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Experiment 1: Chemical

To: Instructor: PhD Hoang Le Son

From: Do Truong Anh Thu - Student ID: BTBCIU14046

Subject: General Chemistry Laboratory

Date: October 12th, 2015

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Chemical Reactions are processes forming new substances base on breaking

chemical bonds of the initial reactants to make new ones. To study the classification of a
chemical reaction, its nature and type as well as the observed equation, the first
experiment including 8 chemical reactions and 1 flame test is dedicated to us for
achieving: Firstly, to determine whether the chemical reaction took play or not by
observing various phenomenon can be the color change, gas forming, precipitation and
also check the release of heat and light. Secondly, to identify the products and chemical
changes through five kinds of chemical reactions including synthesis, decomposition,
substituent reaction, double displacement and combustion. And finally, to study the
writing and balancing skills of experimental chemical equations, nomenclature of
inorganic substances.


A. Instruments:

This experiment generally consists of 8 chemical experiment and 1 flame test directly
arm to the purpose of the objectives. The Materials and Equipments needed to access the
whole experiments are:

- Thirty test tubes - Water bath

- One test tube rack - One looped platinum or nichrome
- Two test tube holders wire
- Two spatulas - Label
- Three 250 mL beakers - Reagents and theirs
- One stirring rod concentrations are mentioned
- One medicine dropper below in each sub-experiments
- Alcohol lamp or Busen burner

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B. Experimental Procedure:

Preparing, operating, recording the observations and follow the requirements of each below

1. Reactions of Cu2+

Prepare 3 test tubes with 10 drops of 0.5M CuSO4.

Add 10 drops 2M NaOH; 2M NH4OH; 0.5M K4[Fe(CN)6] in order.

2. Reactions of silver halides

Add 10 drops of 0.1M AgNO3 into 3 0.5M salt solution: KCl , KBr and KI.

Each test tube was divided into 2 test tubes. Therefore, we have 6 test tubes labeled #1-
3A and #1-3B.

Add 5 drops of 2M NH4OH to 3 different solutions #1-3A.

Add 5 drops of 2M KCN to 3 remain solution #1-3B.

3. Reactions of H2O2

Prepare 2 test tubes with 5 drops of 0.1M KMnO4 0.1M KI solutions.

Acidify 2 this solutions with 5 drops of 2M H2SO4 and then add 5 drops of 3% H2O2
solution. Record the change of color and the released gas.

A pinch of solid MnO2 was added into 1 ml of 3% H2O2 solution.

4. Reactions of Nitrate

A 1 ml of saturated FeSO4 was added into a test tube which had contained 1 ml of 1 M
NaNO3 solution. Sufficient amount of concentrated sulfuric acid (96%) was poured
carefully down the inside wall of this test tube. Observe and record the change of color at
the interface between the nitrate solution and the concentrated sulfuric acid after a few
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NaNO2 was substituted for FeSO4

Acetic acid was substitute for H2SO4. Record the observation and then compare with the

5. Reactions of KMnO4

Prepare 3 clean test tubes labeled from 1-3 with 10drops of 0.5M Na2SO4.

Add 5 drops of following reagents : 2M H2SO4, 6N NaOH, distilled water.

Add 5 drops of 0.1M KMnO4 to each test tubes. Observe the change

6. Reaction of Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7)

Add following reactants in order in to a test tube : 0.5M K2Cr2O7, 10 drops of 6M H2SO4, 5
drops of C2H5OH. Observe the change.

7. Reactions of Fe3+ and Fe2+

Prepare 7 test tubes with 1ml of 0.5M FeCl3.

Add 5 drops of following reagents : 0.5 M KCN, 0.1M KSCN, 2 N KOH, 0.5M
K4[Fe(CN)6], 2M NH4OH. Record the observation.

Do the same 2 steps above by replacing FeCl3 with FeSO4.

8. Reactions of Al3+

Divide 2 solutions which have 10 drops 0.5 M of Al2(SO4)3 and 5 drops 2N NaOH.

Add 10 drops of 2M HCl into test tubes 1.

Add 10 drops of 2N NaOH into test tube 2.Observe the change

9. Flame Test

The Bunsen burner was lit first.

