coordinate system. Figure 3A and B
other vision-based sensing system was de- shows the projected pattern and the ac-
veloped for pulsed GTAW with wire filler There are three major sequential steps quired reflected image. As can be seen,
metal by Zhao et al., which used an im- for using the proposed method to recon- only part of the projected dots located
proved shape from shading (SFS) algo- struct/measure the pool surface. The first within the weld pool area was reflected,
rithm to recover the weld pool surface one is to image the laser pattern reflected and the laser pattern was shaped by the
height (Ref. 11). While all these methods from the weld pool surface. Then, the ac- weld pool surface as convex curves. Al-
have achieved certain success, more accu- quired reflected image is processed to ex- though the intensity of the reflected dots
rate and direct methods are still desired. tract the information of the reflected laser was low, the reflected image can still be
The authors recently proposed a dif- pattern. The third step is to use the three- processed by the proposed algorithms as
ferent approach to observe the weld pool dimensional reconstruction scheme to re- shown in Fig. 3C.
surface (Refs. 12, 13). It projects a low- build the weld pool surface based on ob- After image acquisition, a point locat-

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Fig. 3 Captured and processed images. A Projected dot-matrix on workpiece; B captured image; C reflected dots on imaging plane.


Fig. 4 Reflected and projected dots S/S corresponding relationship. A Row-column positions of reflected points; B corresponding positions of projected
dots in dot matrix.

ing algorithm and a feature extraction al- row and the 10th column) is intentionally sents the column corresponding relation-
gorithm are proposed to process the re- absent, and it is introduced as the center ship, and the one after the slash presents
flected images (Ref. 14). First, the re- reference point to ease the matching the row corresponding relationship. In the
flected points in the image are extracted in process although it does not actually exist. proposed system, if the reflected col-
the point locating algorithm by using some In Fig. 3C, the corresponding position of umn/row order is the same as that re-
image processing techniques, such as the center reference point can be easily flected from a flat surface, the relationship
block thresholding segmentation (Ref. found in the 6th row. is defined as sequential; if the order is in-
15), median filtering, and morphological To investigate the possible correspond- versed, the relationship is inverse. Thus,
operations (Ref. 16). It can be seen in Fig. ing relationships between projected and combined with the corresponding position
3B, although the reflected pattern is dis- reflected dots, a corresponding simulation of reference point in the captured image,
torted, the basic row-column relationship was conducted (Ref. 14). In the simula- each reflected dot on the imaging plane
in the pattern remained. tion, part of a sphere was used to present can be successfully matched with a pro-
Then based on the reflected dot posi- the weld pool surface. By testing some jected dot in the matrix by using the cor-
tions, some image features, such as row- convex and concave surfaces with typical responding relationship. The matched
column relationship and the center ref- dimensional values, it can be concluded point-ray pairs can be used to reconstruct
erence point can be successfully that to produce the convex reflected im- the three-dimensional weld pool surface.
determined by the feature extraction algo- ages like Fig. 3B, the corresponding rela- In Fig. 4, suppose R={rk,t ,(k,t) I}
rithm. For instance, there are 7 rows tionship for a convex surface is sequen- presents the set of reflected dots, on the
(curves) and 16 columns found in Fig. 3B tial/sequential (S/S) and the one for a reflected image I, and P = {pi,j ,(i,j) S}
and C. As shown in Fig. 3A, the center concave surface is inverse/inverse (I/I). presents the set of corresponding reflec-
point of the 19 19 dot matrix (at the 10th Here the relationship before the slash pre- tion dots on the weld pool surface S (here

Song 4 08layout:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:13 PM Page 88


Fig. 5 Flowchart of IRS and ERS. Fig. 6 Computation of new slope-oriented reflec-
tion points based on base point in IRS. A Row
slopes of reflection dots on 5th row plane; B com-
putation of new reflection points using row slopes.

the subscripts present the row and column derive the three-dimensional weld pool sur- Step 1: Use the assumed surface to com-
positions of the dots, and the numbers of face from these matched discrete point sets pute the slope field. Based on the results of
dots in sets P and R are the same). The based on the governing reflection law. It is corresponding simulation (Ref. 14), the
row-column position of the reflected dots apparent that the issue is not to apply the re- tested corresponding relationships are
are shown in Fig. 4A, and the correspond- flection law to calculate the reflection of in- chosen for the different shapes of re-
ing position of the center reference point cident rays. Instead, the issue here is to see flected image. For example, for the con-
p10,10 in the reflected image is r6,7. If the what three-dimensional surface may gener- vex image (Fig. 3B), two corresponding
corresponding relationship is I/I, the ate a set of reflected points that are close relationships (I/I and S/S) are tested se-
matched points pair is rk,t reflection enough to the given R={rk,t ,(k,t) I}. The quentially, which can be seen in Fig. 5.
p10+6k,10+7t. If the corresponding rela- issue is thus an inverse problem of the re- Once the relationship is decided, the pairs
tionship is S/S, the matched points pair is flection law, and it appears an analytical so- of projected and reflected dots can be
rk,t reflection pk+106,t+107 , and the cor- lution does not exist. determined.
responding reflection points are shown in To resolve this issue, an iterative engi- In the first step, the estimate of the
Fig. 4B. For example, the corresponding neering method is needed and the authors weld pool surface was used to calculate the
projected point of reflected point r1,5 is thus propose two schemes, interpolation positions of the estimated reflection dots
p5,8. As can be seen, only those points that and extrapolation reconstruction schemes pi ,j, in set P (P = {pi ,j , (i,j) S}) where
are actually projected on the liquid weld (IRS and ERS), to find an optimally esti- S is the assumed surface and i/j is the
pool surface are reflected onto the imag- mated three-dimensional surface. The row/column number. Thus all the reflec-
ing plane and are imaged and processed to ERS differs from the IRS in the way to tion lines are determined. By using the re-
reconstruct the weld pool surface in the construct the pool surface and determine flection law, the normal of every reflection
proposed method, and those projected on the surface boundary. The details of the point pi,j on the surface can be further
the solid surface will not be reflected to schemes proposed are presented below computed. Then the tangent plane of the
and imaged on the imaging plane. and the flowchart can be seen in Fig. 5. surface at the reflection dot pij can be ob-
Step 0: A flat plane (Z = 0) is used as the tained, which is referred to as its 3-D
Reconstruction Schemes initial estimate of the weld pool surface. slope. This tangent plane intersects with
Since generally the depth of the weld pool the row plane and the column plane of dot
From previous steps, two discrete sets of is much smaller than its width and length pi, j to find two tangent lines and the 3-D
points (R={rk,t ,(k,t) I}, P = {pi,j ,(i,j) for the GTAW process, it is reasonable to slope is thus decomposed into two 2-D
S}) and their possible corresponding rela- use a flat plane, i.e., Z = 0, as the initial es- slopes: row and column slopes. For exam-
tionships were obtained. Now the task is to timate of the weld pool surface. ple, in Fig. 6A the row slopes of reflection

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dots at the 5th row are shown. Here the B
row/column plane of a dot refers to a
plane passing through the laser diode and
all the dots on the same row/column.
These slopes of the estimated reflection
dots form a slope field, which is used to
produce the reflected image.
Step 2: Compute the new slope-oriented
reflection points based on the slope field. It is
obvious that the used surface in the first
step cannot meet the slope requirements
to produce the captured reflected image.
Thus, in the second step the new slope-
oriented reflection point set P (P =
{pi,j, (i,j) S}) is calculated to better ap-
proximate the actual weld pool surface
based on these estimates of slopes. Fig. 7 Steps of computing new reflection points. A For IRS; B for ERS.
Assumption of base point. In IRS and
ERS, the positions of new slope-oriented
reflection points are all calculated in rela- A B
tion to a base point, whose position is as-
sumed. In IRS, the reflection point corre-
sponding to the left-down reflected dot
(r1,5 in Fig. 4) is chosen as the base point.
In Fig. 4, dot p5,8 (p5,8 or p5,8) is the base
point for S/S corresponding relationship.
In IRS, the height of the base point is se-
quentially selected in a range, such as
(0.5 mm, 0.5 mm). While in ERS, the
base point is chosen according to different
corresponding relationships so as to make
it on the left head part of the weld pool Fig. 8 2-D boundary piecewise model. A Boundary points; B five parts of the boundary model.
surface. For instance, in Fig. 4B p11,6
(p11,6 or p11,6) is the base point for S/S
corresponding relationship in ERS. The spectively. Following the same proce- structed surface is not, which makes their
height of the base point can be reasonably dures, all the other reflection points in the ways to determine boundary different.
assumed to be zero instead of searching in 5th row can be calculated as shown in Fig. Step 4: Compute the error of the recon-
a range since the base point is on the 6B. Then based on the middle point of the structed surface. In the fourth step, based
boundary of the head of the weld pool row with base point (p5,12 and p11,12 for on the knowledge of the projected dot
surface. IRS and ERS), the middle points at the matrix and the surface reconstructed in
Computation of new slope-oriented reflec- same column (12th column), but different the third step, the reflected points set R
tion points. Based on the selected base rows can be calculated by using column (R = {rk,t(k,t) I}) on the imaging plane
point, all the other reflection points on the slopes just as done in the previous step. At can be recomputed and compared with
pool surface can be calculated. There are last, row slopes are used to compute the the positions of the captured reflected
three computation procedures for ERS positions of all the other new reflection point set R. The distances between the ac-
and IRS as shown in Fig. 7. First, the new points based on the positions of the mid- tual and computed reflected points can
slope-oriented reflection dots on the same dle points at their rows. Thus, the posi- thus be calculated and be further mapped
row as the base point are computed using tions of all updated reflection dots are cal- to the weld pool surface as reflection
their row slopes. In Fig. 6, the new reflec- culated by using the computed slope field. error, which is discussed later. After
tion points at the 5th row are computed by Step 3: Reconstruction of weld pool sur- error calculation, the estimated surface in
using their row slopes in IRS. Since the po- face using new reflection points. In the third Step 3 is used as the new assumed surface
sition of base point p5,8 is decided, the ad- step, a weld pool surface should be de- to continue the first step within pre-set
jacent dot p5,9 can be located as the inter- duced depending on the reflection points loops for each corresponding relation-
section point of projected ray LM and line P computed in the second step. Here the ship. At last, after all possible corre-
p5,8A, and the slope of line p5,8 A can be interpolation method (Ref. 17) is used in sponding relationships are tried, the com-
decided as Equation 1 IRS and the method (Ref. 18) that can re- puted surface with the minimum
alize both interpolation and extrapolation reflection error is chosen as the optimally
is applied in ERS. They both can produce estimated weld pool surface.
S = sign S i
p A
5 ,8 5,8
p a smooth surface from nonuniformly sam- Step 5: Calculate 2-D surface model and
pled data in the form of Equation 2. use it to find the weld pool boundary. In this
S p A + S p / 2 step, a two-dimensional piece-wise
5,8 5 ,9 (1) z=f(x,y) (2) boundary model r() in a polar coordinate
where the function sign () means the pos- system is developed to determine the
itive or negative sign of the slope and In IRS the area of reconstructed sur- three-dimensional boundary of the weld
Sp5,8 and Sp5,9 refer to the row slopes of face is limited by the reflection points pool surface. First, the two end points in
the reflection point of p5,8 and p5,9, re- while in ERS the area of the recon- each reflection row are selected as bound-

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Fig. 9 Optimal estimated weld pool surface. A The interpolation re- Fig. 10 Computed and actual reflected points compare using differ-
sult of IRS; B the extrapolation result of ERS. ent schemes. A Result of IRS; B result of ERS.

ary points in Fig. 4B, and they are classi- segments). as the largest angle of the boundary point
fied into three sets: left (L), right (R), and
head (H) sets as shown in Fig. 8A. Here,
r =r
H ( ) = r ( + 180 deg )

