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TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

Yu. B. Chervach, I.S. Okhotin

ENGINEERING METROLOGY
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Tomsk Polytechnic University Publishing House


2013
UDC 621.81 (075.8)
BBC 00000
C00

Chervach Yu.B., Okhotin I.S.


C00 Engineering Metrology in Mechanical Engineering: study aid /
Yu.B. Chervach, I.S. Okhotin; Tomsk Polytechnic University. Tomsk: TPU
Publishing House, 2013, 100 p.

The book presents the basic concepts of engineering measurements in mechanical


engineering, relevant examples of size distribution calculation in inspection are consid-
ered.
The book is recommended for English-speaking students following the Bachelor
Degree Program in Mechanical Engineering at Tomsk Polytechnic University.

UDC 621.81 (075.8)


BBC 00000

Linguistic Advisor
Manager of the
Department for Academic Affairs of the Institute of Cybernetics, TPU
E.A. Panasenko

Reviewers

Doctor of Science (Technical)


Associate professor of the
Department of Automated Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering, TPU
V.F. Skvortsov

Deputy Director for Manufacturing of Center for Precision Machining,


Limited Liability Company
V.M. Gusev

STE HPT TPU, 2013


Chervach Yu.B., Okhotin I.S., 2013
Design. Tomsk Polytechnic University
Publishing House, 2013
Preface

Present-day mechanical engineering can be characterized as inter-


changeable high-performance and precise manufacturing. Interchangeable
manufacturing implies that mating parts are often made not only by different
people, but also on different machines, in different shops, and sometimes
even in different cities and countries and at different times.
Such interchangeable production is provided by the relevant documenta-
tion, machine tools, fixtures, cutting tools and the availability of appropriate
measuring tools that ensure required accuracy and performance of measure-
ments performed in different workplaces, by different operators.
The main type of measurements in mechanical engineering is the meas-
urement of linear and angular dimensions.
90-95% of all measurements in mechanical engineering are measure-
ment of linear dimensions. In the electric machine engineering this type of
measurement is about 80%.
The proposed book is intended to facilitate study of the course Engi-
neering measurements in mechanical engineering by the students that follow
the Bachelor Degree Program 150700 "Mechanical Engineering".
Issues of the engineering measurements are considered in many publica-
tions, but generalized textbook or study aid on this subject is unheard.
The given book presents fundamentals of the mechanical engineering
measurements.
The first section of the book provides an overview of the engineering
measurements and information on the legal basis of metrology.
The second section of the book gives the classification of the types and
methods of measurements in mechanical engineering.
The third section introduces basic, additional and derived units of the In-
ternational System of Units of physical quantities.
The fourth section provides a classification of measurands and values of
measurands of the objects being measured.
The fifth section outlines the standard conditions for linear and angular
measurements in accordance with GOST 8.050-73.
The sixth section is devoted to the means of measurement: measurement
standards, measures, reference instruments, gauge blocks, angle blocks and
detailed metrological characteristics and forms of application of the means.
In addition, the section describes the procedure of dissemination of standards
(transferring of units of physical quantities from the standards to the measur-
ing means of lower ranks), classifies measuring instruments and devices, and
indicates metrological parameters and characteristics of the measuring in-
struments.
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In the seventh section the types of measurement errors and analysis of
the causes for the errors are examined.
The eighth section provides methods for ensuring the traceability and
accuracy of measurements, the structure of verifications, inspections and ex-
aminations of measuring means and structure of the mandatory state testing
of measuring instrumentation.
The ninth section is devoted to the structure of the product quality con-
trol.
The tenth section examines implementation of measurement and inspec-
tion, the selection of the universal means of measurement and inspection, and
accuracy of the means. Procedure and examples of the measurement results
analysis are also given.
The book is recommended for students that study course Engineering
measurements in mechanical engineering within the Mechanical Engineer-
ing Program. The material of the book can be useful in preparing graduation
thesis.

