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You are on page 1of 41

PowerFrame

Wind & snow loads

generators

(Eurocode 1)

BuildSoft nv

transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or manual, for any

purpose, without the prior written consent of BuildSoft.

They may only be used by the licensee and may only be copied for the

purpose of creating a security copy. It is prohibited by law to copy them for

any other purpose than the licensees own use.

Although BuildSoft has tested the programs described in this manual and has

reviewed this manual, they are delivered As Is, without any warranty as to

their quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular

purpose. The entire risk as to the results and performance of the programs,

and as to the information contained in the manual, lies with the end-user.

1 Table of contents

1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................... 3

2 WIND LOADS GENERATOR ............................................................................ 4

2.1 WIND LOADS GENERATOR ( EC 1) ....................................................................... 4

2.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 4

2.1.2 General principles ..................................................................................... 4

2.1.2.1 Application limitations .............................................................................................................................................4

2.1.2.2 Wind direction ..........................................................................................................................................................4

2.1.2.3 Wind load cases ........................................................................................................................................................5

2.1.2.4 Wind velocity ...........................................................................................................................................................5

2.1.2.5 Reference wind pressure qref .....................................................................................................................................6

2.1.2.6 Wind pressure on surfaces ........................................................................................................................................7

2.1.2.7 Exposure coefficient ce(z).........................................................................................................................................7

2.1.2.8 Roughness coefficient cr(z).......................................................................................................................................8

2.1.2.9 Topography coefficient ct(z).....................................................................................................................................9

2.1.2.10 Example ...............................................................................................................................................................9

2.1.2.11 Dynamic coefficient (Cd)....................................................................................................................................10

2.1.2.12 External pressure coefficient (Cpe) .....................................................................................................................10

2.1.2.12.1 External pressure coefficient Cpe for vertical walls.........................................................................................10

2.1.2.12.2 External pressure coefficient Cpe for roofs......................................................................................................13

2.1.2.13 Internal pressure coefficient (Cpi) .......................................................................................................................14

2.1.3 Examples..................................................................................................15

2.1.4 Country-specific maps and values...........................................................21

2.1.4.1 Direction factor (Belgium)......................................................................................................................................21

2.1.4.2 Maps .......................................................................................................................................................................22

2.1.4.2.1 The Netherlands................................................................................................................................................23

2.1.4.2.2 France ...............................................................................................................................................................24

3.1 SNOW LOADS GENERATOR (EC1) ......................................................................24

3.1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................24

3.1.2 General principles ...................................................................................25

3.1.2.1 Snow load on the ground (sk)..................................................................................................................................25

3.1.2.2 Snow load on roofs (s) ............................................................................................................................................25

3.1.2.3 Snow load cases......................................................................................................................................................25

3.1.2.4 Snow loads on snowguards and obstacles...............................................................................................................25

3.1.3 Examples..................................................................................................26

3.1.3.1 Example 1...............................................................................................................................................................26

3.1.3.2 Other examples .......................................................................................................................................................29

3.1.4 Maps ........................................................................................................31

3.1.4.1 Austria ....................................................................................................................................................................31

3.1.4.2 Belgium ..................................................................................................................................................................32

3.1.4.3 Denmark .................................................................................................................................................................32

3.1.4.4 Finland....................................................................................................................................................................32

3.1.4.5 France .....................................................................................................................................................................33

3.1.4.6 Germany .................................................................................................................................................................34

3.1.4.7 Greece.....................................................................................................................................................................35

3.1.4.8 Italy.........................................................................................................................................................................36

3.1.4.9 Luxemburg .............................................................................................................................................................37

3.1.4.10 The Netherlands .................................................................................................................................................37

3.1.4.11 Portugal ..............................................................................................................................................................37

3.1.4.12 Spain ..................................................................................................................................................................37

3.1.4.13 Sweden ...............................................................................................................................................................39

3.1.4.14 Switzerland.........................................................................................................................................................39

3.1.4.15 United Kingdom.................................................................................................................................................41

2 Wind loads generator

2.1 Wind loads generator ( EC 1)

2.1.1 Introduction

PowerFrame includes several wind loads generators corresponding to

different Standards (EC1, NBN 1991-2-4, BS 6399, NV 65, NEN 6702). This

part of the manual deals with the generation of wind loads as per Eurocode 1.