1 2
among (180 deg, 90 deg) in set L. 2 is
defined as the smallest angle of the point
in set R, and 3 is the intersection angle of
S/S corresponding relationship is as-
sumed, and the origin of the system is cho- ( ) ( )ir ( ) + (1 t ( ))i
r =t
L L L l left segment rL( L) and right segment
sen as the middle point of the longest row r ( ) = t ( )ir ( 0 + 270 deeg ) + rR(R). In IRS, the computed 2-D bound-
H H l L
(8th row in Fig. 8). Then the polar coordi-
nate models in Equation 3 are used to de-
(1 t ( ))ir ( + 180 deg)
l H
ary model in Z = 0 plane is assumed to be
the weld pool surface boundary. For ERS
scribe the three parts (left, right, and head since the reconstructed weld pool surface
part) of the weld pool boundary. The ( ) ( ) = r ( 90 deg )
r =r
3 is extrapolated, it is possible to find a more
points in three sets can be used to fit the reasonable boundary based on the pro-
models respectively and the coefficients i ( ) ( )ir ( ) + (1 t ( ))i
r =t
R R R r
posed model. In ERS the established 2-D
can thus be decided by using the mean
square method.
H ( ) = t ( )ir (90 deg ) +
H r R
boundary model is used to determine the
X and Y coordinates of the boundary on
( t ( ))ir ( + 180 deg)
r H

< < 0 the optimally estimated surface. At last,

( ) =
+ i i
the newly found boundary points together
H H H0 Hi H
i =1
( ) ( ) = r (90 deg )
r =r
0 <
with the optimal reflection points are used
by the interpolation method to get the new

( ) =
3 (4)
+ i i
whole weld pool surface.
r where tl() and tr() are the weights that
L L L0 L i L
i =1 are defined as Equation 5 Reconstruction Results
( ) = () ( )( )
r + i i t = / + 180 deg
R R R0 R i R l 1 1 In this section, a reflected image shown
i =1 ( 3) 180 in Fig. 3B is used to test IRS and ERS. The
At last, the whole two-dimensional piece-
wise boundary model of the weld pool sur- r ()
t = 1 /
2 ( 5)
results of the two schemes are compared
and discussed. As can be seen, an iteration
face can be expressed by Equation 4. As process is used in IRS and ERS to find the
shown in Fig. 8B, it is composed of five where 1, 2,0 deg, 180 deg, and 3 are the optimally estimated surface according to
segments (including two transition boundaries for the segments. 1 is defined the computed error. To define a meaning-

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Fig. 11 Fitted two-dimensional weld pool boundary model (on Z = 0 Fig. 12 Results of different reconstruction schemes. A Weld pool sur-
plane). face using interpolation reconstruction scheme (different views); B weld
pool surface using extrapolation reconstruction scheme (different views).




Fig. 13 Captured reflected images.

Song 4 08layout:Layout 1 3/7/08 10:04 AM Page 92

resent the horizontal (X axis) and vertical
(Y axis) ranges of the corresponding pro-
jected dots on the workpiece (Z = 0). It
can be seen the error parameter ARE ef-
fectively maps the difference between cal-
culated and actual reflected points to the
error of the reflection points on the weld
pool surface.
B C The optimal surfaces by using IRS and
ERS are shown in Fig. 9, and their corre-
sponding relationships are all S/S. By
using extrapolation reconstruction
scheme (ERS), the computed minimal av-
erage reflection error (ARE) is 0.1234
mm, which is a little smaller than the re-
sult of IRS 0.1691 mm. In IRS, the small-
est ARE is achieved when the height of
the base point is 0. It can be seen that the
D E F area of optimally interpolated surface re-
constructed by IRS is limited by the re-
flection points, but it is not the case for
In Fig. 10, the positions of actual re-
flection points and computed reflected
points using optimally estimated surface
are shown for the two schemes. These two
results are similar, but for the matching
extent of edge points, the performance of
G H I ERS is better since the extrapolation
method works better than interpolation to
deduce the boundary. One thing should be
noted here. The absent dot r6,7, which cor-
responds to the center reference point in
Fig. 4, is still considered as a reflected
point in the schemes, and its position is as-
sumed in the middle of its adjacent two
dots in the 6th row in Fig. 10.
Based on the results of interpolation or
J K L extrapolation reconstruction methods and
the Sequential/Sequential (S/S) corre-
sponding relationship, the fitted two-
dimensional (2-D) boundary (at Z = 0
plane) shown in Fig. 11 is used to find the
boundary points. The point in the center is
the origin of the used polar coordinate sys-
tem for the model, and it is defined as the
center point of the weld pool. The shape
of the modeled 2-D boundary is similar as
M N O the ones shown in Fig. 1. Because the
welding speed is slow (3 mm per second),
Fig. 14 Computed and actual reflected points comparison. the difference between width (6.7313 mm)
and length (7.1182 mm) is small and the 2-
D shape is like a circle, which can be veri-
ful error that can describe the difference responding reflection point of rk,t , and it is fied by the measurement result after the
between the calculated and actual reflec- defined as Equation 7. experiment. Since the welding electrode is
tion points on weld pool surface, the au- on the Z axis, it can be found in Fig. 11 that
2 2 the distance between the coordinate ori-
thors propose an error measurement pa- W L gin and the weld pool head is smaller than
= ex i
+ ez i
rameter: average reflection error (ARE). p
E the distance to its tail.
Its definition is shown in Equation 6. k ,t k ,t W k ,t L
r r
(7) In Fig. 12, the whole 3-D weld pool sur-
k ,t ( )
/ n ,.... k ,t I where exk,t and ezk,t are the distances be-
tween estimated reflected point rk,t and
faces are reconstructed by using both the
boundary model and the optimally esti-
k ,t (6) mated surfaces in IRS and ERS. The two
actual reflected point rk,t along horizontal
where I refers to the reflected image and reconstructed surfaces are both convex.
direction (X axis) and vertical direction (Z
n represents the total number of the re- (This is probably related to the properties
axis) on the imaging plane. Wr and Lr rep-
flected points on the imaging plane. Ek,t of the mild steel workpiece.) The heights
represents the reflection error for the cor- resent the horizontal and vertical ranges
of the reflected dots, and Wp and Lp rep- of the surfaces are 0.3045 mm and 0.2533

92 -s APRIL 2008, VOL. 87

Song 4 08layout:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:16 PM Page 93

mm, respectively, in Fig. 12A and B. The
difference is small, while the difference be-
tween their boundaries is obvious due to
different ways to compute the boundary.
The result of the extrapolation reconstruc-
tion scheme is more reasonable since the
boundary is not exactly on Z = 0 plane.

Analysis of Variations in Weld A B C D E

Pool Surface
A series of reflected images are
recorded during an experiment using the
same nominal constant welding parame-
ters in order to examine if the weld pool
surface would remain unchanged. Figure
13 shows reflected images at a rate of 60
frames per second. During this experi- F G H I J
ment, a sheet of 2-mm-thick mild steel was
used as the workpiece and the welding
current was 75 A with a constant welding
speed of 3 mm/s. The distance between the
torch and imaging plane was 50 mm, and
the projection angle of laser diode was
about 31 deg. From the reflected images,
the shape changes of the weld pool surface
can be seen clearly. The first variation is K L M N O
the number of rows of reflected dots,
which varies from 6 to 8. This means the Fig. 15 Reconstructed three-dimensional weld pool surfaces.
length of the weld pool surface is chang-
ing. The second change is the correspond-
ing position of the center reference point structed surfaces can be clearly seen. In where li presents the length of the ith recon-
in the reflected images, which shows the Fig. 16, the computed average reflection structed weld pool surface. It can be seen
position change of the weld pool surface. errors (ARE) for different reflected im- that the variation of weld pool surface
Even when the number of rows is the same ages vary insignificantly in a range of length is greater than that of the width.
in some images, the number of dots in a (0.13632 mm, 0.23247 mm). Figure 18 shows the height variation of
row still changes. It reflects the variation Figure 17 shows the variations of two-
of width in the weld pool surface. These the weld pool surface. Since the recon-
dimensional parameters of the recon- structed surfaces are all convex, and the Z
deductions are drawn based on the facts structed weld pool: the width and the
that projected laser dot matrix covers the coordinate of the highest point in the sur-
length, which are decided by the boundary face is considered as the height of the weld
whole weld pool surface immovably and model. The width of the weld pool surface
only the dots on the pool surface can be re- pool surface. From the figure, it can be seen
varies in the range of 6.4463 to 6.9183 mm,
flected onto the imaging plane. or 3.5%. The average width and its vari- the heights of the surfaces vary from 0.2514
In order to further investigate the vari- ance are calculated as Equation 8. to 0.3238 mm or in the range of 12.6%.
ation of weld pool quantitatively, the ex- The average height and variance are shown
( )
trapolation reconstruction scheme (ERS) w = E w = w / 15 = 6.6645mm, in Equation 10.
was applied to reconstruct the weld pool i

i =1
surface for each reflected image in Fig. 13. 2 h = E h = h / 15 = 0.2943mm,
One thing should be noted here. In our
study, some unclear dots located in upper
V =E w w
( ) = i =1

( ) ( )
15 2
fragmental rows are neglected since some V =E h h = h h /
(w i w ) ( ) mm
15 2 2 h
dots in the row are blocked by the torch / 15 = 0.15 2 i i =1 i

( ) mm
and they are not suitable for the proposed i =1 (8) 2
reconstruction schemes, such as the ones 15 = 0.019
where wi represents the width of the ith re- (10)
in Fig. 13H, K, and M. By using the ERS, constructed weld pool surface. The length where hi represents the height of the ith re-
the optimal estimates of three-dimen- of the pool surface varies in the range of constructed surface. The relative variation
sional weld pool surfaces are recon- 7.1303 to 8.1092 mm or 6.4%. The aver- of the height is thus much greater than
structed for each reflected image in Fig. age length and its variance are shown in those of the width and length.
13, and the differences between computed Equation 9. In Fig. 19, the variation of the weld
reflected images by using optimally esti- pool positions is shown. It also can be seen
mated surfaces and the actual captured l = E l = l / 15 = 7.4549 mm, that the positions of the center point and
ones are shown in Fig. 14. i =1 the highest point of the weld pool surface
After the computation of the two- are also changing for the studied images.
( ) = (l l )
dimensional boundary model, the whole 15 2
The position of the center point of the
V =E l l /
weld pool surface can be reconstructed by l
i i
weld pool is shown in Fig. 11. The varia-
i =1
using ERS. The results are shown in Fig.
( ) mm tions of these three-dimensional parame-
15. The shapes variation of these recon- 15 = 0.46
(9) ters discussed above prove that the weld

Song 4 08layout:Layout 1 3/7/08 1:26 PM Page 94


Fig. 16 Average reflection errors (ARE). Fig. 17 Variation of weld pool width and length.

Fig. 18 Variation of the pool surface height (depth). Fig. 19 Variation of the weld pool positions.

pool surface has fluctuations even in the some slightly concave regions exist among modeling process. Thus, an error analysis
same nominal welding conditions. The upper rows in some of the reflected im- of the proposed system is needed, and fu-
possible reasons include the possible small ages in Fig. 13, and the irregular concave ture work should be done to improve the
fluctuations in the welding current and regions are embedded in some of the re- accuracy of the reconstructed three-
speed, possible shielding gas turbulence, constructed weld pool surfaces in Fig. 15. dimensional weld pool surface.
and other possible interference factors. Figure 20 shows some of those cases cor-
responding to Fig. 13B, E, and N. For ex- Conclusions
Discussion ample, in Fig. 20A the reflected dots at
4th, 5th, and 6th row form nonsmooth A sensing system has been proposed to
Although the reconstruction results of convex curves with slightly concave re- image the reflection of projected laser pat-
the three-dimensional weld pool surface gions, which gives the reconstructed sur- tern from the specular weld pool surface.
proved the effectiveness of the proposed face an obvious concave region inside it. To derive the three-dimensional weld pool
system, the accuracy of the reconstructed The possible reason is the variation of the surface based on the image processing re-
surface still needs to be discussed. In sec- weld pool surface makes more rays project sults, two reconstruction schemes (IRS
tion 4, the reconstructed pool surfaces are onto the small concave region of the sur- and ERS) are proposed for off-line com-
shown in Fig. 12. There is no obvious con- face. Although the errors of optimal re- putation. Based on the studies and analy-
cave region inside the weld pool surface sults are small, obvious differences be- ses in this paper, the following conclusions
under the torch, which is practical because tween the reflected images still can be can be drawn:
of the arc pressure. The possible explana- seen in Figs. 10 and 14. Since it is a sens- The proposed reconstruction
tion is that the concave region in the weld ing system for a small object, there are schemes can be used to resolve the inverse
pool surface is very small due to the low many factors in the scheme that may cause problem of the reflection law to derive the
welding current (75 A) and/or there is no errors, such as the parameter measure- three-dimensional weld pool surface from
laser dots projected onto it. ment, image processing, the surface inter- the image processing results.
In previous discussion, it was seen that polation/extrapolation, and boundary The proposed error measurement

