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You are on page 1of 100

ENGINEERING METROLOGY

IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

2013

UDC 621.81 (075.8)

BBC 00000

C00

C00 Engineering Metrology in Mechanical Engineering: study aid /

Yu.B. Chervach, I.S. Okhotin; Tomsk Polytechnic University. Tomsk: TPU

Publishing House, 2013, 100 p.

engineering, relevant examples of size distribution calculation in inspection are consid-

ered.

The book is recommended for English-speaking students following the Bachelor

Degree Program in Mechanical Engineering at Tomsk Polytechnic University.

BBC 00000

Linguistic Advisor

Manager of the

Department for Academic Affairs of the Institute of Cybernetics, TPU

E.A. Panasenko

Reviewers

Associate professor of the

Department of Automated Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering, TPU

V.F. Skvortsov

Limited Liability Company

V.M. Gusev

Chervach Yu.B., Okhotin I.S., 2013

Design. Tomsk Polytechnic University

Publishing House, 2013

Preface

changeable high-performance and precise manufacturing. Interchangeable

manufacturing implies that mating parts are often made not only by different

people, but also on different machines, in different shops, and sometimes

even in different cities and countries and at different times.

Such interchangeable production is provided by the relevant documenta-

tion, machine tools, fixtures, cutting tools and the availability of appropriate

measuring tools that ensure required accuracy and performance of measure-

ments performed in different workplaces, by different operators.

The main type of measurements in mechanical engineering is the meas-

urement of linear and angular dimensions.

90-95% of all measurements in mechanical engineering are measure-

ment of linear dimensions. In the electric machine engineering this type of

measurement is about 80%.

The proposed book is intended to facilitate study of the course Engi-

neering measurements in mechanical engineering by the students that follow

the Bachelor Degree Program 150700 "Mechanical Engineering".

Issues of the engineering measurements are considered in many publica-

tions, but generalized textbook or study aid on this subject is unheard.

The given book presents fundamentals of the mechanical engineering

measurements.

The first section of the book provides an overview of the engineering

measurements and information on the legal basis of metrology.

The second section of the book gives the classification of the types and

methods of measurements in mechanical engineering.

The third section introduces basic, additional and derived units of the In-

ternational System of Units of physical quantities.

The fourth section provides a classification of measurands and values of

measurands of the objects being measured.

The fifth section outlines the standard conditions for linear and angular

measurements in accordance with GOST 8.050-73.

The sixth section is devoted to the means of measurement: measurement

standards, measures, reference instruments, gauge blocks, angle blocks and

detailed metrological characteristics and forms of application of the means.

In addition, the section describes the procedure of dissemination of standards

(transferring of units of physical quantities from the standards to the measur-

ing means of lower ranks), classifies measuring instruments and devices, and

indicates metrological parameters and characteristics of the measuring in-

struments.

3

In the seventh section the types of measurement errors and analysis of

the causes for the errors are examined.

The eighth section provides methods for ensuring the traceability and

accuracy of measurements, the structure of verifications, inspections and ex-

aminations of measuring means and structure of the mandatory state testing

of measuring instrumentation.

The ninth section is devoted to the structure of the product quality con-

trol.

The tenth section examines implementation of measurement and inspec-

tion, the selection of the universal means of measurement and inspection, and

accuracy of the means. Procedure and examples of the measurement results

analysis are also given.

The book is recommended for students that study course Engineering

measurements in mechanical engineering within the Mechanical Engineer-

ing Program. The material of the book can be useful in preparing graduation

thesis.

4

CONTENTS

Preface .......................................................................................................... 3

CONTENTS ................................................................................................. 5

1. General Concepts. Legal Basis of Metrology.......................................... 7

2. Types and Methods of Measurements .................................................... 9

3. International System of Units ................................................................ 14

3.1. SI base units ..................................................................................... 14

3.2. SI derived units ................................................................................ 15

4. Objects of Measurement ........................................................................ 17

4.1. Measurands ...................................................................................... 17

4.2. Dimension of a measurand .............................................................. 18

5. Standard Conditions for Linear and Angular Measurements ............ 20

6. Means of Measurement ......................................................................... 22

6.1 Measurement Standards .................................................................. 22

6.2 Measures and Reference Measuring Instruments .......................... 25

6.3 Gauge Blocks..................................................................................... 27

6.4 Angle Gauge Blocks .......................................................................... 40

6.5 Transfer of Physical Quantity .......................................................... 47

6.6 Measuring Instruments and Devices ............................................... 49

6.7 Metrological Parameters and Characteristics of Measuring

Instruments ............................................................................................. 50

7. Measurement Errors and Causes of the Errors ................................... 53

8. Measurement Traceability Assurance .................................................. 56

8.1 Verification, Inspection and Expertise of Measuring Instruments 58

8.2 State Testing of Measuring Instruments ......................................... 59

9. Product Quality Control ........................................................................ 61

9.1 Types of Inspection ........................................................................... 61

10. Measurement and Inspection of the Product Parameters ................. 64

10.1 Measurement and Inspection ......................................................... 64

10.2 Selection of Means of Measurement and Inspection ..................... 65

10.3 Accuracy of Means of Measurement and Inspection .................... 66

10.4 Measurement Results Analysis ...................................................... 70

10.5 Examples of Measurement Results Analysis ................................. 77

5

10.6 Example of Creating Frequency Polygon and Histogram in Excel

2007 ......................................................................................................... 84

10.7 Example of Creating Histogram, Polygon and Curve of Normal

Distribution in Statistica 7.0 .................................................................. 87

Conclusion .................................................................................................. 92

Index ........................................................................................................... 93

References .................................................................................................. 97

6

1. General Concepts. Legal Basis of Metrology

Metrology is the science of measurements, methods and means to ensure

traceability and achieve required accuracy.

Thus, metrology includes three interrelated problems: implementation of

measurement processes, measurement traceability assurance, methods and

means of measurement.

The main tasks of metrology according to RMG 29-99 are:

establishment of physical units;

establishment of state standards and reference measuring instruments;

development of the theory, methods and means of measurement and

inspection;

measurement traceability assurance;

development of methods for assessing errors and condition of the

means of measurement and inspection;

development of methods of transferring units from standards or refer-

ence measurement means to the working measurements means.

The legal framework of metrology includes the following general doc-

uments:

RF Law On ensuring the traceability of measurements;

RMG 29-99 State system for ensuring the traceability of measure-

ments. Metrology. Key Terms and Definitions;

MI 2247-93 GSI Metrology. Key Terms and Definitions;

GOST 8.417-2002 GSI. Physical units;

PR 50.2.006-94 GSI. Verification of measurement tools. Organiza-

tion and procedure of verification;

PR 50.2.009-94 GSI. Procedure of testing and approval of the

measuring instruments type;

PR 50.2.014-94 GSI. Accreditation of metrological services of legal

entities for the right for verification of measuring means;

MI 2277-94 GSI. System of certification of measurements means.

The fundamentals and procedures of the certification;

PR 50.2.002-94 GSI. Procedure of the state metrological supervision of

release, condition and use of measuring instruments; supervision of certified

methods of measurement, measurement standards and compliance with met-

rological rules and norms.

The law On ensuring the traceability of measurements regulates the

relations in the field of ensuring the traceability of measurements in the Rus-

7

sian Federation in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federa-

tion. The law establishes the following: the basic concepts, such as: organiza-

tion of governmental control of measurement traceability; regulations on

measurements traceability, units and national standards of units; the means

and methods of measurement. The law establishes the National service of le-

gal metrology and other services aimed at ensuring traceability of measure-

ments, metrology services of public authorities and legal entities, as well as

the types and area of distribution of governmental metrological control and

supervision. The law reflects the establishment of market relations in the

Russian Federation, defining the basis of metrological services of the public

authorities and legal entities. The activity of the metrological departments of

the enterprises is beyond the legal metrology and is regulated by the econom-

ic methods.

The activities that are not directly controlled by the government are sub-

jected to the Russian Calibration System, which is aimed at ensuring the

traceability of measurements too. The Calibration System is a system of

agents and calibration activities aimed at ensuring the traceability of meas-

urements in areas that are not subjected to the governmental metrological

control and supervision, which act on the basis of the established require-

ments for the organization and implementation of the process of calibration.

The law provides for cooperation between the international and national sys-

tems of measurement. This allows for the mutual recognition of the results of

tests, calibration and certification, and to use international experience and

trends of modern metrology. There are other laws, regulations and standardi-

zation documents relating to the legal basis of metrology.

8

2. Types and Methods of Measurements

Measurement is the process of empirical finding the physical quantity

value by measuring means.

The result of the measuring process is the value of a physical quantity:

Q qU ,

where q the numerical value of a physical quantity in the adopted unified

units; U the unit of a physical quantity. The value of the physical quantity

Q, found in the measurement is called actual value.

Principle of measurement is a physical phenomenon or a combination

of physical phenomena underlying the measurement. For example, measure-

ment of the mass of a body by weighing it with gravity proportional to the

mass, or temperature measurement using the thermoelectric effect.

Measurement method is a set of principles and means of measuring.

Means of measurement are the means with specified metrological

characteristics used to perform measurements.

There are various types of measurements. Classification of the meas-

urements is made on the basis of the measurand dependence on the time, type

of measurement equation, conditions that determine accuracy of the meas-

urement results and ways of expressing these results.

Depending on the nature of the measurand dependence on the time, all

measurements are divided into static and dynamic measurements.

Static measurement is the measurement when the measurand remains

constant over time. Examples of static measurements are the measurements

of product dimensions, static pressure, temperature and other quantities.

Dynamic measurement is a measurement, during which the measurand

varies with time, for example, measurement of pressure and temperature of

gas being compressed in the engine cylinder.

Depending on the way of obtaining measurement result, which is deter-

mined by the type of measurement equation, measurements are classified as

direct, indirect, transposition and joint measurements.

Direct measurement is the measurement in which the value of the

physical quantity is obtained directly from experimental data without any

calculations. Direct measurements can be expressed by the following equa-

tion:

Q x,

where Q the desired value of the quantity to be measured, and x the value

obtained directly from the experimental data. Examples of such measure-

9

ments are measurement of the length by a ruler or tape-measure, measure-

ment of the diameter by a vernier caliper or micrometer, measurement of the

angle by a protractor, measurement of the temperature by a thermometer, etc.

Indirect measurement is the measurement in which the value of the

quantity is determined on the basis of the known relationship between the de-

sired value and quantities, the values of which are obtained through direct

measurements. Thus, the quantity value is calculated according to the follow-

ing equation:

Q F ( x1, x2 ,..., xn ) ,

where Q the required value of the quantity; F known functional depend-

ence; x1 , x2 ,..., xn - the values obtained by direct measurements.

Examples of indirect measurements: calculation of the body volume

from direct measurements of its geometrical dimensions, finding the specific

electrical resistance of the conductor by measuring its resistance, length and

cross-section area, measurement of the screw pitch diameter by three-wire

method, etc. Indirect measurements are common in the cases when the de-

sired value is impossible or too difficult to measure by the direct measure-

ment. There are cases when the value can only be measured indirectly, e.g.,

sizes of the intra-atomic or astronomical order.

Transposition measurements are the measurements in which the val-

ues of the measurands are determined from results of repeated measurements

of one or more quantities of the same kind with different combinations of the

measures or the quantities. Value of the desired quantity is determined by

solving the set of equations formulated by the results of several direct meas-

urements.

An example of the transposition measurements is finding of the mass of

weights from a set, i.e. calibration by the known mass of one of the weight

and by the results of direct measurements and comparison of masses of dif-

ferent combinations of weights. Consider an example of transposition meas-

urements which is the calibration of weights, consisting of weights of 1, 2,

2*, 5, 10 and 20 kg. Several weights (except 2*) represent standard measures

of mass. An asterisk indicates a weight that has a value other than the exact

value of 2 kg. The calibration is to determine the mass of each weight with

the help of the standard measure, such as weight with mass of 1 kg. The

measurements are performed by changing the combination of weights. We

form the equations, where the numbers denote the mass of the weights, e.g., a

1ref denotes the mass of the standard weight of 1 kg weight, then:

1 1ref a ; 1 1ref 2 b ; 2* 2 c ; 1 2 2* 5 d and so on.

Additional weights, which must be added to the mass of the weight indi-

cated on the right side of the equation, or subtracted from it to balance the

10

scales, are indicated as a , b , c , d . Solving this system of equations, we can

determine the mass of each weight.

Joint measurement is the measurement, performed simultaneously for

two or more unlike values for finding the functional dependence between

them. Examples of joint measurements are finding of the length of a rod, de-

pending on its temperature or finding of the electrical resistance of a conduc-

tor depending on pressure and temperature.

On the basis of accuracy the measurements are divided into three clas-

ses.

1. Measurements of the maximum possible accuracy are the measure-

ments that can be achieved with the state-of-the-art engineering. This class

includes all the high-precision measurements and, in the first place, the refer-

ence measurements associated with the highest possible accuracy reproduc-

tion of the physical quantities. This also includes measurement of physical

constants, especially universal, such as measurement of the absolute value of

the acceleration of free fall.

2. Testing-calibrating measurements are the measurements, which error

has a defined probability not to exceed a predetermined value. This class in-

cludes measurements performed by laboratories of state supervision on tech-

nical regulations, measuring equipment condition and plant measurement la-

boratories. These measurements ensure that with a certain probability the

measurement error is not exceeding a certain specified value.

3. Engineering measurements are the measurements in which the error

of the result is determined by the characteristics of the measuring instru-

ments. Examples of engineering measurements are measurements performed

in manufacturing processes in industry, in service sector etc.

On the basis of measurement result expression, the measurements are

divided into absolute and comparison measurements.

Absolute measurements are the measurements based on direct meas-

urements of one or more base quantities or on the use of values of the physi-

cal constants. Examples of absolute measurements include measurements of

length in meters, electric current in amperes and acceleration of free fall in

m/s2.

Comparison measurements are the measurements in which the un-

known quantity is compared with a known value of the same quantity, which

plays the role of a unit or reference quantity. Examples of comparison meas-

urements are: measurement of the shell diameter by measuring number of

revolutions of the measuring wheel, measurement of the air relative humidity

defined as the ratio of the amount of water vapor in 1 m3 of air to the amount

of water vapour in 1 m3 of air at a given temperature.

11

Depending on the method of determining values of the quantities to be

measured two basic methods of measurement are distinguished: method of

direct evaluation and method of comparison with the measure.

The method of direct evaluation is a method of measurement in which

the value of the quantity is determined directly from the reading device of the

measuring instrument of direct action. Examples of such measurements are as

follows: length measurement with a ruler, micrometer or protractor, pressure

measurement with a manometer and so on.

The method of comparison with a standard measure is a method of

measurement, in which the quantities to be measured are compared with the

value reproduced by the standard measure. For example, to measure diameter

of the limit gauge the optimeter is set to zero with the help of the stack of

gauge blocks, and the measurement result is indicated by the deflection of the

pointer optimeter from zero. Thus, the quantity to be measured is compared

with the size of the gauge block stack. There are several types of the compar-

ison method:

a) method of opposition, in which the quantity to be measured and the

standard measure simultaneously act on the comparator, allowing to establish

relationship between these variables, e.g., measurement of the resistance with

a bridge circuit when the indicating device is in the diagonal of the bridge

circuit;

b) differential method, in which the quantity to be measured is compared

with a known quantity reproduced by a reference measure. This method, for

example, is used for determining the deviation of the part diameter by an op-

timeter after setting it to zero with the help of a stack of gauge blocks;

c) method of null measurement is also a method of comparison with a

standard measure in which the resulting effect of the values on the instrument

is brought to zero. This method of measurement is used to determine electri-

cal resistance with the balanced bridge circuit;

g) with the coincidence method the difference between the quantity to be

measured and a quantity reproduced by a reference measure, is determined by

identifying coincidence of the scale marks or periodic signals. For example,

measurements with a vernier caliper are based on observation of the match-

ing marks of the main and vernier scales.

Depending on the method of obtaining measurement data the measure-

ments are divided into contact and non-contact.

Depending on the type of the measuring means, there are instrumental,

expert, heuristic and organoleptic methods of measurement.

The instrumental method is based on the use of special means of meas-

urement, including automated and automatic.

The expert method is based on the judgments of the group of experts.

12

Heuristic methods are based on intuition.

Organoleptic methods are based on the use of the human senses.

Assessment of the state of an object can also be performed with ele-

ment-by-element and complex measurements. Element-by-element method is

characterized by measurements of each parameter of the product separately.