This document is not a substitute to this Standard, but provides a better

insight on the effective use of PowerFrames wind loads generator.

2.1.2.1 Application limitations

The application of the wind loads generator has only one limitation related

directly to the prescriptions of Eurocode 1.

coefficient (Cd) exceeding the value of 1.2. The dynamic coefficient Cd takes

into account the reduction effects due to the lack of correlation of pressures

over large surfaces as well as the increasing effects due to the frequency

content of turbulence close to the fundamental frequency of the structure. It

depends on the overall dimensions and the type of structure (steel, timber,

concrete,...). For instance, a reinforced concrete building not higher than 100

meter or a steel construction lower than 35 meter have a dynamic coefficient

Cd lower than or equal to 1. The dynamic coefficient of a building can be

obtained using the diagram given in section 9 of Eurocode 1 part 2-4, or

through the application of the formula given in annex B of Eurocode 1 part 2-

4.

buildings, and are not necessarily appropriate for other types of structures, as

eg. bridges,

The Eurocode proposes a method to model the effects of wind blowing

perpendicular to the vertical surfaces of a building. PowerFrame will enable to

generate wind loads over planes parallel to the XY and ZY planes.

2.1.2.3 Wind load cases

PowerFrame allows to generate wind loads in case wind acts from the left to

the right, or from the right to the left. In addition, EC1 specifies 2 possibilities

for each case, related to the angle between the wind direction and the

horizontal plane (?15). In other words, PowerFrame allows to handle both

upward or downward winds. Normally, a building should be able to resist

wind loads in all possible cases.

The reference wind velocity vref is defined as 10 minutes mean wind velocity,

at a height of 10 meter above ground level on a terrain of category II (see

further for more background information), having a mean return period of 50

years.

where

vref,0 : basic value of reference wind velocity;

CDIR : direction factor (taking into account wind direction);

CTEM : reduction factor for temporary or provisional structures.CTEM

= 1, unless otherwise specified in annex A of Eurocode 1

part 2-4

CALT : altitude factor (taking into account the altitude of the building

location).

The values of above parameters are specified for each country and each

region:

? in Belgium, vref,0 is fixed at 26.2 m/s, CTEM and CALT both equal 1. A

table defines CDIR as a function of wind direction. CDIR = 1 for winds

blowing from the North, West or South but varies between 1 and 0.837

for wind directions between North and East, and between East and

South.

the basic reference wind velocity is 25.0, 27.5 and 30 m/s. The 3

regions are illustrated on the map included in the Country-specific maps

and values. section. The parameters CDIR, CTEM and CALT are all equal

to 1.

? in Luxemburg, vref,0 is taken equal to 26.0 m/s. CDIR, CTEM and CALT are

all equal to 1.

wind velocities are applicable (24.0, 26.0, 28.0, 30.5 m/s). The zones

are defined as shown on the map in this manuals section Country-

specific maps and values. The parameters CDIR, CTEM and CALT are all

equal to 1.

velocity varies between 24.3 and 31.5 m/s. In zones 1 and 2, for which

the average wind velocity is relatively low, the CALT coefficient is to be

used for all constructions located at an altitude of more than 800 meter.

o In zone 1, CALT = 0.65 + altitude /2270 for an altitude ranging from

800 to 1100 meter. Above an altitude of 1100 meter,

measurements are required to determine the appropriate value for

CALT.

o In zone 2, measurements are required for altitudes from 800

meter onwards.

For buildings designed for a life time of max. 4 years, a reduction of the

design wind pressures is allowed and can be introduced through the

factor CTEM.

Eurocode Part 2-4 Annex A.

The reference wind pressure qref, expressed in N/m2, is calculated as:

? ? v ref

2

q ref ?