94 -s APRIL 2008, VOL. 87

Song 4 08layout:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:17 PM Page 95


parameter provides an effective way to es- Measurement of Specu-

timate and quantify the accuracy of the re- lar Surfaces and Its Ap- C
sultant weld pool surface and the conver- plication in Welding
gence of the solution. Process. PhD thesis,
University of Ken-
In ERS, the base point is chosen on
the head of weld pool surface, and its 5. Richardson, R.
height is reasonably assumed zero. The it- W., et al. 1984. Coaxial
erative search process used in IRS can arc weld pool viewing
thus be avoided and the reconstruction for process monitoring
speed is improved accordingly. and control. Welding
In comparison with interpolation re- Journal 63(3): 4350.
construction scheme (IRS), the extrapola- 6. Agapakis, J. E.,
tion reconstruction scheme (ERS) can and Bolstad, J. 1991. Vi-
sion sensing and pro-
achieve better accuracy especially for the
cessing system for mon- Fig. 20 Examples of reconstructed weld pool surfaces embedded with con-
rear of the weld pool surface. itoring and control of cave parts. A Reflected image and reconstructed surface of Fig. 13B; B
Through applying ERS to a series of welding and other high reflected image and reconstructed surface of Fig. 13E; C reflected image
reflected images acquired from an experi- luminosity processes. and reconstructed surface of Fig. 13N.
ment with nominal constant welding para- International Robots &
meters, the variations of the three-dimen- Vision Automation
sional weld pool surface are studied. It is Conf., pp. 2329.
found that the variation of the length is 7. Kovacevic, R.,
greater than that of the weld pool width, Zhang, Y. M., and
Ruan, S. 1995. Sensing and control of weld pool 15. Snyder, W. E., and Qi, H. 2004. Machine
and the relative variation of the height Vision, Cambridge University Press, ISBN
geometry for automated GTA welding. ASME
(depth) of the weld pool surface is much Journal of Engineering for Industry 117(2): 052183046X.
greater in comparison with those of the 210222. 16. Gonzalez, R. C., and Woods, R. E. 2002.
length and width. 8. Kovacevic, R., and Zhang, Y. M. 1997. Digital Image Processing, second edition, Pren-
Real-time image processing for monitoring of tice Hall.
Acknowledgments free weld pool surface. ASME Journal of Man- 17. Barber, C. B., Dobkin, D. P., and Huh-
ufacturing Science and Engineering 119(2): danpaa, H. T. 1996. The quickhull algorithm for
161169. convex hulls. ACM Transactions on Mathemati-
This research was funded by the Na- cal Software 22(4): 469483.
9. Mnich, C., Al-Bayat, F., Debrunner, C.,
tional Science Foundation under Grant 18. Sandwell, D. T. 1987. Biharmonic spline
Steele, J., and Vincent, T. 2004. In situ weld pool
DMI-0527889 Sensors: Measurement of measurement using stereovision. ASME, Pro- interpolation of GEOS-3 and SEASAT altimeter
Dynamic Weld Pool Surface. HongSheng ceedings 2004, JapanUSA Symposium on Flexi- data. Geophysical Research Letters 2: 139142.
Song also thanks the University of Ken- ble Automation, Denver, Colorado.
tucky Graduate School for the financial 10. Yoo, C. D., and Lee, J. 3D measurement
support through the Kentucky Opportu- of weld pool using biprism stereo vision sensor,,
nity Scholarship. Seoul National University.

11. Zhao, D. B., Yi, J. Q., Chen, S. B., Wu,
L., and Chen, Q. 2003. Extraction of three-di- REPRINTS REPRINTS
mensional parameters for weld pool surface in
1. Groenwald, R. A., Mathieson, T. A., pulsed GTAW with wire filler. ASME J. Manuf.
Kedzior, C. T., and Gaid, I. N. C. 1979. Acoustic
To order custom reprints
Sci. Eng. Vol. 125, pp. 493-503.
emission weld monitor system data acquisi- 12. Zhang, Y. M., Song, H. S., and Saeed, G. of 100 or more of articles in the
tion and investigation. U.S. Army Tank-Auto- 2006. Observation of a dynamic specular weld Welding Journal,
motive Research and Development Command pool surface. Measurement Science & Technol-
Report ADA085-518. ogy 17(6): L9L12. call FosteReprints at
2. Siores, E. 1988. Development of a real- 13. Song, H. S., Saeed, G., and Zhang, Y. M. (219) 879-8366 or
time ultrasonic sensing system for automated 2006. Observation of dynamic specular weld
and robotic welding. PhD thesis, Brunel Uni- pool surface. Proceedings of 2006 ISFA (Inter-
(800) 382-0808.
versity. national Symposium on Flexible Automation), Request for quotes can be
3. Guu, A. C., and Rokhlin, S. 1989. Com- 0252-b(S) pp. 661662, Osaka, Japan. faxed to (219) 874-2849.
puterized radiographic weld penetration con- 14. Song, H. S., and Zhang, Y. An image
trol with feedback on weld pool depression. processing scheme for measurement of specu- You can e-mail FosteReprints
Mater. Eval. 47: 120410. lar weld pool surface. Welding Journal 86(10): at
4. Saeed, G. M. 2005. Three-dimensional 241-s to 249-s.

Radakovic Suppl April 2008 corr:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:53 PM Page 96

Predicting Resistance Spot Weld Failure
Modes in Shear Tension Tests of Advanced
High-Strength Automotive Steels
To judge the quality of resistance spot welds in advanced high-strength steels,
the load-bearing ability of the weld should be considered
more important than the fracture mode


ABSTRACT. Finite element modeling weld should be the primary focus in the heat-affected zone microstructures, mi-
and fracture mechanics calculations were evaluation of the shear-tension test results crohardness, and weld tensile tests (Ref.
used to predict the resistance spot weld in AHSS. 3). One type of weld tension test typically
failure mode and loads in shear-tension done is called the shear-tension test
tests of advanced high-strength steels Introduction (sometimes referred to as lap-shear test).
(AHSS). The results were compared to In this test, two sheet samples, 140 mm
those obtained for an interstitial-free (IF) The use of advanced high-strength long by 60 mm wide are overlapped by 45
steel. The results of the work confirmed steels (AHSS), such as dual-phase and mm and joined with a single spot weld lo-
the existence of a competition between transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) cated at the center of the overlapped re-
two different types of failure modes, steels, has been steadily increasing over gion Fig. 1. The sample is then pulled
namely full button pullout and interfacial the past few years in automotive applica- in tension. Due to the offset of the sheets,
fracture. The force required to cause a tions (Refs. 1, 2). This is due to the advan- the application of tension creates a bend-
complete weld button pullout-type failure tages that AHSS grades offer, in terms of ing moment that causes rotation of the
was found to be proportional to the tensile higher strength that enables the automak- weld nugget. This type of deformation is
strength and the thickness of the base ma- ers to decrease the vehicle weight for im- demonstrated with a finite element simu-
terial as well as the diameter of the weld. proved fuel economy and improved crash lation Fig. 2. For clarity, only one half
The force to cause an interfacial weld frac- energy absorption for better occupant of the model is shown. The combination of
ture was related to the fracture toughness protection. The two grades of AHSS that bending and shear loading that results
of the weld, sheet thickness, and weld di- have seen increased use in automobiles from this deformation causes a compli-
ameter. For high-strength steels, it was de- are the dual-phase and TRIP steels. The cated stress pattern to develop in and
termined that there is a critical sheet steel grades that are used commercially in around the nugget.
thickness above which the expected fail- automotive bodies at present are those There are two different failure modes
ure mode could transition from pullout to with minimum strength levels of 500, 590, that are generally observed in shear-
interfacial fracture. In this analysis it was and 780 MPa. Resistance welding is the tension tests, namely, interfacial frac-
shown that, as the strength of the steel in- predominant mode of fabrication in auto- tures and full button pullout Fig. 3.
creases, the fracture toughness of the weld motive production with a typical vehicle in In the interfacial fracture, the weld fails at
required to avoid interfacial failure must North America containing about 4000 to the interface of the two sheets, leaving half
also increase. Therefore, despite higher 5000 welds. Therefore, good resistance of the weld nugget in one sheet and half in
load-carrying capacity, due to their high spot welding behavior is one of the key the other. In the full button pullout, frac-
hardness, the welds in high-strength steels characteristics of any steel grade to be ture occurs in the base metal or in the weld
may be prone to interfacial fractures. Ten- considered for use in automobile body heat-affected zone at the perimeter of the
sile testing showed that the load-carrying production. weld. In this failure mode, the weld nugget
capacity of the samples that failed via in- Several tests are generally used to char- is completely torn from one of the sheets
terfacial fracture was found to be more acterize the resistance spot welding be- with the weld remaining intact. It is also
than 90% of the load associated with a full havior of steels. These include the welding possible to get a combination of the two
button pullout. This indicates that the current range determination, metallo- failure modes in which a portion of the
load-bearing capacity of the welds is not graphic characterization of the weld and nugget is pulled out of one of the sheets
affected by the fracture mode. Therefore, and the rest of the nugget shears at the
the mode of failure should not be the only interface.
criteria used to judge the quality of spot KEYWORDS A review of the literature showed that
welds. The load-bearing capacity of the considerable work has been done to un-
Dual-Phase Steels derstand the behavior of spot welds under
TRIP Steels tensile and shear loading. Work done by
with the Research and Technology Center, United Fracture Mechanics Davidson and Imhof (Refs. 46) showed
States Steel Corp., Munhall, Pa. Finite Element Modeling that spot weld strength in the shear-
Based on a paper presented at the 2006 Shear-Tension Test tension test is related to the stiffness of the
FABTECH International & AWS Welding Show, Failure Mode joint. They found that, for stiffer test spec-
Atlanta, Ga. imens the degree of rotation that the spot

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Fig. 1 Sketches showing the dimensions of a shear-tension test coupon. The Fig. 2 Sketches showing half sections of a shear-tension coupon before (left)
arrows in the bottom sketch show the direction of the application of tensile load and after (right) the application of load. Bending of the sample (shown in the
during the test. right-side sketch) results from the offset of the sheets.

weld undergoes becomes smaller, which in models. Radaj and Zhang developed tests so that welds, otherwise sound, do
turn, leads to increased joint strength. some simplified equations to predict the not get rejected solely based on fracture
Davidson and Imhof correlated the joint stress intensity of spot welds in various appearance. Furthermore, an understand-
strength with weld nugget rotation but did tests, including the shear-tension test. The ing of the fracture behavior may allow the
not offer a relationship for the stress in- correlations were consistent with the com- automotive companies to use these steels
tensity at the weld. Pook (Ref. 7) devel- puter simulations. However, the simula- and enable them to take advantage of the
oped a relationship for the stress intensity tions are computationally intensive and benefits that these steel grades offer. Ad-
at the weld nugget based on analytical so- time consuming. ditionally, the tensile fracture behavior of
lutions. Pook showed that the weld diam- In the evaluation of the shear-tension the recently introduced advanced high-
eter and sheet thickness have an effect on test results in spot welds, it is generally be- strength steels, such as dual-phase and
the stress intensity at the nugget perime- lieved in the automotive industry that an TRIP steels, has not been reported previ-
ter. Chao (Ref. 8) studied the expected interfacial shear failure is indicative of ously. Therefore, a study was undertaken
failure modes and failure loads for spot poor weld integrity. This has generally to examine and predict the fracture modes
welds based on assumed stress distribu- been true for low-strength steels (tensile possible in shear tension tests in dual-
tions around the perimeter of the weld re- strength equal to or less than 300 MPa), in phase steels with a minimum tensile
sulting from a combination of shear and which interfacial failure is normally asso- strength of 590 and 780 MPa and TRIP
tensile loading. Radaj and Zhang (Ref. 9) ciated with insufficient fusion or some sort steel with a minimum tensile strength of
and Zhang (Ref. 10) performed detailed of a weld imperfection, such as gross 780 MPa. An attempt based on finite ele-
finite element modeling of spot welds porosity. However, it is not clear if inter- ment modeling (FEM) and fracture me-
under shear tension load to predict the facial fractures in shear-tension tests indi- chanics calculations on data collected
stress intensity around the weld. This cate poor weld integrity in AHSS grades. from actual shear-tension tests was made
analysis suggested that correlations and With the increased use of these steels in to predict the resistance spot weld failure
trends predicted in earlier work did not automotive bodies, it is important to study modes in shear-tension tests.
correlate well with the detailed computer their fracture behavior in shear-tension
Materials and Experimental
Table 1 Welding Conditions
Dual-phase steel coils with a minimum
Welding Machine Manufacturer Taylor Winfield Corp.
Welding Machine Type Pedestal-type
ultimate tensile strength of 590 and 780
Welding Machine Transformer 100 kVA MPa, transformation-induced plasticity
Welding Controller TrueAmp IV
Electrode Face Diameter 6 mm
Electrode Force For IF Steel: 3.1 kN (697 lbf)
For AHSS Grades: 4.2 kN (945 lbf) for 1 mm
5.4 kN (1200 lbf) for 1.2 Table 2 Material Properties Used
and 1.6 mm
Squeeze Time 75 cycles Steel Yield Tensile Elongation,
Weld Time 13 cycles (for 1-mm sheets) Grade Strength, Strength, %
14 cycles (for 1.2-mm sheets) MPa MPa
18 cycles (for 1.6-mm sheets)
Hold Time 10 cycles IF 137 302 45
Preheating None 590 Dual Phase 370 650 25
Postheating None 780 Dual Phase 470 805 19
Electrode Coolant Water Temperature 21C 780 TRIP 440 844 24
Tip Cooling 3.7 L/min (1 gal/min)
Note: Elastic Modulus of 207 GPa and Poissons Ratio
of 0.29 used for each case.