For example, eccentricity, ellipticity, faceting of a cylindrical shaft. The

complex method is characterized by measuring the total quality parameter,

which is influenced by its individual components. For example, the meas-

urement of radial run-out of a shaft, which is affected by eccentricity, ellipti-

city and other parameters; inspection of the profile position by the limiting

contours etc.

13

3. International System of Units

CGPM (General Conference on Weights and Measures). The international

system is SI system (the initial letters of French name Systeme International).

The system provides the list of 7 base units: metre, kilogram, second, ampere,

kelvin, candela, mole and 2 supplementary units: radian, steradian, including

prefixes for forming multiple and sub-multiple units (Table 1).

Metre is equal to the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum dur-

ing a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second.

Table 1

SI base and supplementary units

SI base units

Quantity Unit Symbol

Name Russian international

Length L metre m

Mass M kilogram kg

Time T second s

Electric current I ampere A

Thermodynamic temper-

kelvin K

ature

Luminous intensity candela cd

Amount of substance mole mol

SI supplementary units

Quantity Unit Symbol

Name Russian international

Plane angle radian rad

Solid angle steradian sr

14

Kilogram is equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilo-

gram.

Second is defined as the duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation

corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the

ground state of the caesium 133 atom.

Ampere is constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel

conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular, and placed one metre

apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to

2 10 7 newton per metre of length.

Kelvin is defined as the fraction 1273.16 of the thermodynamic tempera-

ture of the triple point of water.

Mole is the amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities

as there are atoms in 12 grams of pure carbon 12.

Candela is equal to the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source

that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 1012 hertz and that has

a radiant intensity in that direction of 1683 watt per steradian.

The SI derived units are formed with the help of simplest equations be-

tween quantities with numeric coefficient, equivalent to 1. For example, in

order to define dimension of linear speed we use the expression for uniform

linear speed. If the length of the distance travelled is l v t (m) and the trav-

el time t (s), then speed is measured in metres per second (m/s). Therefore, SI

speed unit is a metre per second that is speed of uniformly moving point

that travels the distance of 1 m over the time of 1 s. Other units have the same

methods of formation including coefficient not equal to 1 (Table 2).

15

Table 2

Units derived from SI base units

Name Unit

units

Base and sup-

Quantity Name Symbol Other units plementary

units

Frequency hertz Hz s-1

Force newton N mkgs-2

Pressure pascal Pa N/m2 m-1kgs-2

Energy, work joule J Nm m-1kgs-2

Power watt W J/s m-2kgs-3

Electric charge coulomb C As s

Electric potential volt V V/ m kgs-3-1

2

Electrical capaci-

farad F C/V m-2kg-1s42

tance

Electrical resistance ohm V/ m2kgs-3-2

Electrical conduct-

siemens S /V m-2kg-1s32

ance

Magnetic flux weber Wb Vs m2kgs-2-1

Magnetic flux densi-

tesla T Wb/m2 kgs-2-1

ty

Inductance henry H Wb/ m2kgs-2-2

Luminous flux lumen lm cdsr

Luminous flux lux lx m2cdsr

Radioactivity becquerel Bq s-1 s-1

Absorbed dose gray Gy J/kg m2s-2

16

4. Objects of Measurement

ical entities and processes describing their properties.

4.1. Measurands

and location deviation; surface finish; clearance.

Measurement of mechanical and kinematic quantities: mass; force;

stress and strain; hardness; torque; linear and rotational speed; kinematic pa-

rameters of gears and gear drives.

Measurement of parameters of liquids and gases: flow, level, volume;

static and dynamic pressure; parameters of boundary layer.

Physical-chemical measurements: viscosity; density; concentration of

components in solid, liquid and gaseous materials; humidity; electrochemical

measurements.

Thermo-physical and thermodynamic measurements: temperature;

pressure, thermal quantities; cycle parameters; energy conversion efficiency.

Time and frequency measurement: time and periods of time; measure-

ment of frequency of periodic processes.

Measurement of electrical and magnetic quantities: voltage, electric

current, resistance, capacitance, inductance; magnetic field parameters; mag-

netic properties of materials.

Radioelectronic measurements: signal intensity; signal form and spec-

trum; properties of substances and materials by radio-engineering methods.

Acoustic quantities measurement: in air, gas and water media; in solid

medium; audiometry and noise-level measurement.

Optical and optical-physical measurement: measurement of optical

properties of materials; pulse parameters of incoherent optical radiation;

spectral and frequency characteristics; laser polarization; parameters of opti-

cal elements, optical characteristics of materials; photomaterial characteris-

tics.

Measurement of ionization radiation and nuclear constants: dosimet-

ric characteristics of ionizing radiation; spectral characteristics of ionizing

radiation; radionuclide activity; radiometric characteristics of ionizing radia-

tion.

17

4.2. Dimension of a measurand

physical quantity.

Physical quantity is defined as a property which, in a qualitative sense,

is universal for many objects, but in a quantitative sense is individual for each

object. Leonhard Euler defined quantity in the following way: quantity is

anything that can be reduced or increased, or it is anything you can add or

take away from.

Dimension is a quantitative characteristic of the measurand.

In practice, it becomes necessary to take measurements of quantities

which characterize properties of phenomena and processes. Some properties

reveal to be qualitative, other quantitative. Representation of properties as a

set of elements or numbers or symbols is a measurement scale of the given

properties.

A measurement scale is an ordered set of values that the quantity may

take serving as a basis for its measurement. Lets explain the notion by the

example of temperature scales. The Celsius scale takes ice-point temperature

as a starting point and a steam point as the fundamental interval (reference

point). One hundredth part of this interval is a temperature unit (Celsius de-

gree).

There are several types of scales: nominal, ordinal, difference (inter-

val), ratio, absolute etc.

Nominal scales are characterized only by relation of equivalence (rela-

tion of equality). Nominal scale is qualitative; it doesnt contain any quantita-

tive information and doesnt have zero and units of measurement. The ele-

ments of these scales are characterized only by relation of equivalence

(equality) and similarity of specific qualitative demonstration of properties.

As an example we can call colorimetric atlas (colour scale). The measure-

ment process consists of visual comparison of a coloured item with test col-

ours (samples of atlas).

Ordinal scales characterize the dimension of measurand in numbers.

These scales describe properties for which not only relations of equivalence

but also rank relations in ascending or descending order are meaningful. The

typical examples of such scales are scales of hardness, earthquake intensity

scales, wind strength scales, nuclear event scales, etc. Highly specialized or-

dinal scales are widely used in methods of testing various products.

It is impossible in these scales to implement units of measurement since

they are not only basically nonlinear but also the type of their nonlinear na-

18

ture can be different and unknown on different parts of the scale. The hard-

ness measurements, for example, are expressed in Vickers hardness numbers,

Rockwell hardness numbers, Brinell numbers, Shore numbers and not in

units of measurement. Ordinal scales allow monotonic transformation, they

can have or not a zero value.

Interval scales (difference) differ from ordinal scales in that they pro-

vide both relation of equivalence and order and summation of interval values

(differences) between different quantitative demonstrations of properties. The

typical example is a time scale.

The time intervals (for example, working periods and study periods) can

be added and subtracted but it is senseless to summarize the dates of some

events.

Another example, a length (distance) scale of space intervals is applied

by fixing of zero mark of the scale at one point and making the reading at the

second point. This type of scales includes the centigrade Celsius scale, Fahr-

enheit temperature scale, Reaumur temperature scale.

Interval scales have standard (agreed) units of measurement and zeros,

based on reference elements or data.

These scales allow linear transformations; procedures for finding of

mathematical expectation, standard deviation, skewness and displaced mo-

ments are applicable for them.

Ratio scales have natural zero, and the unit of measurement is deter-

mined by agreement. For example, mass scales starting with zero can be

graded differently in accordance with required weight accuracy. Just compare

chemical balance and household scales. These scales apply relations of

equivalency and order operations of subtraction and multiplication (ratio

scales of the 1st type proportional scales) and in many cases the sum opera-

tions (ratio scales of the 2nd type additive scales).

The masses of different objects can be summarized but it is no use in

summarizing temperatures of different bodies, though we can estimate the

difference and relation of their thermodynamic temperatures. The examples

of ratio scales include mass scales (2nd type), thermodynamic temperature

scale (1st type).

The ratio scales are widely used in physics and engineering allowing all

arithmetic and statistic operations.

Absolute scales possess all the characteristics of ratio scales but they

additionally have natural unambiguous determination of unit of measure-

ment. Such scales are used to measure relative quantities (relations of similar

quantities: magnitude ratio, attenuation ratio, efficiency coefficient, reflection

and absorption coefficients, amplitude modulation index and so on).

19

5. Standard Conditions for Linear and Angular Measurements

lar measurements with the smaller side of an angle up to 500 mm are defined

in the standard GOST 8.050-73. Standard conditions must be provided to

practically eliminate additional errors of measurements. The standard defines

the following values of basic parameters that influence measurement accura-

cy:

Parameter Value

Environmental temperature, C 20

Atmosphere pressure, kPa (mmHg) 101.3 (760)

Relative humidity, % 58

Acceleration of free fall, m/s2 9.8

4 kPa (30 mmHg), for relative humidity +22-18%.

Temperature deviations have the highest influence on measurement ac-

curacy. In accordance with tolerances and range of measured dimensions

there are fixed limits of allowable variations of temperature of a measured

part and workplace area (Table 3.)

Table 3

of the measured object and work place,

from standard value during the measurement

es, mm 01 0 From 1 to 5 From 6 to 8 From 9 to 10

Over 1 to 18 0.8 1.0 1.5 3.0 4.0

Over 18 to 50 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0

Over 50 to 500 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0

of the measuring object and workplace area from standard value are 3.5 C.

The waiting period of the part to be measured and measuring instrument

in the workplace area before starting the measurements must be not less than

stated in the Table 4. The standard GOST 8.050-73 specifies the standard di-

20

rection of measurement line. For measurements of external linear dimensions

up to 160 mm the direction of measurement line is vertical; for dimensions

more than 160 mm and for dimensions of holes, width and depth of slots the

direction of measurement line is horizontal. Position of the flat surface for

angular measurements is horizontal.

Table 4

the workplace area, h

measured object, 01 and 0 From 1 to 5 From 6 to 8 From 9 to10

kg

To 10 6 4 3 2

Over 10 to 50 14 8 6 4

Over 50 to 200 24 14 10 7

Over 200 to 500 36 20 16 12

must be not more than 1 for the IT 01 and IT 0; 2 for the IT 1-5; 5 for

the IT 6-10.

To reduce the error of measurement it is necessary to align the standard

direction of measurement line with the corresponding direction of the refer-

ence gages and reference parts.

Standard conditions in workplace area must be provided during the

whole process of measurement.

21

6. Means of Measurement

means required for measurements are:

material measure measuring instruments intended for reproduc-

ing the physical quantity with a given value. The measures of the

highest order of accuracy are called measurement standards or eta-

lons;

measurement standards are measuring instruments or systems that

ensure reproduction, storage and transfer of legal units of physical

quantities to the measuring instruments of the lower levels;

reference measuring instruments are material measures, measur-

ing instruments or transducers approved as a reference for the verifi-

cation of the other means of measurement;

working measuring instruments are the instruments designated for

measurements not connected with transfer of the quantities.

are divided into several grades.

The standard reproducing unit with the highest accuracy in the country

is called the state primary standard. The standard of the unit of a physical

quantity is reproduced with almost the highest possible accuracy using spe-

cial tools.

In 1983, at the XVII General Conference on Weights and Measures the

metre was approved as a standard unit of length the length of the path trav-

eled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second.

Previously, the standard of the meter was equal to 1650763.73 wavelengths

of light in vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between

the levels 2p10 and 5d5 of the isotope krypton-86.

The second was adopted as a standard unit of time, equal to the duration

of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition be-

tween the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.

22

The standard of the mass unit (1 kg) is a cylinder made from an alloy of

platinum (90%) and iridium (10%) with diameter and height being approxi-

mately the same (about 30 mm).

The mole was recognised as a unit of amount of substance. The mole is

the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary enti-

ties as there are atoms in 12.000 grams of carbon-12.

As a standard unit of luminous intensity the candela was adopted, which

is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits mono-

chromatic radiation of frequency 540x1012 Hz and radiant intensity in that di-

rection of 1/683 watt per steradian.

As a standard unit of current the ampere was adopted, which is the con-

stant electric current which, flowing in two parallel straight conductors of in-

finite length, of negligible circular cross-sectional area, located one metre

apart in vacuum, produces between these conductors an interaction force

equal to 2x10-7 newtons per metre of length.

The standard unit of thermodynamic temperature is Kelvin, constituting

the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of

water.

If the direct transfer of the unit value from the existing etalons with the

required accuracy is not technically feasible in view of the special conditions,

then the special standards are produced for the unit reproduction. Such condi-

tions may include: high or low pressure, high humidity, measurements at ex-

treme boundaries of the range of values of the measured quantity.

In metrological practice secondary standards, working standards and

reference standards are widely used. These standards are produced and ap-

proved for organization of verification procedures, as well as to ensure safety

and minimize wear of the state primary standard.

The following categories of standards are also used:

transfer standard is the secondary standard used to compare stand-

ards, which for some reason cannot be checked against each other;

duplicate standard is the secondary standard used to test the integri-

ty of the state standard or to replace it in case of damage or loss;

reference standard is the secondary standard to transfer unit value

to the working standards. It may not always be an exact physical

copy of the state standard;

working standard is the secondary standard that is used to store the

unit and transfer it to the reference measuring instruments or to the

most accurate working measuring instruments.

23

The working standards can be implemented as a single standard (or sin-

gle material measure), as a collective standard, as a complex of measuring

instruments and as a group standard.

An example of a single standard is the standard of mass in the form of

platinum-iridium weight. An example of a collective standard is the reference

standard of volt, consisting of 20 normal cells. An example of a measuring

instruments complex is the standard unit of the molar fraction of the concen-

tration of components in gas mixtures. In this case the different components,

different concentration ranges and different diluent gases create a large num-

ber of measurement tasks with the general formulation. Therefore, in this

case a standard consists of several tens of measuring instruments. An exam-

ple of a group standard is a set of instruments for measuring density of liq-

uids in different parts of the density range.

Such a wide range of varieties of standards is not specified in the inter-

national metrological documents. International standards stored at the Inter-

national Bureau of Weights and Measures reproduce a limited number of

physical units. Typically, this is either the basic units of the SI system or

units which can be reproduced at accuracy equal to or exceeding the accuracy

of the standard of basic unit. An example of such a standard is the standard of

volt based on the Josephson effect, which consists in the flow of direct cur-

rent across the junction formed by two superconductors separated by a thin

dielectric layer (stationary effect), or in the flow of alternating current across

the junction of two superconductors, to which direct voltage is applied (non-

stationary effect).

The number of international standards is small in comparison with Rus-

sian standards due to the fact that the concept of standards and reference

measuring instrument does not have a clear distinction in many countries.

There is a vast concept a standard, which can be applied to the secondary

standard (reference measuring instrument) or an etalon (original reference

measuring instrument).

24

6.2 Measures and Reference Measuring Instruments

the reference measuring means. They are intended for verification and gradu-

ation of other measuring instruments. These means have a reading error that

2-3 times smaller than that of the instruments being verified, these means are

issued a certificate for the right to carry out verification.

The measure could be implemented in the form of a body, substance or

device for reproducing, storing and transferring unit of physical quantity

from one measuring instrument to another. The measure reproduces quantity,

which value is associated with the accepted unit of a certain well-known

equation.

Measures and reference measuring instruments, serving for reproduction

and storage of units with the highest accuracy possible at the present state-of-

-the-art, belong to the standards. In contrast to the standard, the measure re-

produces not only a unit, but its sub-multiples and multiple values. For ex-

ample, one metre rod or a set of gauge blocks of various sizes can be used as

a measure of length.

Measures of mass are not only the reference kilogram weights and their

copies, but also weights of different masses.

Measures are essential means of measurement, because they are used as

means of transferring units of physical quantities from one instrument to an-

other.

In many countries, including Russia, special storages of measures are

constructed, which functions include comparison of state measures with in-

ternational. The first storage in Russia was established in 1842 as the Depot

of Standard measures, and in 1893 the Central Office of Weights and

Measures under the direction of D.I. Mendeleev was established.

Measures as means of measurements are available in various grades of

accuracy, which are regulated by the relevant state standards and verification

procedures. The so-called certified reference materials belong to a particular

class of measures.