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CONTENTS

Preface .......................................................................................................... 3
CONTENTS ................................................................................................. 5
1. General Concepts. Legal Basis of Metrology.......................................... 7
2. Types and Methods of Measurements .................................................... 9
3. International System of Units ................................................................ 14
3.1. SI base units ..................................................................................... 14
3.2. SI derived units ................................................................................ 15
4. Objects of Measurement ........................................................................ 17
4.1. Measurands ...................................................................................... 17
4.2. Dimension of a measurand .............................................................. 18
5. Standard Conditions for Linear and Angular Measurements ............ 20
6. Means of Measurement ......................................................................... 22
6.1 Measurement Standards .................................................................. 22
6.2 Measures and Reference Measuring Instruments .......................... 25
6.3 Gauge Blocks..................................................................................... 27
6.4 Angle Gauge Blocks .......................................................................... 40
6.5 Transfer of Physical Quantity .......................................................... 47
6.6 Measuring Instruments and Devices ............................................... 49
6.7 Metrological Parameters and Characteristics of Measuring
Instruments ............................................................................................. 50
7. Measurement Errors and Causes of the Errors ................................... 53
8. Measurement Traceability Assurance .................................................. 56
8.1 Verification, Inspection and Expertise of Measuring Instruments 58
8.2 State Testing of Measuring Instruments ......................................... 59
9. Product Quality Control ........................................................................ 61
9.1 Types of Inspection ........................................................................... 61
10. Measurement and Inspection of the Product Parameters ................. 64
10.1 Measurement and Inspection ......................................................... 64
10.2 Selection of Means of Measurement and Inspection ..................... 65
10.3 Accuracy of Means of Measurement and Inspection .................... 66
10.4 Measurement Results Analysis ...................................................... 70
10.5 Examples of Measurement Results Analysis ................................. 77

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10.6 Example of Creating Frequency Polygon and Histogram in Excel
2007 ......................................................................................................... 84
10.7 Example of Creating Histogram, Polygon and Curve of Normal
Distribution in Statistica 7.0 .................................................................. 87
Conclusion .................................................................................................. 92
Index ........................................................................................................... 93
References .................................................................................................. 97

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1. General Concepts. Legal Basis of Metrology
Metrology is the science of measurements, methods and means to ensure
traceability and achieve required accuracy.
Thus, metrology includes three interrelated problems: implementation of
measurement processes, measurement traceability assurance, methods and
means of measurement.
The main tasks of metrology according to RMG 29-99 are:
establishment of physical units;
establishment of state standards and reference measuring instruments;
development of the theory, methods and means of measurement and
inspection;
measurement traceability assurance;
development of methods for assessing errors and condition of the
means of measurement and inspection;
development of methods of transferring units from standards or refer-
ence measurement means to the working measurements means.
The legal framework of metrology includes the following general doc-
uments:
RF Law On ensuring the traceability of measurements;
RMG 29-99 State system for ensuring the traceability of measure-
ments. Metrology. Key Terms and Definitions;
MI 2247-93 GSI Metrology. Key Terms and Definitions;
GOST 8.417-2002 GSI. Physical units;
PR 50.2.006-94 GSI. Verification of measurement tools. Organiza-
tion and procedure of verification;
PR 50.2.009-94 GSI. Procedure of testing and approval of the
measuring instruments type;
PR 50.2.014-94 GSI. Accreditation of metrological services of legal
entities for the right for verification of measuring means;
MI 2277-94 GSI. System of certification of measurements means.
The fundamentals and procedures of the certification;
PR 50.2.002-94 GSI. Procedure of the state metrological supervision of
release, condition and use of measuring instruments; supervision of certified
methods of measurement, measurement standards and compliance with met-
rological rules and norms.
The law On ensuring the traceability of measurements regulates the
relations in the field of ensuring the traceability of measurements in the Rus-

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sian Federation in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federa-
tion. The law establishes the following: the basic concepts, such as: organiza-
tion of governmental control of measurement traceability; regulations on
measurements traceability, units and national standards of units; the means
and methods of measurement. The law establishes the National service of le-
gal metrology and other services aimed at ensuring traceability of measure-
ments, metrology services of public authorities and legal entities, as well as
the types and area of distribution of governmental metrological control and
supervision. The law reflects the establishment of market relations in the
Russian Federation, defining the basis of metrological services of the public
authorities and legal entities. The activity of the metrological departments of
the enterprises is beyond the legal metrology and is regulated by the econom-
ic methods.
The activities that are not directly controlled by the government are sub-
jected to the Russian Calibration System, which is aimed at ensuring the
traceability of measurements too. The Calibration System is a system of
agents and calibration activities aimed at ensuring the traceability of meas-
urements in areas that are not subjected to the governmental metrological
control and supervision, which act on the basis of the established require-
ments for the organization and implementation of the process of calibration.
The law provides for cooperation between the international and national sys-
tems of measurement. This allows for the mutual recognition of the results of
tests, calibration and certification, and to use international experience and
trends of modern metrology. There are other laws, regulations and standardi-
zation documents relating to the legal basis of metrology.

