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Part 3:

PowerFrame
Wind & snow loads
generators
(Eurocode 1)
BuildSoft nv

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The programs described in this manual are subject to copyright by BuildSoft.


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Although BuildSoft has tested the programs described in this manual and has
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purpose. The entire risk as to the results and performance of the programs,
and as to the information contained in the manual, lies with the end-user.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 2


1 Table of contents
1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................... 3
2 WIND LOADS GENERATOR ............................................................................ 4
2.1 WIND LOADS GENERATOR ( EC 1) ....................................................................... 4
2.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 4
2.1.2 General principles ..................................................................................... 4
2.1.2.1 Application limitations .............................................................................................................................................4
2.1.2.2 Wind direction ..........................................................................................................................................................4
2.1.2.3 Wind load cases ........................................................................................................................................................5
2.1.2.4 Wind velocity ...........................................................................................................................................................5
2.1.2.5 Reference wind pressure qref .....................................................................................................................................6
2.1.2.6 Wind pressure on surfaces ........................................................................................................................................7
2.1.2.7 Exposure coefficient ce(z).........................................................................................................................................7
2.1.2.8 Roughness coefficient cr(z).......................................................................................................................................8
2.1.2.9 Topography coefficient ct(z).....................................................................................................................................9
2.1.2.10 Example ...............................................................................................................................................................9
2.1.2.11 Dynamic coefficient (Cd)....................................................................................................................................10
2.1.2.12 External pressure coefficient (Cpe) .....................................................................................................................10
2.1.2.12.1 External pressure coefficient Cpe for vertical walls.........................................................................................10
2.1.2.12.2 External pressure coefficient Cpe for roofs......................................................................................................13
2.1.2.13 Internal pressure coefficient (Cpi) .......................................................................................................................14
2.1.3 Examples..................................................................................................15
2.1.4 Country-specific maps and values...........................................................21
2.1.4.1 Direction factor (Belgium)......................................................................................................................................21
2.1.4.2 Maps .......................................................................................................................................................................22
2.1.4.2.1 The Netherlands................................................................................................................................................23
2.1.4.2.2 France ...............................................................................................................................................................24

3 SNOW LOADS GENERATOR..........................................................................24


3.1 SNOW LOADS GENERATOR (EC1) ......................................................................24
3.1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................24
3.1.2 General principles ...................................................................................25
3.1.2.1 Snow load on the ground (sk)..................................................................................................................................25
3.1.2.2 Snow load on roofs (s) ............................................................................................................................................25
3.1.2.3 Snow load cases......................................................................................................................................................25
3.1.2.4 Snow loads on snowguards and obstacles...............................................................................................................25
3.1.3 Examples..................................................................................................26
3.1.3.1 Example 1...............................................................................................................................................................26
3.1.3.2 Other examples .......................................................................................................................................................29
3.1.4 Maps ........................................................................................................31
3.1.4.1 Austria ....................................................................................................................................................................31
3.1.4.2 Belgium ..................................................................................................................................................................32
3.1.4.3 Denmark .................................................................................................................................................................32
3.1.4.4 Finland....................................................................................................................................................................32
3.1.4.5 France .....................................................................................................................................................................33
3.1.4.6 Germany .................................................................................................................................................................34
3.1.4.7 Greece.....................................................................................................................................................................35
3.1.4.8 Italy.........................................................................................................................................................................36
3.1.4.9 Luxemburg .............................................................................................................................................................37
3.1.4.10 The Netherlands .................................................................................................................................................37
3.1.4.11 Portugal ..............................................................................................................................................................37
3.1.4.12 Spain ..................................................................................................................................................................37
3.1.4.13 Sweden ...............................................................................................................................................................39
3.1.4.14 Switzerland.........................................................................................................................................................39
3.1.4.15 United Kingdom.................................................................................................................................................41

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 3


2 Wind loads generator
2.1 Wind loads generator ( EC 1)
2.1.1 Introduction
PowerFrame includes several wind loads generators corresponding to
different Standards (EC1, NBN 1991-2-4, BS 6399, NV 65, NEN 6702). This
part of the manual deals with the generation of wind loads as per Eurocode 1.
This document is not a substitute to this Standard, but provides a better
insight on the effective use of PowerFrames wind loads generator.

2.1.2 General principles


2.1.2.1 Application limitations
The application of the wind loads generator has only one limitation related
directly to the prescriptions of Eurocode 1.