After a looped wire was dipped into the solutions supplied, it was continue held in the
Bunsen burner flame. Flame color would be observed and recorded carefully.
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The frequency (C) and energy (E) of the photons would be calculated during the flame
tests by using the wavelengths() shown below.
Approximate Dominant Color Approximate
Dominant Color wavelength (nm) wavelength (nm)

Red 701 Green 535

Red-orange 622 Green-Blue 492

Orange 609 Blue 474

Orange-yellow 597 Blue-violet 455

Yellow 587 Violet 423

Yellow-green 577

Note: *Wavelength values were given for mid-range of the color indicated.

*The equation represents the relationship between the wavelength, frequency and the speed of an
electromagnetic wave:

*The energy per photon (in Joules) is given by the equation:

C=v Ephoton =h v

Where h is Plancks constant and h has a value of 6.626 10-34J.s

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1. Reactions of Cu2+

Reaction Observation Chemical Equation

0.5M CuSO4 The formation of blue CuSO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Cu(OH)2 +Na2SO4(aq)
precipitation and
+ 2M NaOH (Double displacement reaction)
colloidal phenomena.

0.5M CuSO4 After being formed, CuSO4 + 2NH3 + 2H2O Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4
the blue precipitation
+ 2M NH4OH Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2
dissolved and the
solution turns into => CuSO4 + 6NH3 + 2H2O (NH4)2SO4 +
dark blue color. [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2

(Double displacement reaction)

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0.5M CuSO4 Formation of brown 2CuSO4 + K4[Fe(CN)6] Cu2[Fe(CN)6] + 2K2SO4
precipitation and the
+ 0.5M (Double displacement reaction)
colloidal phenomena

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The feature of Cu2+ is it can react with OH- form a blue precipitation.

The solution Cu(OH)2 also react with NH4OH to form a complex compound so that the reaction
2 has the violet color at the end.

The last precipitate solution has red brown color because the solution is a compound consists
of Fe3+.

Double displacement reaction occurs when part of one reactant is replaced by part of another

2. Reactions of silver halides

Reaction Observation Chemical Equation

0.5M KCl + Formation of white KCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) AgCl + KNO3(aq)

0.1M AgNO3 precipitation
(Precipitation reaction)

0.5M KCl+ White precipitation, after KCl + AgNO3 AgCl + KNO3

0.1M adding NH4OH, the
AgCl + 2NH4OH(aq) [Ag(NH3)2]Cl (aq)+ 2 H2O
AgNO3+ 2M precipitation is dissolved.
NH4OH Page 8 (Complex compound forming)
0.5M KCl+ White precipitation, after KCl + AgNO3 AgCl + KNO3
0.1M adding KCN, the reaction
AgNO3+ 2M occurs quickly, the AgCl + KCN 2KAg(CN)2 + KCl
KCN precipitation completely (Complex compound forming)
dissolved and the
solution becomes

0.5M KBr Formation of brownPage 9 KBr + AgNO3 AgBr + KNO3

yellow precipitation
+ 0.1M (Precipitation reaction)
0.5M KBr+ Brown yellow KBr + AgNO3 AgBr + KNO3
0.1M AgNO3 precipitation, after
+ 2M adding NH4OH, the AgBr + 2NH4OH no reaction
NH4OH precipitation is not

0.5M KBr+ Brown yellow AgBr + KCN 2KAg (CN)2 + KBr

0.1M AgNO3 precipitation, after
+ 2M KCN adding KCN, the reaction (Complex compound forming)
occurs quickly,
precipitation completely
dissolved and the fluid
becomes colorless

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0.5M KI+ Light yellow KI + AgNO3 AgI + KNO3

0.1M AgNO3 precipitation

(Precipitation reaction)

0.5M KI+ Light yellow KI + AgNO3 AgI + KNO3

0.1M precipitation, after
AgNO3 + adding NH4OH, the AgI + NH4OH no reaction
2M NH4OH precipitation is not

0.5M KI+ Light yellow KI + AgNO3 AgI + KNO3

0.1M AgNO3 precipitation, after
+ 2M KCN adding KCN, the reaction AgI + KCN 2KAg (CN)2 + KI
occurs quickly, (Complex compound forming)
precipitation complete
dissolved and the fluid
becomes colorless

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All 3 experiments are proved the properties of silver halides, which is:

Forming precipitate when reacts with salt.

All kind of precipitate dissolved in KCN liquid and the liquid became colorless.