8
2. Types and Methods of Measurements
Measurement is the process of empirical finding the physical quantity
value by measuring means.
The result of the measuring process is the value of a physical quantity:
Q qU ,
where q the numerical value of a physical quantity in the adopted unified
units; U the unit of a physical quantity. The value of the physical quantity
Q, found in the measurement is called actual value.
Principle of measurement is a physical phenomenon or a combination
of physical phenomena underlying the measurement. For example, measure-
ment of the mass of a body by weighing it with gravity proportional to the
mass, or temperature measurement using the thermoelectric effect.
Measurement method is a set of principles and means of measuring.
Means of measurement are the means with specified metrological
characteristics used to perform measurements.
There are various types of measurements. Classification of the meas-
urements is made on the basis of the measurand dependence on the time, type
of measurement equation, conditions that determine accuracy of the meas-
urement results and ways of expressing these results.
Depending on the nature of the measurand dependence on the time, all
measurements are divided into static and dynamic measurements.
Static measurement is the measurement when the measurand remains
constant over time. Examples of static measurements are the measurements
of product dimensions, static pressure, temperature and other quantities.
Dynamic measurement is a measurement, during which the measurand
varies with time, for example, measurement of pressure and temperature of
gas being compressed in the engine cylinder.
Depending on the way of obtaining measurement result, which is deter-
mined by the type of measurement equation, measurements are classified as
direct, indirect, transposition and joint measurements.
Direct measurement is the measurement in which the value of the
physical quantity is obtained directly from experimental data without any
calculations. Direct measurements can be expressed by the following equa-
tion:
Q x,
where Q the desired value of the quantity to be measured, and x the value
obtained directly from the experimental data. Examples of such measure-