A certified reference material is a measure in the form of substance with

which a size of the unit of physical quantity is reproduced as property or as a

composition of matter, from which the certified reference material is made.

Examples of such measures are substances that under certain conditions re-

produce a unit or its sub-multiple or multiple value. Examples include con-

stant temperature corresponding to the transition from one state of matter into

another 1063 C the melting point of gold, 960.8 C the melting point of

25

silver, 444.6 C the melting point of sulphur, 100 C boiling point of wa-

ter, 182.97 C the boiling point of oxygen etc.

Another example of the certified reference material, which uses the

properties of matter, is folic acid. The combustion of a certain mass of folic

acid in a closed volume generates a fixed quantity of heat. According to the

results of preliminary tests the certificate is issued on the certified reference

material, and the material is registered in the State Register of certified refer-

ence materials. Certified reference material, as well as other measures are pe-

riodically compared and stored in the metrological organizations.

In the Russian Federation, the State Register of certified reference mate-

rials is kept in a special institute in Yekaterinburg. A special place in the sys-

tem of measures is occupied by the certified reference materials of composi-

tion reference gas mixtures. These reference materials have features that

distinguish them from reference materials made in the form of liquids or sol-

ids. The main difference is that the reference gas mixture is consumed in the

process of measurement, which may lead to changes in gas composition. It is

also impossible to store the reference gas mixture that is being analysed.

Therefore, a batch of vessels with mixtures is prepared for analysis.

The measures are divided into single-valued and multi-valued.

Single-value measures are measures that reproduce constant value of

the physical quantity. It can be a unit or a multiple or a sub-multiple value

(weights, gauge blocks, receiving flasks, standard cells of electromotive

force, electrical resistance coils etc.). For convenience of use the sets of

measures (weights, gauge blocks and other measures) are manufactured. A

set of measures combined in one mechanical unit with a device is called a

measure box (resistance box, capacitance box, and so on).

Multi-valued measures reproduce not one, but several sub-multiple or

multiple values of units. Such measures are, for example, a millimeter ruler

and other graduated measures, graduated variable capacitors, variometer and

so on. To reproduce a length the line gauge blocks and end gauge blocks are

widely used in the industry. The line gauge blocks are made in the form of

samples, rulers, tape measures and scales with the indicating elements.

26

6.3 Gauge Blocks

of parallelepipeds (plates and blocks), which are made of steel for lengths up

to 1000 mm or carbide for lengths up to 100 mm with two mutually parallel

planar measuring surfaces (GOST 9038-90). They are designed for the direct

measurement of the linear dimensions, as well as for transferring unit of

length from the primary standard to gauge blocks of lower accuracy.

Gauge blocks are used for verification, calibration and adjustment of the

measuring instruments, measuring devices, machine tools etc. With the

wringability (i.e., adhering), due to the action of intermolecular forces of at-

traction, gauge blocks can be assembled into stacks of the required size,

which do not fall apart while handling. The gauge block sets are made from

various numbers of gauge blocks (from 2 to 112 blocks).

The gauge blocks are available in the following accuracy grades: 00, 01,

0, 1, 2, 3 for steel blocks; 00, 0, 1, 2 and 3 for carbide blocks. Each set of

gauge blocks is supplied with a certificate according to GOST 2.601-95 and

an instruction manual. By stacking four or five gauge blocks, from a set with

block sizes from 0.001 mm to 100 mm, it is possible to build up stacks of de-

sired size.

GOST 9038-90 applies to the plane-parallel end measures of length

(hereinafter gauge blocks) made of steel with lengths up to 1000 mm and to

carbide gauge blocks with lengths up to 100 mm, having a rectangular paral-

lelepiped shape with two opposing measuring surfaces ground flat and mutu-

ally parallel.

The gauge blocks are designed to be used as: working measures to ad-

just and set up indicating instruments for direct measurement of linear di-

mensions of industrial products; reference measures to transfer the size of a

unit of length from the primary standard to the gauge blocks of the lower ac-

curacy and for verification and calibration of measuring instruments.

Nominal length of a gauge block must meet the requirements specified

in the Table 5.

Gauge blocks are manufactured of the following accuracy grades: 0, 1,

2, 3 for steel blocks, 0, 1, 2 and 3 for carbide blocks. Steel and carbide

gauge blocks of accuracy grades 00 and 01 are supplied upon request.

The gauge block used as a reference should be verified as reference, of

the 1, 2, 3, and 4th class according to the MI 1604. The reference gauge

blocks should have a distinctive mark stamped during manufacture. Accuracy

grade of a gauge blocks set is determined by the lowest accuracy grade of the

27

individual gauge block of the set. Gauge block of 1.005 mm available in sets

1, 2, 3, 12, and 15 of the third accuracy grade, should have accuracy grade

not lower than 2nd.

Table 5

- 1.0005

From 0.99 to 1.01

0.001 From 1.99 to 2.01

From 9.99 to 10.01

0.005 From 0.40 to 0.41

From 0.1 to 0.7

From 0.9 to 1.5

0.05

From 2 to 3

From 9.9 to 10.1

0.1 From 0.1 to 3

0.5 From 0.5 to 25

1 From 1 to 25

10 From 10 to 100

25 From 25 to 200

50 From 50 to 300

100 From 100 to 1000

Cross section dimensions of gauge blocks (a, b) must meet the require-

ments specified in the Table 6.

Table 6

Cross section dimensions of gauge blocks

lengths a b

From 0.1 to 0.20 15-0.45 5-0.3

Over 0.20 to 0.29

30-0.45

20-0.3

Over 0.29 to 0.6

900..03

3

30-0.3

Over 0.6 to 10.1

Over 10 to 1000 35-0.3

28

Examples of gauge block designation according to the GOST 9038-90:

the 1st accuracy grade

set 3: carbide gauge blocks gauge blocks 2-H3-T

of the 2nd accuracy grade GOST 9038-90;

steel gauge block of 1.49 mm gauge block 3-1,49 GOST 9038-90;

of the 3rd accuracy grade

set of the reference gauge reference gauge blocks 1-KO

blocks of the 1st class GOST 9038-90;

set 3: reference gauge blocks reference gauge blocks 2HO3

of the 2nd class GOST 9038-90

cordance with the requirements of the standard and working drawings.

Permissible length deviations and deviations from flatness of the meas-

uring surfaces of the gauge blocks at 20 C must not exceed values, given in

the Table 7.

Table 7

Permissible deviations

Nominal length

from nominal length, m, from flatness and parallelism,

of a gauge

related to the accuracy grade m, related to the accuracy grade

block, mm

00 01 0 1 2 3 00 01 0 1 2 3

To 0.29 - - - 0.20 0.40 0.80 - - - 0.16 0.30 0.30

Over 0.29 to

- - 0.12 0.20 0.40 0.80 - - 0.10 0.16 0.30 0.30

0.9

Over 0.9 to 10 0.06 0.20 0.12 0.20 0.40 0.80 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.16 0.30 0.30

Over 10 to 25 0.07 0.30 0.14 0.30 0.60 1.20 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.16 0.30 0.30

Over 25 to 50 0.10 0.40 0.20 0.40 0.80 1.60 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.18 0.30 0.30

Over 50 to 75 0.12 0.50 0.25 0.50 1.00 2.00 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.18 0.35 0.40

Over 75 to 100 0.14 0.60 0.30 0.60 1.20 2.50 0.07 0.07 0.12 0.20 0.35 0.40

Over 100 to

0.20 0.80 0.40 0.80 1.60 3.00 0.08 0.08 0.14 0.20 0.40 0.40

150

Over 150 to 0.25 1.00 0.50 1.00 2.00 4.00 0.09 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.40 0.40

29

Permissible deviations

Nominal length

from nominal length, m, from flatness and parallelism,

of a gauge

related to the accuracy grade m, related to the accuracy grade

block, mm

00 01 0 1 2 3 00 01 0 1 2 3

200

250 0.30 1.20 0.60 1.20 2.40 5.00 0.10 0.10 0.16 0.25 0.45 0.50

300 0.35 1.40 0.70 1.40 2.80 6.00 0.10 0.10 0.18 0.25 0.50 0.50

400 0.45 1.80 0.90 1.80 3.60 7.00 0.12 0.12 0.20 0.30 0.50 0.50

500 0.50 2.00 1.00 2.00 4.00 8.00 0.14 0.14 0.25 0.35 0.60 0.60

600 0.60 2.50 1.30 2.50 5.00 10.0 0.16 0.16 0.25 0.40 0.70 0.70

700 0.70 3.00 1.50 3.00 6.00 11.0 0.18 0.18 0.30 0.45 0.70 0.80

800 0.80 3.20 1.60 3.20 6.50 13.0 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.50 0.80 0.80

900 0.90 3.60 1.80 3.60 7.00 14.0 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.50 0.90 0.90

1000 1.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 8.00 16.0 0.25 0.25 0.40 0.60 1.00 1.00

These requirements are not applied to the zone adjacent to the edges of

the measuring surfaces; the zone is 0.5 mm wide for gauge blocks of nominal

length up to 0.29 mm and 0.8 mm wide for gauge blocks of nominal length of

more than 0.29 mm.

Deviations from flatness of the measuring surfaces of gauge blocks with

the nominal length from 0.9 to 3 mm in free state (not wrung) should not ex-

ceed 2 m.

Wringability of the gauge block measuring surfaces must meet the re-

quirements specified in the Table 8.

Flatness tolerance of the optical flats is equal to 0.03 m for accuracy

grades 00, 01 and 0, and is equal to 0.1 m for accuracy grades 1, 2 and 3.

Gauge blocks surface roughness parameter Rz<0.063 m is in accord-

ance with GOST 2789.

The edges of the measuring surfaces of gauge blocks should be rounded

to a radius less than 0.3 mm or have a chamfer of less than 0.3 mm.

The measuring surfaces of gauge blocks, including zone of the chamfers

transition to the measuring surface, should be free of defects that adversely

affect the use of gauge blocks.

Scratches on the measuring surfaces of gauge blocks are allowed as long

as they do not affect wringability, deviation of length from the nominal value

and deviation from flatness and parallelism.

30

Table 8

Wringability requirements

Wringability of gauge blocks to each other

Accuracy the lower (supporting) optical Steel gauge Carbide gauge

grade flats of 60 mm in diameter ac- blocks with blocks with lengths

cording to TU 33.2123 lengths from from 0.99 to 100

0.6 to 100 mm mm

00

Without fringes and shades -

01

viewed with white light

Sliding pres-

0 sure from 29.4

to 78.5 N Sliding pressure

Without fringes. Shades in the

1, 2 and 3 form of bright spots, viewed from 29.4 to 98.1 N

with white light

from the center of the measuring surface and at the corner points at a distance

of 1-2 mm from the non-working surfaces, are not allowed to have dents

larger than 120 m in width for the 00 and 0 accuracy grades, and larger than

200 m in width for the 1, 2 and 3 accuracy grades. The porosity should not

be higher than 0.4% according to GOST 9391.

Coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel gauge blocks per 1 m and

1 C must be within 10.5-12.5 m in the temperature range from 10 to 30 C.

Table 9

Accuracy grade

gauge block, mm per 1 m and 1

From 2 to 5 3.5 12.5 1; 2 and 3

Over 5 to 10 8 12.5 1

Over 5 to 10 3.5 12.5 2 and 3

Over 10 to 25 8 12.5 1; 2 and 3

Over 25 to 100 10.5 12.5 1; 2 and 3

31

Carbide gauge blocks should have a coefficient of thermal expansion

and allowable elongation at a temperature range from 10 to 30 C in accord-

ance with the Tables 9 and 10. The carbide gauge blocks should be manufac-

tured as entirely solid carbide gauge block or as steel block with carbide-

tipped measuring surfaces.

Table 10

Accuracy grade

in the course of year, m

00 and 01 0.02 + 0.0002l

0 0.02 + 0.0005l

1; 2 and 3 0.05 + 0.001l

thermal expansion corresponding to the grade of the carbide used. Hardness

of the measuring surfaces of steel gauge blocks should be at least 800 HV ac-

cording to GOST 2999.

The change in length of the gauge blocks in the course of year, due to

instability of the material, must not exceed the values given in the Table 10.

The requirements for the stability of the gauge blocks over time should be

ensured by the manufacturer, provided that the gauge blocks are not subject-

ed to sudden temperature shocks, vibrations and impacts, as well as the ef-

fects of magnetic fields, excluding magnetic field of the earth.

The perpendicularity tolerance of the non-working surfaces with respect

to the measuring surfaces must meet values specified in the Table 11.

Table 11

Nominal length of a gauge

with respect to the measuring surfaces over the whole

block, mm

length of the gauge block, m

From 10.5 to 25 70

Over 25 to 60 90

Over 60 to 150 110

Over 150 to 400 140

Over 400 to 1000 180

32

Non-working surfaces of gauge blocks of nominal length over 100 mm

should have marks engraved at a distance of 0.211 l from the block sides.

To clamp gauge blocks together with the ties, according to GOST 4119,

the gauge blocks of the sets 8 and 9, as well as gauge blocks longer than

100 mm of the sets 22-24 should have two holes; wear blocks of 50 mm

nominal length and gauge blocks of 51.4 and 71.5 mm nominal length of the

sets 22-24 should have one hole.

The holes should be located at a distance of 25 mm from the measuring

surfaces, and for gauge blocks of 51.4 and 71.5 mm length at the distance

from one of the measuring surfaces.

Explanation of terms used in this section is given in the Tables 12 and

15.

Each set of gauge blocks and kits of the set should be packed in a case

with an enclosed certificate in accordance with GOST 2.601, and for the ref-

erence gauge blocks a calibration certificate according to the MI 1604 should

be enclosed as well.

The nominal length of a block should be stamped on it. For the gauge

blocks of length equal to and smaller than 5.5 mm, the nominal length mark-

ing should be shifted from the middle of the measuring surface, so that its

central zone of 9 mm long remains free of markings.

For the gauge blocks of length greater than 5.5 mm, the nominal length

marking and trademark of the manufacturer should be applied to the non-

working surface. Additional distinctive sign, in addition to the markings men-

tioned above, should be applied to the wear blocks and reference gauge

blocks. It is allowed to label gauge blocks of the 00, 01 and 0 accuracy

grades with the set number or other additional information.

Marking on the case of the gauge block set should include:

trademark of the manufacturer (on the outer surface of the cover);

serial number of the set or kit;

accuracy grade (for working gauge blocks), class (for reference

gauge blocks), the words reference gauge blocks (on the outer sur-

face of the case cover of a set or kit of reference gauge blocks);

reference to GOST 9038-90;

letter "T" (for carbide gauge blocks) on the inner surface of the case.

Each pocket should be supplied with an indication of the nominal length

of the gauge block placed in.

Gauge blocks sets and gauge block of length from 500 to 1000 mm, de-

livered individually, must be packed in cases made of materials specified in

GOST 13762.

33

Each gauge block in a set must be placed in the appropriate pocket and

shouldnt fall out when the closed case is turned upside-down.

To verify compliance of the gauge block with the requirements of

GOST 9038-90, the following activities are carried out: state tests, metrologi-

cal certification (for reference gauge blocks), acceptance inspection, periodic

testing and testing for compliance of coefficient of thermal expansion and

stability of the gauge blocks length over time.

State tests are conducted in accordance with GOST 8.383 and 8.001,

metrological certification according to GOST 8.326.

During the acceptance inspection, each gauge block is checked for com-

pliance with the requirements of wringability to optical flats. The sliding

pressure is checked selectively.

Periodic tests are conducted at least once every three years for compli-

ance with all requirements of GOST 9038-90. Periodic testing should be per-

formed on typical representatives:

any set of steel gauge blocks with lengths to 100 mm of any accuracy

grade and/or class;

any set of steel gauge blocks with lengths from 100 mm of any accu-

racy grade and/or class;

any set of carbide gauge blocks of any accuracy grade and/or class.

At least 10% of the gauge blocks, but not less than four, are selected

from each set.

From the set composed of carbide and steel gauge blocks, 10% of car-

bide and 10% of steel blocks, but at least in fours of carbide and steel blocks,

are selected.

The results of periodic testing are considered satisfactory if all tested pa-

rameters of the gauge blocks meet all requirements.

The testing in accordance with MI 1604 is held at least once every three

years, on at least four blocks of each representative group. In case tests are

performed together with periodic tests, the gauge blocks selected for periodic

testing are used.

It is allowed to carry out testing on at least four separately manufactured

carbide and steel blocks.

The results of testing are considered satisfactory if all tested parameters

of the gauge blocks meet all requirements.