Eurocode 1 is not applicable to buildings characterized by a dynamic


coefficient (Cd) exceeding the value of 1.2. The dynamic coefficient Cd takes
into account the reduction effects due to the lack of correlation of pressures
over large surfaces as well as the increasing effects due to the frequency
content of turbulence close to the fundamental frequency of the structure. It
depends on the overall dimensions and the type of structure (steel, timber,
concrete,...). For instance, a reinforced concrete building not higher than 100
meter or a steel construction lower than 35 meter have a dynamic coefficient
Cd lower than or equal to 1. The dynamic coefficient of a building can be
obtained using the diagram given in section 9 of Eurocode 1 part 2-4, or
through the application of the formula given in annex B of Eurocode 1 part 2-
4.

The wind loads generators as implemented in PowerFrame are applicable to


buildings, and are not necessarily appropriate for other types of structures, as
eg. bridges,

2.1.2.2 Wind direction


The Eurocode proposes a method to model the effects of wind blowing
perpendicular to the vertical surfaces of a building. PowerFrame will enable to
generate wind loads over planes parallel to the XY and ZY planes.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 4


2.1.2.3 Wind load cases
PowerFrame allows to generate wind loads in case wind acts from the left to
the right, or from the right to the left. In addition, EC1 specifies 2 possibilities
for each case, related to the angle between the wind direction and the
horizontal plane (?15). In other words, PowerFrame allows to handle both
upward or downward winds. Normally, a building should be able to resist
wind loads in all possible cases.

2.1.2.4 Wind velocity


The reference wind velocity vref is defined as 10 minutes mean wind velocity,
at a height of 10 meter above ground level on a terrain of category II (see
further for more background information), having a mean return period of 50
years.

It shall be determined from

v ref ? C DIR ? CTEM ? C ALT ? v ref , 0

where
vref,0 : basic value of reference wind velocity;
CDIR : direction factor (taking into account wind direction);
CTEM : reduction factor for temporary or provisional structures.CTEM
= 1, unless otherwise specified in annex A of Eurocode 1
part 2-4
CALT : altitude factor (taking into account the altitude of the building
location).

The values of above parameters are specified for each country and each
region:

? in Belgium, vref,0 is fixed at 26.2 m/s, CTEM and CALT both equal 1. A
table defines CDIR as a function of wind direction. CDIR = 1 for winds
blowing from the North, West or South but varies between 1 and 0.837
for wind directions between North and East, and between East and
South.

? in the Netherlands, a distinction is made between 3 regions for which


the basic reference wind velocity is 25.0, 27.5 and 30 m/s. The 3
regions are illustrated on the map included in the Country-specific maps
and values. section. The parameters CDIR, CTEM and CALT are all equal
to 1.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 5


? in Luxemburg, vref,0 is taken equal to 26.0 m/s. CDIR, CTEM and CALT are
all equal to 1.

? In France, 4 zones are specified for which different basic reference


wind velocities are applicable (24.0, 26.0, 28.0, 30.5 m/s). The zones
are defined as shown on the map in this manuals section Country-
specific maps and values. The parameters CDIR, CTEM and CALT are all
equal to 1.

? Germany is divided in 4 zones in which the basic reference wind


velocity varies between 24.3 and 31.5 m/s. In zones 1 and 2, for which
the average wind velocity is relatively low, the CALT coefficient is to be
used for all constructions located at an altitude of more than 800 meter.
o In zone 1, CALT = 0.65 + altitude /2270 for an altitude ranging from
800 to 1100 meter. Above an altitude of 1100 meter,
measurements are required to determine the appropriate value for
CALT.
o In zone 2, measurements are required for altitudes from 800
meter onwards.
For buildings designed for a life time of max. 4 years, a reduction of the
design wind pressures is allowed and can be introduced through the
factor CTEM.

Should parameters referring to other countries be required, please check


Eurocode Part 2-4 Annex A.

2.1.2.5 Reference wind pressure qref


The reference wind pressure qref, expressed in N/m2, is calculated as:

? ? v ref
2

q ref ?
2

where
vref : reference wind velocity in m/s
? : air density in kg/m3. Air density is affected by the altitude and
depends on the temperature and pressure to be expected in the
considered region during wind storms. Unless otherwise specified
in annex A of Eurocode 1 part 2-4, the value of ? shall be taken
equal to 1.25 kg/m3.

For instance: in Belgium, the reference wind pressure is equal to 429 N/m2 in
case CALT = CTEM = CDIR = 1.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 6


2.1.2.6 Wind pressure on surfaces
The net value of the wind pressure on a surface corresponds to the difference
between the external and internal pressure on this surface.

The wind pressure acting on the external surfaces of a structure (we) is given
by:

we ? q ref ? ce ( z e ) ? C pe

where
qref: reference wind pressure;
ce(ze): exposure coefficient;
cpe: external pressure coefficient.