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ments are measurement of the length by a ruler or tape-measure, measure-
ment of the diameter by a vernier caliper or micrometer, measurement of the
angle by a protractor, measurement of the temperature by a thermometer, etc.
Indirect measurement is the measurement in which the value of the
quantity is determined on the basis of the known relationship between the de-
sired value and quantities, the values of which are obtained through direct
measurements. Thus, the quantity value is calculated according to the follow-
ing equation:
Q F ( x1, x2 ,..., xn ) ,
where Q the required value of the quantity; F known functional depend-
ence; x1 , x2 ,..., xn - the values obtained by direct measurements.
Examples of indirect measurements: calculation of the body volume
from direct measurements of its geometrical dimensions, finding the specific
electrical resistance of the conductor by measuring its resistance, length and
cross-section area, measurement of the screw pitch diameter by three-wire
method, etc. Indirect measurements are common in the cases when the de-
sired value is impossible or too difficult to measure by the direct measure-
ment. There are cases when the value can only be measured indirectly, e.g.,
sizes of the intra-atomic or astronomical order.
Transposition measurements are the measurements in which the val-
ues of the measurands are determined from results of repeated measurements
of one or more quantities of the same kind with different combinations of the
measures or the quantities. Value of the desired quantity is determined by
solving the set of equations formulated by the results of several direct meas-
urements.
An example of the transposition measurements is finding of the mass of
weights from a set, i.e. calibration by the known mass of one of the weight
and by the results of direct measurements and comparison of masses of dif-
ferent combinations of weights. Consider an example of transposition meas-
urements which is the calibration of weights, consisting of weights of 1, 2,
2*, 5, 10 and 20 kg. Several weights (except 2*) represent standard measures
of mass. An asterisk indicates a weight that has a value other than the exact
value of 2 kg. The calibration is to determine the mass of each weight with
the help of the standard measure, such as weight with mass of 1 kg. The
measurements are performed by changing the combination of weights. We
form the equations, where the numbers denote the mass of the weights, e.g., a
1ref denotes the mass of the standard weight of 1 kg weight, then:
1 1ref a ; 1 1ref 2 b ; 2* 2 c ; 1 2 2* 5 d and so on.
Additional weights, which must be added to the mass of the weight indi-
cated on the right side of the equation, or subtracted from it to balance the
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scales, are indicated as a , b , c , d . Solving this system of equations, we can
determine the mass of each weight.
Joint measurement is the measurement, performed simultaneously for
two or more unlike values for finding the functional dependence between
them. Examples of joint measurements are finding of the length of a rod, de-
pending on its temperature or finding of the electrical resistance of a conduc-
tor depending on pressure and temperature.
On the basis of accuracy the measurements are divided into three clas-
ses.
1. Measurements of the maximum possible accuracy are the measure-
ments that can be achieved with the state-of-the-art engineering. This class
includes all the high-precision measurements and, in the first place, the refer-
ence measurements associated with the highest possible accuracy reproduc-
tion of the physical quantities. This also includes measurement of physical
constants, especially universal, such as measurement of the absolute value of
the acceleration of free fall.
2. Testing-calibrating measurements are the measurements, which error
has a defined probability not to exceed a predetermined value. This class in-
cludes measurements performed by laboratories of state supervision on tech-
nical regulations, measuring equipment condition and plant measurement la-
boratories. These measurements ensure that with a certain probability the
measurement error is not exceeding a certain specified value.
3. Engineering measurements are the measurements in which the error
of the result is determined by the characteristics of the measuring instru-
ments. Examples of engineering measurements are measurements performed
in manufacturing processes in industry, in service sector etc.
On the basis of measurement result expression, the measurements are
divided into absolute and comparison measurements.
Absolute measurements are the measurements based on direct meas-
urements of one or more base quantities or on the use of values of the physi-
cal constants. Examples of absolute measurements include measurements of
length in meters, electric current in amperes and acceleration of free fall in
m/s2.
Comparison measurements are the measurements in which the un-
known quantity is compared with a known value of the same quantity, which
plays the role of a unit or reference quantity. Examples of comparison meas-
urements are: measurement of the shell diameter by measuring number of
revolutions of the measuring wheel, measurement of the air relative humidity
defined as the ratio of the amount of water vapor in 1 m3 of air to the amount
of water vapour in 1 m3 of air at a given temperature.

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Depending on the method of determining values of the quantities to be
measured two basic methods of measurement are distinguished: method of
direct evaluation and method of comparison with the measure.
The method of direct evaluation is a method of measurement in which
the value of the quantity is determined directly from the reading device of the
measuring instrument of direct action. Examples of such measurements are as
follows: length measurement with a ruler, micrometer or protractor, pressure
measurement with a manometer and so on.
The method of comparison with a standard measure is a method of
measurement, in which the quantities to be measured are compared with the
value reproduced by the standard measure. For example, to measure diameter
of the limit gauge the optimeter is set to zero with the help of the stack of
gauge blocks, and the measurement result is indicated by the deflection of the
pointer optimeter from zero. Thus, the quantity to be measured is compared
with the size of the gauge block stack. There are several types of the compar-
ison method:
a) method of opposition, in which the quantity to be measured and the
standard measure simultaneously act on the comparator, allowing to establish
relationship between these variables, e.g., measurement of the resistance with
a bridge circuit when the indicating device is in the diagonal of the bridge
circuit;
b) differential method, in which the quantity to be measured is compared
with a known quantity reproduced by a reference measure. This method, for
example, is used for determining the deviation of the part diameter by an op-
timeter after setting it to zero with the help of a stack of gauge blocks;
c) method of null measurement is also a method of comparison with a
standard measure in which the resulting effect of the values on the instrument
is brought to zero. This method of measurement is used to determine electri-
cal resistance with the balanced bridge circuit;
g) with the coincidence method the difference between the quantity to be
measured and a quantity reproduced by a reference measure, is determined by
identifying coincidence of the scale marks or periodic signals. For example,
measurements with a vernier caliper are based on observation of the match-
ing marks of the main and vernier scales.
Depending on the method of obtaining measurement data the measure-
ments are divided into contact and non-contact.
Depending on the type of the measuring means, there are instrumental,
expert, heuristic and organoleptic methods of measurement.
The instrumental method is based on the use of special means of meas-
urement, including automated and automatic.
The expert method is based on the judgments of the group of experts.
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Heuristic methods are based on intuition.
Organoleptic methods are based on the use of the human senses.
Assessment of the state of an object can also be performed with ele-
ment-by-element and complex measurements. Element-by-element method is
characterized by measurements of each parameter of the product separately.
For example, eccentricity, ellipticity, faceting of a cylindrical shaft. The
complex method is characterized by measuring the total quality parameter,
which is influenced by its individual components. For example, the meas-
urement of radial run-out of a shaft, which is affected by eccentricity, ellipti-
city and other parameters; inspection of the profile position by the limiting
contours etc.