34

Inspection and testing of gauge blocks

Verification of gauge blocks is performed in accordance with MI 2079,

MI 2186, GOST 8.367 and MI 1604.

The effect of climatic factors of environment on transportation is tested

in climatic chambers. Tests are carried out in the following conditions: at a

temperature of plus (50 3) C, at a temperature of minus (50 3) C and

relative humidity of (95 3) % at a temperature of (35 3) C. Exposure

time in the given conditions in a climate chamber is equal to 2 hours.

Upon completion of tests, all tested gauge blocks must comply with the

requirements of the standards mentioned above.

For testing effect of transport shaking a shock table, which creates shak-

ing with acceleration of 30 m/s2 and frequency of 80-120 beats per minute, is

used.

Boxes packed with gauge blocks are attached to the table and undergo a

total of 15,000 strokes. After the test, the metrological characteristics of the

gauge blocks should not exceed values, specified in GOST 9038-90.

Description of terms used in the section and gauge block sets is given in

the Tables 12, 13 and 14.

Table 12

Term Explanation

Length of a perpendicular from a given point of a measuring

surface to the opposite measuring surface.

Note. As an opposite measuring surface, in absolute inter-

Length of a gauge ferometric method of measurement of the block length, a

block (at any point) flat surface of the auxiliary plate made of the same material

and same surface finish as the gauge block, to which it is

wrung, is used.

Deviation of the

of the gauge block at any point and nominal length of the

gauge block nominal

gauge block.

length

The difference between the maximum and minimum lengths

Deviation from flat-

of the gauge block.

ness and parallelism

35

Term Explanation

Property of the measuring surfaces of a gauge block that

provides a firm bond between gauge blocks or between a

Wringability of a gauge block and a flat metal or optical flat when a block is

gauge block applied or slid across a block or a plate. Wringability is

characterized by sliding pressure.

Wear block protect the gauge blocks from wear.

A set of special gauge products and measuring devices (wires, micrometers, verni-

blocks er calipers, optikators).

Table 13

Accuracy

Quan- Size Wear blocks

Set Block grade

tity of incre- Nominal lengths,

num- quan- Nominal Quanti-

blocks ment, mm Steel Carbide

ber tity length, ty of

in a set mm blocks blocks

mm blocks

- 1.005 1

0.01 From 1 to 1.5 51

0.1 From 1.6 to 2 5 0; 1; 2 1; 2 and

1 83 - -

0.5 0.5 1 and 3 3

From 2.5 to 10 16

10 From 20 to 100 9

- 1.005 1

0.01 From 1 to 1.1 11

1; 2 1; 2 and

2 38 0.1 From 1.2 to 2 9 - -

and 3 3

1 From 3 to 10 8

10 From 20 to 100 9

- 1.005 1

0.01 From 1 to 1.5 51

0.1 From 1.6 to 2 5 0; 1; 2 1; 2 and

3 112 - -

0.5 1 and 3 3

0.5

From 2.5 to 25 46

10 From 30 to 100 8

4 11 0.001 From 2 to 2.01 11 - - 0;1; 2 -

5 11 0.001 From 1.99 to 2 11 - - 0; 1; 2 -

36

Accuracy

Quan- Size Wear blocks

Set Block grade

tity of incre- Nominal lengths,

num- quan- Nominal Quanti-

blocks ment, mm Steel Carbide

ber tity length, ty of

in a set mm blocks blocks

mm blocks

6 11 0.001 From 1 to 1.01 11 - - 0; 1; 2 0 and 1

7 11 0.001 From 0.99 to 1 11 - - 0; 1; 2 0 and 1

25 From 125 to 200 4 0; 1

8 10 50 From 250 to 300 2 50 2 2 and

100 From 400 to 500 2 3

From 100 to 0; 1; 2

9 12 100 10 50 2 -

1000 and 3

1; 2

10 20 0.01 From 0.1 to 0.29 20 - - -

and 3

0.01 From 0.3 to 0.7 41 0; 1; 2

11 43 - - -

0.1 Over 0.8 to 0.9 2 and 3

- 1.005 1

0.01 From 0.9 to 1.5 61

12 74 0.1 From 1.6 to 2 5 1; 2; 3

- 0.5 1

0.5 From 2.5 to 5 6

- 5 1

13 11 - - 1; 2; 3 -

10 From 10 to 100 10

0.5 From 10.5 to 25 30 0; 1;

14 38 - - -

10 From 30 to 100 8 2; 3

0.001 1.005 1

0.01 From 1 to 1.1 11 1; 2

15 29

0.1 From 1.2 to 2 9 and 3

1 From 3 to 10 8

From 0.991 to 0; 1

16 19 0.001 19 - - 0 and 1

1.009 and 2

From 1.991 to 0; 1

17 19 0.001 19 - - -

2.009 and 2

1; 2 and

18 2 - - - 1 2 -

3

1; 2 and

19 2 - - - 2 2 -

3

Note: The carbide gauge blocks of sets 1, 2 and 3 with length over 5

mm may be replaced by steel gauge blocks.

37

Table 14

Accuracy grade of

a set Class of

Nominal lengths, mm

Steel Carbide a set

blocks blocks

Set 20 (23 blocks)

0.12; 0.14; 0.17; 0.2; 0.23; 0.26; 0.29; 0.34; 0.4; 0.43;

1 and 2 - 1, 2, 3, 4

0.46; 0.57; 0.7; 0.9; 1.0; 1.16; 1.3; 1.44; 1.6; 1.7; 1.9;

2; 3.5

Set 21 (20 blocks)

5.12; 10.24; 15.36; 21.5; 25; 30.12; 35.24; 40.36;

1 and 2 1 and 2 1, 2, 3, 4

46.5; 50; 55.12; 60.24; 65.36; 71.5; 75; 80.12; 85.24;

90.36; 96.5; 100

Set 22 (7 blocks)

3 3 -

21.2; 51.4; 71.5; 101.6; 126.8; 150; 175

Set 23 (13 blocks)

1.00; 1.00; 1.05; 1.10; 2.00; 2.00; 21.2; 51.4; 71.5; 2 and 3 -

101.6; 126.8; 150; 175

Set 24 (25 blocks)

1.00; 1.00; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.10; 1.11; 1.12; 1.13;

- 2 and 3 -

1.17; 1.18; 1.19; 2.00; 2.00; 21.2; 51.4; 71.5; 101.6;

126.8; 150; 175; 250; 400; 600; 1000

Set 25 (15 blocks)

0.990; 0.992; 0.994; 0.995; 0.996; 0.998; 1.000;

- - 2

1.002; 1.005; 1.010; 1.015; 1.020; 1.030; 1.040;

1.050

Set 26 (8 blocks)

0.990; 0.995; 1.000; 1.005; 1.010; 1.020; 1.030; - - 2

1.050

Set 27 (9 blocks)

- - 3

1.00; 1.02; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.08; 1.10; 1.15; 1.20

Set 28 (28 blocks)

1.00; 1.02; 1.04; 1.06; 1.08; 1.10; 1.12; 1.14; 1.16;

- - 3

1.18; 1.20; 1.24; 1.28; 1.30; 1.32; 1.36; 1.40; 1.50;

1.60; 1.70; 1.80; 1.90; 2.0; 2.2; 2.4; 2.6; 2.8; 3.0

38

Accuracy grade of

a set Class of

Nominal lengths, mm

Steel Carbide a set

blocks blocks

Set 29 (8 blocks)

0.990; 0.995; 1.000; 1.005; 1.010; 1.020; 1.030; - - 3

1.040

Set 30 (7 blocks)

- - 4

5.12; 10.24; 15.36; 19.50; 20; 21.50; 25

Set 31 (9 blocks)

- - 3

1; 1.01; 1.02; 1.03; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.08; 1.10

Set 32 (7 blocks)

- - 3

0.995; 1; 1.005; 1.010; 1.020; 1.030; 1.040

Set 33 (7 blocks)

- - 3

1; 1.06; 1.10; 1.12; 1.18; 1.20; 1.30

Set 34 (9 blocks)

1.001; 1.002; 1.003; 1.005; 1.006; 1.007; 1.008; - - 1

1.009

Set 35 (9 blocks)

- - 1

1.01; 1.02; 1.03; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.07; 1.08; 1.09

Set 36 (13 blocks)

1; 1.001; 1.002; 1.003; 1.004; 1.005; 1.006; 1.010; - - 2

1.020; 1.030; 1.040; 1.050; 1.060

Set 37 (8 blocks)

- - 1

1 2 pcs; 10 2 pcs; 50 2 pcs; 100 2 pcs

Note: The carbide gauge blocks of sets 23 and 24 with length over 5

mm may be replaced by steel gauge blocks.

39

6.4 Angle Gauge Blocks

Angle gauge blocks (GOST 2875-88) are intended for inspection of the

inner and outer angles of tools, templates, parts and verification of devices,

etc. The angle gauge blocks of five types are available: 1 and 2 with one

working angle either with a truncated top or sharp top; 3 with four working

angles; 4 regular polyhedrons; 5 with three working angles. Angle gauge

blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 are manufactured of three accuracy grades (0, 1

and 2), multi-faceted blocks of type 4 are made of four accuracy grades (00,

0, 1 and 2), angle blocks of type 5 are available of grade 1. A wide range of

nominal angles is possible by wringing angle gauge blocks together.

GOST 2875-88 applies to angle blocks accessories and angle gauge

blocks of plane angle (hereinafter the angle gauge blocks) having shape of

a right prism with a number of side faces, some of them or all of them are

measuring surfaces, pairs of which form the working angles.

Angle gauge blocks are intended to be used as:

working measures for adjusting and setting-up angle measuring in-

struments and direct measurement of angles of industrial products;

reference measures for transferring size of the unit of plane angle

from the primary standard to working angle measuring instruments.

Terms and their explanations used in GOST 2875-88, as well as descrip-

tion of angle gauge block sets are given in the Tables 15 and 16.

Table 15

Term Explanation

Right prism Prismatic block of a plane angle, the base of which is a

regular convex polygon, the nominal values of the interi-

or angles at the vertices of the polygon are equal and less

than 180, the nominal values of the lengths of its sides

are equal.

block ing surfaces or two normals to the measuring surfaces.

Plane of measurement The imaginary plane which is placed in the body at pos-

sibly equal distances from the base and top surfaces and

oriented so that the measuring surfaces, chosen to fix it,

40

Term Explanation

were equally inclined thereto. It is allowed to place the

plane of measurement parallel to the base surface of the

block or the block mount.

angle gauge block which provides a strong bond with an optical flat or be-

tween two blocks when lapped measuring faces are put or

slid together.

following types:

1 with one working angle and truncated top;

2 with one working angle and sharp top;

3 with four working angles;

4 a multi-faceted right (n-sided) prism.

Table 16

Set

num-

ber

Incre Quan- Accu- Mass of

(quan- Block Nominal values of working an-

cre- tity of racy a set, kg,

tity of type gles

ment blocks grades less than

blocks

in the

set)

1 From 10 to 79 70

2 10' From 1510' to 1550' 5

1' From 1501' to 1509' 9

80 81 100 99

1

82 83 98 97 1, 2 15

(93)

84 85 96 95

3 - 6

86 87 94 93

88 89 92 91

90 90 90 90

41

Set

num-

ber

Incre Quan- Accu- Mass of

(quan- Block Nominal values of working an-

cre- tity of racy a set, kg,

tity of type gles

ment blocks grades less than

blocks

in the

set)

8910' - 8920' - 9050' - 9040'

8930' - 8940' - 9030' - 9020' 3

8950' - 8959' - 9010' - 9001'

10 From 30 to 70 5

1 From 10 to 20 11

2 - 45 1

2 10' From 1510' to 1550' 5 1, 2 5

(33) 1' From 1501' to 1509' 9

80 81 100 99

3 - 2

90 90 90 90

3 2 - 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55,60 7

1, 2 2

(8) 3 - 90 90 90 90 1

1510', 3020', 4500', 4530',

4 2 - 7

5000', 6040', 7550' 1 2

(8)

3 - 90 90 90 90 1

5 1 From 1 to 9 9

1 1 4

(24) 2' From 1' to 29' 15

blocks, accuracy grade 1 287588;

an angle gauge block of type 4, 24- angle gauge block 4-24-0 GOST

sided prism, accuracy grade 0 287588;

an angle gauge block of type 3 angle gauge block 3-80, 81, 100,

with working angles 80-81-100-99, 992 GOST 287588.

accuracy grade 2

sistent with those indicated in the Table 17.

42

Table 17

Accuracy

Block type Drawing

grade

B

1 1; 2

5

B

M1

70

2 1; 2

M2

5

N

M2

M3 a1 B

30

a3

3 a4 M1 1; 2

a2

5

M4

M4

M3

B

4 M2 0; 1; 2

M6

20min

M1

surface; N non-measuring surface; B base surface; T top (engraved)

surface; working angle.

must correspond to the angles indicated in the Table 18.

43

Table 18

Working angles

1' 29' 2'

1

From 1 to 9 1

From 10 to 79 1

10'

From 15 to 16

2 From 15 to 1510'

1'

From 15 to 1501' 15"

From 1510' to 7550' 1010'

80 81 100 99; 82 83 98 97;

84 85 96 95; 86 87 94 93; 1

88 89 92 91; 90 90 90 90;

8910' 8920' 9050' 9040'

3 8930' 8940' 9030' 9020'

10'

8950' 8959' 9010' 9001'

90 90 90 90;

8959'30" 8959'45" 9000'30" 9000'15

15"

90 90 90 90;

Blocks of the types 1, 2 and 3 should have holes for clamping them to-

gether into stacks with the holders from accessory sets.

Blocks of the type 4 must be manufactured with 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 20, 24

and 36 measuring surfaces (side faces).

Angle gauge blocks with the number of measuring surfaces 6 8, 10 and

12 should have a central hole with a diameter d = 20H7; angle gauge blocks

with the number of measuring surfaces 18, 20, 24 and 36 should have a cen-

tral hole with a d = 32H7.

Width of the measuring surfaces (length of a polygon) must be not less

than 15 mm. The difference between the maximum and minimum width of a

measurement surface should not exceed 0.8 mm.

The distance from the measuring surface to the wall of the central hole

should be at least 15 mm.

44

Specification requirements for angle gauge blocks

Permissible deviations of gauge blocks from the nominal values, toler-

ances of perpendicularity of the measuring surfaces to the base surface of the

block or the block mount, as well as tolerances of the measuring faces flat-

ness should not exceed values given in the Table 19.

Deviations of working angles from the nominal value are determined

between the adjacent faces.

Hardness of the measuring surfaces of steel blocks must be not less than

61 HRC.

Surface roughness parameters of the gauge block surfaces are set in

technical specifications for specific types of gauge blocks.

Failure-free performance of gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 shall be not

less than 220 wringings.

Mean life of the gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 must be at least 2

years, gauge blocks of the type 4 no less than 10 years.

The established full service life of the gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3

must be at least 1 year, gauge blocks of the type 4 at least 5 years.

Failure criteria and limit state of a block are set in the technical specifi-

cations for specific types of gauge blocks.

Gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3, and a special ruler should be made of

steel -15 GOST 801-78 or other steel grades compliant with the basic

characteristics of the mentioned grade.

Gauge blocks of the type 4 must be made of optical grade glass-ceramic

0115M. It is allowed to use optical glass 8 or 7 GOST 3514-76 or steel

-15 GOST 801-78.

Table 19

Tolerance

Perpendicularity of the

Permissible deviations measuring surfaces

Flatness of the meas-

Block from nominal values with respect to the base

uring surfaces, m

type surface of the block or

the block mount

Accuracy grades

0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2

1 - 10" 30" - 60" 100" - 0.15 0.30

2 - 10" 30" - 60" 100" - 0.15 0.30

3 - 10" 30" - 60" 100" - 0.15 0.30

4 5" 8" 15" 5" 20" 30" 0.05 0.07 0.10

45

Note. Flatness requirements are not applied to the area of the measuring

surfaces adjacent to the non-measuring surfaces; the area is 3 mm wide from

the short edges and 1 mm wide from the long edges for gauge blocks of types

1, 2 and 3. Flatness tolerance for these areas for the mentioned gauge blocks

types is 0.6 m. Flatness tolerances for the edge areas of the measuring sur-

faces and their dimensions for gauge blocks of the type 4 should be set in en-

gineering documentation.

Sets of gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 (see the Table 16) include a

special ruler, clamping accessories and screwdriver.

All sets (individual blocks) or a multi-faceted prism in a mount are

packed in a case or packing box. The set includes a certificate in accordance

with GOST 2.001-93 and a manual.