The wind pressure acting on the internal surfaces of a structure (wi) is given
by:

wi ? q ref ? ce ( z i ) ? C pi

where
qref: reference wind pressure;
ce(zi): exposure coefficient;
cpi: internal pressure coefficient.

2.1.2.7 Exposure coefficient ce(z)


The exposure factor ce(z) takes into account the impact of several parameters
on the average wind velocity. For example : terrain characteristics, presence
or absence of obstacles, topography and height above ground level. This
factor can be derived from the following formula:

? 7 ? kT ?
ce ( z ) ? c r2 ( z ) ? ct2 ( z ) ? ?1 ? ?
? c r ( z ) ? ct ( z ) ?

where kT: terrain factor (see table below) ;


cr(z) roughness coefficient (see section Roughness coefficient
cr(z) of this manual) ;
ct(z) topography coefficient (see section Topography coefficient
ct(z) of this manual).

Following terrain categories are considered :

I rough open sea, lakes with at least 5 km fetch upwind and smooth flat
country without obstacles.
PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 7
II farmland with boundary hedges, occasional small farm structures,
houses or trees.

III suburban or industrial areas and permanent forests.

IV urban areas in which at least 15% of the surface is covered by buildings


having a height exceeding 15 meter.

The parameters kT, z0 and zmin are defined as a function of the following
terrain categories :

Terrain category kT z0 zmin


[m] [m]
I 0.17 0.01 2
II 0.19 0.05 4
III 0.22 0.3 8
IV 0.24 1 16

The parameters z0 and zmin (minimum height) allow to determine the


roughness coefficient cr(z).

2.1.2.8 Roughness coefficient cr(z)


cr(z) , as a function of height z, is given by:

?z?
cr ( z ) ? kT ? ln?? ?? ( zmin ? z ? 200m)
? z0 ?

?z ?
cr ( z ) ? cr ( zmin ) ? kT ? ln?? min ?? ( z ? zmin )
? z0 ?

Calculation example cr(z):

Consider a terrain of category III on which a 4 meter high building will


be erected. Based on the previous table, it is derived that:
kT = 0.22
z0 = 0.3m
zmin = 8m

The height z is equal to 4m and is thus lower than the minimum height.

Thus:
PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 8
cr(z) = cr(zmin) = cr(8) = 0.22 * ln(8/0.3) = 0.722

2.1.2.9 Topography coefficient ct(z)


The topography coefficient ct(z) accounts for the increase of the mean wind
speed over isolated hills and escarpments (not undulating and mountainous
regions). It is related to the wind velocity at the base of the hill or
escarpment. It shall be considered for locations closer than half the length of
the hill slope from the crest or 1,5 times the height of the cliff. It is defined by:

ct = 1 in case ? < 0.05


ct = 1 + 2 . s . ? in case 0.05 < ? < 0.3
ct = 1 + 0.6 . s in case ? > 0.3
where

s: a factor derived from diagrams 8.1 & 8.2 of EC1, part 2-4
?: upwind slope of terrain in wind direction [%].

2.1.2.10 Example
Hypotheses: Terrain of category III, situated in Belgium.
Construction height and length: 1 meter.

Suppose the construction is situated on top of a hill which is 30 m high, and


has a slope of 30% in all directions.

Calculation of wind pressure:

? the roughness coefficient cr(z) has the same value as in the previous
example :

KT = 0.22
cr(z) = 0.722

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 9


? topography coefficient ct(z):

? = 0.3
Le = Lu = 100m
Z/Le = 0.3

Diagram 8.2 of the Eurocode shows s = 0.5, which finally yields to


ct(z) = 1.3

? exposure coefficient ce(z)

ce(z) = 2.328

Hence, the wind pressure on the vertical surface at the left hand side in the
above picture is equal to:

2.328 x 429 = 999N/m2.

2.1.2.11 Dynamic coefficient (Cd)


The pressure calculated in accordance with the principles outlined above, still
needs to be multiplied by a factor cd, to take into account the possible risk of
a dynamic excitation of the structure. The dynamic coefficient of a building
can be obtained using the diagram given in section 9 of Eurocode 1 part 2-4,
or through the application of the formula given in annex B of Eurocode 1 part
2-4.

2.1.2.12 External pressure coefficient (Cpe)


2.1.2.12.1 External pressure coefficient Cpe for
vertical walls
Cpe for buildings and individual parts of buildings depends on the size of the
loaded area A:

Cpe,1 in case the loaded area A is smaller than or equal to 1m2

Cpe,10 in case the loaded area A is larger than or equal to 10 m2

Cpe = Cpe,1 + (Cpe,10 Cpe,1) . log10A,

in case the loaded area A is larger than 1 m2 but smaller than 10 m2.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 10


The value of Cpe also depends on the ratio d/h, where d corresponds to the
depth of the building (in the wind direction) and h corresponds to the height of
the building.