2

where

vref : reference wind velocity in m/s

? : air density in kg/m3. Air density is affected by the altitude and

depends on the temperature and pressure to be expected in the

considered region during wind storms. Unless otherwise specified

in annex A of Eurocode 1 part 2-4, the value of ? shall be taken

equal to 1.25 kg/m3.

For instance: in Belgium, the reference wind pressure is equal to 429 N/m2 in

case CALT = CTEM = CDIR = 1.

2.1.2.6 Wind pressure on surfaces

The net value of the wind pressure on a surface corresponds to the difference

between the external and internal pressure on this surface.

The wind pressure acting on the external surfaces of a structure (we) is given

by:

we ? q ref ? ce ( z e ) ? C pe

where

qref: reference wind pressure;

ce(ze): exposure coefficient;

cpe: external pressure coefficient.

The wind pressure acting on the internal surfaces of a structure (wi) is given

by:

wi ? q ref ? ce ( z i ) ? C pi

where

qref: reference wind pressure;

ce(zi): exposure coefficient;

cpi: internal pressure coefficient.

The exposure factor ce(z) takes into account the impact of several parameters

on the average wind velocity. For example : terrain characteristics, presence

or absence of obstacles, topography and height above ground level. This

factor can be derived from the following formula:

? 7 ? kT ?

ce ( z ) ? c r2 ( z ) ? ct2 ( z ) ? ?1 ? ?

? c r ( z ) ? ct ( z ) ?

cr(z) roughness coefficient (see section Roughness coefficient

cr(z) of this manual) ;

ct(z) topography coefficient (see section Topography coefficient

ct(z) of this manual).

I rough open sea, lakes with at least 5 km fetch upwind and smooth flat

country without obstacles.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 7

II farmland with boundary hedges, occasional small farm structures,

houses or trees.

having a height exceeding 15 meter.

The parameters kT, z0 and zmin are defined as a function of the following

terrain categories :

[m] [m]

I 0.17 0.01 2

II 0.19 0.05 4

III 0.22 0.3 8

IV 0.24 1 16

roughness coefficient cr(z).

cr(z) , as a function of height z, is given by:

?z?

cr ( z ) ? kT ? ln?? ?? ( zmin ? z ? 200m)

? z0 ?

?z ?

cr ( z ) ? cr ( zmin ) ? kT ? ln?? min ?? ( z ? zmin )

? z0 ?

be erected. Based on the previous table, it is derived that:

kT = 0.22

z0 = 0.3m

zmin = 8m

The height z is equal to 4m and is thus lower than the minimum height.

Thus:

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 8

cr(z) = cr(zmin) = cr(8) = 0.22 * ln(8/0.3) = 0.722

The topography coefficient ct(z) accounts for the increase of the mean wind

speed over isolated hills and escarpments (not undulating and mountainous

regions). It is related to the wind velocity at the base of the hill or

escarpment. It shall be considered for locations closer than half the length of

the hill slope from the crest or 1,5 times the height of the cliff. It is defined by:

ct = 1 + 2 . s . ? in case 0.05 < ? < 0.3

ct = 1 + 0.6 . s in case ? > 0.3

where

s: a factor derived from diagrams 8.1 & 8.2 of EC1, part 2-4

?: upwind slope of terrain in wind direction [%].

2.1.2.10 Example

Hypotheses: Terrain of category III, situated in Belgium.

Construction height and length: 1 meter.

has a slope of 30% in all directions.

? the roughness coefficient cr(z) has the same value as in the previous

example :

KT = 0.22

cr(z) = 0.722

? topography coefficient ct(z):

? = 0.3

Le = Lu = 100m

Z/Le = 0.3

ct(z) = 1.3

ce(z) = 2.328

Hence, the wind pressure on the vertical surface at the left hand side in the

above picture is equal to:

The pressure calculated in accordance with the principles outlined above, still

needs to be multiplied by a factor cd, to take into account the possible risk of

a dynamic excitation of the structure. The dynamic coefficient of a building

can be obtained using the diagram given in section 9 of Eurocode 1 part 2-4,

or through the application of the formula given in annex B of Eurocode 1 part

2-4.