Gauge blocks are marked according to GOST 13762-86. Nominal val-

ues of working angles should be marked on the upper surface of each block

of type 1, 2 and 3.

The upper surface of each block of the type 1 should be labeled with

plus sign (+) and minus sign (), indicating the direction of the imaginary in-

tersection of measuring surfaces (dihedral angle vertex). The minus sign (-)

must be marked on the side of the angle vertex.

The upper surface of the blocks of the type 4 must be marked with: the

serial number according to the numbering system of the manufacturer; accu-

racy grade; order number of faces (1, 2, 3, .. n) or nominal value of the angles

in degrees (0, ..., N) from the first face in the direction opposite to the

clockwise direction.

The table on the case of the gauge blocks should include: designation

for the gauge blocks of types 1, 2, 3 or 4; the order number according to the

numbering system of the manufacturer; year of production or reference des-

ignation of the year.

For the blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 each pocket in a case should be sup-

plied with an indication of the nominal value of the gauge block placed in.

46

Acceptance and Test

check testing, acceptance testing, periodic testing and reliability testing are

carried out.

The state check tests are carried out in accordance with GOST 8.001-80

and GOST 8.383-80.

During the acceptance tests, each gauge block must be tested for com-

pliance with GOST 2875-88.

Gauge blocks should be subjected to periodic tests at least once every

three years for compliance with all requirements of GOST 2875-88.

Gauge blocks of the types 1, 2 and 3 are selected in fives from the sets

1 and 2 for tests.

If the tests reveal that the gauge blocks comply with all requirements of

the standard, periodic testing results are considered satisfactory.

Reliability testing is carried out at least once every three years for com-

pliance with the requirements of the standard. It is allowed to combine relia-

bility tests with periodic tests.

The effect of climatic factors of environment on transportation is tested

in climatic chambers. Tests are carried out in the following conditions: first at

a temperature of minus (50 3) C, then at a temperature of plus (50 3) C

and finally at a relative humidity of (95 3) % at a temperature of (35 3)

C. Exposure time in each of the given conditions in a climate chamber is at

least 2 hours. Upon completion of the tests, gauge blocks deviations must not

exceed values given in the Table 18.

or base reference measuring instruments to the standards of lower accuracy,

including working standards, is provided in accordance with the verification

chain. The verification chain of length transfer involves parallel intercompar-

ison and verification. The transfer of unit is done from working standard to

reference standard, then to standards of lower accuracy, then to working

measuring instruments (optimeters, measuring machines, automatic checking

machines, etc.). The structure of the verification chain consists of several lev-

els, corresponding to stages of transfer of units.

There are various types of verification of measuring instruments.

47

1. The usage of a reference standard being calibrated according to the

standards. This type of verification may be conducted by any service

agency, including industrial standardization service.

2. Intercomparison of the instrument readings and readings of the ref-

erence instrument or reference device. Reference instrumentation has

higher accuracy grade and respectively quite high cost, for these rea-

sons, as a rule, verification is carried out in special organizations

centres of standardization and metrology.

3. Elemental-equivalent method is the most time-consuming type of

verification. The method consists in the fact that if the instrument

has, for example, a sensor, an amplifier, an analog-digital converter

and some other auxiliary devices, then the working performance and

measurement errors are determined for all the elements of the in-

strument, without verification of the instrument as a whole. In this

case, depending on the type of auxiliary devices, these may be tested

as the instruments that measure physical quantities different from

those for measurement of which the instrument is intended. For ex-

ample, profilograph-profilometer may consist of a diamond stylus, an

electrical measuring converter, an amplifier, an integrating block and

a high voltage direct-writing instrument or output to computer. It is

possible to verify the mechanical, electrical and electronic parts of

the instrument individually and to arrive at conclusions about work-

ing performance and accuracy grade of the instrument as a surface

layer quality measuring instrument.

In some cases, when a new type of the measuring instrument is verified,

the mentioned type of verification turns out to be more suitable and even in

some cases the only one possible. Verification of some types of measuring

instruments can be conducted without using reference instruments or stand-

ards. The measuring instrument readings may be checked by the tables of

physical constants and standard reference data. Among these constants, for

example, there are electromagnetic constant, Avogadro constant the num-

ber of particles in one mole of a substance, Newtonian gravitational constant

and so on. Readings of these measuring instruments are checked with physi-

cal constants or standard reference data.

48

6.6 Measuring Instruments and Devices

with the help of working measuring instrumentation measuring instruments

or measuring units.

The measuring instrument is a measuring device aimed at obtaining

measuring data in such a form which is comprehensible to an observer. The

measurement instrument represents a device calibrated as a rule in units of

the measurand.

The measuring instruments include: a measuring transducer (sensor), da-

ta digitizer or analog transducer, signal amplifier, readout device.

In addition, the modern measuring instruments can be equipped with

various electronic devices. For example, they may include digital readout de-

vices, recorders or magnetic storage, special devices for jointing instrument

and computer. If the measuring instrument has digital outputs, such as USB,

the user has some extra options, for example, statistical processing of data

under dynamic conditions of measurement, measurement of parameters of

rapidly changing processes.

Depending on the software used for measuring procedure, different pos-

sibilities are available, such as: computer can manage the measurement pro-

cess, carry out an analysis of current measurement information, etc.

The measuring transducer is a device designed to issue signal of meas-

urement information in an easy-to-use form for its transfer, conversion, pro-

cessing and storage. The transducer includes a sensor (primary transducer),

an intermediate transducer, a transmitting transducer and a multiplier:

the sensor comes first in the measurement chain and directly acquires

measurement information. The sensor has a sensitive element (con-

tact or non-contact) which is influenced by the measurand;

the intermediate transducer is placed second in the measurement

chain;

the transmitting transducer is intended for remote signal transmis-

sion;

the multiplier is designed to increase the quantity in several times.

The transducers differ in construction and operating principles. They are

available of the following types: mechanical, optical, capacitance, inductive,

laser and etc.

The amplifiers are realized as cathode amplifiers, frequency converters

and matching devices with computer output.

49

The measuring device is a complex including several devices and auxil-

iary components. The differences between instruments and devices are very

subtle. For example, if the temperature is measured with the help of thermo-

couple and voltmeter, one can call it either a thermoelectric device or an elec-

tric thermometer.

Another example is a universal measuring microscope (MMM) which is

used to measure geometrical parameters of parts, but essentially is a measur-

ing device with a variety of auxiliary devices and appliances.

Besides measuring devices and auxiliary devices the measuring systems

may include measures or reference sets. For example, there are sets of re-

placeable scales, interchangeable lenses with different focal distance, weight

sets, resistance multipliers and inductance boxes, normal galvanic cells, etc.

At the present time geographically spread means of measurement may

be connected by communication channels, forming a network. All in total

represent information and measurement system. Information in such a system

is provided in the most comprehensible form and can be transmitted via the

network. The measuring system allows carrying out electronic information

processing, analyzing and using it for automatic control of production pro-

cesses.

struments

and devices include scale range, measurement range, scale interval, scale

spacing, sensitivity and variation, etc.

The indication range is a range of scale values limited by initial and fi-

nite values of the scale. The maximum and minimum values of a measurand

marked at the scale are called initial and finite values of the instrument scale.

For example, for optimeters of IKV-3 type the scale range corresponds to

0.1 mm; for length gauges of IZV type the scale range corresponds to

0100 mm.

The measurement range is a range of measurand values, within which

the measuring instruments errors are standard. For the optimeters of IKV-3

type the measurement range is equal to 0200 mm, and for the length gauge

to 0250 mm.

The scale interval is a difference in values of the quantity corresponding

to the two adjacent marks on the scale. For example, for optimeters and

length gauges it equals to 0.001 mm, and for a micrometer 0.01 mm.

50

The scale spacing is a distance between centres of two adjacent marks

of the scale measured along the imaginary line passing through the centres of

the marks of the scale. It is clear that the bigger the scale spacing is, the high-

er the magnification is and the easier the way of comprehension of measure-

ment information by an observer is.

The measuring instrument sensitivity is a relation of the measuring in-

strument output signal variation to the caused variation of the measurand. For

example, if the measurand variation equals to 0.01 mm , when measuring a

shaft diameter with nominal dimension x=100 mm, caused travel of a pointer

of the given device over 100 mm, then it means that absolute sensitivity is

10/0.01 = 1,000, and relative sensitivity equals to 10(0.01/100) = 10,000. For

the indicating measuring instrument the absolute sensitivity is numerically

equal to the transmission ratio and with change of scale interval the instru-

ment sensitivity remains invariant. But sensitivity may differ with respect to

the section of the scale. The concept of sensitivity can be determined by

transfer function as the function of a relationship between input and output

signals of a transducer. Depending on the type of the function, the sensitivity

may be a constant quantity or a quantity dependent on this function. If a func-

tion is linear, then the scale of an instrument is linear and vice versa. The

scale linearity depends not only on the transducer characteristics but also on

the type of physical quantity unit.

Together with sensitivity there is a concept of threshold of sensitivity,

which is the minimum value of measurand variation which may be shown by

the device. The lower the threshold of sensitivity is, the greater the sensitivity

is. Furthermore it is dependable on definite conditions of observation, such as

possibility to differentiate small deviations, stability of indications, static fric-

tion magnitude and others.

Reading variation is defined as a difference in device indications ob-

tained for a point of the measurement range, when the point is slowly ap-

proached from the left and from the right. The reading variation represents

algebraic difference of the maximum and minimum values of the multiple

measurements of the same quantity in fixed conditions. Variation character-

izes instability of indications of a measuring instrument.

A calibration characteristic is a relationship between input and output

values of a measuring instrument represented by a formula, table or diagram.

In most cases instruments are calibrated in such a way that the scale interval

exceeds the maximum calibration error but this principle is not always appli-

cable. Thus, although there is a certain relation between accuracy and sensi-

tivity, we should not confuse these concepts. The device calibration charac-

teristics can be used for refinement of measurement results.

51

The important characteristic of contact measuring instruments is meas-

uring pressure, which is applied on a measurement line and creates defor-

mation at the contact of a measuring point with a part surface.

The measuring instruments can be analog and digital. In analog instru-

ments the indications are determined by the scale and are continuous function

of measurand variation. In digital devices the discrete signals of measuring

information are produced and the result is represented in a digital form.

52

7. Measurement Errors and Causes of the Errors

rectness, repeatability and reproducibility of measurement. The measuring

device accuracy is a metrological characteristic determined by measurement

error within the limits of which we can use the given measuring instrument.

In metrology a concept of accuracy grade of a device or material

measure is used. The accuracy grade of means of measurement (GOST

8.401-80) is a general characteristic which is determined by the limits of in-

trinsic or complementary errors including some other properties influencing

accuracy which values are specified by the standards issued on different

types of measuring instruments.

The accuracy grade describes properties of measuring instruments but

not accuracy of the measurement itself, as to determine measurement errors it

is necessary to take into account errors of the method of measurement, cali-

bration errors, etc.

Depending on accuracy all devices are divided into grades: the first, the

second, etc. The permissible errors for different types of instruments are

specified in national standards. Accuracy is a measurement quality that repre-

sents closeness of measurement results to the true value of a measurand.

Quantitative assessment of accuracy is a reciprocal absolute value of a rela-

tive error. For example, if the measurement error is equal to 10-6, then the ac-

curacy equals to10+6.

The measurement accuracy depends on measurement errors:

absolute error of measurement is a difference between measured val-

ue of a quantity and its true value expressed in units of a measurand;

relative error of measurement is a relation of absolute error of meas-

urement to the true value of a measurand;

systematic error of measurement is an error component being con-

stant or varying in accordance with a definite law within repeated

measurements of the same quantity. Systematic error can be elimi-

nated with the help of corrections;

random error of measurement is an error component varying within

measurements of the same quantity repeated in a random manner;

gross error of measurement is defined as an error, which value is es-

sentially greater than the expected one.

53

According to the sequence of errors origin there are several types of er-

rors:

instrument error is a measurement error component depending on er-

rors of the given measuring instruments. These errors are determined

by the quality of measuring instruments;

error of the method of measurement is a measurement error compo-

nent caused by imperfection of a measurement method;

calibration error is a measurement error component caused by imper-

fection of the calibration process;

reading error is a measurement error component caused by inaccurate

reading of a measuring instrument. The error is caused by visible var-

iation of the relative positions of scale marks as a result of move-

ments of the line of sight; this error is called a parallax error;

verification error is a measurement error component which is a result

of imperfection of verification of means of measurement. The errors

due to measuring pressure take place when a contact measuring in-

strument is used. In estimating of measuring pressure effect on meas-

urement error it is vital to define elastic deformation of a positioning

part of the instrument and deformation in a contact area of a measur-

ing point with a part;

influence quantity is a physical quantity that is not being measured

by a given instrument, but which influences the value of the measur-

and, for example, temperature and ambient pressure, relative humidi-

ty and other parameters different from standard values.

used in standard conditions, when the influence quantities are within the lim-

its of reference range, is called intrinsic error.

If the value of the influence quantity is out of the standard range, the

complementary error arises.

Standard conditions for the measuring instruments application are the

conditions in which influence quantities have normal values or are within the

limits of a standard (working) range. The standard conditions for

implementation of linear and angular measurements and verification are

specified in GOST 8.050-73 and GOST 8.395-80 respectively.

Standard temperature of measurements is equal to 20C (293 K), here-

with the working range of temperatures is equal to 201 C.

Thermal errors are caused by thermal deformations. The reason for the

deformations is a difference of temperatures of an object being measured and

a measuring instrument. There are two basic reasons that cause errors by

54

thermal deformations: deviation of air temperature from 20 C and short-term

variation of air temperature during the measurement.

Personal errors are the errors depending on an operator. Four types of

personal errors are possible:

1. reading error;

2. presence error (influence of operators thermal radiation on ambient

temperature and thus on a measuring instrument);

3. implementation error (brought in by an operator during the device

setting up);

4. professional errors (are connected with operators qualification and

his/her attitude to the procedure of measurement).

observation.

Result of a measurement is the value of a quantity obtained during

measurement after observation results analysis.

Stability of a measuring instrument is a qualitative characteristic of a

measuring instrument, reflecting invariability of its metrological properties.

Uncertainties of a measuring instrument or variations in its indications

serve as a quantitative evaluation of stability. The reliability of measurements

characterizes the degree of confidence in measurement results. The reliability

of error evaluation is determined by the laws of probability theory and math-

ematical statistics. It allows choosing means and methods of measurement for

each individual case providing results, which errors do not exceed the nomi-

nal values with the necessary certainty.

Correctness of measurement is the quality of measurement that reflects

closeness of the systematic errors to zero in the measurement results.

Repeatability is the quality of measurement that reflects closeness of

measuring results to each other, taken on the same parameter, by the same

instrument, the same method of measurement, in the same conditions and

with the same care.

Reproducibility is the quality of measurement that reflects closeness of

measuring results to each other, made in different conditions (in different

time, places, by different methods and means).

55

8. Measurement Traceability Assurance

services of the country aimed at establishment of necessary standards, refer-

ence and working measuring instruments, correct selection and application of

the instruments; development and application of metrological standards and

regulations; implementation of other metrological activities required for pro-

vision of required quality of measurements at the workplace, in enterprises

and organizations, in industry and in the national economy.

Measurement assurance is aimed at provision of traceability and accura-

cy of measurements in order to achieve desired characteristics of the equip-

ment functioning in accordance with specifications. Measurement assurance

represents a set of scientific, technical and organizational activities carried

out by corresponding organizations and specialists. Measurement assurance

includes: theory and techniques of measurement, inspection and assurance of

accuracy and traceability; technical and organizational issues of traceability

of measurements, including technical documents such as national standards,

procedural guidelines, technical specification and conditions that specify pro-

cedure and rules of processes implementation.

The practice of measurement assurance organizations covers a large

range of issues. Application of statutorily prescribed system of physical

quantities is monitored by the organizations. Traceability and accuracy of

measurements is assured by dissemination of physical quantities from nation-

al standards to reference measuring instruments and then to working measur-

ing instruments. Functioning of national and departmental verification

schemes is also monitored. New methods of measurements providing pin-

point accuracy are constantly developed. Thereupon standards and reference

measuring instruments are established.