The table below shows the values that correspond to the front and rear
vertical walls of a rectangular building:

Zone D E
d/h Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1
?1 0.8 1 -0.3
?4 0.6 1 -0.3

In case the ratio d/h is between 1 and 4, the values of Cpe are obtained by
interpolation.

In the previously presented example, the wind pressure on the vertical walls
can now be calculated.

? wind pressure on front wall (windward side):

429 x 1.634 X 1.0 = 701 N/m2

? wind pressure on rear wall (leeward side):

429 x 1.634 x (-0.3) = -210 N/m2.

Using the same hypotheses as in the previous example, assume a


construction of 4 meter high. The surface exposed to the wind is thus 4m2.

Cpe = Cpe,1 + (Cpe,10 Cpe,1) . log10A

= 1.0 + (0.8 1.0) . log104 = 0.880

? wind pressure on front wall (windward side):

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 11


429 x 1.634 X 0.880 = 616 N/m2

? wind pressure on rear wall (leeward side):

429 x 1.634 x (-0.3) = -210 N/m2.

Again using the same hypotheses, considering a building with a depth of 2


meter in the direction of the wind:

d/h = 2

The value of Cpe,10 is obtained through interpolation:

Cpe,10 = 0.8 0.2/3 = 0.733

Cpe = Cpe,1 + (Cpe,10 Cpe,1) . log10A


= 1.0 + (0.733 1.0) . log104
= 0.840

? wind pressure on front wall (windward side):

429 x 1.634 X 0.840 = 589 N/m2

? wind pressure on rear wall (leeward side):

429 x 1.634 x (-0.3) = -210 N/m2.

Note: the reference heigt ze for walls of rectangular buildings depends on the
aspect ratio h/b (height over width):
? buildings whose height h is less than b shall be considered to be one
part
? buildings whose height h is larger than b but less than 2b, shall be
considered to be of 2 parts, comprising: a lower part extending upwards
from the ground to a height equal to b and an upper part
? buildings whose height h is larger than 2b shall be considered to be in
multiple parts, comprising: a lower part extending upwards from the
ground to a height equal to b; an upper part extending downwards from
the top by a height equal to b and a middle region, between the upper
and lower parts, divided into as many horizontal strips as desired,each
one with a maximum height of b.
PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 12
2.1.2.12.2 External pressure coefficient Cpe for
roofs
The Eurocode considers two different types of roof. Hereafter, the calculation
of the external wind pressure will be discussed and presented in detail for 2
specific roof types. It should be outlined that PowerFrame can handle other
types of roof than those discussed hereafter, in order to meet the Eurocode
requirements as closely as possible.

2.1.2.12.2.1 Flat roof


All roofs with a slope smaller than 4% are qualified as flat roofs. A flat roof
can be divided in different zones, as outlined in the plan view given below :

The parameter e is the minimum of 2h and b, h being the height of the flat
roof above ground level.

The factors given in the following table apply to the different zones indicated
in the above diagram :

Zone f g h i

Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1

Sharp eaves -1.8 -2.5 -1.2 -2.0 -0.7 -1.2 ? 0.2

With Hp/h = 0.025 -1.6 -2.2 -1.1 -1.8 -0.7 -1.2 ? 0.2
parapets Hp/h = 0.05 -1.4 -2.0 -0.9 -1.6 -0.7 -1.2 ? 0.2
Hp/h = 0.1 -1.2 -1.8 -0.8 -1.4 -0.7 -1.2 ? 0.2

The values of Cpe in zone i can be positive or negative. Therefore, 2 cases


need to be considered (corresponding to positive pressure and suction).

An example will be presented further in this manual.

2.1.2.12.2.2 Duopitch roof

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 13


A duopitch roof can be divided in different zones, as presented in the diagram
below:

The height ze = h is the height above ground level of the highest point of the
roof (roof crest). The parameter e is the minimum of 2h and b.

For a wind blowing in the direction of the roof slope, the values of Cpe can be
derived from the table below:

Zone f g h i j

Slope Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1

5 -1.7 -2.5 -1.2 -2.0 -0.6 -1.2 -0.3 -0.3


15 -0.9 -2.0 -0.8 -1.5 -0.3 -0.4 -1.0 -1.5
0.2 0.2 0.2
30 -0.5 -1.5 -0.5 -1.5 -0.2 -0.4 -0.5
0.7 0.7 0.4
45 0.7 0.7 0.6 -0.2 -0.3
60 0.7 0.7 0.7 -0.2 -0.3
75 0.7 0.8 0.8 -0.2 -0.3

An example will be presented further in this manual.

