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Time (s) Observed pH Explanation

0 7.89 The deionized water in the laboratory room has a pH value

approximately 7.0. The process of distillation leads water
20 7.17 molecules to access the air contained CO2 gas and stirring
40 6.88 encourage more and more CO2 dissolved, so the
concentration of acid in distilled water at that time
60 6.67 increases and the pH value decreases as a result. After a
short period of time, due to the water does not absorb all of
80 6.34
CO2 from the air, the balance stage happens and the pH
100 6.26 value is stable

120 6.19

140 6.09

160 5.71

180 5.53

Comment: The pH of deionized water tends to be lower than normal water because the
dissolved salts (ions) in the normal water can neutralize that is also dissolved in the water.


Solution Theoretical Measured Explaination

pH pH

_10 mL of 0.1M 1 1.14 HCl is strong acid so its pH value is small

HCl as the [H+] = 0.1 involved in. When
adding the distilled water into HCl, the
_ Add 90 mL of solution becomes diluted and the
distilled water 2 1.97
concentration of H+ decreases. The system
_ Add 10 mL of has the current [H+] = 0.01, thus the pH
0.1M NaOH value calculated equal to 2
7 11.12
_ Add 90 mL of The pH value keeps increasing due to the
11.7 11.71
addition of NaOH, OH- dissolves and joins
0.01M NaOH with H+ in the mixture to make H2O. Thus
the system is neutral and the pH raises into

When we continue to add 90mL of 0.01

NaOH to the mixture, the [OH-] increase
and equal to 2.3 so the pH value raises
theoretically to 11.7.

Data Calculation:

The mole of 10mL of 0,1 M HCL: n = CM x V = 0,1x 0.01= 10-3 (mol)

The theoritical pH of 10 mL of 0,1 M HCl: pH = -log[0.1] = 1

After adding 90 mL of distilled water , the V of solution increases to 100mL= 0,1 L

Thus [H+]= n/V= 10-3/ 0,1= 0.01 M

The theoritical pH of 0,01M HCl: pH= -log[0,01] = 2

After adding 90 mL of 0.01M NaOH, the V of solution increases to 190mL= 0,19 L

The mole of the adding OH- = CM x V = 0.01 x 0.09 = 9x10-4 (mole)

The current [OH-] = n/V = 9x10-4/0.19. Thus the final pH = 14 - (-log[9x10-4/0.19) = 11.7

Comment: The pH value depends on concentration of H+ .Strong acid often have a small pH
value because the it dissolves completely in water to produce the large amount of H+ . The pH of
strong acid will be increase when [OH-] is increased. The reality value of pH in the experiment is
different comparing with the theoretical one due to the laboratory conditions and the mistake
during experimental procedure.


Solution Measured Ka Explaination


0.1M acetic 2.67 4.67x10-5 CH3COOH plays role as the very weak acid,
acid results in dissolving partially and forming little
H+, which leads to the pH value is higher than
0.01M acetic 3.05 8.72x10-5 the strong acid. The less concentration of H+ in
acid the acetic acid solution, the more increasing in
0.001M 4.12 6.23x10-6 the pH value.
acetic acid

Data Calculation:

Determining the Ka base on the measured pH of:

First, 0.1 M acid acetic


Initial 0.1 0 0

Change -x x x

Equilibrium 0.1-x x x

[H ][CH3COO ] x2
[CH3COOH] 0 .1 x
Thus the Ka = = = (10-2.67)2/0.1 - 10-2.67 = 4.67x10-5

Second, 0.01 M acid acetic and applying the same equation above

[H ][CH3COO ]
Thus the Ka= = (10-3.05 )2/0.01- 10-3.05 = 8.72x10-5

Third, 0.001 M acid acetic and applying the same equation above

[H ][CH3COO ]
Thus the Ka = =(10-4.12 )2/0.001- 10-4.12 = 6.23x10-6

0.001 M acid acetic 0.001 0.001 0.001

[H ][CH3COO ]
Ka= = (10-4.12 x 0.001)/0.001= 6.3 x 10-5

4. pH of SALTS:

Solution Predicted Measured Explaination

pH pH

0.1M NaCl 7 5.45 NaCl is a salt of strong acid (HCl) and a strong
base (NaOH), which makes NaCl have the
0.1M >7 7.11
neutral property and the pH value reach to 7
CH3COONa is the salt of a weak acid
0.1M NH4Cl <7 6.02
(CH3COOH) and the strong base (NaOH),
which makes this substance have the base
property and the pH value is larger than 7.

NH4Cl is the salt of a strong acid (HCl) and

the weak base (NH4OH), which makes this
substance have the acid property and the pH
value is less than 7.


The pH of the salts depend on the compound of that substance, if the compound is the strong
non-metal such as Na and the weak acid component such as CH3COO-, the pH is over 7, on the
contrary, the pH is less than 7, and if 2 components are strong acid/base, the solution becomes

5. pH of BUFFERS:

Buffer Volume (mL) Volume (mL) Acid Base Calculated Measured

0.1M 0.1M pH pH

A 10.0 40.0 0.02 0.08 5.34 5

B 40.0 10.0 0.08 0.02 4.14 3.61

C 25.0 25.0 0.05 0.05 4.47 4.35

Data Calculation:

Determining the [Acid], [Base] and the pH value:

For the mixture A:

0.001 x x (mol)


0.004 0.004 0.004 (mol)

n 0.001

V 0.01 0.04
[Acid] = [CH3COOH] = 0.02 M

n 0.004

V 0.01 0.04
[Base] = [CH3COONa] = 0.08 M

nCH3COO- = 0.004 + x 0.004 (mol)

The equilibrium constant of CH3COOH is 1.8 x 10-5

[H][CH3COO ] 0.08 x
[CH3COOH] 0.02
Ka= = = 1.8 x 10-5

=> x= 4.5x10-6 (M)

Thus the pH is pH = -log[x] = 5.34

Applying the same concept for mixture B and C

Part I: Addition of 10 drops 0.1 M HCl

Buffer pH from pH after Total volume HCl to Explanation

the start adding HCl change pH by one unit

A 5 4.63 13 mL Each buffer has the weak

base CH3COO-, it reacts
B 3.61 3.15 10 mL
with the added H+ of HCl so
C 4.35 4.21 15 mL the pH of the solution is not
decrease too much when
adding 10 drops HCl

Part II: Addition of 10 drops 0.1 M NaOH

Buffer pH from pH after Total volume NaOH to Explanation
the start adding change pH by one unit

A 5 5.15 10 mL Each buffer has the weak

acid CH3COOH, it reacts
B 3.61 3.73 16 mL with the added OH- of
NaOH so the pH of the
solution is not increase too
C 4.35 4.47 10 mL
much when adding 10
drops NaOH


Buffer A have the highest pH value because it contain more CH3COONa ( basic salt)

Buffer B have the smallest one, because it contain more CH3COOH ( acid)

pH value of buffer C is at the middle because of the same amount of CH3COONa and CH3COOH
in this solution

When we add acid HCl into the buffer, the pH value decrease because concentration of H+

On the other hand, we add base NaOH, pH increases because concentration of H+ decreases.