The condition of means of measurement in departments and ministries is

monitored. Measurement assurance of measuring instruments solves quite

specific issues on the different stages of the instruments service life:

specification of requirements to volume, quality and nomenclature of

measurements and control means, the parameters and characteristics

of metrological systems and measuring instruments are studied;

analysis and selection of means of measurement and inspection

among the series-produced ones. If there are no appropriate means of

measurement, then specifications for production of the new ones are

developed;

56

implementation of the verification of means of measurement;

analysis of the manufacturing processes in terms of selection of

measuring instruments, sequence of the inspection operations and

metrological characteristics of corresponding measuring instruments;

production support of batch measuring instruments and inspection

means with the purpose of timely re-equipment of enterprises;

metrological testing of drawings and engineering documentation to-

gether with updating of methods of measurement and inspection.

assurance of technical equipment is laid on the users. Metrological services

of organizations and enterprises are in charge of solution of issues on meas-

urement assurance.

Technical foundations for measurement traceability assurance are the

following:

a system (set) of national standards of units and scales of physical

quantities known as a national standard base;

a system of dissemination of units and scales of physical quantities

from standards to all measuring instruments with the help of stand-

ards and other means of verification;

a system of development, manufacture startup and production of

working measuring instruments which ensure activities connected

with research, development, identification of product characteristics,

manufacturing processes and other objects with required accuracy;

a state system of testing of measuring instruments (approval of meas-

uring instruments type) designed for batch production or mass pro-

duction and import;

a system of state and departmental metrological certification, verifi-

cation and calibration of measuring instruments;

a system of certified reference materials of composition and proper-

ties of materials;

a system of standard reference data on physical constants and proper-

ties of materials.

57

8.1 Verification, Inspection and Expertise of Measuring

Instruments

equipment is state (or departmental) verification of measuring instruments,

which ensures metrological accuracy.

The measuring instruments undergo initial, periodic, additional or in-

spectional verifications:

initial verification is carried out along with the output of measuring

instruments after the manufacture or repair;

periodic inspection is carried out when measuring instruments are in

operation or storage, at appropriate intervals determined in such a

way so that to provide metrological accuracy of measuring instru-

ments for the periods between verifications;

additional verification is carried out when it is necessary to prove ac-

curacy of a measuring instrument in the process of correction of veri-

fication intervals, in cases of damage of verification mark or seal or

loss of documents, including some other cases, while the timing of

the inspection is determined independently from the timing of period-

ic inspections;

inspectional verification is carried out to identify metrological accu-

racy of the currently used measuring instruments; during metrologi-

cal inspection in organizations, at enterprises and supply bases.

verification:

measuring instruments used by national service of legal metrology

and reference measuring instruments serving as initial ones in metro-

logical organizations of ministries and departments;

measuring instruments used for estimation of the material values, in

mutual settlements and trade;

measuring instruments related to health care of population and safety

regulations;

measuring instruments used for state testing of new measuring in-

struments, as well as instruments, the readings of which are used in

registration of official international and national sport records;

measuring instruments used for merchandise accounting: weight

measuring devices, flow meters, electricity meters, gas meters, oil

meters, water meters etc.;

58

devices used in population health care: sound level meter, dosimeters,

roentgen meters, tonometers, medical thermometers, etc.;

measuring instruments that ensure safety of works: radiometers, mi-

crowave field-intensity meters, gas-analyzers, etc.

verification. Timing of the inspection (verification intervals) are assigned and

corrected by metrological departments of enterprises, organizations and other

establishments exploiting measuring instruments in such a manner to provide

their metrological accuracy for the periods between verifications.

Initial verification interval is determined in state testing of the measur-

ing instrument. Verification of measuring instruments should be carried out

in accordance with current national standards that cover measurement chains,

methods and means of verification.

The successful results of verification are certified by giving a verifica-

tion mark to the measuring instrument and issuing a verification certificate.

Metrological inspection includes verification of measuring instruments con-

ditions and implementation of a verification procedure. The results of metro-

logical inspection are filed under the act containing particular verification re-

sults including also proposals on withdrawal of measuring instruments

acknowledged as nonserviceable, and proposals on corrective measures with

time indication.

from abroad are put to compulsory state testing by agencies of National ser-

vice of legal metrology. State testing involves examination of engineering

documentation of measuring instruments and experimental investigation of

the instruments in order to determine the conformance to the specified stand-

ards and manufacturing requirements. State-of-the-art of the measuring

equipment is also evaluated for reasonability of manufacture or purchase of

new equipment.

State testing can be of two types: state acceptance testing of the proto-

types of measuring instruments of new types that designed for a batch pro-

duction or import into the Russian Federation, and state check testing of the

pilot samples from the preproduction batch and batch-produced measuring

instruments.

59

State acceptance tests are carried out by corresponding national services

of legal metrology or special national commissions consisting of representa-

tives of institutes of metrology, organizations-developers, manufacturers and

customers. In the process of state acceptance testing of pilot samples of the

measuring instruments the service checks conformity of measuring instru-

ments with the state-of-the-art, requirements of the performance specifica-

tion, specification project and national standards.

Normalized metrological characteristics and possibility of their inspec-

tion during manufacturing, after repairing and in operation, the possibility of

verification and maintainability of the measuring instruments being tested are

also subjected to inspection. On the basis of study and analysis of the engi-

neering documentation and instruments being tested the state acceptance

commission makes recommendations on expediency (or non-expediency) of

production of the measuring instruments of the given type.

The governmental agency on standardization and metrology studies the

materials of the state testing and concludes on approval of output of a meas-

uring instrument. After that this type of a measuring instrument is registered

in the national registry of measuring instruments.

State check testing is carried out by territorial organizations of the gov-

ernmental agency on standardization and metrology.

The purpose of state check testing is verification of conformity of the

manufactured measuring instruments and measuring instruments imported

from abroad with the standard requirements and standard specifications.

Check testing of batch-produced measuring instruments is carried out in cer-

tain cases. Tests of this type are required during the manufacture of new

measuring instruments of a preproduction batch, in case there is a quality de-

terioration of the measuring instruments produced by a manufacturer.

Check testing is carried out if there are some changes in the structure or

technology of measuring instruments production, which influence standard-

ized metrological characteristics. The testing also takes place in order to con-

trol quality of the manufactured measuring instruments within the terms

which are assigned by the governmental agency.

60

9. Product Quality Control

ability to meet some definite requirements in accordance with the product

application.

Quality control is acquisition and processing of information on an ob-

ject with the purpose of finding object parameters within the specified limits.

The process of control involves identifying if the actual values of physical

quantities correspond to the specified limit values. The purpose of control is

to answer the question whether the inspected physical quantity is within the

tolerance zone or not.

Control of parameters and characteristics of an object related to deter-

mination of actual values of physical quantities is called inspection by meas-

urement.

When there is no need to determine numerical values of a physical

quantity, but it is required to determine the fact that the parameter is within

the tolerance zone or out of it, a qualitative estimation of object parameters,

i.e. quality inspection is made. Quality inspection unlike inspection by meas-

urement is simply called inspection.

time and position of measurement in the manufacturing route, control action

of the inspection, object of inspection, etc. Lets consider the most common

types of inspection.

Inspection can be of destructive or nondestructive type.

In destructive testing to perform checking operations it is required to

destruct an object making it unsuitable for further use. The example of de-

structive testing, when the checking of compliance of a controlled parameter

with the specified limit deviations is accompanied by the object destruction,

is the product strength testing.

In nondestructive testing the compliance of a controlled value with the

specified limit deviations is determined on the results of acquired information

on the object of inspection. Interaction of measuring instrument elements

with the object of inspection doesnt cause destruction of the object and

doesnt change its properties. The examples of nondestructive testing can be:

61

inspection of the part dimensions, form deviation and location deviation,

pressure, temperature, etc.

The results of inspection can be used to work on the manufacturing pro-

cess. Depending on nature of this action the inspection is divided into in-

process (or active) control and passive control.

In-process control is carried out in the technological process of product

shaping, for example during the part machining. The active results of in-

process control give information on necessity of change of the machining pa-

rameters or correction of manufacturing equipment parameters, for example

the necessity of change of position between cutting tool and part. In-process

control can be manual when the machine is operated by a man during manu-

facturing process or automatic when operation is carried out with the help of

commands from the control unit. Application of in-process control helps to

increase labour productivity, improve quality of manufacture, introduce sim-

ultaneous handling of component parts of equipment, achieve high accuracy

of products, and employ semiskilled operators to such kind of work. The cre-

ation of in-process control devices that operate according to reference models

without any adjustment is rather future-oriented. These can be both tangible

objects (for example, reference parts) and corresponding software.

Unlike the in-process control the passive control is carried out after the

completion of either a single manufacturing operation or entire technological

cycle of the object manufacturing (batch of parts or product). At the stages of

product life cycle, including production process, the given type of control has

different purposes and time needed for implementation.

There are incoming quality control, operational inspection, acceptance

inspection and also continuous, periodic and casual inspection.

Raw materials, initial materials, semi-finished products, component

parts, engineering documentation and etc. are put to incoming quality con-

trol. The control is carried out in accordance with several parameters, includ-

ing visual inspection control and instrumental verification of product geome-

try, compliance with shipping documents, defects evidence etc. The devel-

opment of product quality in the process of manufacturing at the enterprise

starts with income quality control.

Operational or interoperational inspection is carried out at different

stages of manufacturing process of batch production. Its purpose and proce-

dure is specified in manufacturing documentation by route or operation

sheets.

Acceptance inspection consists of inspection of finished products and

critical components. Relative position of the product elements, quality of

joints (tightening force and torque of the threaded joints, quality of adjust-

ment of joint surfaces etc.), correctness of positioning and presence of parts

62

in assemblies, the mass of components and product in whole, balance of ro-

tating parts, etc. are subjected to this kind of control.

Continuous and periodic inspection means either continuous checking

of the controlled parameters compliance with the standards of accuracy or

correspondingly the periodic inspection in definite time intervals.

The casual inspection may take place at any arbitrary time.

The inspection is carried out in end-to-end manner; objects of govern-

mental, regional and international significance are subjected to state control

and supervision. For example, it refers to the objects subjected to the re-

quirements of technical regulations, state supervision on measuring equip-

ment, supervision of application of statutorily prescribed system of units of

physical quantities.

Another stage is inspection checkup which can be departmental, inter-

departmental, non-departmental.

Further, there are manufacturing inspection, inspection implemented by

the quality control department (QCD) of the enterprise, shop inspection by a

shop foreman and individual inspection at the workplace.

Depending on the site of inspection implementation, there can be non-

stationary and stationary inspection.

Most of the inspection types are carried out directly at the workplaces:

at the machine tool, at production areas, in the workshops etc. Such kind of

inspection is called non-stationary. But in some cases it is impossible to carry

out non-stationary type of inspection, since it requires use of special means of

inspection such as separate test areas, inspection stands, laboratories and

sometimes detached structures as, for example, for radiation control. This

type of inspection is called stationary.

The objects of the inspection are: manufactured products; engineering,

trade and accompanying documentation; parameters of manufacturing pro-

cess; fixtures and tools; reclamation documentation; rules of observance of

operational conditions; technical discipline and qualification of employees.

According to production output there are two types of inspection: single

and multiple inspections.

In accordance with sampling procedure there can be 100% inspection

and inspection sampling. 100% inspection of all the manufactured products

without any exception takes place in job production and small-batch produc-

tion.

In case of large-batch production or mass production the statistical qual-

ity inspection is carried out.

63

10. Measurement and Inspection of the Product Parameters

The main requirement for carrying out inspection during the manufac-

turing process is to ensure accuracy. The measurement accuracy depends on a

number of factors, the main are: the maximum errors of the means of meas-

urement and inspection, metrological principles of the instruments design,

accuracy of the implemented measurement methods, influence of the external

factors.

The development and adoption of procedures of measurement and in-

spection is of great importance. The measurement procedure is a series of

methods, tools, procedures, conditions of preparation and implementation of

measurements, as well as rules for the processing of the experimental data to

perform specific measurements.

Measurements should be carried out in accordance with the appropriate-

ly certified procedures. The development of the measurement procedures

should include:

analysis of technical requirements for the accuracy of the object be-

ing measured;

identification of the required conditions of measurement;

selection of measuring instruments;

designing of the supplementary metrological equipment;

testing of the means of measurement and inspection;

planning of the processes of measurement and inspection;

development and selection of an algorithm for analysis of the results

of observation;

designing of the execution and presentation of the results of meas-

urement.

Technical documents that regulate measurement procedures are:

GOSTs and procedural guidelines on procedures of measurement.

Standards are issued in case the means of measurements are regis-

tered in National registry of measuring instruments;

industrial procedures of measurement that are used within the branch

of industry;

64

standards of enterprises on procedures of measurement that are used

in the enterprise. The procedures of measurement include: the stand-

ards of the measurement accuracy; functional features of the meas-

ured value; the need for measurement automation; the use of software

for data processing, etc.

or standardized.

Certification of measurement procedures is performed by the state and

departmental metrological services. Here, the state metrological services cer-

tify procedures of the extra accurate and vital measurements.

The standardization of procedures is used for the measurements that are

widely used in enterprises. Measurement procedures are reviewed periodical-

ly for the purpose of their improvement.

of the issues related to the selection of organizational and technical forms of

inspection, expediency of inspection of the specified parameters and perfor-

mance of these means.

The same metrological task can be solved with the help of various

measuring instruments that have different costs and different metrological

characteristics. The set of metrological, operational and economic character-

istics should be considered in interconnection.

The metrological parameters, which should be primarily taken into ac-

count are:

maximum error;

scale interval;

measurement force;

measurement limits.

Operational and economic characteristics include: cost and reliability of

measuring instruments, operating period until repair, time spent on setup and

the measurement process, weight, dimensions, etc.

In most cases, the higher the required accuracy of measurement tools is,

the heavier and more expensive the instrument is, the higher the requirements

for the operating conditions are.

65

10.3 Accuracy of Means of Measurement and Inspection

tion of the standard tolerance T of the part dimension, which is reduced in a

way (Fig. 1a). Let the measuring tool be perfect, i.e. without errors, then it

can be set to the limits E1 and E2, and the tolerance T would remain un-

changed.

thus to avoid acceptance of defective parts and admission of the parts, by

mistake, as non-defective, value of the tolerance T must be reduced to the

value of the manufacturing tolerance Tr T 4 METR (Fig. 1, b). The vari-

ant, corresponding to the situation when an instrument is set to the limits of

error METR , which are the limits of the tolerance zone E1 and E 2 , reduces

the manufacturing tolerance and, therefore, increases the cost of manufacture.

Reduction of manufacturing costs can be achieved either by reducing a met-

rological error METR , or by changing the setup, i.e. establishing acceptance

66

limits outside of the tolerance zone (Fig. 1d). Thus, the tolerance will extend

to the guaranteed value TG . The actual combination of measurement error

and deviation of the measured parameter is a random event.

Assuming that both components are subjected to the normal distribution,

the following can be written T Tr 2METR . Analysis of these dependen-

cies shows that if METR / T 0.1, then almost all the tolerance is used to

compensate for manufacturing errors, since Tr / T 0.9 0.995 in this case.

Assuming that Tr / T 0.4 , then (0.6 0.917 )T can be used to compensate

for manufacturing errors. According to GOST 8.051-81, the maximum per-

missible error of measurement, for a range of 1 500 mm, can range from

20% (for lower accuracy grades) to 35% of the standard tolerance value.

Standardized measurement errors include both random and systematic

errors of the measuring instruments, including errors of gauge blocks, locat-

ing elements, etc. They are the maximum permissible total errors.

In practice, it is economically reasonable to take value of the random er-

ror of approximately 0.1 of the standard tolerance value. Consequently, the

accuracy of measuring instruments must be an order of magnitude higher

than the accuracy of the parameter being inspected. The increase in accuracy

of product manufacturing, in order to ensure the required level of quality,

leads to the need to create measuring instruments with much greater accuracy

of measurement, i.e. the principle of advanced raise of accuracy of measuring

instruments compared to the accuracy of the manufacturing tools must act.

Another variant of positioning measurement error zone is symmetrical

location with respect to the limits of size (Fig. 1, c). However, in case of such

location, there is a risk, though not large, that defective parts can be mistak-

enly accepted and good parts will be rejected. If it is necessary to reduce the

risk of accepting defective parts the acceptance limits are shifted inside the

tolerance zone on the value of c (Fig. 1, d).

Value of the acceptance limits offset can be taken equal to c METR / 2 ,

if the accuracy of the manufacturing process is known, then c is to be calcu-

lated. The permissible error of measurement depends on the part tolerance

and, thus is taken into account when selecting measuring instrument. Permis-

sible errors of measurement for IT2 - IT17 grades and range of sizes from 1

to 500 mm are given in GOST 8.051-81.