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3. International System of Units

Coordinated International System of Units was approved in 1960 by XI


CGPM (General Conference on Weights and Measures). The international
system is SI system (the initial letters of French name Systeme International).
The system provides the list of 7 base units: metre, kilogram, second, ampere,
kelvin, candela, mole and 2 supplementary units: radian, steradian, including
prefixes for forming multiple and sub-multiple units (Table 1).

3.1. SI base units

Metre is equal to the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum dur-
ing a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second.
Table 1
SI base and supplementary units

SI base units
Quantity Unit Symbol
Name Russian international
Length L metre m
Mass M kilogram kg
Time T second s
Electric current I ampere A
Thermodynamic temper-
kelvin K
ature
Luminous intensity candela cd
Amount of substance mole mol
SI supplementary units
Quantity Unit Symbol
Name Russian international
Plane angle radian rad
Solid angle steradian sr

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Kilogram is equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilo-
gram.
Second is defined as the duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation
corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the
ground state of the caesium 133 atom.
Ampere is constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel
conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular, and placed one metre
apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to
2 10 7 newton per metre of length.
Kelvin is defined as the fraction 1273.16 of the thermodynamic tempera-
ture of the triple point of water.
Mole is the amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities
as there are atoms in 12 grams of pure carbon 12.
Candela is equal to the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source
that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 1012 hertz and that has
a radiant intensity in that direction of 1683 watt per steradian.

3.2. SI derived units

The SI derived units are formed with the help of simplest equations be-
tween quantities with numeric coefficient, equivalent to 1. For example, in
order to define dimension of linear speed we use the expression for uniform
linear speed. If the length of the distance travelled is l v t (m) and the trav-
el time t (s), then speed is measured in metres per second (m/s). Therefore, SI
speed unit is a metre per second that is speed of uniformly moving point
that travels the distance of 1 m over the time of 1 s. Other units have the same
methods of formation including coefficient not equal to 1 (Table 2).

15
Table 2
Units derived from SI base units

Expression in terms of SI base


Name Unit
units
Base and sup-
Quantity Name Symbol Other units plementary
units
Frequency hertz Hz s-1
Force newton N mkgs-2
Pressure pascal Pa N/m2 m-1kgs-2
Energy, work joule J Nm m-1kgs-2
Power watt W J/s m-2kgs-3
Electric charge coulomb C As s
Electric potential volt V V/ m kgs-3-1
2

Electrical capaci-
farad F C/V m-2kg-1s42
tance
Electrical resistance ohm V/ m2kgs-3-2
Electrical conduct-
siemens S /V m-2kg-1s32
ance
Magnetic flux weber Wb Vs m2kgs-2-1
Magnetic flux densi-
tesla T Wb/m2 kgs-2-1
ty
Inductance henry H Wb/ m2kgs-2-2
Luminous flux lumen lm cdsr
Luminous flux lux lx m2cdsr
Radioactivity becquerel Bq s-1 s-1
Absorbed dose gray Gy J/kg m2s-2

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4. Objects of Measurement

Objects of measurement may be represented by any parameters of phys-


ical entities and processes describing their properties.