The Complex compound forming and precipitation reaction is determined by this experiment

3. Reactions of H2O2

Reaction Observation Chemical Equation

0.1M The solution initially has 2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 + 5H2O2 K2SO4 +

KMnO4+ violet and does not 2MnSO4 + 8H2O + 5O2
2M H2SO4+ change when adding
H2O2 H2SO4, but it becomes (oxidation-reduction reaction)
colorless when adding
H2O2 and releases heat,
releases gas

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0.1M KI+ The solution initially has 2KI + H2SO4 + H2O2 K2SO4 + 2H2O + I2
2M H2SO4+ violet and does not
H2O2 change when adding (oxidation-reduction reaction)
H2SO4, the solution turns
yellow-brown and has
purple precipitate.

H2O2+ MnO2 The black solid is not MnO2+ 2H2O2 MnO2 + O2+ 2H2O
dissolve. Releasing gas
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and heat.

H2O2 play roles as an oxidizing agent and it join in the redox reaction to exchange election,
results in changing of oxidation number.

4. Reactions of Nitrate

Reaction Observation Chemical Reaction

1M NaNO3+ The solution changes color 6FeSO4 + 2NaNO3 + 4H2SO4

FeSO4 from light green to red 3Fe2(SO4)3 + Na2SO4 + 4H2O + 2NO
+H2SO4 brown. The reaction
(96%) releases heat and smelled, NO + O2 NO2
colorless-gas, turning (redox reaction)
brown gas at interface
(NO), brown ring.

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FeSO4+ 1M The solution changes color 4NaNO2 + FeSO4 + 4H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3
NaNO2+ to brown. The reaction + 2NaSO4 + 4NO +4H2O
H2SO4 (96%) releases the gas, releases
heat, appears light brown NO + O2 NO2

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1M NaNO3+ The solution is still FeSO4 + CH3COOH + NaNO3 no
FeSO4 + colorless. reaction

Nitrate compound is the oxidizing agent and the oxidation number N atom will be reduced as the
formation of gases

First reaction: liquid is brown because it has H+ and NO3- is the oxidizing agents, so that Fe2+ was
reduced to be Fe3+ and the salt Fe3+ has brown color. However, when doing this experiment, we
did not add enough FeSO4 so that the color of the liquid did not change.

Two another reactions did not occur because they are lack of oxidizing and reducing agents.

5. Reactions of KMnO4

Reaction Observation Chemical Equation

0.5M The solution changes 5Na2SO3 + 2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 2MnSO4 +

Na2SO3+ 2M color from purple to K2SO4 + 5Na2SO4 +3H2O
H2SO4+ 0.1M transparent.
KMnO4 (redox reaction)

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0.5M The solution changes Na2SO3 + 2NaOH + 2KMnO4 K2MnO4 +
Na2SO3+ 6N color from purple to Na2SO4 + Na2MnO4 +H2O
NaOH+ 0.1M brown.
KMnO4 (redox reaction)

0.5M Na2SO3 The solution changes 3Na2SO3 + 2KMnO4 + H2O 2MnO2 +

color from purplePage
to 17 3Na2SO4 + 2KOH
+ H2O yellow-brown and
appears black (Redox reaction)

Analysis: KMnO4 is the oxidizing agent because highest oxidation number +7 of Mn

KMnO4 in acid environment is formed into salt Mn2+and K+.

KMnO4 in neutral environment is formed into MnO2 (dark brown solid) and KOH

KMnO4 in base environment is formed into K2MnO4 (brown).

6. Reaction of Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7)

Reaction Observation Chemical Equation

2M K2Cr2O7+ When pour C2H5OH 2K2Cr2O7 + 8H2SO4 + 3C2H5OH

6M H2SO4+ into the solution, it 2Cr2(SO4)3 + 3CH3COOH + 2K2SO4 +
C2H5OH changes color from 11H2O
orange to transparent,
and when pout H2SO4 (Oxidation reaction)
into the mixture, it
changes color from
transparent to dark
green. Page 18

The reaction is a oxidation of alcohol by K2Cr2O7, K2Cr2O7 is an oxidizing agent. The change in
color is an phenomenon of oxidation.