2.1.2.12.1 External pressure coefficient Cpe for

vertical walls

Cpe for buildings and individual parts of buildings depends on the size of the

loaded area A:

in case the loaded area A is larger than 1 m2 but smaller than 10 m2.

The value of Cpe also depends on the ratio d/h, where d corresponds to the

depth of the building (in the wind direction) and h corresponds to the height of

the building.

The table below shows the values that correspond to the front and rear

vertical walls of a rectangular building:

Zone D E

d/h Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1

?1 0.8 1 -0.3

?4 0.6 1 -0.3

In case the ratio d/h is between 1 and 4, the values of Cpe are obtained by

interpolation.

In the previously presented example, the wind pressure on the vertical walls

can now be calculated.

construction of 4 meter high. The surface exposed to the wind is thus 4m2.

429 x 1.634 X 0.880 = 616 N/m2

meter in the direction of the wind:

d/h = 2

= 1.0 + (0.733 1.0) . log104

= 0.840

Note: the reference heigt ze for walls of rectangular buildings depends on the

aspect ratio h/b (height over width):

? buildings whose height h is less than b shall be considered to be one

part

? buildings whose height h is larger than b but less than 2b, shall be

considered to be of 2 parts, comprising: a lower part extending upwards

from the ground to a height equal to b and an upper part

? buildings whose height h is larger than 2b shall be considered to be in

multiple parts, comprising: a lower part extending upwards from the

ground to a height equal to b; an upper part extending downwards from

the top by a height equal to b and a middle region, between the upper

and lower parts, divided into as many horizontal strips as desired,each

one with a maximum height of b.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 12

2.1.2.12.2 External pressure coefficient Cpe for

roofs

The Eurocode considers two different types of roof. Hereafter, the calculation

of the external wind pressure will be discussed and presented in detail for 2

specific roof types. It should be outlined that PowerFrame can handle other

types of roof than those discussed hereafter, in order to meet the Eurocode

requirements as closely as possible.

All roofs with a slope smaller than 4% are qualified as flat roofs. A flat roof

can be divided in different zones, as outlined in the plan view given below :

The parameter e is the minimum of 2h and b, h being the height of the flat

roof above ground level.

The factors given in the following table apply to the different zones indicated

in the above diagram :

Zone f g h i

With Hp/h = 0.025 -1.6 -2.2 -1.1 -1.8 -0.7 -1.2 ? 0.2

parapets Hp/h = 0.05 -1.4 -2.0 -0.9 -1.6 -0.7 -1.2 ? 0.2

Hp/h = 0.1 -1.2 -1.8 -0.8 -1.4 -0.7 -1.2 ? 0.2

need to be considered (corresponding to positive pressure and suction).

A duopitch roof can be divided in different zones, as presented in the diagram

below:

The height ze = h is the height above ground level of the highest point of the

roof (roof crest). The parameter e is the minimum of 2h and b.

For a wind blowing in the direction of the roof slope, the values of Cpe can be

derived from the table below:

Zone f g h i j

Slope Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1 Cpe,10 Cpe,1

15 -0.9 -2.0 -0.8 -1.5 -0.3 -0.4 -1.0 -1.5

0.2 0.2 0.2

30 -0.5 -1.5 -0.5 -1.5 -0.2 -0.4 -0.5

0.7 0.7 0.4

45 0.7 0.7 0.6 -0.2 -0.3

60 0.7 0.7 0.7 -0.2 -0.3

75 0.7 0.8 0.8 -0.2 -0.3

The theoretical background given below can easily be understood by using

PowerFrames dialogue window related to the internal pressure

coefficient.The user is to select the corresponding case in the dialogue

window to directly view the value of Cpi .

homogeneous distribution of openings. In this case, Cpi is equal to

0.25.

partitions, and opening windows. In this case, Cpi is to be taken equal to

0.8 or 0.5. Both possibilities have to be considered.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 14

? The third case includes all situations not covered by the first and

second case described above. First, the opening ratio needs to be

determined as follows:

need to be determined (a maximum value and a minimum value).