2.1.2.13 Internal pressure coefficient (Cpi)


The theoretical background given below can easily be understood by using
PowerFrames dialogue window related to the internal pressure
coefficient.The user is to select the corresponding case in the dialogue
window to directly view the value of Cpi .

Eurocode 1 part 2-4 considers several cases.

? The first case relates to nearly square buildings, characterized by a


homogeneous distribution of openings. In this case, Cpi is equal to
0.25.

? The second case corresponds to closed buildings with internal


partitions, and opening windows. In this case, Cpi is to be taken equal to
0.8 or 0.5. Both possibilities have to be considered.
PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 14
? The third case includes all situations not covered by the first and
second case described above. First, the opening ratio needs to be
determined as follows:

Taking into account the area of temporary openings, 2 values for


need to be determined (a maximum value and a minimum value).

Once both limit values have been determined, the graph below should
be used to derive the related value of Cpi :

Consequently, 2 values are obtained for Cpi. Both of them must be


considered during the calculation of wind pressure.

2.1.3 Examples
The use of PowerFrames wind loads generator will now be explained through
a number of practical examples.

First, the user defines the model geometry and boundary conditions as he
usually does in PowerFrame. Then, the user selects the contour of the frame
on which the wind load is to be defined, and should keep in mind that the
selected frame must always be in one plane, either parallel to the XY- or
the XZ-plane.

The user will then focus on the 2D frame contour as shown below :

Column height : 4m
Total height : 8m
Frame width: 16m

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 15


This frame is part of a larger model, representing a structure with a total
length of 18 meter and a distance of 6 meter between the frames.

In the Loads-window, the user first selects the appropriate load group in the
icon toolbox before starting the definition of the wind loads. He should check
that the frame shown above has been properly selected, and will then notice
that the icon has become active.

Using the icon, the following dialogue window will appear on the screen :

At this point, PowerFrame offers the user a choice between different


Standards. In the context of this manual, the Eurocode 1 will be used.
Confirming the selection of Eurocode 1, the following dialogue will appear on
the screen:

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 16


The user first starts to specify whether the wind blows from left to right or from
right to left. He will notice that a possible choice exists between an upward or
downward wind. The external pressure coefficients can effectively change
depending on this condition. The structure needs to be analyzed for both
conditions.

The external pressure coefficients do depend on the position of the selected


frame within the whole building. The Eurocode makes a difference between
the frames that can be considered as located in the middle of the building, at
the front side or at the rear side. For example, a frame with a duopitch roof is
considered to be at the edge of the building, if its distance D from the edge
meets the following condition :

D < 0.25 * min (2H , B), where


? B: width of the building (in the direction of the wind)
? H: height of the building

In the case of a canopy roof, a frame is considered to be at the edge if the


distance D between the edge and the frame meets the following condition:

D < 0.1 L, where


? L: length of the building exposed to the wind
PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 17
The next entry in the dialogue window allows to specify the width of the
building or that part of the building to be analyzed. When the building consists
of 2 blocks with different dimensions, it is recommended that both blocks be
considered separately when using the wind loads generator, defining the
width to be equal to the width of the part the user is currently working on.

The distance between frames needs to be indicated in the line below. This
distance is actually used to define the roof surface that will transmit wind
loads to the frame. The user should therefore remember to divide the actual
distance by a factor 2 for both end frames.

The dynamic coefficient is filled in in the next editor field. The user is to refer
to section 9 of Eurocode 1 part 2-4, or to annex B of Eurocode 1 part 2-4 for
more information.

In the open dialogue window, two buttons allow to open secondary dialogue
boxes. First, the user has to click on to open the dialogue box
below:

The user should now enter the terrain parameters as specified in the first part
of this manual. ce(z), ct(z) and cr(z) will be calculated automatically using the
values the user has entered in the dialogue window.

At this stage, to have a good understanding of the considered example, the


user should fill in the dialogue tab as shown in the above figure.

Using the button, the user has to go back to the main dialogue
window and then click on the button to open the dialogue
window shown below:

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 18


This dialogue window helps to choose the most appropriate internal pressure
coefficient depending on the effective frontal area of the structure. The user
will continuously see in this dialogue window the value of Cpi depending on
the selection that has been made and on the values that have been defined.
Indeed, the current value is always shown in the field at the bottom of the
dialogue window, corresponding to the option User-defined value.

For this example, the user fills in the dialogue tab as shown above.