Radakovic Suppl April 2008 corr:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:55 PM Page 98


Fig. 3 A photograph of two shear-tension test samples showing the two different Fig. 4 Schematic showing a three-dimensional finite element model
weld fracture morphologies described in the text. The sample on the top showed in- of spot weld shear-tension test sample. The lower picture shows a close-
terfacial fracture, and the sample on the bottom showed full button pullout. The spot up view of the mesh in the vicinity of the spot weld. Sheet thickness is
welds on both ends of each sample were made to attach shims for tensile testing. 1.0 mm and button size is 6 mm.

(TRIP) steel with a minimum tensile The current required to produce a weld ements. Model strain predictions were
strength of 780 MPa, and interstitial-free button size equal to or 90% of the face di- found to converge for a local element size
(IF) steel with a tensile strength of 300 ameter of the electrode tip used was de- near the weld that is less than 25% of the
MPa were used in the study. The IF steel termined. This was done using the highest sheet thickness for each of the three thick-
was used because it is extensively used for current possible without causing expul- nesses evaluated. An example of a finite
body panels in automobile bodies and the sion in the samples. The welding parame- element model of the shear-tension test
automotive industry is quite familiar with ters used for making the test samples are sample for a 1-mm sheet with a 6-mm but-
its welding and fracture behaviors. There- shown in Table 1. Load to failure and the ton is shown in Fig. 4. The lower picture in
fore, it would be a good candidate to pro- weld fracture morphology were noted in Fig. 4 shows a close-up view of the mesh in
vide a comparison for the fracture behav- each case. In each case, five tensile sam- the vicinity of the spot weld. In order to re-
ior of AHSS grades. ples were tested and the average values duce computation time, symmetry condi-
All the coils were coated with 42/42 reported. tions were applied so that only one half of
g/m2 (42 g/m2 on each side) hot-dipped In order to better understand the sam- the sample had to be represented. In the
galvanneal (HDGA) coating. Coatings are ple behavior and failure modes that occur study, several models were developed to
generally applied to steel sheets used in in the shear-tension test, finite element represent different sheet thicknesses and
the automotive industry for corrosion pro- computer simulations of this test were weld diameters.
tection. A galvanneal coating is obtained performed. The modeling was done using The stress-strain behaviors of the three
by heating the zinc-coated steel at ABAQUS Version 6.5 general-purpose fi- types of steel grades used in the simula-
450590C (8401100F) immediately nite element modeling (FEM) software. tions are shown in Fig. 5. The computer
after the steel exits the molten zinc bath. The simulations were run on a Silicon modeling software allows for the defini-
The nominal HDGA coating weights for Graphics Octane 2 workstation. Three- tion of elastic as well as plastic behavior of
the coils used were 42/42 g/m2. These coat- dimensional models of the test sample materials and the appropriate data points
ing weights are typical of current commer- were developed using eight-node brick el- were defined to describe the load dis-
cial automotive use. All the coils used
were melted, hot and cold rolled at United
Table 3 Results of Simulations for Interstitial-Free Steel Samples (Ultimate Tensile Strength =
States Steel Corp. Gary Works and 300 MPa)
coated subsequently at PRO-TEC Coat-
ing Co. of Leipsic, Ohio. The coils ranged Weld Diameter Nominal Sheet FEM Failure FEM Failure K-Factor
in thickness from 1 to 2 mm. (mm) Thickness (mm) Mode(a) Load (N) IF or PO
Nominally, the dual-phase and TRIP
steels contain about 0.09 to 0.14 wt-% car- 2.5 1.0 IF 1200 0.62
bon and are generally alloyed with various 5.0 1.0 PO 3640 2.32
amounts of manganese, chromium, and 7.5 1.0 PO 5400 2.30
10 1.0 PO 7070 2.26
molybdenum to achieve the required ten-
sile strength (Refs. 11, 12). In addition to 2.5 1.5 IF 1200 0.61
these alloying elements, TRIP steels typi- 5.0 1.5 IF 4720 0.60
cally contain silicon or aluminum to effec- 7.5 1.5 PO 8140 2.31
tively suppress the formation of cementite 10 1.5 PO 10700 2.28
by increasing the time required for its for-
mation and lowering its thermodynamic 2.5 2.0 IF 1200 0.61
stability (Ref. 12). 5.0 2.0 IF 4540 0.58
Tensile test samples were prepared 7.5 2.0 IF 10280 0.58
from coils in the as-received condition 10 2.0 PO 13920 2.22
13 2.0 PO 16700 2.17
without any cleaning of the mill oil used
prior to shipping the coils. Weld shear- (a) IF interfacial fracture; PO full button pullout fracture.
tension tests were conducted per Ref. 3.

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Fig. 5 Stress-strain curves for the three steel grades used in the study. Fig. 6 Model-predicted deformation around the weld nugget in the shear-
tension test at the onset of a full button pullout failure. Sheet thickness is
1.0 mm and button size is 6 mm.

Fig. 7 Close-up view of the model-predicted plastic strain distribution that occurs during a full button pullout failure in the shear-tension test. Note the neck-
ing of the base metal immediately outside the weld nugget.

placement behavior shown in Fig. 5. The periphery of the weld. This suggested that end. The reaction force was monitored as
material properties defined in the analysis the fracture toughness of the weld and a function of the applied displacement.
are shown in Table 2. heat-affected zone controlled the failure When the failure strain was reached in ei-
As a starting point in the study, the mode and load. Previous work (Ref. 10) ther the weld or the base metal outside the
properties of the entire test specimen provided a means to estimate the stress in- weld, failure was assumed to have oc-
were considered to be homogeneous. It tensity at the root of the notch at the sheet curred. The magnitude of the reaction
was assumed that the properties of the interface and is described in later sections. force at the point when failure strain was
weld and the heat-affected zone were the In the analysis, sheet thicknesses of 1.0, reached was considered to be the load-
same as those of the base metal. The ho- 1.5, and 2.0 mm were simulated. For each carrying capacity of the sample.
mogeneous model was used only to esti- sheet thickness, four or five different weld
mate loads required for pullout failure. sizes were modeled ranging in diameter Results and Discussion
This assumption was made to examine the from 2.5 to 13 mm. For all models, the
effect of button size and sheet thickness sample length and width were held con- The results of the analyses of the ho-
on the behavior of the weld in this test. stant. A total of 39 simulations were run, mogeneous shear-tension test samples are
To predict the failure loads associated 13 for each of the three steel types, namely shown in Tables 35 and in Figs. 611. Fig-
with interfacial fracture, additional con- IF, dual-phase, and TRIP steels. ure 6 shows the model-predicted defor-
siderations were made. It was observed In all models, one end of the sample mation of a sample at the onset of a pull-
that the interfacial failures initiated at the was held fixed and an applied axial dis- out failure. In this failure mode, the
notch created at the sheet interface at the placement was applied to the opposite strength of the material outside the weld

Radakovic Suppl April 2008 corr:Layout 1 3/6/08 3:57 PM Page 100

sults, it is apparent that there is a compe-
tition between the pullout and the interfa-
cial failure modes
For the pullout failure, the results of
the finite element simulations showed that
there was a strong correlation between
failure load and the material strength,
sheet thickness, and weld diameter. The
load to cause interfacial failure was found
to be more strongly dependent on the weld
diameter and less on the sheet thickness.
The predicted failure loads were found to
adhere to the following correlations:

FPO = kPO UT d t (1)

FIF = kIF UT d2 (2)

Where FPO is the failure load for pullout

failure, FIF is the failure load for interfa-
cial fracture, UT is the tensile strength of
the material, d is the weld diameter, and t
is the sheet thickness. Equations 1 and 2
Fig. 8 Mode-predicted deformation in the shear-tension test showing shear overload of the weld metal were derived based on the fact that the
at the interface of the two sheets. Sheet thickness is 1.0 mm and button size is 4 mm. force required to cause failure is equal to
the product of the strength of the material
and the failed area of cross section. In this
analysis, the material was assumed to be
nugget is exceeded and necking begins to the plastic strain distribution associated homogeneous. Therefore, the strength of
occur at the location shown. After failure with the interfacial failure. There is some the weld and the base metal are both equal
of the material at this location, the weld strain outside the weld nugget, but shear to UT. In Equations 1 and 2, kPO and kIF
button is peeled out of the base metal failure of the weld occurs before the pull- were constants determined from the
around the weld perimeter. A more de- out failure can initiate. These results are modeling.
tailed model of this mechanism is shown in shown in graphical form in Fig. 10. The The results of the analysis of the ho-
Fig. 7, which is a contour plot of the plas- maximum plastic strain in the weld at the mogeneous sample analysis are shown in
tic strain in the homogeneous sample. As interface of the sheets and the maximum Tables 35. Each table corresponds to a
the figure shows, the maximum plastic strain in the base metal outside the weld different steel type (IF, DP, and TRIP) and
strain is concentrated outside the weld nugget are plotted as a function of the ap- shows the combinations of sheet thickness
nugget, which leads to necking and failure plied end displacement. For the case of and weld diameter that were simulated.
at this location. The predicted deforma- full button pullout, the strain in the base As predicted in Equations 1 and 2, the fail-
tion that occurs during the interfacial fail- metal outside the weld nugget is greater ure loads to cause pullout were found to
ure is shown in Fig. 8. Nearly all of the than that developed at the weld interface be proportional to the weld diameter and
strain is concentrated in the weld at the in- and the opposite is true for the case of the the sheet thickness while those for inter-
terface of the two sheets. Figure 9 shows weld interfacial failure. Based on these re- facial failure were proportional to the
square of the weld diameters. The pre-
Table 4 Results of Simulations for DP 590 Steel (Minimum Ultimate Tensile Strength = dicted failure mode and failure load as
590 MPa) well as the constant kPO or kIF are shown
in the tables. The values for kPO and kIF
Weld Diameter Nominal Sheet FEM Failure FEM Failure K-Factor were backcalculated from Equations 1
(mm) Thickness (mm) Mode(a) Load (N) IF or PO and 2 by using the model-predicted failure
loads, weld diameters, sheet thicknesses,
2.5 1.0 IF 2290 0.55 and base metal strengths. The fact that the
5.0 1.0 PO 7600 2.27 values of these two constants were fairly
7.5 1.0 PO 11600 2.31
consistent for each case (kPO~2.2 and
10 1.0 PO 15060 2.25
kIF~0.6) indicates that Equations 1 and 2
2.5 1.5 IF 2260 0.54 are good estimates of the model-predicted
5.0 1.5 IF 9660 0.58 failure mode (for the homogeneous sam-
7.5 1.5 PO 16860 2.24 ples that were simulated).
10 1.5 PO 22700 2.26 Examination of Figs. 69 showed that,
due to offset of the sheets, the shear-ten-
2.5 2.0 IF 2300 0.55 sion test specimens undergo rotation
5.0 2.0 IF 9300 0.56 along an axis perpendicular to the loading
7.5 2.0 IF 22150 0.59 direction. The degree of rotation was
10 2.0 PO 28700 2.14
13 2.0 PO 35500 2.12
found to be greater for the cases of full
button pullout failures (Figs. 6, 7) com-
pared to those that failed interfacially
(a) IF interfacial fracture; PO full button pullout fracture. (Figs. 8, 9). Davidson and Imhof (Ref. 6)