Once both limit values have been determined, the graph below should

be used to derive the related value of Cpi :

considered during the calculation of wind pressure.

2.1.3 Examples

The use of PowerFrames wind loads generator will now be explained through

a number of practical examples.

First, the user defines the model geometry and boundary conditions as he

usually does in PowerFrame. Then, the user selects the contour of the frame

on which the wind load is to be defined, and should keep in mind that the

selected frame must always be in one plane, either parallel to the XY- or

the XZ-plane.

The user will then focus on the 2D frame contour as shown below :

Column height : 4m

Total height : 8m

Frame width: 16m

This frame is part of a larger model, representing a structure with a total

length of 18 meter and a distance of 6 meter between the frames.

In the Loads-window, the user first selects the appropriate load group in the

icon toolbox before starting the definition of the wind loads. He should check

that the frame shown above has been properly selected, and will then notice

that the icon has become active.

Using the icon, the following dialogue window will appear on the screen :

Standards. In the context of this manual, the Eurocode 1 will be used.

Confirming the selection of Eurocode 1, the following dialogue will appear on

the screen:

The user first starts to specify whether the wind blows from left to right or from

right to left. He will notice that a possible choice exists between an upward or

downward wind. The external pressure coefficients can effectively change

depending on this condition. The structure needs to be analyzed for both

conditions.

frame within the whole building. The Eurocode makes a difference between

the frames that can be considered as located in the middle of the building, at

the front side or at the rear side. For example, a frame with a duopitch roof is

considered to be at the edge of the building, if its distance D from the edge

meets the following condition :

? B: width of the building (in the direction of the wind)

? H: height of the building

distance D between the edge and the frame meets the following condition:

? L: length of the building exposed to the wind

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 17

The next entry in the dialogue window allows to specify the width of the

building or that part of the building to be analyzed. When the building consists

of 2 blocks with different dimensions, it is recommended that both blocks be

considered separately when using the wind loads generator, defining the

width to be equal to the width of the part the user is currently working on.

The distance between frames needs to be indicated in the line below. This

distance is actually used to define the roof surface that will transmit wind

loads to the frame. The user should therefore remember to divide the actual

distance by a factor 2 for both end frames.

The dynamic coefficient is filled in in the next editor field. The user is to refer

to section 9 of Eurocode 1 part 2-4, or to annex B of Eurocode 1 part 2-4 for

more information.

In the open dialogue window, two buttons allow to open secondary dialogue

boxes. First, the user has to click on to open the dialogue box

below:

The user should now enter the terrain parameters as specified in the first part

of this manual. ce(z), ct(z) and cr(z) will be calculated automatically using the

values the user has entered in the dialogue window.

user should fill in the dialogue tab as shown in the above figure.

Using the button, the user has to go back to the main dialogue

window and then click on the button to open the dialogue

window shown below:

This dialogue window helps to choose the most appropriate internal pressure

coefficient depending on the effective frontal area of the structure. The user

will continuously see in this dialogue window the value of Cpi depending on

the selection that has been made and on the values that have been defined.

Indeed, the current value is always shown in the field at the bottom of the

dialogue window, corresponding to the option User-defined value.

For this example, the user fills in the dialogue tab as shown above.

Using the button, he then returns to the main dialogue window and

checks that all parameters have been defined as shown previously. The

following results will then be displayed:

Should the internal pressure coefficient Cpi have not been considered, the

pressure distribution would be:

A second example looks into the calculation of Cpe in case of a building with a

flat roof. The global procedure being the same as the one outlined in the

previous example, the user now considers Cpi to be equal to zero (by

selecting the option : Do not take internal pressures into account).

Height: 5m

Width : 8m

The frame is 5 meter high and 8 meter wide. It is part of a construction with a

total length of 18 meter, and frames every 6 meter.

These results can easily be verified manually using the information that was

previously given in the Eurocode.