Using the button, he then returns to the main dialogue window and
checks that all parameters have been defined as shown previously. The
following results will then be displayed:

Should the internal pressure coefficient Cpi have not been considered, the
pressure distribution would be:

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 19


A second example looks into the calculation of Cpe in case of a building with a
flat roof. The global procedure being the same as the one outlined in the
previous example, the user now considers Cpi to be equal to zero (by
selecting the option : Do not take internal pressures into account).

Height: 5m
Width : 8m

The frame is 5 meter high and 8 meter wide. It is part of a construction with a
total length of 18 meter, and frames every 6 meter.

In this case, the results are:

These results can easily be verified manually using the information that was
previously given in the Eurocode.

In the last example, a canopy roof will be handled.

In this particular case, the user will have only to select the roof girders to
define the wind loads, as the open walls will of course take no wind load.
Users selection will thus look as follows:

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 20


As a result, two important changes in the dialogues will be noticed. The first
change will be observed in the main dialogue window of the wind loads
generator. An extra editor field will request to define the height above ground
level of the lower roof edge. The second change is related to the internal
pressure coefficient, as this coefficient no longer needs to be defined
(Eurocode 1 part 2-4 directly specifies the net pressure coefficients). Indeed,
if the user presses the button Internal pressure , he will get the following
message:

If the user proceeds to the calculation of wind pressure, having defined all
parameters as in the previous example and specified a total height of 6
meter, the following results will be displayed:

2.1.4 Country-specific maps and values


2.1.4.1 Direction factor (Belgium)

Direction Direction factor


0 (North) 1.0
22.5 1.0

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 21


37.75 0.949
45 0.894
56.25 0.837
90 (East) 0.894
120 0.894
150 0.949
180 (South) 1.0
270 (West) 1.0
For intermediate directions,
interpolate between the given
values.

2.1.4.2 Maps

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 22


2.1.4.2.1 The Netherlands

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 23


2.1.4.2.2 France

3 Snow loads generator


3.1 Snow loads generator (EC1)
3.1.1 Introduction
PowerFrame includes several snow loads generators corresponding to
different Standards (EC1, NBN ENV 1991-2-3, BS 6399 Part 3, N 84, NV 65,
NEN 6702). This part of the manual is dedicated to the generation of snow
loads based on Eurocode 1 part 2-3. This document is not a substitute to this
Standard, but is aimed at providing a better insight on the effective use of
PowerFrames snow loads generator.
PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 24
3.1.2 General principles
3.1.2.1 Snow load on the ground (sk)
The snow load on the ground is the reference value to be taken into account
for the calculation of the snow load on roofs. This reference snow load
depends on the geographical position and the altitude of the building.
Eurocode 1 part 2-3 annex A gives characteristic values for the snow load on
the ground for most of the European countries.

3.1.2.2 Snow load on roofs (s)


The snow load on a roof shall be determined using the following formula:

s ? ? i ? C e ? Ct ? s k

where

? i: snow load shape coefficient, function of the type of roof


Ce : exposure coefficient (generally taken equal to 1) ;
Ct : thermal coefficient (for normal standards of thermal insulation,
taken equal to 1. A reduction in the snow load on the roof may be
permitted by the introduction of values of the thermal coefficient
smaller than 1, to take account of the effect of heat loss through
the roof).

The snow load is assumed to act vertically and shall refer to the horizontal
projection of the area of the roof. ? i is determined automatically by
PowerFrame, using section 7 of Eurocode 1 part 2-3 concerning snow on
buildings.

3.1.2.3 Snow load cases


The Eurocode specifies different snow load situations depending on the type
of roof. PowerFrame schematizes those situations by means of sketches. As
a result, the user can easily see all possible load situations by going through
the example that is presented further in this manual.

3.1.2.4 Snow loads on snowguards and


obstacles
The Eurocode does not specify any change in snow loads depending on the
presence or absence of snowguards. Nevertheless, a formula is given to
PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 25
determine the force exerted by a sliding mass of snow in the direction of the
slope, per unit width .

F ? s ? b ? sin ?

where :

? s: snow load on the roof


? ? : roof pitch measured from the horizontal
? b: distance on plan from the guard or obstacle to the ridge.

This force is not considered or calculated by PowerFrame. If the user wants


to account for those forces in the PowerFrame model, they need to be
introduced manually in the model.

Note : PowerFrames snow loads generator has not been designed for
cylindrical roofs. Therefore, it will not always produce snow loads which
comply completely with the Eurocode standard for those types of roof.
Nevertheless, by selecting the most frequent load cases, the user will be able
to obtain appropriate snow load models.

3.1.3 Examples
3.1.3.1 Example 1
In this section, the snow loads generator will be further explained through a
practical example. The snow loads generator only becomes available in the
icon toolbox of the Loads-window after a frame contour has been selected.
This frame contour should be in a (vertical) plane parallel to the XY- or XZ-
plane.