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discussed the significance of specimen ro-
tation during fatigue testing of spot Table 5 Results of Simulations for Dual-Phase and TRIP 780 Steels (Minimum Ultimate
welded samples. In fatigue testing, shear- Strength = 780 MPa)
tension test coupons are subjected to re-
Weld Diameter Nominal Sheet FEM Failure FEM Failure K-Factor
peated tensile loads in the same manner as (mm) Thickness (mm) Mode(a) Load (N) IF or PO
in static shear-tension testing. Davidson
and Imhof showed that the stiffness of test 2.5 1.0 IF 3000 0.58
samples affected the degree of rotation 5.0 1.0 PO 8950 2.17
and that the weld failure mode was af- 7.5 1.0 PO 13600 2.20
fected by the degree of rotation. They ob- 10 1.0 PO 17780 2.15
served that stiffer samples (less rotation)
failed interfacially, whereas, below a cer- 2.5 1.5 IF 3030 0.59
5.0 1.5 IF 11900 0.58
tain critical stiffness, the samples failed in
7.5 1.5 PO 20500 2.21
the base metal and the weld remained 10 1.5 PO 26400 2.13
Equations 1 and 2 are plotted graphi- 2.5 2.0 IF 2920 0.57
cally in Fig. 11 for dual-phase 590 steel and 5.0 2.0 IF 11530 0.56
show the predicted interfacial and pullout 7.5 2.0 IF 26760 0.58
failure load as a function of weld diame- 10 2.0 PO 34760 2.11
ter. In this plot, the sheet thickness was as- 13 2.0 PO 43700 2.12
sumed to be 1.5 mm and the sheet tensile
(a) IF interfacial fracture; PO full button pullout fracture.
strength equal to 590 MPa. A sheet thick-
ness of 1.5 mm was chosen because it rep-
resented the mid-thickness of the normal
range of steels (1 to 2 mm) used in auto-
motive bodies. The minimum allowable Table 6 Actual Test Results and Predicted Stress Intensity at Failure
tensile strength of the steel (590 MPa) was
Material Nominal Sheet Weld Diameter Failure Mode Failure Load Stress Intensity
used for this case. According to the analy- Thickness (mm) (mm) IF or PO (N) (N/mm )3

sis, the lower of the two predicted failure

loads will determine the mode of failure 780 DP 1.2 7.0 IF 14230 1294
that occurs. Thus, the point where the two 590 DP 1.0 6.0 IF 9790 1126
780 TRIP 1.6 8.5 IF 21800 1385
curves intersect indicates where the fail- 780 DP 1.2 7.0 PO 15520 1411
ure mode changes. The figure shows that, 780 DP 1.6 8.0 PO 22900 1581
for this sheet thickness and strength, in-
terfacial failures were predicted to occur (a) IF interfacial fracture; PO full button pullout fracture.
for weld diameters below 6 mm and pull-
out failures for diameters greater than 6 neous model results to actual test data, the fracture theory, the fitness for service of a
mm. Figure 11B shows a similar plot with predicted failure loads for the interfacial structural member that contains a crack is
the exception that the weld diameter was fractures were not consistent Fig. 12. It determined by comparing the predicted
assumed to be constant at 7 mm and the was theorized that there were two main stress intensity at the crack tip to the frac-
failure loads are plotted as a function of reasons for the differences. First, the ture toughness of the material. Like mate-
sheet thickness. These results indicate model assumed that the sample was ho- rial properties such as tensile strength and
that pullout failures are more likely to mogeneous. In reality, the mechanical elongation, fracture toughness is a mater-
occur on thinner sheet samples, and the properties of the weld, base metal, and dif- ial property that is determined from test-
mode can change to interfacial when the ferent parts of the heat-affected zone are ing. Fracture analysis of a cracked mem-
sheet thickness reaches a critical value (for significantly different. For example, it was ber (in which stress intensity is compared
this example ~ 1.7 mm). By setting Equa- shown that the hardness of weld fusion to fracture toughness) is analogous to the
tions 1 and 2 equal to each other, the ratio zones and the heat-affected zones are analysis of notch-free structural members
of the weld diameter to the sheet thickness much higher than those of the base mate- in which predicted stresses are compared
is determined to be roughly equal to 4. rial in dual-phase steels (Ref. 13). Further, to the strength of the material. Zhangs
This suggests, for a homogeneous test the computer models did not account for analysis yielded the following relationship
sample, pullout failures will occur if the the stress intensity at the perimeter of the for the stress intensity at the perimeter of
weld diameter is greater than four times weld. The model considered that the weld the weld in the shear-tension test.
the sheet thickness. Likewise, for a given would fail when the strength of the weld
weld diameter, the sheet thickness has to metal is exceeded at the interface of the F
be less than 25% of the weld diameter for two sheets. This would more closely rep- K ts = 0.694 (3)
pullout to occur. resent a shear overload of the weld metal d t
The homogeneous model predictions rather than a fracture of the weld nugget
agreed well with the test data for cases initiating at the notch around the perime- F = 1.44 K d t (4)
where pullout failures occurred. This is IF C
ter of the nugget.
because the pullout failures most often A fracture mechanics study by Zhang In Equation 3, Ktseq is the equivalent stress
initiated in the base metal outside of the (Ref. 9) provided an estimate of the stress intensity factor at the spot weld, F is the
notch at the perimeter of the weld. A com- intensity at the perimeter of the spot weld applied load, d is the weld diameter, and t
parison of the actual failure loads and specifically for the shear-tension test. is the sheet thickness. Some actual test re-
model-predicted failure loads for samples Fracture mechanics theory provides a sults are shown in Table 6. The table lists
that failed via pullout is shown in Fig. 12. means to evaluate the load-bearing ability the steel grades, weld dimensions, failure
However, when comparing the homoge- of materials that have cracks or flaws. In mode, failure load, and the calculated


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Fig. 9 Close-up view of the model-predicted plastic strain distribution that occurs during a shear overload of the weld in the shear-tension test.


Fig. 10 Predicted maximum plastic strain in the weld and in the base metal immediately outside the weld as a function of applied displacement in the shear
tension test. There is a competition between pullout (A) and interfacial (B) modes of failure. Sheet thickness is 1.0 mm for both cases. The weld button size is
6 mm (A) and 4 mm (B).

stress intensity at failure. The stress inten- tensities for the samples that failed via out failure occurred).
sities were calculated using Equation 3. button pullout are also shown. For these Table 7 shows additional data compar-
The first three samples listed in the table two cases, the fracture toughness of the ing the model predictions to measured
failed via interfacial fracture. This sug- weld was apparently high enough to avoid data. The table lists the steel grades, weld
gests that the listed stress intensity at the interfacial fracture (i.e., the fracture diameter, sheet thickness, actual failure
time of failure is comparable to the frac- toughness was greater than the values load, and mode as well as the predicted
ture toughness of the weld. The stress in- listed for the stress intensity when the pull- failure load had pullout failures occurred

Table 7 Comparison of Actual Shear Tension Test Results and Model Predictions

Actual Test Data Model Predictions

Material Sheet Thickness Weld Diameter Failure Failure FEM Failure FEM Failure Percent of Max
(mm) (mm) Mode(a) Load (N) Mode Load (N) PO Load(b)

780 DP 1.2 7.5 PO 15500 PO 15820

780 DP 1.6 8.3 PO 22900 PO 23250
590 DP 1.0 7.0 IF 9900 PO 10340 96
780 DP 1.2 7.5 IF 14680 PO 15820 93
780 TRIP 1.6 8.5 IF 22060 PO 24330 91
(a) IF interfacial fracture; PO full button pullout.
(b) Ratio of the actual failure load to the model-predicted pullout failure load if the failure were to occur by the pullout mode (multiplied by 100).

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Fig. 11 Predicted failure load in the analysis of the homogeneous shear-tension test sample as a function of the following: A Weld diameter; B sheet

Fig. 12 Comparison of actual failure loads to model-predicted failure loads Fig. 13 Predicted competition between failure modes in the shear-tension
in the shear-tension test for samples that failed via full-button pullout. test.

in each case. The first two samples listed bearing capacity of the weld should be the done by Zhang (Ref. 9), Equation 4
failed via button pullout and the model- primary focus in the evaluation of the (rather than Equation 2) was thought to
predicted failure loads were in good shear-tension test results in AHSS. better represent the parameters govern-
agreement with the actual loads. The fol- In order to get an estimate of the load ing the interfacial fracture mode. The pre-
lowing three samples in the table failed via required for interfacial fracture in the viously determined load to cause pullout
interfacial fracture. For these cases, the shear-tension test, the stress intensity in failure (Equation 1) was, however, consid-
model-predicted loads for pullout failure Equation 3 was set equal to the fracture ered to be appropriate. The predicted re-
are listed. The interesting results shown toughness of the material and the load was lationship for pullout load likely agreed
here are that, although interfacial fracture solved for. This is shown in Equation 4 well with the measured data because this
occurred in the samples, the load-carrying where FIF is the load to cause interfacial failure initiates in the form of necking in
capacity of the weld was greater than 90% fracture of the weld, and KC is the fracture the base metal near the weld heat-affected
of the predicted failure load if pullout had toughness of the material. The fracture zone as opposed to at the notch radius
occurred. This indicates that the load- toughness describes the ability of a mate- around the perimeter of the weld nugget.
bearing capacity of these welds was not rial to carry load in the presence of a flaw Equations 1 and 4 are plotted graphi-
significantly affected by the fracture and is determined from testing. Generally, cally in Fig. 13. In this plot, the weld di-
mode. Therefore, the mode of failure ductile materials tend to have high frac- ameter was assumed to be constant at 8
should not be the only criteria used to ture toughness while the opposite is true mm and the tensile strength assumed was
judge the quality of spot welds. The load- for brittle materials. Based on the work the minimum allowable for this grade (780


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Fig. 14 Sheet thickness above which interfacial fracture is predicted to occur Fig. 15 Predicted weld toughness required to avoid interfacial fracture in
as a function of sheet tensile strength and the fracture toughness of the weld. the shear-tension test as a function of sheet tensile strength for 1- and 2-mm-
thick sheets.

Fig. 16 Predicted weld toughness required to avoid interfacial fracture in the Fig. 17 Predicted failure load as a function of sheet thickness for a low-
shear-tension test as a function of sheet thickness and tensile strength. strength steel having a weld with poor load-carrying capacity. For a low-
strength sheet, a pullout failure is predicted even when the load-carrying ca-
pacity of the weld is poor.