In this particular case, the user will have only to select the roof girders to

define the wind loads, as the open walls will of course take no wind load.

Users selection will thus look as follows:

As a result, two important changes in the dialogues will be noticed. The first

change will be observed in the main dialogue window of the wind loads

generator. An extra editor field will request to define the height above ground

level of the lower roof edge. The second change is related to the internal

pressure coefficient, as this coefficient no longer needs to be defined

(Eurocode 1 part 2-4 directly specifies the net pressure coefficients). Indeed,

if the user presses the button Internal pressure , he will get the following

message:

If the user proceeds to the calculation of wind pressure, having defined all

parameters as in the previous example and specified a total height of 6

meter, the following results will be displayed:

2.1.4.1 Direction factor (Belgium)

0 (North) 1.0

22.5 1.0

37.75 0.949

45 0.894

56.25 0.837

90 (East) 0.894

120 0.894

150 0.949

180 (South) 1.0

270 (West) 1.0

For intermediate directions,

interpolate between the given

values.

2.1.4.2 Maps

2.1.4.2.1 The Netherlands

2.1.4.2.2 France

3.1 Snow loads generator (EC1)

3.1.1 Introduction

PowerFrame includes several snow loads generators corresponding to

different Standards (EC1, NBN ENV 1991-2-3, BS 6399 Part 3, N 84, NV 65,

NEN 6702). This part of the manual is dedicated to the generation of snow

loads based on Eurocode 1 part 2-3. This document is not a substitute to this

Standard, but is aimed at providing a better insight on the effective use of

PowerFrames snow loads generator.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 24

3.1.2 General principles

3.1.2.1 Snow load on the ground (sk)

The snow load on the ground is the reference value to be taken into account

for the calculation of the snow load on roofs. This reference snow load

depends on the geographical position and the altitude of the building.

Eurocode 1 part 2-3 annex A gives characteristic values for the snow load on

the ground for most of the European countries.

The snow load on a roof shall be determined using the following formula:

s ? ? i ? C e ? Ct ? s k

where

Ce : exposure coefficient (generally taken equal to 1) ;

Ct : thermal coefficient (for normal standards of thermal insulation,

taken equal to 1. A reduction in the snow load on the roof may be

permitted by the introduction of values of the thermal coefficient

smaller than 1, to take account of the effect of heat loss through

the roof).

The snow load is assumed to act vertically and shall refer to the horizontal

projection of the area of the roof. ? i is determined automatically by

PowerFrame, using section 7 of Eurocode 1 part 2-3 concerning snow on

buildings.

The Eurocode specifies different snow load situations depending on the type

of roof. PowerFrame schematizes those situations by means of sketches. As

a result, the user can easily see all possible load situations by going through

the example that is presented further in this manual.

obstacles

The Eurocode does not specify any change in snow loads depending on the

presence or absence of snowguards. Nevertheless, a formula is given to

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 25

determine the force exerted by a sliding mass of snow in the direction of the

slope, per unit width .

F ? s ? b ? sin ?

where :

? ? : roof pitch measured from the horizontal

? b: distance on plan from the guard or obstacle to the ridge.

to account for those forces in the PowerFrame model, they need to be

introduced manually in the model.

Note : PowerFrames snow loads generator has not been designed for

cylindrical roofs. Therefore, it will not always produce snow loads which

comply completely with the Eurocode standard for those types of roof.

Nevertheless, by selecting the most frequent load cases, the user will be able

to obtain appropriate snow load models.

3.1.3 Examples

3.1.3.1 Example 1

In this section, the snow loads generator will be further explained through a

practical example. The snow loads generator only becomes available in the

icon toolbox of the Loads-window after a frame contour has been selected.

This frame contour should be in a (vertical) plane parallel to the XY- or XZ-

plane.