4.1. Measurands

Measurement of geometric quantities: length; diameters; angles; form


and location deviation; surface finish; clearance.
Measurement of mechanical and kinematic quantities: mass; force;
stress and strain; hardness; torque; linear and rotational speed; kinematic pa-
rameters of gears and gear drives.
Measurement of parameters of liquids and gases: flow, level, volume;
static and dynamic pressure; parameters of boundary layer.
Physical-chemical measurements: viscosity; density; concentration of
components in solid, liquid and gaseous materials; humidity; electrochemical
measurements.
Thermo-physical and thermodynamic measurements: temperature;
pressure, thermal quantities; cycle parameters; energy conversion efficiency.
Time and frequency measurement: time and periods of time; measure-
ment of frequency of periodic processes.
Measurement of electrical and magnetic quantities: voltage, electric
current, resistance, capacitance, inductance; magnetic field parameters; mag-
netic properties of materials.
Radioelectronic measurements: signal intensity; signal form and spec-
trum; properties of substances and materials by radio-engineering methods.
Acoustic quantities measurement: in air, gas and water media; in solid
medium; audiometry and noise-level measurement.
Optical and optical-physical measurement: measurement of optical
properties of materials; pulse parameters of incoherent optical radiation;
spectral and frequency characteristics; laser polarization; parameters of opti-
cal elements, optical characteristics of materials; photomaterial characteris-
tics.
Measurement of ionization radiation and nuclear constants: dosimet-
ric characteristics of ionizing radiation; spectral characteristics of ionizing
radiation; radionuclide activity; radiometric characteristics of ionizing radia-
tion.
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4.2. Dimension of a measurand

The purpose of measurement is to receive information on the value of


physical quantity.
Physical quantity is defined as a property which, in a qualitative sense,
is universal for many objects, but in a quantitative sense is individual for each
object. Leonhard Euler defined quantity in the following way: quantity is
anything that can be reduced or increased, or it is anything you can add or
take away from.
Dimension is a quantitative characteristic of the measurand.
In practice, it becomes necessary to take measurements of quantities
which characterize properties of phenomena and processes. Some properties
reveal to be qualitative, other quantitative. Representation of properties as a
set of elements or numbers or symbols is a measurement scale of the given
properties.
A measurement scale is an ordered set of values that the quantity may
take serving as a basis for its measurement. Lets explain the notion by the
example of temperature scales. The Celsius scale takes ice-point temperature
as a starting point and a steam point as the fundamental interval (reference
point). One hundredth part of this interval is a temperature unit (Celsius de-
gree).
There are several types of scales: nominal, ordinal, difference (inter-
val), ratio, absolute etc.
Nominal scales are characterized only by relation of equivalence (rela-
tion of equality). Nominal scale is qualitative; it doesnt contain any quantita-
tive information and doesnt have zero and units of measurement. The ele-
ments of these scales are characterized only by relation of equivalence
(equality) and similarity of specific qualitative demonstration of properties.
As an example we can call colorimetric atlas (colour scale). The measure-
ment process consists of visual comparison of a coloured item with test col-
ours (samples of atlas).
Ordinal scales characterize the dimension of measurand in numbers.
These scales describe properties for which not only relations of equivalence
but also rank relations in ascending or descending order are meaningful. The
typical examples of such scales are scales of hardness, earthquake intensity
scales, wind strength scales, nuclear event scales, etc. Highly specialized or-
dinal scales are widely used in methods of testing various products.
It is impossible in these scales to implement units of measurement since
they are not only basically nonlinear but also the type of their nonlinear na-

18
ture can be different and unknown on different parts of the scale. The hard-
ness measurements, for example, are expressed in Vickers hardness numbers,
Rockwell hardness numbers, Brinell numbers, Shore numbers and not in
units of measurement. Ordinal scales allow monotonic transformation, they
can have or not a zero value.
Interval scales (difference) differ from ordinal scales in that they pro-
vide both relation of equivalence and order and summation of interval values
(differences) between different quantitative demonstrations of properties. The
typical example is a time scale.
The time intervals (for example, working periods and study periods) can
be added and subtracted but it is senseless to summarize the dates of some
events.
Another example, a length (distance) scale of space intervals is applied
by fixing of zero mark of the scale at one point and making the reading at the
second point. This type of scales includes the centigrade Celsius scale, Fahr-
enheit temperature scale, Reaumur temperature scale.
Interval scales have standard (agreed) units of measurement and zeros,
based on reference elements or data.
These scales allow linear transformations; procedures for finding of
mathematical expectation, standard deviation, skewness and displaced mo-
ments are applicable for them.
Ratio scales have natural zero, and the unit of measurement is deter-
mined by agreement. For example, mass scales starting with zero can be
graded differently in accordance with required weight accuracy. Just compare
chemical balance and household scales. These scales apply relations of
equivalency and order operations of subtraction and multiplication (ratio
scales of the 1st type proportional scales) and in many cases the sum opera-
tions (ratio scales of the 2nd type additive scales).
The masses of different objects can be summarized but it is no use in
summarizing temperatures of different bodies, though we can estimate the
difference and relation of their thermodynamic temperatures. The examples
of ratio scales include mass scales (2nd type), thermodynamic temperature
scale (1st type).
The ratio scales are widely used in physics and engineering allowing all
arithmetic and statistic operations.
Absolute scales possess all the characteristics of ratio scales but they
additionally have natural unambiguous determination of unit of measure-
ment. Such scales are used to measure relative quantities (relations of similar
quantities: magnitude ratio, attenuation ratio, efficiency coefficient, reflection
and absorption coefficients, amplitude modulation index and so on).

