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4/26/2017

Genomes and Their Evolution Thursday, April 20th, 2017


Agenda:
Chapter 21 Study Guide Work Day
Chapter 21 quiz online due next wednesday

A Decision to Branch Out: Case Study Quiz


Friday, April 21st, 2017 1. Teosinte is an ancestor of the modern day maize. Based on
Agenda: the figure of teosinte and maize (next slide), which of the
Case Study
following scenarios is most likely to be true?
A. They are genetically identical. The difference in morphology is the result
of growing under different environments (domesticated vs. Wild).
B. During the process of domestication, mutations accumulated in the
maize lineage, which are the main cause of the morphological differences
between maize and teosinte.
C. Pre-existing mutations in the teosinte with another species that has very
little auxiliary branching.
D. Humans developed maize by crossing teosinte with another species that
has very little auxiliary branching.

A Decision to Branch Out: Case Study Quiz A Decision to Branch Out: Case Study Quiz
2. Which of the following is an example of artificial 3. A scientist conducted an experiment to investigate the effect of
selection? fertilizer on plant growth rate. Plant A, B, and C were watered
every day with pure water, water containing 1 mg of fertilizer, and
A. Deer mice living on the sand hills of Nebraska are light brown, while deer water containing 5 mg of fertilizer, respectively. In this
mice living elsewhere are dark brown. experiment, the independent variable is ______ .
B. Insects become resistance to pesticides very quickly, sometimes in one A. fertilizer
generation.
B. plant
C. The use of antibiotics is linked to an increase in bacteria strains that are
resistant to antibiotics. C. plant growth rate
D. Compared to their wild relatives, dogs generally show reduced fear and D. water
aggression towards humans. E. time

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A Decision to Branch Out: Case Study Quiz A Decision to Branch Out: Case Study Quiz
4. Rice plants will start to flower when daylight duration 5. Rice plants will start to flower when daylight duration
shortens. However, flowering is delayed in hd1 null mutant shortens. However, flowering is delayed in hd1 null mutant
rice even under short days. Which of the following rice even under short days. This evidence is a test for
statements is supported by this evidence? __________?

A. The function of Hd1 is to inhibit flowering under long days. A. sufficiency


B. The function of Hd1 is to promote flowering under long days. B. requirement
C. The function of Hd1 is to inhibit flowering under short days. C. correlation
D. The function of Hd1 is to promote flowering under short days. D. None of the above

Monday, April 24th, 2017


Agenda:
Chapter 21 notes and short videos
Chapter 22 starts tomorrow!

What you need to know: Bioinformatics


Use of computers, software, and math models to
The major goals of the Human Genome Project
process and integrate data from sequencing projects
How prokaryotic genomes compare to eukaryotic
genomes.
The activity and role of transposable elements and
retrotransposons.
How evo-devo relates to our understanding of the
evolution of genomes.
The role of homeotic genes and homeoboxes.

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Human Genome Project


Human Genome Project
Purpose: to sequence the entire human
genome
Completed in 2003
Genomes sequenced thus far*: 58,000
prokaryotes, 2700 eukaryotes, 5300 viruses

* Data as of 1/27/16

Human DNA
3 billion base pairs
Comparing Genomes ~20,000 genes
of Bacteria, Archaea, Only 1.5% codes for
& Eukaryotes proteins (or RNA)
Mostly Repetitive DNA:
sequences present in
multiple copies

Transposable Elements
Make up 75% of repetitive DNA
Stretches of DNA that can be moved from one
location to another in genome
Discovered by Barbara McClintock corn
breeding experiments
2 Types:
Transposons
Retrotransposons

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Transposons Retrotransposons
Move by means of RNA intermediate
Moves within genome via DNA intermediate
Leaves copy at original site
cut & paste or copy & paste mechanisms
Involves enzyme reverse transcriptase
Requires enzyme transposase

Multigene Families
Genome Evolution Collections of 2 or more identical or very
similar genes
Insertion effects of transposons:
Can interrupt or alter gene function Eg. hemoglobin: -globin and -globin gene
Multiple copies of genes
families
Duplication genes with related functions
Genes diverge by accumulating mutations
Some become nonfunctional pseudogenes
Eventually, new genes with new functions can
occur

Transposable elements contribute to


Transpositions chromosomal rearrangements evolution
Promote recombination, disrupt genes or
control elements, & carry genes to new
locations
May be harmful or lethal, but can also have
small beneficial effects
Provides raw material for natural selection

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Illustrative Example: Antifreeze Gene in Fish


Antifreeze proteins (AFP): produced by vertebrates,
plants, fungi, bacteria to aid survival in sub-zero
environments
Function: bind to ice crystals and prevent growth
Antarctic fish: old protein gene transformed into a new
gene with new structure/function
Gene mutates duplicated divergent evolution

Evolutionary Development
Homeotic genes: master regulatory genes
(Evo-devo)
Control placement and spatial organization
Compares developmental processes to understand
of body parts
how changes can lead to evolution of organisms
Homeobox: widely conserved 180-nucleotide
sequence within homeotic (Hox) genes
Found in many groups (fungi, animals,
plants)
Hints at relatedness between all life forms

Conservation of
homeotic genes