7. A. Reactions of Fe3+

Reaction Observation Chemical Equation

0.5M FeCl3+ FeCl3 + 6KCN K3[Fe(CN)6] + 3KCl
0.5M KCN Dark green precipitate
(complex compound forming reaction)

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0.5M FeCl3+
0.1M KSCN Dark red solution FeCl3 + 6KSCN K3[Fe(SCN)6] + 3KCl

(complex compound forming reaction)

0.5M FeCl3+ FeCl3 + 3KOH Fe(OH)3 + 3KCl

2M KOH Formation of brown red
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0.5M FeCl3+
0.5M Formation of dark blue 4FeCl3 + 3K4[Fe(CN)6]
K4[Fe(CN)6] precipitate and sticky
solution. Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 + 12KCl
(precipitation reaction)

0.5M FeCl3+ Page 21 FeCl3 + 3NH4OH Fe(OH)3 + 3NH4Cl

2M NH4OH Formation of red-brown
precipitate (precipitation reaction)

All these chemical reaction are to show the property of Fe3+ to form brown precipitate and
complex compound

7. B. Reactions of Fe2+

Reaction Observation Chemical Equation

0.5M FeSO4+ Green precipitate FeSO4 + 6KCN K4[Fe(CN)6] + K2SO4

0.5M KCN
(complex compound forming reaction)

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0.5M FeSO4+ Formation of red- FeSO4 + 6KSCN K4[Fe(SCN)6] + K2SO4
0.1M KSCN orange precipitate
(complex compound forming reaction)

0.5M FeSO4+ Formation of green blue FeSO4 + 2KOH Fe(OH)2 + K2SO4

2M KOH precipitate
(precipitation reaction)
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4Fe(OH)2 + 2H2O + O2 Fe(OH)3
0.5M FeSO4+ Formation of blue 2FeSO4 + K4[Fe(CN)6] Fe2[Fe(CN)6] +
0.5M precipitate 2K2SO4
(precipitation reaction)

0.5M FeSO4+ Formation of dark blue FeSO4 + 2NH4OH (NH4)2SO4 + Fe(OH)2

2M NH4OH precipitate
(precipitation reaction)
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All these chemical reaction are to show the property of Fe2+ to form brown precipitate and
complex compound

8. Reactions of Al3+

Reaction Observation Chemical Equation

Al2(SO4)3+ 2M Formation of colloidal Al2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH 3Na2SO4 +
NaOH white precipitate 2Al(OH)3
(precipitation reaction)

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Al2(SO4)3+ 2N Colloidal white Al2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH 3Na2SO4 +
NaOH+ 2M precipitate is dissolved 2Al(OH)3
HCl gradually.
2Al(OH)3 + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2O

(acid/base reaction)

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Al2(SO4)3+ 2M Colloidal white Al(OH)3 + NaOH NaAlO2 + 2H2O
NaOH+ 2M precipitate increases (complex compound forming reaction)
NaOH into maximum amount
and it is dissolved, the
solutions becomes

Analysis: All these chemical reaction are to show the property of Al3+ that have amphoteric
behavior through acid/base, precipitation and complex compound forming reactions.

9) Flame Test:

Solution Dominant flame Wave length Frequency Photon energy

color (m) (J)

LiCl Red 7.01x10-7 4.28 x 1014 2.84 x 10-19

NaCl Yellow 5.87x10-7 5.11 x 1014 3.39 x 10-19

KCl Violet 4.23x10-7 7.09 x 1014 4.70 x 10-19

CaCl2 Orange 6.09x10-7 4.93 x 1014 3.26 x 10-19

BaCl2 Yellow-green 5.77x10-7 5.20 x 1014 3.45 x 10-19

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Data Calculation

According to the formula: C= x

For the LiCl

The frequency of LiCl when hold it in the Bunsen burner flame:

= C/ = 3x108 / 701 x 10-9 = 4.28 x 1014(s-1)

The Photon energy of LiCl:

E = h x = 6.626 x 10-34 x 4.28 x 1014 = 2.84 x 10-19 (J)

Applying the same for the rest substance


A flame test is a procedure used to test qualitatively for the presence of certain metals in
chemical compounds. When the compound to be studied is excited by heating it in a flame, the
metal ions will begin to emit light. Based on the emission spectrum of the element, the
compound will turn the flame a characteristic color.


In this experiment laboratory we have chances to observe the changes in different type of
reactions and the properties of some common element as well as its role in specific reactions.
Each of types of reaction has distinct natures and it is possible to determine through the changes
after the reaction occurs and theoretically equations.

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