MPa), and the failure load is plotted as a ness of 1.6 mm. This indicates that for the Figure 15 shows the fracture toughness of
function of sheet thickness. The interfa- high-strength sheet sample, interfacial the weld required to maintain pullout fail-
cial fracture load is plotted assuming a fracture will be the expected failure mode ures increases with the strength of the
fracture toughness of 1560 N/mm , and 3
2 for sheet thicknesses greater than 1.6 mm. sheet indicating that interfacial fractures
the pullout failure load is plotted for a The critical parameters that control are more likely to occur with high-strength
low-strength steel (300 MPa) and a the transition between failure modes can steels. Figure 16 shows that the weld
higher-strength steel (780 MPa). For the be determined by setting Equation 4 equal toughness required to maintain pullout
curve representing the low-strength steel, to Equation 1. Some of these results are failures also increases with sheet thick-
the predicted pullout failure load is less shown in the last four figures. Figure 14 ness. Figure 17 shows the predicted pull-
than the interfacial fracture load over this shows that critical sheet thickness above out and interfacial failure loads for a low-
entire range of sheet thickness. This indi- which interfacial fracture will occur be- strength steel shear-tension test sample
cates that pullout failure will occur in comes less as the strength of the sheet in- that has a weld with poor load-carrying ca-
every case. For the higher-strength sam- creases. Thus, for higher-strength sheet, pacity. The failure load required for pull-
ple, the curve for pullout failure and in- interfacial fracture can become the ex- out is less than that for interfacial fracture
terfacial fracture intersect at a sheet thick- pected failure mode in thicker samples. over the entire range of sheet thickness

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shown in the plot. This indicates that for for low-strength steels (tensile strength methodology to determine the fatigue life and
low-strength steels, a full button pullout less than or equal to 300 MPa), a full but- related failure mode of spot-welded sheet
failure could be expected even for the case ton pullout could occur even when welds steels. International Conf. on Technology and
where the weld has poor load-carrying ca- have a poor load-carrying capacity. For Applications of High-Strength Low-Alloy
Steels, ASM International Technical Series
pacity. For high-strength steels, however, high-strength steels, however, this was not
8306-022, Metals Park, Ohio.
this was not found to be the case. Interfa- found to be the case. Interfacial fracture 5. Davidson, J. A., Imhof, E. J. Jr., 1984. The
cial fracture was predicted to occur for was predicted to occur in the shear tension Effect of Tensile Strength on the Fatigure Life of
cases where the weld has superior fracture test for cases where the weld has superior Spot-Welded Sheet Steels. SAE Technical Paper
toughness and high load-carrying capac- fracture toughness and high load-carrying No. 848110.
ity. These predictions shown in Figs. 1517 capacity. 6. Davidson, J. A., and Imhof, E. J. 1983. A
agree well with known characteristics of 3. It was determined that there is a crit- Fracture Mechanics and System-Stiffness Ap-
spot welds. ical sheet thickness above which the ex- proach to Fatigue Performance of Spot-Welded
pected failure mode could move from Sheets. SAE Technical Paper No. 830034.
7. Pook, L. P. 1975. Fracture mechanics
Conclusions pullout to interfacial fracture. It was
analysis of the fatigue behavior of spot welds.
shown that, as the strength of the sheet in- International Journal of Fracture Vol. 11, pp.
An analysis was performed in which a creases, the fracture toughness of the weld 173176.
combination of finite element modeling required to avoid interfacial fractures 8. Chao, Y. J. 2003. Ultimate strength and
and fracture mechanics calculations was must also increase. In the higher-strength, failure mechanism of resistance spot weld sub-
used to predict the weld failure modes in less-ductile steels, this is not likely to occur jected to tensile, shear, or combined
the shear-tension tests of resistance spot and interfacial fracture could become the tensile/shearloads. Journal of Engineering Mate-
welds in AHSS grades. In the finite ele- expected failure mode. rials and Technology Vol. 125(4): 125132.
ment model, the base material and heat- 4. The load-carrying capacity of the 9. Radaj, D., and Zhang, S. 1991. Simplified
formulae for stress intensity factors of spot
affected zone and weld properties were as- samples that failed via interfacial fracture
welds. Engineering Fracture Mechanics Vol.
sumed to be homogeneous. The was found to be more than 90% of the 40(1): 233236.
homogeneous model predictions agreed maximum load associated with the full 10. Zhang, S. 1997. Stress intensities at spot
well with the test data for cases where pull- button pullout. This indicates that the welds. International Journal of Fracture Vol. 88,
out failures occurred. This is because the load-bearing capacity of these welds is not pp. 167185.
pullout failures most often initiated in the significantly affected by the fracture 11. Rege, J. S., Inazumi, T., Nagataki, T.,
base metal outside of the notch at the mode. Thus, the mode of failure should Smith, G., Zudeima, B., and Denner, S. 2002.
perimeter of the weld. However, when not be the only criteria used to judge the Development of HDGI/HDGA DP steel fam-
comparing the homogeneous model re- results of the shear-tension test. The load- ily at National Steel Corp. 44th MWSP Confer-
carrying capacity of the weld should be ence Proceedings, ISS, Vol. XL.
sults to actual test data, the predicted fail-
12. Mahieu, J., Maki, J., Claessens, S., and
ure loads for the interfacial fractures were considered the most important parameter De Cooman, B. C. 2001. Hot dip galvanizing of
not consistent. For the case of the interfa- when evaluating the shear-tension test re- Al alloyed TRIP steels. 43rd MWSP Confer-
cial failure mode, a relationship was found sults in AHSS. ence Proceedings, ISS, Vol. XXXIX.
in the literature to estimate the stress in- 13. Tumuluru, M. 2006. An overview of the
tensity at the weld notch tip. This rela- resistance spot welding of coated high-strength
tionship was used along with the equation dual-phase steels. Welding Journal 85(8): 3137.
1. Schultz, R. A. 2007. Metallic material
developed for the pullout failure to define trends for North American light vehicles. Paper
variables that affect the failure mode and presented at the Great Designs in Steel Semi- The material in this paper is intended for
load for the shear-tension test. nar, American Iron and Steel Institute, South- general information only. Any use of this mate-
The results of the analyses showed the field, Mich. rial in relation to any specific application should
following: 2. Horvath, C. 2007. Material challenges be based on independent examination and ver-
facing the automotive and steel industries from ification of its unrestricted availability for such
1. The mathematical equation derived
globalization. Paper presented at the Great De- use, and a determination of suitability for the
based on the finite element modeling application by professionally qualified person-
signs in Steel Seminar, American Iron and Steel
showed that the force required to cause a nel. No license under any United States Steel
Institute, Southfield, Mich.
button pullout fracture was found to be 3. D8.9M-2002, Recommended Practices for Corporation patents or other proprietary inter-
proportional to the tensile strength of the Test Methods for Evaluating the Resistance Spot est is implied by the publication of this paper.
sheet as well as the diameter of the weld Welding Behavior of Automotive Sheet Steel Ma- Those making use of or relying upon the mate-
and the thickness of the sheet. terials. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society. rial assume all risks and liability arising from
2. The present analyses showed that, 4. Davidson, J. A. 1983. Design-related such use or reliance.

Nominees Solicited for Prof. Koichi Masubuchi Award

ovember 3, 2008, is the deadline ment. The candidate must be 40 years old researchers.

N for submiting nominations for the

2009 Prof. Koichi Masubuchi
Award, sponsored by the Dept. of Ocean
or younger, may live anywhere in the
world, and need not be an AWS member.
The nominations should be prepared by
This award was established to recog-
nize Prof. Koichi Masubuchi for his nu-
merous contributions to the advancement
Engineering at Massacuusetts Institute of someone familar with the research back- of the science and technoogy of welding,
Technology. It is presented each year to ground of the candidate. Include a r- especially in the fields of fabricating ma-
one person who has made significant con- sum listing background, experience, rine and outer space structures.
tributions to the advancement of materi- publications, honors, awards, plus a least Submit your nominations to Prof. John
als joining through research and develop- three letters of recommendation from DuPont at


Sowards et al Suppl April 2008corr:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:09 PM Page 106

Characterization of Welding Fume from
SMAW Electrodes Part I
Size and mass distributions, fume generation rates, and chemistry
are compared for three SMAW electrodes


ABSTRACT. An electrical low pressure cause for concern due to possible health opposed to bulk composition alone. Rela-
impactor (ELPI) was used to collect weld- problems experienced by individuals in tionships between particle size and com-
ing fume from E6010 and E308-16 elec- the welding industry after long-term expo- position have also been found (Refs. 5, 7).
trodes at two heat input levels, and E7018 sure. Welding fume particles may cause Number and mass distributions of welding
electrodes at a nominal heat input level. metal fume fever, and perhaps more im- fumes have been measured with a variety
This paper describes the collection proce- portantly, manganese- or chromium- of techniques including cascade im-
dures and presents data on the fume gen- related poisoning after inhalation and in- pactors, scanning mobility particle sizers,
eration rates (FGR), particle number and gestion into the human body. For exam- and optical particle counters (Refs. 5,
mass distributions as a function of size, ple, it has been proposed that long term, 79). These distributions have typically
and identifies compounds present in the low concentration doses of Mn are linked shown that fume particles are present in a
bulk fume. Part II of this paper describes to nervous system disorders (Ref. 1). Stud- broad range of sizes but are generally pre-
the detailed characterization of this fume ies have also shown that welders working sent in higher concentrations of small par-
conducted using transmission and scan- with stainless steels who have had cases of ticle sizes and higher masses of the larger
ning electron microscopy, and a surface- lung cancer may be due to possible hexa- particle sizes.
sensitive analysis technique known as X- valent chromium exposure, although Fume formation is of great interest in
ray photoelectron spectroscopy. there has been no direct evidence linking order to understand the varying morpholo-
Using the ELPI, the fume is separated the cancer to welding fume exposure (Ref. gies and compositions of bulk fume. The ef-
by particle size in 13 size ranges from 0.03 2). Occupational exposure limits (OEL), fect of aerosol physics on welding fume for-
to 10 micrometers. Size and mass distrib- which are revised quite regularly (Ref. 3), mation have been described in detail by
utions were determined over these size determine the amount of these com- Zimmer et al. (Refs. 9, 10). Jenkins has pro-
ranges for the three consumables using pounds and elements that may be ingested vided a thorough summary of formation
this technique. Fume was also collected without becoming harmful to human tis- mechanisms and corresponding size ranges
using a modified AWS F1.2:1999 bulk col- sues. Though epidemiological reactions to that govern welding fume particle forma-
lection technique to determine fume gen- the different compounds present in weld- tion (Ref. 7). The three mechanisms and ap-
eration rates and provide samples for bulk ing fume are important, they are beyond proximate formation ranges are nucleation
X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. X-ray the scope of this study, which was designed (< 100 nm), accumulation (100 nm1 m),
diffraction revealed that the predominant to characterize the fume particles pro- and the coarse range (> 1 m). The degree
phase in fume generated by all electrodes duced by metal joining processes. of particle growth in the nucleation range is
was a Fe3O4 compound (magnetite) with An aerosol consisting of fume and primarily controlled by the amount of su-
some substitution of Mn and Si for Fe in spatter is produced during welding with percooling following particle nucleation.
the magnetite structure. Fume generation SMAW electrodes. Previous studies have Accumulation describes particle growth by
rates were highest for E6010 followed by shown that SMAW fume consists of an as- collision with other particles from diffusion
E7018 and E308-16, respectively. Varying sortment of metals, oxides, and other and impaction. As particles continue to col-
heat input changed fume generation rates compounds, which form from evaporation lide with one another they may also form ag-
but did not affect the chemical nature of of elements in the arc and fluxes covering glomerates, which may adhere due to a
the fume, nor alter the size and mass dis- the electrode (Refs. 46). The fume parti- number of mechanisms. These include 1)
tributions to any great extent. Particle size cles generally vary over a wide range of contact of multiple particles still in the liq-
distributions of all three electrodes sizes, thus it becomes important to con- uid state, 2) sintering, and 3) electrostatic
reached peak concentrations in the fine sider fume particles in each size range as and Van der Waals forces (Ref. 11).
(0.12.5 m) particle size regions. Agglomerate sizes may be large com-
pared to individual particles, yet their
Introduction KEYWORDS aerodynamic diameters can still be quite
small. An aerodynamic diameter is the di-
Fume generated by the shielded metal Electrical Low Pressure Impactor ameter of a unit density sphere with the
arc welding (SMAW) process may be a (ELPI) same particle mass and particle mobility as
Shielded Metal Arc Welding the particle in question (Refs. 11, 12).
J. W. SOWARDS, J. C. LIPPOLD, and D. W. (SMAW) Aerodynamic diameter can be quite low
DICKINSON are with the Welding & Joining Met- Fume Generation Rates (FGR) for open structured agglomerates, com-
allurgy Group, The Ohio State University, Colum- X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pared to spherical particles (Ref. 13).
bus, Ohio. A. J. RAMIREZ is with the Brazilian E6010, E308-16, and E7018 Coarse fume particles are formed by me-
Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, chanical means such as ejection of spatter

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Fig. 1 Principle of particle impaction and aerodynamic cutoff size ranges Fig. 2 Effect of voltage on fume generation rates of E6010, E308-16, and
of each ELPI stage (Ref. 24). E7018.