The following frame contour will be considered.

Column height: 5m
Total height: 8m
Frame width: 10m

To apply the snow loads generator, it is not necessary that the boundary
conditions or cross-section properties have been designed already. The user
should go to the Loads-window and be certain to select a load group with the

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 26


appropriate load factors. He should then select the frame contour, and the
icon becomes active, and then click on the icon to make the following
dialogue window appear:

Eurocode 1 is then to be selected by the user to launch the actual snow loads
generator.

It should be noted that in the dialogue tab which comes up, PowerFrame will
present the frame contour that is considered, as a confirmation of then users
selection.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 27


The first line allows to define the width of the building on which snow loads
are applied and transferred to the selected frame.

The snow load on the ground (sk) is to be defined manually to allow the use of
the snow loads generator in as many countries as possible. Please refer to
annex 1 of this manual or to annex A of Eurocode 1 to get more information
on the most appropriate value of sk .

Eurocode specifies the concentrated loads to take into account the effect of
snow overhanging the edge of a roof. By selecting or unselecting the option in
the dialogue tab, this can be taken into account.
The thermal coefficient and the exposure coefficient can be taken equal to 1
as a default. However, in particular situations, different values can be used.
Please refer to Eurocode 1.

Finally, at the bottom of the dialogue window, a button is available for the
selection of the most appropriate load situation. This button gives access to
the following scheme, from which the most relevant situation can be selected:

In general, the design standard requires the building to be able to support all
possible cases. Once the load case has been selected, the user is to return
to the main dialogue, and confirm to get results as shown in the figure below
(distributed loads are shown in Newton/meter).

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 28


3.1.3.2 Other examples
Finally, additional examples are presented, which can be set up very similarly
to the first example.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 29


A final example relates to the situation in which snow overhangs the edge of
a cantilever roof. The load due to the overhang will be assumed to act along
the edge of the roof and will be introduced as a concentrated load on the
frame, as clearly shown in the figure below

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 30


3.1.4 Maps
3.1.4.1 Austria

Zone A
Altitude(m) < 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
sk (kN/m2) 0.75 0.85 1.00 1.20 1.45 1.75 2.10 2.55 3.00 3.50 4.05

Zone B
Altitude(m) < 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
sk (kN/m2) 1.55 1.55 1.60 1.75 2.00 2.30 2.65 3.10 3.65 4.25 4.95

Zone C
Altitude(m) < 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
sk (kN/m2) - - 2.15 2.35 2.70 3.10 3.60 4.20 4.95 5.75 6.65

Zone D
Altitude(m) < 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
sk (kN/m2) - - - - 1.00 1.20 1.45 1.75 2.10 2.50 3.00

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 31


3.1.4.2 Belgium
The characteristic snow load on the ground is to be calculated using the
formulae below:

sk = 0.50 (kN/m2) altitude (m) A ? 100


sk = 0.50 + 0.007(A 100)/6 (kN/m2) altitude (m) 100 < A ? 700

3.1.4.3 Denmark
The characteristic snow load on the ground is sk = 1.0 kN/m2.

3.1.4.4 Finland

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 32


3.1.4.5 France

Zones
1A 1B 2A 2B 3 4
2
sk (kN/m ) 0.45 0.45 0.55 0.55 0.65 0.90
sA (kN/m2) - 1.00 1.00 1.35 1.35 1.80

Zone 1A: Aisne, Ardennes, Aube, Calvados, Charente-Maritime, Cher, Cte


dOr, Ctes dAmor, Eure, Eure-et-Loire, Finistre, Ile et Viliane, Indre, Indre-
et-Loire, Loi-et-Cher, Loire-Atlantique, Loiret, Maine-et-Loire, Manche, Marne,
Haute-Marne, Mayenne, Meurthe-et-Moselle*, Meuse, Morbihan, Moselle*,
Nivre, Nord, Oise, Orne, Pas-de-Calais, Sarthe, Seine-Maritime, Deux-
Svres, Somme, Vende, Vienne, Vosges*, Yonne.
Rgion Ile-de-France: Ville de Paris, Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines,
Essonne, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, Val dOise.

Zone 1B: Allier, Alpes-Maritimes, Bouches-du-Rhne, Cantal, Corrze,


Haute-Corse, Corse-Sud, Creuse, Dordogne, Haute-Garonne, Gers, Gironde,
Landes, Lot, Lot-et-Garonne, Puy-de-Dme, Pyrnes-Atlantiques, Hautes-
Pyrnes, Sane-et-Loire*, Tarn-et-Garonne, Var*, Haute-Vienne.

