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Multiplexing and

Multiple Access

Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 1

Multiplexing and Multiple Access
 Until now we considered the communication from a single TX and
single RX.
 Consider GSM:
 In a cell, there is a single BS but tens (hundreds) of users, how is that
possible?

Communication Resources:
 Time
 Bandwidth
 Polarization
 Code
 Space
 etc.
 Power

The idea is to share the resources among users to let multiple users
communicate simultaneously.

Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 2

etc.  Code Division (CD): set of orthogonal or nearly orthogonal spread spectrum codes is allocated to different users. of each users is determined beforehand. or dynamic: allocation can be determined according to channel conditions or user load.  Allocation can be fixed: subband. slot.  Polarization Diversity (PD): Orthogonal polarizations are used to separate users.  Space Division (SD): Antenna beam patterns are used to differentiate different users.Multiplexing and Multiple Access  Frequency Division (FD): specified (sub)bands of frequency are allocated to different users. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 3 .  Time Division (TD): Time slots are allocated to different users.

Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 4 .FDM/A (Frequency Division Multiplexing/Multiple Access)  Spectrum is divided into several subbands  The signal of each user is upconverted to its subband by a frequency mixer.  Each subband is separated by a guard band to mitigate interuser (intercarrier) interference  A time limited signal cannot be band limited.

How can thousands of users can communicate simultaneously?  Typically speech is contained within 300-3000 Hz band. FDM/A  Consider the telephony system.  Hierarchical grouping:  A single channel (conversation)  300-3400 Hz  First level group of 12 channels  60-108 kHz Second level group 60 channels  Supergroup  312-552 kHz  Supergroup can further be modulated and transmitted over radio. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 5 .

FDM/A Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 6 .

 FM: The composite signal is FM modulated onto a carrier and transmitted to the satellite.  C-band.FDM/A  Most of the communication satellites are GEO (geostationary/geosynchronous)  Most of the satellites contain transponders (nonregenerative repeaters)  Received signal is amplified. Each user receives a specific bandwidth allocation to access the transponder.  FDM/FM/FDMA is used on each transponder  FDM: SSB signals are FDM’ed to form a multichannel composite signal similar to telephone signals. 4 GHz downlink carrier. 6 GHz uplink carrier.  FDMA: Subdivision of the 36 MHz transponder bandwidth may assigned to different users.  12 transponders of 36 MHz bandwidth each. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 7 .  Signal bandwidth 500 MHz. frequency shifted and retransmitted on the downlink without any further processing.

 Each subband is almost independent of all other channels. FDMA is used in combination with TDMA. If there are few users with very large bandwidths (like in WLAN).  It does not require synchronization or central timing. require little (digital) signal processing.  Frequency synchronization and stability are difficult: local oscillators must be very accurate. FDM(A) is mostly used in:  Analog communication systems: FDMA is almost the only practical choice. there is no way to recover it.  Sensitivity to fading: If a subband goes into a (spectral) fade.  Sensitivity to random Frequency Modulation: due to multipath fading (phase of the received signal is time- varying)  Intermodulation: Non-linearity of the power amplifier at the TX causes third-order modulation products. disadvantages of FDMA gets less significant.  High-data-rate systems: FDMA is disadvantageous when there are hundreds of users with narrow bands. There is no frequency diversity.  Combination of FDMA with other MA methods: like in GSM.  Lower spectral efficiency: due to guard-bands. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 8 .FDM/A  Advantages and disadvantages of FDM:  FDMA has a simple TX/RX structure. No information is conveyed over them.

TDM/A (Time Division Multiplexing/Multiple Access)  Time is divided into slots. guard times are places between slots.  Each slot is assigned to a user. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 9 .  All users are allowed to occupy all the available bandwidth  Multiple slots may join to form a frame.  Against syncronization problems and ISI.

 If there is not enough traffic generated by the users. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 10 .TDM/A  Slots may be assigned in a fixed or dynamic way. fixed assignment may waste resources.

DECT. WiMAX Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 11 .FDMA + TDMA  FDMA and TDMA can further be combined:  GSM. LTE.

Ts  CR can support R bits/s bit rate in total. T/M s FDMA: TDMA:  Each user has:  Each user has: TDMA  Duration T s. frequency User M User 1 User 2 W Hz  Bandwidth W/M Hz.  Bit rate R/M bits/s. frequency User 2 W/M Hz W Hz  Define a Communication Resource (CR)  Bandwidth : W Hz User M  → can be divided into M subchannel of bandwidth W/M Hz each.  Bandwidth W Hz.  Can transmit RT/M bits over a CR  Can transmit RT/M bits over a CR  CR can convey RT/M x M = RT bits  CR can convey RT/M x M = RT bits time Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 12 .  Period (Frame length): T s time  → can be divided into M time slot of duration T/M s each.  Bit rate R/M bits/s. Performance Comparison of FDMA and TDMA  Bit Rate Provided by TDMA and FDMA Ts  Consider M users User 1 FDMA Ignore any guard band or guard time.  Duration T/M s.