Fig. 3 Effect of current on fume generation rates of E6010, E308-16, and Fig. 4 X-ray diffraction spectrum obtained from E6010 electrode (60-s col-
E7018. lection, 16.3 kJ/in. heat input).

from the arc or molten weld pool. These shell around the metallic core due to the ex- isting particles.
formation factors must be considered posure of the aerosol particle to oxygen- Condensation temperature variations
when analyzing composition and particle rich atmosphere; 5) fully react with oxygen between compounds such as Fe3O4 and
size distributions. to form metal-oxides; and 6) coagulate to SiO2 in aerosols have been shown to con-
Fume generation rates (FGR) of form aerosol particle agglomerates. If flux tribute to regions of compositional varia-
SMAW electrodes are second only to flux is used, as is the case with SMAW and tion in the individual particles, leading to
cored arc welding (FCAW) processes FCAW electrodes, then the fume particle a core-shell morphology (Ref. 17).
among the various welding processes that will be exposed to vapor formed from the These different formation mechanisms
are used commercially (Ref. 14). Fume vaporized flux elements resulting in con- will result in a large size-range of particles
generation is a function of different forma- densation of additional elements on preex- during shielded metal arc welding, ranging
tion steps and competing mechanisms
(Refs. 7, 10). The dynamics of aerosol nu-
cleation and fume formation are thor-
oughly described elsewhere (Refs. 15, 16). Table 1 Welding Conditions and Calculated Heat Input
The various elements and compounds Welding E6010 Low E6010 High E308-16 Low E308-16 High E7018 Nominal
within the welding consumable and base Parameter Heat Input Heat Input Heat Input Heat Input Heat Input
material are vaporized as a result of the in-
tense heat produced by the welding arc. A Current, Amps 93 115 81 115 126
general sequence of welding fume forma- Voltage, Volts 27.1 30.8 24 24 23.8
tion is as follows after vaporization: 1) the Travel Speed, in./min 9.6 (4.1) 11.1 (4.7) 10.5 (4.4) 10.5 (4.4) 10.75 (4.6)
aerosol particles will homogonously nucle- (mm/s)
Heat Input, kJ/in. 15.8 (0.62) 19.1 (0.75) 11.1 (0.44) 17.3 (0.68) 16.8 (0.66)
ate from the supersaturated vapor; 2) then (kJ/mm)
they will grow by condensation and/or co- Electrode Diameter, 8 (3.2)
8 (3.2)
1 1
8 (3.2) 8 (3.2)
8 (3.2)

agulation; 3) possibly develop a core-shell in. (mm)

structure by condensation due to varying Coating Type High Cellulose Sodium Neutral Basic Basic, Low
vapor pressure of different species, or due Hydrogen
to liquid phase separation; 4) form an oxide


Sowards et al Suppl April 2008corr:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:02 PM Page 108


Fig. 5 X-ray diffraction spectrum obtained from E308-16 electrode (135-s Fig. 6 X-ray diffraction spectrum obtained from E7018 electrode (60-s col-
collection, 21.2 kJ/in. heat input). lection, 14.5 kJ/in. heat input).

from ultrafine (<0.1 m) to fine (0.l2.5 test the three electrodes in this study as real time. This is accomplished through
m) to coarse (>2.5 m) sizes (Ref. 18). well as a number of other consumable/ various principles including particle
The fine and ultrafine size ranges have process combinations. This testing in- charging, inertial classification, and elec-
been suggested to be the main concern cludes collection of fume and measure- trical detection of the particles using elec-
with respect to possible health problems, ment of FGR using an AWS-type collec- trometers (Ref. 20). Fume is drawn into
since they are more likely to be deposited tion system, coupled with smaller filter the ELPI by means of a vacuum pump,
in the lungs. Techniques, such as those de- pore sizes than those recommended by the and is passed through a particle charger
scribed here, to characterize the nature of F1.2:1999 standard (Ref. 19). A critical before being separated in the impactor.
welding fume as a function of size distrib- component of these studies is the fume The impactor has multiple stages, which
utions are required to fully understand the collection with an electrical low pressure size particles according to their aerody-
health-related impact of welding fume. impactor (ELPI). The ELPI is capable of namic diameter in the range of 0.0310
A fume collection system and proce- separating particles by aerodynamic diam- m. A given stage will trap particles if they
dure has been developed and was used to eter and monitoring size distributions in are unable to make the sharp turn re-
quired, due to their inertia, to reach the
next stage. This principle of particle im-
Table 2 Fume Generation Rates paction along with the particle size
trapped by each stage is shown in Fig. 1.
Electrode E6010 E6010 E308-16 E308-16 E7018 Each stage has the capability to detect the
charge on the incoming particles via elec-
Heat input (kJ/in.) 15.8 19.1 11.1 17.3 16.8
Average FGR (g/min) 0.387 0.598 0.091 0.198 0.365 trometers thus allowing for real-time
monitoring by a PC data acquisition sys-
tem. Weight analyses are commonly used
Table 3 Statistical Analyses Results for Number and Mass Distributions Presented in Figs. 6 in fume studies but the large particles,
and 7. Diameter Values are Reported in Nanometers. even if they are low in concentration, may
dominate a percent weight analysis (Ref.
E6010 E6010 E308-16 E308-16 E7018 21). Therefore, a considerable advantage
Low HI High HI Low HI High HI to using an ELPI system is its ability to re-
trieve a particle number distribution for a
number distributions
fume collection in addition to measuring
dg 102.4 128.7 206.2 252.9 105.1 mass collected on each stage of the system.
g 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.15 1.25
67% 87.1 108.9 175.0 220.4 84.2 Procedure
120.4 152.1 243.0 290.3 131.2
95% 43.6 54.5 87.5 110.2 42.1 A detailed procedure developed by
240.8 304.2 486.0 580.6 262.5 Sowards et. al was followed for the analy-
sis of welding fume from SMAW elec-
mass distributions
trodes (Ref. 22). A36 steel was used as a
dg 592.0 661.5 624.8 556.7 746.5 base material for E6010 and E7018 elec-
g 1.13 1.17 1.11 1.11 1.32 trodes, and Type 304L stainless steel was
67% 524.9 563.6 561.4 501.1 566.1
used as a base material for the E308-16
667.7 776.5 695.3 618.5 984.5 electrode. All welding procedures used
were in accordance with the consumable
95% 262.4 281.8 280.7 250.5 283.0
1335.4 1553.0 1390.6 1237.0 1968.9 manufacturer recommendations, i.e., op-
erating current, voltage, work angle, and
low-hydrogen electrode control (E7018,

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E308-16). All welds were performed in the sight into filter per-
flat position, and the base material was formance and indi- E
moved relative to the electrode using a lin- cates when the fil-
ear positioner for ELPI collections and ro- ters become
tary positioner for fume hood collections. saturated with
An arc voltage controller (AVC) was used fume. Due to lim-
in conjunction with a linear positioner to ited physical space
feed the covered electrodes while main- in the fume hood
taining a constant arc voltage, thus main- chamber, a rotary
taining repeatability of heat input. All positioner with DC
welding parameters were monitored and stepper control was
recorded during testing. Averages of the used to provide base
parameters were used to calculate heat metal travel instead
input as shown in Table 1. Heat input is a of the linear posi-
commonly used parameter for specifying tioner used in ELPI
a welding procedure, therefore two levels collections.
were used. It was not a goal of this study After FGR were
to examine the effect of voltage and cur- measured, the ELPI
rent on fume formation. was used to collect Fig. 7 Particle number distributions as a function of particle diameter for
the following: A E6010 low heat input; B E6010 high heat input; C
Fume was collected in a sequence of fume for particle E308-16 low heat input; D E308-16 high heat input; E E7018 nominal
several trials. The first consisted of using number and mass heat input. Vertical lines correspond to geometric mean diameter (GMD) of
the fume hood to measure fume genera- distributions. Parti- distributions.
tion rates and collect bulk samples for X- cle number distribu-
ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. High flow- tions were recorded
rate glass fiber filters with a pore size of 0.3 in real time by the
m and an efficiency of 99.98% were used ELPI. Mass distributions were obtained by
Results and Discussion
for these collections. The filters were non- weighing aluminum collection substrates Fume Generation Rate
hygroscopic so moisture in the atmos- placed on each stage of the ELPI. Follow-
phere had negligible effect on filter ing a collection run, the substrate on each The fume generation results for E6010,
weights. A digital manometer with PC stage was reweighed to find the fume mass E7018, and E308-16 electrodes using the
control was used to record pressure drop deposited during testing. Substrate weight modified fume collection hood are pre-
across the filter during all fume hood col- was measured to an accuracy of 105 grams sented in Table 2. These FGR values rep-
lection. The pressure drop provides in- with an analytical balance. resent an average of three collections for


Sowards et al Suppl April 2008corr:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:06 PM Page 110



the fume of both mild ing current and voltage (i.e., between the
E steel electrode fumes at two levels of heat input).
the lower heat input
level. Qualitative visual X-Ray Diffraction Results
examination revealed
that the E308-16 welds X-ray diffraction was performed on
had a much thicker slag bulk fume filters from each of the elec-
coating, which likely trodes to identify metallic species or com-
equates to a larger per- pounds present in the fume. The samples
centage of the flux coat- contained the full particle size range as de-
ing ending up as slag in- scribed in the procedure section. Fume
stead of fume as was removed from the bulk filter and
compared with the other pressed onto zero background holders be-
electrodes. Also, melting fore the diffraction experiments took
and vaporization rates of place, providing a better peak to back-
mild and stainless steels ground ratio than the fume filter itself.
are considerably differ- Figure 4 shows the results for the E6010
ent because of differ- electrode after a 60-s collection with the
Fig. 8 Particle mass distributions as a function of particle diameter for ences in thermal conduc- fume hood. The peaks show a strong cor-
the following: A E6010 low heat input; B E6010 high heat input; tivity as compared to relation to a magnetite (Fe3O4) type struc-
C E308-16 low heat input; D E308-16 high heat input; E E7018 ture. However, slight peak shifts were pre-
mild steels. Effects of
nominal heat input. Vertical lines correspond to geometric mean diame-
voltage and current on sent, suggesting the other elements (Mn
ter (GMD) of distributions.
FGR are shown in Figs. and Si) are substituting for Fe and shifting
2 and 3, respectively. the 2 values.
Each point represents X-ray diffraction results for E308-16
the average current and transferred fume are shown in Fig. 5.
each electrode. The total fume generated voltage recorded for a given electrode These peaks show the presence of mag-
for the E7018 was slightly less than the over the duration of the weld. Three welds netite (Fe3O4) and a potassium-rich oxide
E6010 electrode at low heat input sug- were made at each heat input level. For (K2MO4). The M in the formula repre-
gesting E6010 has the highest relative both E6010 and E308-16, an increase in sents Fe, Mn, Ni, or Cr. Based on the spec-
FGR. E308-16 generated less than 25% of fume generation was noted with increas- trum, it is not possible to separate the in-