Column height: 5m

Total height: 8m

Frame width: 10m

To apply the snow loads generator, it is not necessary that the boundary

conditions or cross-section properties have been designed already. The user

should go to the Loads-window and be certain to select a load group with the

appropriate load factors. He should then select the frame contour, and the

icon becomes active, and then click on the icon to make the following

dialogue window appear:

Eurocode 1 is then to be selected by the user to launch the actual snow loads

generator.

It should be noted that in the dialogue tab which comes up, PowerFrame will

present the frame contour that is considered, as a confirmation of then users

selection.

The first line allows to define the width of the building on which snow loads

are applied and transferred to the selected frame.

The snow load on the ground (sk) is to be defined manually to allow the use of

the snow loads generator in as many countries as possible. Please refer to

annex 1 of this manual or to annex A of Eurocode 1 to get more information

on the most appropriate value of sk .

Eurocode specifies the concentrated loads to take into account the effect of

snow overhanging the edge of a roof. By selecting or unselecting the option in

the dialogue tab, this can be taken into account.

The thermal coefficient and the exposure coefficient can be taken equal to 1

as a default. However, in particular situations, different values can be used.

Please refer to Eurocode 1.

Finally, at the bottom of the dialogue window, a button is available for the

selection of the most appropriate load situation. This button gives access to

the following scheme, from which the most relevant situation can be selected:

In general, the design standard requires the building to be able to support all

possible cases. Once the load case has been selected, the user is to return

to the main dialogue, and confirm to get results as shown in the figure below

(distributed loads are shown in Newton/meter).

3.1.3.2 Other examples

Finally, additional examples are presented, which can be set up very similarly

to the first example.

A final example relates to the situation in which snow overhangs the edge of

a cantilever roof. The load due to the overhang will be assumed to act along

the edge of the roof and will be introduced as a concentrated load on the

frame, as clearly shown in the figure below

3.1.4 Maps

3.1.4.1 Austria

Zone A

Altitude(m) < 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

sk (kN/m2) 0.75 0.85 1.00 1.20 1.45 1.75 2.10 2.55 3.00 3.50 4.05

Zone B

Altitude(m) < 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

sk (kN/m2) 1.55 1.55 1.60 1.75 2.00 2.30 2.65 3.10 3.65 4.25 4.95

Zone C

Altitude(m) < 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

sk (kN/m2) - - 2.15 2.35 2.70 3.10 3.60 4.20 4.95 5.75 6.65

Zone D

Altitude(m) < 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

sk (kN/m2) - - - - 1.00 1.20 1.45 1.75 2.10 2.50 3.00

3.1.4.2 Belgium

The characteristic snow load on the ground is to be calculated using the

formulae below:

sk = 0.50 + 0.007(A 100)/6 (kN/m2) altitude (m) 100 < A ? 700

3.1.4.3 Denmark

The characteristic snow load on the ground is sk = 1.0 kN/m2.

3.1.4.4 Finland

3.1.4.5 France

Zones

1A 1B 2A 2B 3 4

2

sk (kN/m ) 0.45 0.45 0.55 0.55 0.65 0.90

sA (kN/m2) - 1.00 1.00 1.35 1.35 1.80

dOr, Ctes dAmor, Eure, Eure-et-Loire, Finistre, Ile et Viliane, Indre, Indre-

et-Loire, Loi-et-Cher, Loire-Atlantique, Loiret, Maine-et-Loire, Manche, Marne,

Haute-Marne, Mayenne, Meurthe-et-Moselle*, Meuse, Morbihan, Moselle*,

Nivre, Nord, Oise, Orne, Pas-de-Calais, Sarthe, Seine-Maritime, Deux-

Svres, Somme, Vende, Vienne, Vosges*, Yonne.

Rgion Ile-de-France: Ville de Paris, Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines,

Essonne, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, Val dOise.

Haute-Corse, Corse-Sud, Creuse, Dordogne, Haute-Garonne, Gers, Gironde,

Landes, Lot, Lot-et-Garonne, Puy-de-Dme, Pyrnes-Atlantiques, Hautes-

Pyrnes, Sane-et-Loire*, Tarn-et-Garonne, Var*, Haute-Vienne.