The relative error of measurement is expressed by the following equa-

tion:

AMETR () METR / T ,

where METR is the standard deviation of the error of measurement.

67

The influence of the measurement errors in acceptance inspection upon

linear dimensions can be estimated with the help of parameters m, n and c

(Fig. 2), where: m portion of the measured parts with dimensions exceeding

the limits of size, but taken among the good parts (wrongly accepted); n

portion of the parts with dimensions not exceeding limits of size, but rejected

(wrongly rejected); c the probabilistic maximum value of the wrongly ac-

cepted parts sizes overrun.

Fig. 2 shows the distribution curves of the part dimensions ( ymanuf ), and

measurement errors ( ymetr ), with the center of distribution of the measure-

ment errors coinciding with the tolerance limits.

taken into account

68

The superposition of curves of ymanuf and ymetr distorts the distribution

curve y ( METR , MANUF ), as a result, the probability areas of m and n appear,

which cause the size to exceed the tolerance limit on the value of c. The

greater the ratio METR / T is, which means more accurate manufacturing pro-

cess, the smaller the number of incorrectly accepted parts compared to incor-

rectly rejected parts is, since m / n 0.1 1.1 . The maximum value of the c is

in the range (1.5-1.73) METR .

The parameters m, n, and c may be defined according to the Table 20, it

is recommended to take AMETR () =0.16 for the grades IT2-IT7;

AMETR () =0.12 for the grades IT8, IT9; AMETR () =0.1 for the grade IT10

and lower. The smaller values of m, n and c in the Table 20 correspond to the

normal distribution of measurement error, the greater values correspond to

the law of equal probability.

With the unknown law of measurement error distribution the values of

m, n and c can be defined as the average of the range values given in the Ta-

ble 20. Limit values of m, n and c/T include only the influence of the random

component of the error of measurement. Values of m, n and c are also given

in the literature as nomograms.

ders. The first method implies that the acceptance borders coincide with the

limits of size, in the second method the acceptance borders are shifted inward

with respect to the limits of size.

Table 20

AMETR () , % m, % n, % c/T

1.60 0.37...0.39 0.70...0.75 0.01

3.0 0.87...0.90 1.20...1.30 0.03

5.0 1.60...1.70 2.00...2.25 0.06

8.0 2.60...2.80 3.40...3.70 0.10

10.0 3.10...3.50 4.50...4.75 0.14

12.0 3.75...4.11 5.40...5.80 0.17

16.0 5.00...5.40 7.80...8.25 0.25

69

Example 1. Determine the accuracy of the measuring instruments

required for the procedure of acceptance of manufactured shafts with

100h6(-0.022), and determine values of the statistical parameters m, n, and c.

Acceptance limits are set matching the limits of size.

The permissible error of measurement, according to GOST 8.051-81, is

METR 6 microns for AMETR () 16% (accuracy grade IT6). According to

the Table 20 the number of defective parts being accepted is m=5.2%, the

number of incorrectly rejected parts is n=8%, and c=5.5%. The general

dispersion of the error of measurement of the accepted defective parts is in

the range from 27.5 to 5.5 microns (see Fig. 1, c), i.e. up to 5.2% of

defective parts with permissible deviations of +0.0055 mm and -0.0275 mm

can be found among the accepted ones.

unacceptable, therefore acceptance borders are shifted inside the tolerance

zone on the value c (see Fig. 1, d).

Depending on whether the manufacturing process accuracy is known or

unknown, there may be two ways of manufacturing tolerance defining. In the

first case it is needed to define limits of size when the accuracy of the manu-

facturing process is unknown. In accordance with GOST 8.051-81 the limits

of size are shifted by half of a permissible error of measurement. For the ex-

ample considered, it would be 10000..003

019 . In the second case it is needed to

define limits of size when the accuracy of the manufacturing process is

known. In this case the limits of size are reduced by the value of c parameter.

Suppose that for the example mentioned above the T / MANUF 4 (there is

4.5% rejection rate on the both limits of size after the manufacture):

AMETR () 16% , c/T=0.1, c=22 microns. Accuracy requirements for the size

of the shaft, with respect to these data, will be the following: 10000..002

020 .

in practice towards the following tasks:

determination of the measuring instrument error;

identification of whether the manufacturing process parameters meet

the specified accuracy of the product;

calculation of the manufacturing tolerance;

70

determination of accuracy characteristics of the preproduction batch-

es and sample batches of parts, to control and manage quality of the

products;

setting of the quality scattering parameters of similar products;

etc.

tions, readings obtained by means of measurements.

The following concepts are implemented here:

result of observation the value of the instrument readings, obtained

by an individual measurement;

result of measurement the value, obtained after processing the re-

sults of observations.

rical and physical-mechanical parameters inevitably occurs. Therefore, re-

sults of measurement of the parameters of each individual part are random

variables. The same thing happens with repeated measurements of one part

with a given means of measurement.

In manufacture and measurements there are systematic and random er-

rors.

Systematic errors are errors constant in magnitude and sign, or changing

in a predetermined law, depending on the effects of certain predictable rea-

sons.

Systematic errors occur, for example, because of inaccurate machine

tool setup, measuring instrument errors, deviations of temperature from the

standard operating temperature (including the subjective actions of the opera-

tor), deformations, etc.

Systematic errors of measurement can be partially or completely elimi-

nated, for example, with the help of a correction table to the incorrectly grad-

uated scale of the device or by determining the arithmetic mean values of

several readings in opposite positions, for example, when measuring the

thread pitch and half angle of the thread profile or by correcting wrong ac-

tions of an operator (the effect of breath or touch on the temperature, the ex-

ceeding of the measurement force).

Random errors are variable in magnitude and sign errors, which occur

in the manufacture or measurement, and take a particular numerical value de-

pending on the number of randomly acting reasons.

A characteristic feature of the random error is a variation of their values

in repeated experiments.

71

The random errors are caused by many randomly varying factors, such

as: inaccuracies of the measuring instrument components, machining allow-

ance, mechanical properties of the material, cutting force, measuring force,

varying accuracy of installation of parts on the measuring position and other

factors, and in general, none of these factors prevails.

Manufacturing errors and measurement errors are random variables. Ex-

amples of random variables are: dimensions of parts during manufacture,

clearances in sliding joints, results of repeated measurements of the same

quantity, etc.

Random errors are difficult to eliminate, thats why they are taken into

account when assigning a tolerance for a dimensional or any other parameter.

The numeric value of a random variable being a result of a measurement

is considered as a random event. The same thing happens during product test-

ing, for example, when it is needed to establish product quality indicators.

The ratio of n events of a random value A to the N produced tests, in

which the event might occur, is called relative frequency of W(A)=n/N.

With a sufficiently large number of trials N, the ratio value for most of

the random events is found to be stable. The value of W(A) for the event A

will fluctuate around some constant number equal to one. This number, al-

ways less than one, is called the probability P(A) of the event A, i.e., P(A) is a

measure of the objective possibility of occurrence of the event A.

The probability of a certain event is equal to one, probability of an im-

possible event to zero.

The relative frequency can be taken as the approximate value of the

probability P(A) of the event A at a sufficient number of tests:

P ( A) W ( A) n / N . (1)

Relative frequency W(A) is different from the probability P(A) that it is

a random variable, which in various series of similar tests may take, depend-

ing on the random factors, different values, whereas the probability P(A) is a

constant, for a given event, number, which on average determines the relative

frequency of the event occurrence in the experiments.

With the increasing N the relative frequency approaches the probability.

The relationship between the numerical values of the random variable

and the probability of their occurrence is established by the law of probability

distribution of random variables. Probability distribution of a discrete random

variable can be represented as a table or diagram, showing how likely a ran-

dom variable x takes a particular numerical value xi.

Probability distribution of the continuous random variable, which can

take any value within a given interval, can not be represented as a table.

The distribution is represented as a differential function of distribution

or probability density function px(x). This function is the limit of the ratio of

72

the probability of the fact that the random variable x takes the value that lies

in the interval from x to x x to the value of the interval x , when x

tends to zero.

The nature of the scattering of the essentialy large set of values of a ran-

dom variable usually corresponds to a theoretical distribution law.

The scattering of the random variable values, the change of which de-

pends on a number of factors, when no one factor has predominant influence,

follows the normal distribution law (Gaussian), shown in Fig. 3.

x

3 3

a

rors of the multiple measurements; variance of manufacturing errors; errors

of measurement of linear and angular dimensions; masses of parts; values of

hardness and of other mechanical and physical quantities.

Normal distribution law has the following properties:

the probability of positive errors is equal to the probability of nega-

tive errors;

small in magnitude errors have a greater probability of occurrence

than the errors of larger magnitude;

the algebraic sum of the deviations from the mean value is equal to

zero.

73

( x a )2

1

2

yx e 2 , (2)

2

where a and are the parameters of the distribution; x is the argument of the

probability density function, i.e. a random variable that varies in the range

x ; e is the base of natural logarithms.

The normal distribution curve is symmetrical about the ordinate axis.

The value of a is equal to the mathematical expectation M(x) of the random

variable x, which is determined by the equations:

for discrete values

k

M ( x ) xi p ( xi ) , (3)

i 1

where xi is the possible value of a discrete random variable; p ( xi ) is the

probability of the value xi of a discrete random variable;

for continuous variables

M ( x ) xp( x)dx , (4)

where p(x) is the probability density of a continuous random variable x.

The value of M(x) represents the position of the center of variance of

random variables, the place where, for example, the sizes of the most parts of

the batch are grouped around.

In the absence of systematic errors in the results of repeated measure-

ments of the same quantity in the same conditions, the expectation can be re-

garded as the closest approximation to the true value of the measurand.

In analysis of the nature of the variance of the machined parts dimen-

sions, the expectation can be regarded as the dimension, for which the ma-

chine tool has been set up.

The magnitude of the random variable variance from the expected value

is defined by the parameter , which is called standard deviation of a random

variable and is determined by the equation:

for discrete value

k 2

( x) xi M ( x) p ( xi ) , (5)

i 1

for continuous variable

2

( x) x M ( x ) p ( x)dx . (6)

Scattering of the random variables is also characterized by variance

D ( x ) ( x ) 2 .

74

Formula (2) represents an equation of the curve for the case when the

origin is located at an arbitrary position on the x-axis. If the center of vari-

ance coincides with the origin of x-axis, the equation of the normal distribu-

tion curve will take the form:

x2

1

2

y ( x) e 2 . (7)

2

At the same time, there are other distribution laws that describe the ran-

dom variables, which have the nature of a somewhat different nature.

In this case it is necessary to mention Maxwell law, to which the essen-

tially positive quantities are subjected; such quantities are: the scattering of

eccentricity values, axial and radial run-out, concentricity deviation, imbal-

ance and other quantities that cannot be negative.

To evaluate the reliability of products Weibull law, which gives an idea

of the probability of failures, is used.

Simpson law (or the triangular distribution law) and the law of equal

probability also have become widespread.

However, for the analysis of observations the normal distribution law

Gaussian law is used.

The probability for the value to fall into a given interval can be defined

as follows. The branches of the theoretical normal distribution curve (Fig. 3)

go into infinity, asymptotically approaching the x-axis. The area enclosed by

the curve and the abscissa is equal to the probability that the random variable,

for example, error of size, belongs to range . The area under the distribu-

tion curve is equal to 1 or, what is the same, 100%, and is determined by the

integral:

x2

1

2 2 dx

e 1. (8)

2

The origin is located at the point coincident with the center of variance.

Since the integrand is even and the curve is symmetrical with respect to the

maximum ordinate, we can write:

x2

1

2 2 dx

e 0.5 . (9)

2

x / z hence x z , dx dz . In this case, the abscissa in Fig. 3 is ex-

75

pressed in fractions of . If 0 and z are taken as limits of integration, then the

integral in equation (8) is a function of z, i.e.:

zz

1 z 2

0 (z) e dz . (10)

2 n

tion): 0 (0) 0 ; 0 ( z ) 0 ( z ) ; 0 () 0.5 ; 0 () 0.5 .

It is followed from equation (9) and Fig. 4 that the area enclosed by a

segment z1+z1 of the x-axis, the probability density curve and the two ordi-

nates corresponding to the boundaries of the segment is the probability that a

random variable z1 falls into the given interval.

Values for functions 0 ( z ) are given in the handbooks. Using data giv-

en in these handbooks it is possible to determine the probability that a ran-

dom variable x, expressed in terms of , will be within a particular interval

z1 . For example, we find that for z1=3, which corresponds to the random

variable x=3, error function is equal to 0 (3) 0.49865 or

0 (3) 0 (3) 2 0 (3) 0.9973 .

Since the area enclosed by the Gauss curve and abscissa axis is equal

to 1, then the area, which lies outside the values x=3, is equal to 1-

0.9973=0.0027 and is located symmetrically in 0.00135 or 0.135% on the

right and on the left relative to the y-axis (Fig. 4).

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 x

Fig. 4 Normal distribution curve and representation of integrands

76

Therefore, with a probability close to unity, one can assert that the ran-

dom variable x will not exceed the limits of 3. Therefore, with the distribu-

tion of the random variable according to the Gaussian law, the range of dis-

persion is equal to Vlim 6 or the range 3 is considered as a sensibly

limiting range of dispersion of a random variable and is taken as the stand-

ard of accuracy tolerance. Here the probability of a random variable to ex-

ceed the limits of 3 is equal to 0.0027 or 0.27%.

In production environment, due to the limited number of measurements,

analysis involves not the mathematical expectation and variance but their ap-

proximate statistical estimates the empirical average x and the empirical

variance s2 respectively, which characterise the average result of the meas-

urements and the degree of results variance. These estimates are determined

by the equations:

x n x2 n2 ... xk nk k ni

x 1 1 xi ; (11)

n1 n2 ... nk i 1 N

k ni

s (x x)2 . (12)

i 1 N

interval, and k is the number of intervals. The smaller the value of s is, the

higher the accuracy of the manufacturing process or the measurement is, i.e.

the smaller the magnitude of random errors is. Hence, the parameter s is used

as a measure of the manufacturing process accuracy or, in repeated measure-

ments of the same value, as a measure of the measurement method accuracy.

law close to the normal distribution, then it is possible to establish, using cor-

responding criteria that the considered empirical distribution in the best way

conforms to that law.

In the process of inspection of dimensions of a batch of parts or multiple

measurement of any parameter of the same part, one can find out that the ob-

servation results represent a set of values of discrete random variable, i.e. set

of actual dimension values or values of size errors.

Lets study the examples of observation results analysis.

77

The method of statistical analysis of observation results is considered on

the example of measurement of discrete sizes of the shafts with 12h10(0.07)

machined on a lathe. The size of a sample out of the statistical population

(batch size) is equal to N = 200. Measurements are carried out by instruments

like length gage or optimeter with the scale interval 0.001 mm.

Analyzing the observation results, we conclude that among these values

there are such values which are significantly different from most of the re-

sults, so we can call them gross errors. Such observations can be caused by

inspectors inattention, by extraneous parts in the sample and some other

causes that break normal conditions of experimental results generation. We

should keep in mind that these observations differ visually significantly from

the average for the given sample. In the case of gross errors, their causes

should be analyzed and eliminated.

The result that is the gross error is excluded from the population and the

remained results are processed again and new values of x and s are calculat-

ed; then the furthest analysis is carried out and, if necessary, other gross er-

rors are also excluded by means of Kolmogorov criterion, Irwins criterion or

others. In preliminary calculations the errors, i.e. deviations from x , exceed-

ing absolute value 3 are excluded.

The observation results after the preliminary analysis are arranged in or-

der of magnitude forming the variational series. We shall find maximum and

minimum values of dmax and dmin and find the range of the series.

In our example the minimum value of the observed dimension equals to

11.915 mm, the maximum value to 12.005 mm and then the range R, equal

to the difference of the found limit values, is equal to:

R=dmax dmin=12.005 11.915=0.09 mm.

Then we shall divide the variational series into k intervals. The number

of k intervals, to some extent, depends on the sample size N and can be taken

by the following recommendations: 5 k 7 with N 40 ; 7 k 9 with

40 N 100 ; 9 k 12 with 100 N 500 , moreover with the small num-

ber of intervals it is better to take k as an odd number. So we can see that the

values are considerably overlapped and selection of the interval number is

not determinant, thus the recommendations are only suggestive, not literal.