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dividual compounds for these peaks. suggesting these are the dominant fume a geometric mean diameter of 0.75 m.
Therefore, M should be considered as a formation mechanisms, though there is The mean diameter is increased since
mixture of the four metals, although TEM some speculation in distinction between higher masses were measured on the
analysis showed that the predominant ele- the two regions (Ref. 9). E6010 distribu- larger stages of the ELPI. The size and
ment is Fe. A weak match for NaF was also tions change only slightly with heat input mass distributions appeared multimodal.
observed in the E308-16 spectrum. The as shown by the similar results in statisti- The size distribution had a mode in the nu-
XRD spectrum for the E7018 fume (Fig. cal methods. The number distribution for cleation and accumulation range. The
6) has strong peaks for Fe3O4, CaF2, and the high heat input welds is slightly skewed mass distribution had an additional mode
NaF. Once again, slight 2 shifts were ob- to larger average particle sizes relative to in the coarse range, which may be associ-
served for the magnetite peaks, which the low heat input collections. Both heat ated with spatter formation (Ref. 10).
were most likely caused by a Mn and Si input levels had the highest percentage
substitution for Fe. based on total weight at approximately 0.6 Summary of Number and Mass
m average aerodynamic diameter. Distribution Results
Number and Mass Distributions
E308-16 Distributions Clearly the number distributions for
The ELPI was used to measure both the three electrodes are biased toward
size and mass distributions using the tech- The average number percentage for smaller diameter particles as compared
niques described previously. The number the E308-16 electrode as a function of the with mass distributions. However, the
distribution, measured by the ELPI as a aerodynamic diameter as measured from mass of these small particles is insignifi-
function of the aerodynamic diameter, the ELPI stages for both heat inputs are cant in comparison with mass of the parti-
was determined for two heat input condi- presented in Fig. 7C and D and mass dis- cle sizes where mass distribution peaks
tions of E6010 and E308-16 and a single tributions for both heat input conditions (0.60.75 m). Some speculation exists as
heat input of E7018. Resulting distribu- are shown in Fig. 8C and D. Similar to to which size range of fume particles,
tions are presented in Fig. 7 where the what was observed for the E6010 elec- whether it is the fine or ultrafine regions,
normalized number of particles (dN/d trodes, there was little change in size dis- are most damaging when inhaled by weld-
log(Dp)) is plotted vs. log of particle di- tribution between the low and high heat ing personnel (Ref. 18). It is generally ac-
ameter, Dp. The mass distributions of the input welds. The number distribution cepted that respirable particles are those
same collections are presented in Fig. 8 shifts to larger particle sizes, and mass dis- that are less than 10 m in size. Agglom-
where normalized particle mass (dM/d tribution decreases slightly in diameter for erates of various sizes were present on all
log(Dp)) is plotted vs. log of particle di- the higher heat input. Particles in the size stages of the ELPI collections for each of
ameter. It is convenient to plot aerosol dis- range of approximately 0.20.3 m were the electrodes tested as observed by char-
tributions vs. the log of particle diameter predominant, accounting more than 60% acterization techniques discussed in Part
to compress the region containing coarse of the total number of particles. Compar- II of this paper. Equivalent aerodynamic
particles and enlarge the fine and ultrafine ing the E6010 to the E308-16, the particle diameters of agglomerates must be con-
regions since these are of greatest interest. size distribution is biased toward the large sidered when analyzing data from the
Percentage of particle size and mass for size particles in the E308-16 fume. This ELPI, since it only provides an average be-
each ELPI stage are also included in Figs. may be related to the degree of super- havior of each stage cut-off size. Agglom-
7 and 8. Error bars indicate one standard cooling between the two materials or be- erated particles may have a large physical
deviation (for percentage scale) of the av- cause of different nucleation rates. The size compared to their aerodynamic diam-
erage of three collections performed for E308-16 fume contains Ni and Cr, which eter. Thus, larger-sized agglomerates may
each condition. Geometric mean diame- have lower thermal conductivities than the be collected on the lower stages of the im-
ters are represented by the vertical dashed strictly Fe-based particles found in E6010 pactor. For all three electrodes, a high per-
line shown on each distribution. Statistical fume. Since these particles may have centage of the fume particles on the lower
analyses may be performed on log-normal slower cooling than the E6010 particles, stages were agglomerates, while the upper
distributions of aerosols to obtain a geo- they could possibly have more time to stages contained a higher fraction of
metric mean diameter and variance of grow by diffusion after colliding with more spherical particles. The higher fraction of
particle size. Results of these statistical particles. The mass distribution between isolated spherical particles on upper
analyses are displayed in Table 3. the two heat inputs is also consistent. Mass stages may be explained by the fact that
distribution was spread over a wider parti- spatter is the dominant fume formation
E6010 Distributions cle size range than the E6010. Once again, mode at the larger size scales as opposed
the mass of particles below 0.1 m is very to particle accumulation (Refs. 7, 10).
Comparing the particle number distri- small, accounting for about 1.5% of the As this occurs, seemingly large ag-
butions between the two different heat in- total fume mass. glomerates are counted on the lower
puts of E6010 fume (Fig. 7A and B) shows stages because their aerodynamic diame-
good consistency. Approximately 95% of E7018 Distributions ter is actually small. Models of the human
particles are less than 0.3 m in diameter, oral-pharyngeal cavities suggest that these
making the bulk of the size distributions Average number and mass distribu- agglomerates that are held together by
for both heat inputs lie in the particle nu- tions for E7018 at a nominal heat input are Van der Waals forces may disperse back
cleation and accumulation size ranges as presented in Figs. 7E and 8E, respectively. into individual particles if the flow rate is
described elsewhere (Ref. 7). More than The number distribution of E7018 is substantially large as in human lung mod-
70% of the fume mass lies in the accumu- shifted toward the small aerodynamic di- els (30200 L/min) (Ref. 23). The ELPI
lation range (particles below 1 m in di- ameters of the ELPI size range as com- used for this study was only operated at a
ameter). The mass of particles below 0.1 pared with number distributions of E6010 flow rate of 10 L/min, which is not ade-
m is very small, representing less than and E308-16, which both exhibited distri- quate to break these loosely attractive
2% of the total fume mass. Geometric butions with the majority of the particles forces. However, many of these agglomer-
mean diameters of the number distribu- falling in the 0.10.2 m size range. The ates are held together by forces other than
tions were both at the transition between mass distribution of E7018 peaks at ap- Van der Waals bonding suggesting ag-
the nucleation and accumulation ranges, proximately 0.6 m average diameter with glomerate disassociation will likely not


Sowards et al Suppl April 2008corr:Layout 1 3/6/08 4:08 PM Page 112

occur for those other types. Even with ag- ment setup and testing. Funding for this a premixed flat flame. Journal of Aerosol Science
glomeration effects, the ELPI distribu- project was provided by D&L Welding 29(5,6): 687 to 706.
tion, based on aerodynamic diameter, is a Fume Analysis LLC, representing a con- 18. Antonini, J. M., Krishna Murthy, G. G.,
good representation of the respirable sortium of past and current consumable Rogers, R. A., Albert, R., Eagar, T. W., Ulrich,
G. D., and Brain, J. D. 1998. How welding
ranges of these particles. manufacturers.
fumes affect the welder. Welding Journal 77(10):
The information made available in this 55 to 59.
manuscript provides insight on fume for- References 19. American Welding Society. 1999.
mation and size distribution of SMA weld- F1.2:1999, Laboratory Method for Measuring
ing fumes. This information along with the 1. Ashburner, L. 1989. Some hazards of Fume Generation Rates and Total Fume Emis-
characterization of SMA fume in Part II of welding fume. Joining and Materials 2(3): 118, sion of Welding and Allied Processes. Miami,
this study may be useful for future welding 119. Fla.: AWS.
2. NIOSH. 1988. Criteria for a recommended 20. Keskinen, J., Pietarinen, K., and
consumable development, since consum-
standard welding, brazing, and thermal cutting. Lehtimki, M. 1992. Electrical low pressure im-
able composition affects the nature of the NIOSH document no. 88-110. Cincinnati, Ohio. pactor. J. Aerosol Science 23(4): 353 to 360.
fume it generates. 3. Pekkari, B. 2000. Growing concerns about 21. Speight, F. Y., and Campbell, H. C., eds.
health, safety and environment in welding. 1979. Fumes and Gases in the Welding Environ-
Conclusions Welding in the World 44(5): 101 to 116. ment. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society.
4. Evans, R. M., Flanigan, L. J., Howden, D. 22. Sowards, J. W., Lippold, J. C., Dickinson,
1. Fume generation rate is dependent G., Lee, K. W., Luce, R. G., Martin, D. C., Pat- D. W., and Ramirez, A. J. 2008. Characteriza-
on heat input and varied among the elec- tee, H. E., and Robinson, R. E. 1979. Fumes and tion procedure for the analysis of arc welding
trodes evaluated, being highest for E6010 Gases in the Welding Environment, Batelle- fume. Welding Journal 87(3): 76-s to 83-s.
Columbus. Miami, Fla.: American Welding 23. Li, W., Perzl, M., Heyder, J., Langer, R.,
electrode, followed by E7018 and E308-
Society. Brain, J. D., Englmeier, K. H., Niven, R. W., and
16. 5. Fasiska, E. J., Wagenblast, H. W., and Edwards, D. A. 1996. Aerodynamics and
2. X-ray diffraction of E6010 and Nasta, M. 1983. Characterization of Arc Welding aerosol particle deaggregation phenomena in
E7018 bulk fume samples revealed that Fume. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society. model oral-pharyngeal cavities. Journal of
the primary phase present was Fe3O4 6. Voitkevich, V. 1995. Welding Fumes: For- Aerosol Science 27(8): 1269 to 1286.
(magnetite). Slight peak shifts suggested mation, Properties and Biological Effects. Cam- 24. Dekati, Ltd. 2003. ELPI Users Manual.
that Mn and Si probably substituted for Fe bridge, England: Abington Publishing. Tampere, Finland, Dekati Ltd.
in the Fe3O4-type structure. The E7018 7. Jenkins, N. T. 2003. Chemistry of airborne
fume had additional peaks for NaF and particles from metallurgical processing. PhD
dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology, Cambridge, Mass.
3. X-ray diffraction of the E308-16 8. Stephenson, D., Seshadri, G., and Ver-
An Important
fume also showed strong peaks for Fe3O4 anth, J. M. 2003. Workplace exposure to sub-
and had additional peaks for K2MO4 (M micron particle mass and number concentra-
accounts for Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr) and NaF.
4. Particle number distributions deter-
tions from manual arc welding of carbon steel.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal Event
mined with the ELPI for E6010 and E7018
showed that 95% of the fume particles
64: 516 to 521.
9. Zimmer, A. T., and Biswas, P. 2001. Char- on Its Way?
generated during welding were smaller acterization of aerosols resulting from arc weld-
than 0.3 m. For E308-16, 95% of the ing processes. Journal of Aerosol Science 32: 993 Send information on upcoming
to 1008. events to the Welding Journal
fume consisted of particles less than ap- 10. Zimmer, A. T., Baron, P., and Biswas, P.
proximately 0.6 m. 2002. The influence of operating parameters on Dept., 550 NW LeJeune Rd.,
5. Particle mass distributions for all number-weighted aerosol size distribution gen- Miami, FL 33126. Items can
three consumables was spread over larger erated from a gas metal arc welding process. also be sent via FAX to (305)
particles sizes and most of the mass was Journal of Aerosol Science 33: 519 to 531. 443-7404 or by e-mail to
larger than the size considered to be in the 11. Reist, P. C. 1984. Introduction to Aerosol
harmful respirable range (> 0.1 m). Science. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan
6. The mass of particles in the ultrafine Publishing.
regime was very low, representing less 12. Kelly, W. P., and McMurray, P. H. 1992.
Measurement of particle density by inertial
than 2% of the total fume mass.
classification of differential mobility analyzer-
7. Varying heat input for the E6010 and generated monodisperse aerosol. Aerosol Sci-
E308-16 electrodes produced little change ence and Technology 17: 199 to 212.
in number or mass distributions.
Dear Readers:
13. Kutz, S., and Schmidt-Ott, A. 1990. Use
8. E7018 produced more particles in of a low pressure impactor for fractal analysis of
the finer regimes than E6010 and E308- submicron particles. J. Aerosol Science The Welding Journal encourages
16, though the highest measured concen- 21(Suppl. 1): S47 to S50. an exchange of ideas through
tration of particles was approximately 0.1 14. Gray, C. N., Hewitt, P. J., and Dare, P. R. letters to the editor. Please send
m for both mild steels and 0.2 m for the M. 1982. New approach would help control your letters to the Welding Journal
fumes at source part two: MIG fumes. Welding
stainless steel. Dept., 550 NW LeJeune Rd.,
and Metal Fabrication 51(1): 52 to 55.
15. Hinds, W. 1999. Aerosol Technology: Miami, FL 33126. You can also
Acknowledgments Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Air- reach us by FAX at (305) 443-7404
borne Particles, 2d ed. New York: Wiley- or by sending an e-mail to Kristin
The authors would like to thank Matt Interscience.
Gonser of the Welding & Joining Metal- 16. Seinfeld, J. H., and Pandis, S. 1998. At-
Campbell at
lurgy Group at The Ohio State University mospheric Chemistry and Physics. New York:
for his valuable assistance in fume collec- John Wiley & Sons Inc.
tion and analysis. Also thanks to Troy 17. Ehrman, S. H., Friedlander, S. K., and
Paskell of WeldQC for help with equip- Zachariaht, M. R. 1998. Characteristics of
SiO2/ TiO2 nanocomposite particles formed in

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