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Nama : Aruan Dedy Yosef

NPM : 0115101371 KLS : B (ERP)


System-Wide Concepts Lesson Overview

This lesson focuses on the system-wide concepts that underlie the SAP system. These concepts,
organizational elements, master data, and transactions, are the basic elements designed and
utilized to represent a company's enterprise structure and business processes within the SAP
system. Following are brief descriptions of the concepts that will be discussed in more detail in
this lesson.

Organizational Elements

A company's enterprise structure is mapped to SAP applications using organizational elements.

Master Data

Created centrally and available to all applications and all authorized users, master data also has
an organizational aspect because its information is organized into views that are assigned to
organizational elements.


Transactions are application programs that execute business processes in the SAP system.
Examples include create sales order, change customer master, or display a sales order's list

Business Example

Processes within a company generally take place across departmental boundaries. In global
companies, these processes take place across national and company boundaries. The long-term
success of IDES AG, is dependent on collaboration with business partners and a global outlook.
IDES wants new orders from customers entered into the SAP system with minimal data entry
and maximum data accuracy. IDES must also have a record of all transactions.
Organizational Elements


The client is the highest-level element of all organizational elements; it represents the
enterprise/headquarters group.

Company Code

The company code is a legal independent accounting unit representing the central organizational
element of financial accounting.


A plant can manufacture product, distribute product, or provide a service; it is the central
organizational unit of production.

Storage Location

Material stocks in Inventory Management can be differentiated within one plant according to
storage location.

Sales organization

The sales organization is the central organizational element in sales order management that
controls the terms of sale to the customer.

Distribution Channel

Distribution channels can be used to define how different products reach consumers, for
example, wholesale.

Organizational Unit

Organizational units describe the various business units that exist in an enterprise. Often units are
loosely defined as functional or regional departments.

Positions are the individual employee assignments in the enterprise.

System-Wide Master Data Concepts

In SAP, master data is created centrally and available to all applications and all authorized users.
Centrally stored master data means data records are always consistent, up-to-date, and free of
redundancy. Master data also has an organizational aspect because its information is organized
into views that are assigned to organizational elements. The three-part structure of master records
makes it possible to flexibly depict the various organizational structures of an operation.
Integrating all of the corresponding data (such as customer or material) into one single database
object means that the problem of data redundancy is not an issue and data integrity is enhanced.
All areas can use the stored data, including sales, purchasing, inventory management, materials
planning, invoice verification, finance, and human resources.

Customer master

A customer master contains key information that defines the business relationship between a
company and its customer. Company code data controls the posting procedure and subsequent
processing, such as payments and dunning. Sales organization data provides information on
customers for support execution of such business processes as entering sales orders, shipping,
billing, and processing payment. The customer master's "three-part structure" is represented by:

1. General Data: This data is equally relevant to every company code and every sales
organization within a company.

2. Data for Company Codes: This data reflects company-specific agreements with the customer.

3. Data for Sales: This data has different characteristics for a company's sales organizations and

Material Master

The material master contains all of the key information a company needs to manage a material
within its organization. The material master defines, among other things, how a product is sold,
manufactured, purchased, inventoried, accounted, and costed. The information in the material
master is grouped into views that are organized by business function.

Personnel File

Personnel files are master data records used primarily mySAP ERP Human Capital Management.
These master records follow the same basic three-part structure, as do other master records. The
organizational elements used by mySAP HCM are unique and, as a group, they are referred to as
Organizational Management. The functions of Organizational Management enable you to
quickly and efficiently map your current organizational and reporting structure with its
organizational objects - organizational units, jobs, positions, and tasks.

Organizational Units

describe the various business units that exist in your enterprise. Multiple organizational units and
their relationships form the organizational structure. Organizational units can be loosely defined
as functional or regional departments, or as project groups, depending on the type of


Jobs serve as descriptions, or templates, that apply to several positions with similar
requirements, tasks, or other characteristics.


Positions are the individual employee assignments in the enterprise. Persons occupy positions. A
position inherits a job's characteristics, but you can also define additional characteristics specific
to that position. Whereas positions are concrete and can be occupied by holders (for example,
administrative assistant in the marketing department), jobs are general classifications of
functions in an organization (for example, administrative assistant), that are defined by the
characteristics assigned to them. Job descriptions apply to several different positions with similar

Persons hold positions within the organizational structure. Persons represent employees in your


Transactions are application programs that execute business processes in the SAP system.
Whenever possible, master data is copied during transaction processing, thus avoiding re-entry of
data. For example, when executing the transaction Create Sales Order, the user must enter the
customer master number; this copy is in all of the relevant customer information. Likewise, once
the material master numbers are entered for the items being ordered, the relevant material data
will be copied into the sales order. In addition, when performing each transaction, applicable
organizational elements must be entered. For example, by specifying the sales organization
information, the appropriate sales group is given credit for the sales activity; similarly, the
designation of the plant/storage location determines product sourcing. Whenever a transaction is
executed in the system, a document is created. That document, a data record of the transaction,
contains all of the relevant predefined information from the master data and organizational