Zone 2A: Ain, Alpes-Hautes-Provence, Hautes-Alpes, Arige, Aveyron,


Doubs, Jura, Loire, Haute-Loire, Lozre, Meurthe-et-Moselle*, Moselle*, Bas-

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 33


Rhin, Haut-Rhin, Rhne, Haute-Sane, Sane-et-Loise*, Tarn*, Var*,
Vosges*.

Zone 2B: Gard, Hrault*, Vaucluse.


Zone 3: Ain*, Ardche, Arige*, Aude*, Drme, Hrault*, Isre, Pyrnes-
Orientales*, Savoie, Haute-Savoie, Tarn*, Var*, Belfort (Territoire).

Zone 4: Aude*, Pyrnes-Orientales.

* only partially.

3.1.4.6 Germany

Zone I
Altitude (m) > 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
sk (kN/m2) 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.28 1.58 1.88 2.25 2.70

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 34


Zone II
Altitude (m) > 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
sk (kN/m2) 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.35 1.73 2.25 2.78 3.45 4.20

Zone III
Altitude (m) > 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
sk (kN/m2) 1.13 1.13 1.50 1.88 2.40 3.00 3.83 4.65 5.70

Altitude (m) 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500


sk (kN/m2) 6.95 8.20 9.60 11.10 12.70

Zone VI
Altitude (m) > 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
sk (kN/m2) 1.50 1.73 2.33 3.15 3.90 4.88 5.85 6.98 8.25

Altitude (m) 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500


sk (kN/m2) 9.40 10.60 11.75 12.90 14.10

3.1.4.7 Greece
Zone I :

Zone II :

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 35


3.1.4.8 Italy
Zone I
sk = 1.60 kN/m2 A ? 200 m
sk = 1.60 + 3 (A-200)/1000 kN/m2 200? A ? 750 m
sk = 3.25 + 8.5 (A-750)/1000 kN/m2 A > 750 m

Zone II
sk = 1.15 kN/m2 A ? 200 m
sk = 1.15 + 2.6 (A-200)/1000 kN/m2 200? A ? 750 m
sk = 2.58 + 8.5 (A-750)/1000 kN/m2 A > 750 m

Zone III
sk = 0.75 kN/m2 A ? 200 m
sk = 0.75 + 2.2 (A-200)/1000 kN/m2 200? A ? 750 m
sk = 1.96 + 8.5 (A-750)/1000 kN/m2 A > 750 m

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 36


3.1.4.9 Luxemburg
The characteristic snow load on the ground should be determined based on
following formulae:

sk = 0.50 (kN/m2) altitude (m) A ? 100


sk = 0.50 + 0.007 (A 100)/6 (kN/m2) altitude (m) 100 < A ? 700

3.1.4.10 The Netherlands


sk = 0.70 kN/m2.

3.1.4.11 Portugal
For the following regions: Viana do Castelo, Braga, VilaReal, Braganda,
Porto, Aveiro, Viseu, Guarda, Coimbra, Leiria, Castelo Branca, Portalegre ,
and at altitudes above 200m:

sk = (A 50)/400 kN/m2.

Elsewhere, snow loads do not have to be considered.

3.1.4.12 Spain
Zone I
Altitude (m) : 200 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300
sk en kN/m2 : 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.6 1.8 1.9

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 37


Altitude (m) : 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
sk en kN/m2 : 2.2 3.2 3.8 4.5 5.3 6.3 7.4

ZoneII
Altitude (m) : 200 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300
sk en kN/m2 : 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.1 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.4
Altitude (m) : 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
sk en kN/m2 : 2.6 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.2

Zone III
Altitude (m) : 200 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300
sk en kN/m2 : 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4

Altitude (m) : 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000


sk en kN/m2 : 1.6 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.5 4.1 4.8

Zone IV
Altitude (m) : 200 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300
sk en kN/m2 : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4
Altitude (m) : 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
sk en kN/m2 : 1.6 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.5 4.1 4.8

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 38


3.1.4.13 Sweden
Snow zone : 4 3 2.5 2 1.5 1
sk (kN/m2) : 4.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0

3.1.4.14 Switzerland
At altitudes below 1500 m :

? ? Aref ? ?
2

s k ? 0.4 ??1.0 ? ?? ?? ? kN / m 2
?? ? 350 ? ??

where

? sk is the snow load on the ground, with a minimum value of 0.9 kN/m2.

? Aref is the reference altitude from the map below.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 39


PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 40
3.1.4.15 United Kingdom
sk = sb + (0.1 sb + 0.09)(A 100)/100 (kN/m2)

with sb based on the map below:

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 41