Doubs, Jura, Loire, Haute-Loire, Lozre, Meurthe-et-Moselle*, Moselle*, Bas-

Rhin, Haut-Rhin, Rhne, Haute-Sane, Sane-et-Loise*, Tarn*, Var*,

Vosges*.

Zone 3: Ain*, Ardche, Arige*, Aude*, Drme, Hrault*, Isre, Pyrnes-

Orientales*, Savoie, Haute-Savoie, Tarn*, Var*, Belfort (Territoire).

* only partially.

3.1.4.6 Germany

Zone I

Altitude (m) > 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

sk (kN/m2) 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.28 1.58 1.88 2.25 2.70

Zone II

Altitude (m) > 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

sk (kN/m2) 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.35 1.73 2.25 2.78 3.45 4.20

Zone III

Altitude (m) > 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

sk (kN/m2) 1.13 1.13 1.50 1.88 2.40 3.00 3.83 4.65 5.70

sk (kN/m2) 6.95 8.20 9.60 11.10 12.70

Zone VI

Altitude (m) > 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

sk (kN/m2) 1.50 1.73 2.33 3.15 3.90 4.88 5.85 6.98 8.25

sk (kN/m2) 9.40 10.60 11.75 12.90 14.10

3.1.4.7 Greece

Zone I :

Zone II :

3.1.4.8 Italy

Zone I

sk = 1.60 kN/m2 A ? 200 m

sk = 1.60 + 3 (A-200)/1000 kN/m2 200? A ? 750 m

sk = 3.25 + 8.5 (A-750)/1000 kN/m2 A > 750 m

Zone II

sk = 1.15 kN/m2 A ? 200 m

sk = 1.15 + 2.6 (A-200)/1000 kN/m2 200? A ? 750 m

sk = 2.58 + 8.5 (A-750)/1000 kN/m2 A > 750 m

Zone III

sk = 0.75 kN/m2 A ? 200 m

sk = 0.75 + 2.2 (A-200)/1000 kN/m2 200? A ? 750 m

sk = 1.96 + 8.5 (A-750)/1000 kN/m2 A > 750 m

3.1.4.9 Luxemburg

The characteristic snow load on the ground should be determined based on

following formulae:

sk = 0.50 + 0.007 (A 100)/6 (kN/m2) altitude (m) 100 < A ? 700

sk = 0.70 kN/m2.

3.1.4.11 Portugal

For the following regions: Viana do Castelo, Braga, VilaReal, Braganda,

Porto, Aveiro, Viseu, Guarda, Coimbra, Leiria, Castelo Branca, Portalegre ,

and at altitudes above 200m:

sk = (A 50)/400 kN/m2.

3.1.4.12 Spain

Zone I

Altitude (m) : 200 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

sk en kN/m2 : 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.6 1.8 1.9

Altitude (m) : 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

sk en kN/m2 : 2.2 3.2 3.8 4.5 5.3 6.3 7.4

ZoneII

Altitude (m) : 200 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

sk en kN/m2 : 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.1 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.4

Altitude (m) : 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

sk en kN/m2 : 2.6 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.2

Zone III

Altitude (m) : 200 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

sk en kN/m2 : 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4

sk en kN/m2 : 1.6 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.5 4.1 4.8

Zone IV

Altitude (m) : 200 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

sk en kN/m2 : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4

Altitude (m) : 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

sk en kN/m2 : 1.6 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.5 4.1 4.8

3.1.4.13 Sweden

Snow zone : 4 3 2.5 2 1.5 1

sk (kN/m2) : 4.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0

3.1.4.14 Switzerland

At altitudes below 1500 m :

? ? Aref ? ?

2

s k ? 0.4 ??1.0 ? ?? ?? ? kN / m 2

?? ? 350 ? ??

where

? sk is the snow load on the ground, with a minimum value of 0.9 kN/m2.

PowerFrame Manual Wind & snow loads generators 40

3.1.4.15 United Kingdom

sk = sb + (0.1 sb + 0.09)(A 100)/100 (kN/m2)

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