Taking k = 9, the interval value is equal to R/k= 0.09/9 = 0.01 mm and a

half interval totals to 0.5 R/k= 0.005 mm. We shall find the values of the class

marks and form interval series, for that we shall add 0.5R/k to dmin, then to

the found value we shall add 0.5 R/k again and so on, as a result we shall ob-

tain d max 0.5 R / k , i.e. 12.000 mm.

Then we shall find a number of observations falling in each interval, for

example, 20 results have fallen in the interval 11.93511.945; 12 results

78

have fallen in the interval 11.97511.985 and so on. We should keep in

mind that the values that coincide with the interval boundary are included in-

to the left interval.

The number of observations fallen in the given interval is called fre-

quency.

The order of results analysis and the example of analysis presentation is

given in the Table 21. The values x and s are determined by equations (11)

and (12):

x (11.920 2 11.930 6 ... 12.000 2) / 200 11.960 mm;

S (0.04) 2 0.01 (0.03) 2 0.03 ... (0.04) 2 0.01 0.015 mm.

Table 21

The example of measurement results analysis

Intervals of actual erage vi xi x , frequency

an interval, parts in an

dimensions di, mm

mm interval mm n /N i

from 11.915

11.920 2 0.04 0.01

to 11.925

over 11.925

11.930 6 0.03 0.03

to 11.935

over 11.935

11.940 20 0.02 0.10

to 11.945

over 11.945

11.950 48 0.01 0.24

to 11.955

over 11.955

11.960 56 0.00 0.28

to 11.965

over 11.965

11.970 34 +0.01 0.17

to 11.975

over 11.975

11.980 20 +0.02 0.10

to 11.985

over 11.985

11.990 12 +0.03 0.06

to 11.995

over 11.995

12.000 2 +0.04 0.01

to 12.005

0.10 ni

x 11.96 -- N 200 v i 0 N 1

i 0.10 i

considered example is actual dimension of the shaft, is graphically represent-

79

ed by the histogram consisting of rectangles, which height equals to frequen-

cy and width to the range of the interval.

The dispersion is also determined by the empirical curve of distribution,

which is called distribution polygon (Fig. 5). Graphical representation of re-

sults in manual analysis is easier to perform with the help of squared paper.

X-direction means intervals of the actual dimensions of the shaft, Y-direction

is the height of rectangles equal to frequency.

Distances along X-axis and Y-axis are recommended to plot in relation

equal to 0.8 1.0. In Fig. 5 you can see polygon and histogram of distribu-

tion of shaft dimensions and location of tolerance zone that reflects require-

ments to accuracy according to the drawing; as we can see the empirical re-

sults do not meet the requirements of engineering documentation and this is

as it should be.

ni

50

Polygon

40

30

20 Histogram

10

0

-11.92 11.94 11.96 11.98 12.00 x i , mm

Empirical center of Tolerance zone

variance 11.96 midpoint 11.965

ei =-0.07 ec =-0.035 0

Tolerance zone 70 m

dmin =11.93 dmax =12.00

80

For example, noncoincidence of tolerance zone midpoint with empirical

centre of variance is equal to 0.005 mm and the range exceeds tolerance by

the value equal to 0.09 0.07 = 0.02 mm. In order to make conclusion on

batch acceptance, it is necessary to analyze the obtained results according to

the following features:

compliance of empirical distribution with the normal distribution

law;

estimation of confidence probability of empirical parameters;

manufacturing tolerancing.

The results analysis of random variable measurement becomes possible

if we know which theoretical law of random value distribution the empirical

distribution corresponds to.

On the basis of empirical curve shape and values of empirical parame-

ters, the correspondence of the curve to one of theoretical laws is suggested.

We shouldnt forget about the importance of graphical representation of

the empirical curve, which is influenced, among other things, by selection of

intervals number and ratio of values along X- and Y-axes.

Correspondence of empirical distribution to the supposed theoretical

distribution is determined on the basis of criteria 2 , for example, of the

Kolmogorov criterion, according to GOST 11.006-74.

Comparison of characteristics of empirical and theoretical distributions

is carried out in the following manner. Values of parameters of empirical and

assumed theoretical distributions are considered. The parameters x and s, de-

termined by sampled data, give only approximate response of accuracy of en-

tire population of the objects.

Mathematical expectation M(x) and standard deviation serve as a

characteristic of random variable values dispersion in entire assembly.

The difference between probabilistic characteristics M(x) and and em-

pirical values x and s lies in that the first are considered as unknown con-

stants characterizing distribution of the statistical population, and the second

are random variables, defined from the sample, and give only approximate

estimate of M(x) and .

The difference between M(x) and x and between and s reduces with

the increase of sample size and number of observations.

Analysis of the observation results of the sample allows to define the

limits, within which the values of the statistical population parameters will

lie.

81

The degree of that confidence that is so called confidence interval is se-

lected in accordance with standard specifications to the product performance

characteristics.

Limits of the confidence interval determine confidence probability,

which characterizes reliability of the results.

In case of normal distribution, such confidence interval for mathemati-

cal expectation M(x), for example, is the interval with the limits of M(x)

equal to 3 x where x is a standard deviation for distribution of values x .

Since

si

x ,

N 1

3

x si .

N 1

From the table of values 0 ( z ) we shall find that within the limits

z1 3 , there is 99.73% of all values of random variable x, expressed by z,

as 0 (3) 2 0.49865 0.9973 . Thus, with reliability 0.9973 we can predicate

that the M(x) value is within the interval x 3 x .

As x and s are random variables, the confidence intervals, as it follows

from the calculation given above, depend on a factor multiplying 3 x , which

we shall denote for general case by z.

It is evident that the reliability of that the value of M(x) will be within

limits of x z x is more than 0.9973 if z>3 and is less than 0.9973 with z<3.

It is common when reliability is equal to one of the following quantities:

0.90, 0.95, 0.99, 0.999, which is equivalent of z equal to 1.645, 1.96, 2.576,

3.291.

Lets study the example, assume that the distribution described above is

the sample with N = 200 and is normal distribution, then:

si 0.015

x 0.001 mm.

N 1 199

x z x M ( x) x z x .

82

So with reliability 0.9 or 90% we may expect:

or

11.958 M ( x ) 11.962 .

multiplier t which is determined in the Table 22 according to Students dis-

tribution.

Table 22

The value of Students coefficient cient

observations

observations

Number of

Number of

ity P ability P

0.05 0.90 0.95 0.98 0.99 0.05 0.90 0.95 0.98 0.99

2 1.0 6.31 12.71 31.82 63.66 10 0.70 1.84 2.26 2.76 3.25

3 0.82 2.92 4.30 6.96 9.92 15 0.69 1.76 2.14 2.60 2.98

4 0.77 2.35 3.18 4.54 5.84 20 0.69 1.73 2.09 2.53 2.86

5 0.74 2.13 2.78 3.75 4.60 30 0.68 1.70 2.04 2.46 2.76

6 0.73 2.01 2.57 3.65 4.03 60 0.68 1.67 2.00 2.39 2.66

7 0.72 1.94 2.45 3.14 3.71 120 0,68 1.66 1.98 2.36 2.62

8 0.71 1.90 2.36 2.97 3.50 0,67 1.65 1.96 2.33 2.58

9 0.71 1.86 2.31 2.90 3.36

The value t depends on the sample size, i.e. on N - 1; using these table

we may find that with N = 20 and reliability 0.9 the coefficient t is equal to

1.73; with the same value N and reliability 0.95, 0.99 and 0.999 the t equals

correspondingly to 2.09, 2.86 and 3.88.

The selection of reliability is defined by the object of manufacture, for

example: for general-purpose products the reliability can be equal to 0.9; for

critical parts 0.95; for aeronautical equipment 0.99; and finally 0.999 for

83

critical equipment which malfunction can pose a hazard to human health and

life.

Thus, if the values x 11.96 and s 0.015 were obtained from the sample

of 20 pieces, but not 200 pieces (as it has been shown in the previous exam-

ple), so with reliability 0.9 the limits of confidence interval would be the fol-

lowing:

si 0.015

x 0.001 mm.

N 1 199

or

11.955 M ( x ) 11.965 .

For the reliability equal to 0.999, the confidence interval is significantly

larger:

11.96 3.88 0.001 M ( x) 11.96 3.88 0.001

or

11.948 M ( x) 11.972 .

With the sample size decreasing and the required reliability increasing,

the width of the confidence interval will increase, i.e. the limits of possible

values M(x) will expand.

Similarly to this, the confidence intervals for the value x can be found.

Excel 2007

Open Microsoft Excel 2007 and into the Table (Fig. 6) enter data of

the example given in Section 10.5 (Table 21): average value xi of the interval

and number ni of parts in interval, having doubled the column with the val-

ues ni .

84

Fig. 6 Initial data

1. At the toolbar push the button Insert (Fig. 7). First choose the

type Histogram. Then push the button OK.

To do this, click the right mouse button in the opened white panel

and choose Select data. In the bar Range of data for the dia-

gram push the button with red arrow and having pressed the left

mouse button select two columns with values ni , then push the but-

ton with red arrow again returning to the panel of diagram master.

85

3. Then in the same panel Select data go to tab Bar/Column. In

the bar Labels on horizontal axis click on Edit and also push

the button with red arrow and select column with values xi, then

push the button with red arrow again returning to the panel of dia-

gram master. Click OK.

4. At the constructed diagram click the right mouse button on any

column of the histogram and select Format data series, go to the

tab Parameters of series and set the width of side clearance equal

to zero, press OK. So we have constructed the distribution histo-

gram for the given values (Fig. 8).

35

30

25

20

1

15

2

10

0

2,2190 2,2202 2,2214 2,2226 2,2238 2,2250

structed distribution histogram we do the following actions: click by

left mouse button on any column of the histogram and at the toolbar

select Insert, then Diagram and select one of the suggested dia-

grams. As a result we have got histogram and distribution polygon

(Fig. 9).

86

35

30

25

20

1

15

2

10

0

2,2190 2,2202 2,2214 2,2226 2,2238 2,2250

Normal Distribution in Statistica 7.0

which involves broad graphic possibilities. The package Statistica includes a

great number of different categories and diagram types.

In order to construct histogram and polygon with curve of normal distri-

bution it is necessary to have only initial data for the histogram. These data

should be entered into the table of Statistica 7.0 (Fig. 10). Fig. 10 represents

only small part of data.

87

Fig. 10 Initial data

Fig. 11 2D histograms

88

With the next step it is necessary to set the number of histogram col-

umns (Categories). In our case we set 6 columns and push the button

OK. Now we can see the window of data selection for the histogram

(Fig. 12). Select a column with data and press OK again.

distribution (Fig. 13).

89

For the construction of distribution polygon it is necessary to push the

right mouse button on the constructed histogram and in the dropdown menu

select Fitting. Then it is needed to push Add new fit (Fig. 14) and select

the type Lowess (Fig. 15).

So we have got the histogram, polygon and theoretical curve of normal

distribution for the entered data (Fig. 16).

90

Fig. 16 histogram, polygon and theoretical curve of normal distribution

Thus, the package Statistica 7.0 substantially helps to simplify analysis

and processing of data and provides simple tools of diagram construction.

The outlined method allows to estimate any manufacturing process, nu-

merically assess accuracy of the process, determine values of the parameters

that exceed acceptance limits.

91

Conclusion

practical issues of engineering measurements in mechanical engineering. The

degree of importance varies and the questions are commonly examined in the

literature.

The issue of the maximum achievable accuracy of measurements, which

depends on the accumulated knowledge in the basic sciences, is expected to

be considered in a separate book.

Verification of measuring instruments, as well as metrological certifica-

tion, calibration and graduation is received relatively little attention. Further

information on these questions can be found in the recommendations MI

1967-89.

Of great importance for the practical activities are the development of

techniques of measurement of the required quantity, the choice of the method

and means of measurement, planning of the inspection process, etc. Further

information on these questions can be found in handbooks on engineering

measurements in the relevant areas of industrial production.

92

Index

A 24

component parts, 62

abscissa axis, 74 confidence interval, 82

absolute error of measurement, 53 confidence probability, 82

absolute measurements, 11 contact method of measurement, 12

absolute scale, 19 continuous inspection, 62

acceptance border, 69 continuous quantity, 74

acceptance inspection, 34 correction table, 71

accuracy grade, 25 correctness of measurement,53

actual dimension, 77 cutting force, 72

analog, 48

analysis of measurements results, 70 D

area under the curve, 76

automatic control, 62 defective part (faulty part), 66

derived unit, 14

B destructive testing, 61

deviation, 12

base unit, 14 dimension, 9

batch of parts, 62 direct measurement, 9

batch production, 59 discrete quantity, 74

duplicate standard, 23

C

E

calibration, 8

calibration characteristic, 51 elemental-equivalent method of veri-

calibration error, 54 fication, 48

casual inspection, 63 empirical average, 77

center of variance, 74 empirical variance, 77

certain event, 72 engineering documentation, 46

certified reference material, 26 Engineering measurements, 11

clearance, 72 error function, 76

collective standard, 24 error of method of measurement, 54

comparison measurements, 11 essentially positive quantity, 73

complementary error, 54 event (random event), 67

extraneous part, 78

93

Irwin's criterion, 78

F

J

frequency, 15

frequency polygon, 80 job production, 63

gauge block, 12 joint measurement, 11

gauge block holder, 44

K

G

Kolmogorov criterion, 78

Gaussian law, 73

gross error, 53 L

group standard, 24

guaranteed tolerance, 67 length measuring gauge, 78

limit of integration, 76

H

M

handbook, 76

histogram, 80 machining allowance, 72

maintainability, repairability, 60

I manual inspection, 62

manufacturing documentation, 62

imbalance, 75 manufacturing process, manufactur-

implementation error, 55 ing route, 62

incoming quality control, 62 manufacturing tolerance, 66

indication range / scale range, 50 mass production, 63

indirect measurement, 10 material measure, 22

influence quantity, 54 mathematical expectation, 19

initial material, 62 Maxwell law, 75

in-process control, 62 mean life, 45

inspection / review, 7 means of measurement, measuring

instrument error, 54 instrument, 7

instrument error, 70 measurand, 9

integrand, 76 measure box, 26

interchangeable, 50 measurement, 9

intermediate transducer, 49 measurement datum, 49

inter-operational inspection, 62 measurement error, 11

interval, 19 measurement force, 65

interval scale, 19 measurement method, 9

interval series, 78 measurement position, 72

intrinsic error, 54 measurement range, 50

94

measurement result, 10 probability density, 73

measurement standard, standard, eta- product quality, 61

lon, 22 production process, 62

measurement traceability (uniformity professional error, 55

of measurement), 7

measuring instrument, 7 Q

measuring instrument sensitivity, 51

measuring transducer, 49 quality control, 61

method of comparison with a stand- quality control department, 63

ard measure, 12

method of direct evaluation, 12 R

multiplier, 49

multi-value measure, 26 random error, 53

random variable, 71

N range, 20

range of dispersion, 77

nominal scale, 18 ratio scale, 19

non-contact method of measurement, raw material, 62

12 reading error, 25

nondestructive testing, 61 reading variation, 51

normal distribution, 67 reference measuring instruments, 25

normal distribution law, 73 reference standard, 23

reject, 67

O relative error of measurement, 53

relative frequency, 72

observation result, 55 relative frequency, 72

operation sheet, 62 reliability, 47

operational inspection, 62 repeatability, 53

optimeter, 12 reproducibility, 53

ordinate, 73 route sheet, 62

ordinate axis, 80

S

P

sample, 71

passive control, 62 sample size, 81

periodic inspection, 34 scale, 18

personal error, 55 scale interval, 50

physical quantity, 9 scale spacing, 50

presence error, 55 sensor, 48

principle of measurement, 64 service life, 45

probability, 55

95

Simpson distribution (Triangular dis- transfer standard, 23

tribution), 75 transmitting transducer, 49

single-value measure, 26 transposition measurement, 9

squared paper, 80 true value, 53

stability of a measuring instrument,

55 U

standard conditions, 20

standard deviation, 19 unit, 8

standard of accuracy, 77 unit of physical quantity, 14

standard tolerance, 66

state testing, 34 V

statistical analysis, 78

statistical estimate, 77 variance, 73

statistical population, 78 variational series, 78

Student's coefficient, 83 verification, 7

Student's distribution, 83 verification error, 54

surface layer quality, 48

systematic error, 53 W

T wear block, 33

Weibull law, 75

testing-calibrating measurements, 11 working measuring instruments, 22

thread pitch working standard, 23

threshold of sensitivity, 51 workshop, 63

tie, 33 wringability, 27

tolerance, 20

tolerance zone, 66

96

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99

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