τ: packet transmission time  FDMA: there is no waiting time. each packet is transmitted over T sec →  TDMA: average waiting time of a packet is TDMA is superior to FDMA transmission time of each packet is Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 13 .Performance Comparison of FDMA and TDMA  Message Delays in FDMA and TDMA  Message delay: w: average packet waiting time before transmission.

 Codes are expected to have good cross-correlation properties.Code Division Multiple Access  Each user is assigned a unique spreading code. ideally uncorrelated.  Example: Walsh-Hadamard codes for 4 users: Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 14 .  Walsh-Hadamard codes:  Each row gives a code orthogonal to the others.

 Similarly. over the same bandwidth. vertical and horizontal polarization can be used for multiplexing/multiple access. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 15 .Space-Division and Polarization-Division Multiple Access  Multiple different antenna beam patterns can be used to serve multiple users at the same time.

 Consider the downlink of a MS (user) just at the boundary of two cells.  Similar problem in the uplink. the two cells cause interference to each other.  They have limitations on the number of users.  Using a cellular network can be the solution:  There are geographically separated BSs (base stations).  Each BS has its own set of users.  Can increase coverage without waste of energy. Can increase the number of users to be served.  Assume that MS1 is «registered» to BS1. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 16 . This transmission will interfere the communication between BS1 and MS1. Waste of energy!  A TDMA or FDMA-only structure may not be adequate. Cellular Networks  How can we increase the coverage area and the number of users to be served of a wireless system?  We can increase coverage area by increasing TX power. Distance of the MS from both BSs are comparable. Then it wants to demodulate the signal coming from BS1.  If the BSs are close to each other (which IS the case).  The same frequency cannot be used at two neighbour cells!.  signal attenuates with n-2 at best.  However. BS2 will transmit another signal to its registered MS2.

Cluster: Group of cells that all use different frequencies. D (m).Cellular Networks  Solution of the interference problem:  Use different frequencies in neighbour cells.  R: cell radius → re-use distance = D/R (cells)  Re-use distance is determined by link budget analysis.  Cluster size: Number of cells in a cluster. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 17 . higher spectral efficiency.  Same frequency can be «re-used» only if two cells are separated at least by re-use distance.  Lower cluster size.

Only if the terrain is completely flat and there are no obstacles around. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 18 . hexagon can represent the shape of a cell in practice. hexagon is hardly suitable to cover an area.  In practice. but there remain gaps in between them.  Cell planning: Received power is measured over a geographical region and best BS places are chosen accordingly.  Hexagon: is the best shape to cover an area without any gaps.  Theoretically and ideally hexagon is used as the shape of a cell.Cellular Networks  What is the shape of a cell:  Circular cell: Circles (disks) can cover an area efficiently.

16 …} Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 19 .  Relation between cluster size N and the parameters i and k is:  N has to be integer → the only values it can take {1. 9. 7.Cellular Networks  Cell planning with hexagonal cells:  Cell radius: i-cells up. 12.  Distance between the centres of two cells:  Find the values of i and k that make sure that the distance between the two cells is larger than the required reuse distance. 4. 3. 13.e. minimizing the cluster size (i.  At the same time. Minimizing waste of spectrum or equivalently maximizing spectral efficiency).  Distance between the centres of neighbour cells: k-cells upper left.

2G systems Interference mitigation 1G systems by spatial separation.Cellular Networks  Reuse distance (in terms of number cells in between)  Cluster size vs. re-use distance: Strong interference mitigation 3G systems with signal processing and modulation techniques. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 20 .

Cellular Networks  Cell planning:  1. channels → 167/21=8 freq. Find the frequencies for each cell (from slide 20) Example: For the sake of simplicity.8 is 21 → for a 5MHz spectrum. the smallest «integer» cluster size >19. Each channel is 30 kHz wide. → from the table.7. Fading margin is 15 dB. Find the minimum cluster size (from slides 20 and 21)  3. Assume that power decreases by d-4. From the specification for the minumum transmission quality. find the minimum distance between the desired BS and interfering BS from link budget calculations. there are 5MHz/30kHz=167 possible freq. SIR = 18 dB for satisfactory speech quality. → distance between the desired BS and the interfering BS is D/R=7.  2. → at the cell boundary the mean values of the signal power must be 33 dB (2x103) stronger than the interference power. chnl/cell Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 21 . consider the AMPS system.

higher order modulation formats are more sensitive to noise and interference. Increase the amount of spectrum used:  Very expensive  2.  3. Advanced interference mitigation and coding:  Possible.  5. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 22 .  4. More efficient. Better source coding:  Compression of speech. higher order modulation formats:  Use modulation formats which require less bandwidth (with higher order modulation) and more resistant to interference.Methods for Increasing Capacity How can we increase the number of users being served? or the data rate?  1.  Typically. video and data streams allows more users to be served with the same resources. Adaptive Modulation and coding. scheduling. hot research topic.

Methods for Increasing Capacity 6. ii) MIMO 8. Use of sector cells: the hexagon is divided into several sectors (3 or 6). conventional frequency re-use is applied to cell edges. Each sector is served by one antenna. Multiple antennas: i) can generate diversity. System capacity increases x3 or x6 times (theoretically). 7. Spring 2015 ELE 492 – FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 23 . Partial frequency reuse: Same frequency is used at cell centres.