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III.

DATA AND DISCUSSION

1 EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION ON REACTION TIME

Reaction 1: 2I- + S2O82- I2 + 2SO42-

Reaction 2: I2 + 2S2O32- 2I- + S4O62-

Calculate the initial concentrations of I- and S2O82- ions:

Mixture # 5:

[I-] = (VI- x CM I-)/ Vtotal = (4ml x 0.2 mol)/ 25ml = 0.032 mol/L

[S2O82-] = (VS2O82- x CM S2O82-)/ Vtotal = (10ml x 0.1 mol)/25ml = 0.04 mol/L

Mixture Iodide ion (mol/L) Peroxydisulfate (mol/L) Time in seconds

1 0.08 0.04 54

2 0.068 0.04 90

3 0.056 0.04 160

4 0.044 0.04 194

5 0.032 0.04 276

6 0.02 0.04 451

7 0.08 0.034 123

8 0.08 0.028 174

9 0.08 0.022 200

10 0.08 0.016 231

11 0.08 0.01 425

Plotting the concentration of iodide ion versus time: [Note: X axis: time; Y axis:
concentrations].
- Mixtures # 1-6: Graph

Comment:

The order of reaction with respect to iodide ion followed: Mixture 1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5 > 6

If a greater concentration of reactant atoms and molecules ( concentration of Iodine ion increases
and concentration of peroxydisulfate is constant) is present, the greater chance for collisions will
occur among them. More collisions mean a higher reactions rate. Thus decreasing the
concentration of Iodine in this reactions results in lower reaction rate as well as the time for the
reaction is longer.

- Mixtures # 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11: Graph

Comments:

The order of reaction with respect to peroxydisulfate ion followed:

Mixture 1 > 7 > 8 > 9 > 10 >11

If a greater concentration of reactant atoms and molecules ( concentration of peroxydisulfate


increases and concentration of Iodine ion is constant) is present, the greater chance for collisions
will occur among them. More collisions mean a higher reactions rate. Thus decreasing the
concentration of peroxydisulfate in this reactions results in lower reaction rate as well as the time
for the reaction is longer.

2 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE REACTION RATE

Reaction System:

H2C2O4(aq) + 2KMnO4(aq) + 3H2SO4 2MnO42-(aq) + K2SO4 + 10CO2 + 8H2O

Description Predicte Observation Reaction Explanation


of conditions d time
outcome

Room The color The color 1.6s At room temperature, the


temperature changes changes from reaction occurs with the
purple to normal conditions
colorless
500C The color The color 1.4s When increasing temperature,
changes changes from the atoms and molecules of
purple to reactants are provided more
colorless energy so they move faster
and increase the collision
900C The color The color 0.9s among them. Therefore, the
changes changes from reaction rate is higher and the
purple to less time is consumed
colorless

3 EFFECT OF A CATALYST ON THE REACTION RATE

Reaction System: 2H2O2 2H2O + O2

Trial Description Predicted Observation


Explanation
of conditions outcome (Reaction rate)

1 + MnCl2 Slow Fast MnCl2 is not a catalyst for this


reaction

2 + MnO2 Very fast Very fast MnO2 is a good catalyst for this
reaction

3 + MnO

4 + NaCl Slow Slower than NaCl is not a catalyst for this


MnCl2 reaction

5 + CaCl2 Slow Faster than MnCl2 CaCl2 is not a catalyst for this
reaction

6 + Zn Slow Slow Zn is not a catalyst for this


reaction

7 + KNO3 Slow Very slow KNO3 is not a catalyst for this


reaction

8 + Fe(NO3)3 Fast Very fast Fe(NO3)3 is a good catalyst for


this reaction

Comments:
The order of catalyst activity: MnO2 > Fe(NO3)3 > CaCl2 > MnCl2 > Zn > KNO3 > NaCl

Catalyst plays role to initiates or accelerates a reaction without itself being affected by reducing
the amount of energy required to break and form a new chemical bonds. If we use the right
catalyst for the reaction, it will happens faster and less energy is used.

IV. CONCLUSION

After accessing with 3 sub-experiments above, we can know the method to examine the effect of
concentration, temperature, and catalyst on the reaction rates. Thus we will able to maintain the
reaction, speed up and slow down the reaction rate as well by adding more concentration for the
reactants or substances possibly react with the components of the reactions, increasing or
decreasing the temperature, and choosing the suitable catalyst for the reactions.