Cellular Concepts

Introduction Frequency reuse Channel assignment strategies Interference Improving capacity in cellular system

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Introduction

The cellular concept was a major breakthrough in solving the problem of spectral congestion and user capacity. It offered very high capacity in a limited spectrum allocation without any major technological changes.

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Frequency reuse
The use of radio channels on the same carrier frequency to cover different areas which are separated from one another by sufficient distance so that cochannel interference is not objectionable.

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Cluster

Consider a cellular system which has a total of S channels available and each cell is allocated a group of k channels(k <S). S= k N The N cells which collectively use the complete set of available frequencies is called a cluster.

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Co-Channel Cells
• Using “Shift parameters”(i,j) to lay out a cellular system. •Move i cells along any chain of hexagons ; turn counterclockwise 60 degree ; move j cells along the chain that lies on this newheading. • N = i2 + ij + j 2

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Co-Channel Cells

N=4

Q=D/R=4.6 N=7

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Co-Channel Cells

Q=D/R=6 N=12

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Co-Channel Cells

d12 =

(u −u ) +(u −u )(v −v ) +(v −v )
2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1

2

d12:distance between two point with coordinates(u1,v1)and(u2 ,v2)

R= 1 3 D = i2 + ij + j2
N = i 2 + ij + j 2

u

v

D = 3N R

α = 60

0

∗ ∗ u , v :coordinates of point P

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Co-Channel Cells

Illustration for the heuristic determination of the number of cells per cluster
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Co-Channel Cells

Co-channel reuse ratio: Q = D = 3 N R
R: radius of the cell D: the distance to the center of the nearest cochannel cell N: cluster size
Cluster Size (N) 3 7 12 13 Co-channel Reuse Ratio 3 4.58 6 6.24

i=1 i=1 i=2 i=1

, , , ,

j=1 j=2 j=2 j=3

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Channel Assignment Strategies

Fixed channel assignment strategy
Each cell is allocated a predetermined set of voice channels.

Dynamic channel assignment strategy
Voice channels are not allocated to different cells permanently.

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Interference

•Co-channel interference Signal-to-interference ratio (S/I or SIR)

S= S I io ∑ Ii
i =1

S: desired signal power
i : the number of co-channel interfering cells o
I i

: the interference power caused by the ith interfering cochannel base station
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Interference

P

r

⎛ d P ( dBm ) = P ( dBm ) − 10 log ⎜ r o ⎜d ⎝ o

⎛ d ⎞ ⎟ = P ⎜ o ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ o ⎠

− n

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Pr: average received power Po: the power received at a close-in reference point do: distance from the transmitting antenna to the reference point d : distance from the transmitting antenna to the considered receiver
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Interference

S R −n = io I ∑ D i i =1

(

)

− n

Di:the distance of the ith interference from the mobile

If all the interference base station are equidistant from the desired base station and if the distance is equal to the distance D

⎛ D ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ S ⎝ R ⎠ = I io

n

=

(

3N io

)

n

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Interference--Example

S R−4 = I 2(D− R)−4 +(D−0.5R)−4 +(D+0.5R)−4 +(D+ R)−4 + D−4

Using co-channel reuse ratio Q
S = 4 4 I 2 (Q + 1 ) + (Q − 1 ) 1 (Q + 0 . 5 )4 + (Q − 0 . 5 )4

(Q

2

− 1)

4

+

(Q

2

− 0 . 25 )

4

+

1 Q4

For

N = 7 → Q = 4 .6 ,

S ≈ 49 .56 (17dB) I
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Interference

---Interference resulting from signals which are adjacent in frequency to the desired signals. ---It can be minimized through careful filtering and channel assignments.

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Interference

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Improving Capacity in Cellular System

Cell splitting
A6 A5

A4 A1

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Improving Capacity in Cellular System

Sectoring

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Improving Capacity in Cellular System
A Novel Microcell Zone Concept
Microwave or fiber optic link Zone Selector
Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Tx/Rx

Base Station

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Reference
W. C. Jack, ed., Microwave Mobile Communication, New York: John Wiley, 1974. “Telephone Service for St. Louis Vehicles,” Bell Laboratories Record, 24, No. 7 (July 1946), pp. 267-268. H. W. Nylund and R. M. Swanson, “Improved Mobile Dial Telephone System,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Commun., 1 1963, pp. 32-36. “Communication Tomorrow: Who? What? Which? Where? Why? and How Much?” Communication; Part I (October 1972), pp. 42-45; Part II (November 1972), pp. 20-23.
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Reference
“World Mobile Telecommunications,” Cambridge, Mass.: Arthur D. Little, 1974. “A New Era in Mobile Communications,” Raymond Kraus, Consulting Communications Engineers, Inc., 1976. “The U.S. Mobile Equipment Market,” Report No. 556, May 1978, Frost and Sullivan, Inc. Bell Laboratories, “High-Capacity Mobile Telephone System-Technical Report,” (December 1971), Submitted to the FCC. V. H. MacDonald, “AMPS: The Cellular Concept,” B.S.T.J., this issue, pp. 15-41.
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Reference
Bell Laboratories Report, 46, No. 6 (June 1965), page 210. G. C. DiPiazza, A. Plitkins, and G. I. Zysman, “AMPS: The Cellular Test Bed,” B.S.T.J., this issue, pp. 215-248. D. L. Huff, “AMPS: The Developmental System,” B.S.T.J., this issue, pp. 249-269.

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