19
5. Standard Conditions for Linear and Angular Measurements

Standard conditions of linear measurements within 1-500 mm and angu-


lar measurements with the smaller side of an angle up to 500 mm are defined
in the standard GOST 8.050-73. Standard conditions must be provided to
practically eliminate additional errors of measurements. The standard defines
the following values of basic parameters that influence measurement accura-
cy:

Parameter Value
Environmental temperature, C 20
Atmosphere pressure, kPa (mmHg) 101.3 (760)
Relative humidity, % 58
Acceleration of free fall, m/s2 9.8

Allowable deviations from standard values are: for atmosphere pressure


4 kPa (30 mmHg), for relative humidity +22-18%.
Temperature deviations have the highest influence on measurement ac-
curacy. In accordance with tolerances and range of measured dimensions
there are fixed limits of allowable variations of temperature of a measured
part and workplace area (Table 3.)
Table 3

Limits of allowable variations of temperature, C,


of the measured object and work place,
from standard value during the measurement

Dimension rang- Tolerance grade


es, mm 01 0 From 1 to 5 From 6 to 8 From 9 to 10
Over 1 to 18 0.8 1.0 1.5 3.0 4.0
Over 18 to 50 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0
Over 50 to 500 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0

In angle measurements the limits of allowable variations of temperature


of the measuring object and workplace area from standard value are 3.5 C.
The waiting period of the part to be measured and measuring instrument
in the workplace area before starting the measurements must be not less than
stated in the Table 4. The standard GOST 8.050-73 specifies the standard di-
20
rection of measurement line. For measurements of external linear dimensions
up to 160 mm the direction of measurement line is vertical; for dimensions
more than 160 mm and for dimensions of holes, width and depth of slots the
direction of measurement line is horizontal. Position of the flat surface for
angular measurements is horizontal.

Table 4

The waiting period of the part to be measured and measuring instrument in


the workplace area, h

Mass of the Tolerance grade


measured object, 01 and 0 From 1 to 5 From 6 to 8 From 9 to10
kg
To 10 6 4 3 2
Over 10 to 50 14 8 6 4
Over 50 to 200 24 14 10 7
Over 200 to 500 36 20 16 12

The allowable variations from standard direction of measurement line


must be not more than 1 for the IT 01 and IT 0; 2 for the IT 1-5; 5 for
the IT 6-10.
To reduce the error of measurement it is necessary to align the standard
direction of measurement line with the corresponding direction of the refer-
ence gages and reference parts.
Standard conditions in workplace area must be provided during the
whole process of measurement.

21
6. Means of Measurement

Measurements are performed with the use of technical means. Technical


means required for measurements are:
material measure measuring instruments intended for reproduc-
ing the physical quantity with a given value. The measures of the
highest order of accuracy are called measurement standards or eta-
lons;
measurement standards are measuring instruments or systems that
ensure reproduction, storage and transfer of legal units of physical
quantities to the measuring instruments of the lower levels;
reference measuring instruments are material measures, measur-
ing instruments or transducers approved as a reference for the verifi-
cation of the other means of measurement;
working measuring instruments are the instruments designated for
measurements not connected with transfer of the quantities.

6.1 Measurement Standards

The means of measurement of the highest accuracy the standards


are divided into several grades.
The standard reproducing unit with the highest accuracy in the country
is called the state primary standard. The standard of the unit of a physical
quantity is reproduced with almost the highest possible accuracy using spe-
cial tools.
In 1983, at the XVII General Conference on Weights and Measures the
metre was approved as a standard unit of length the length of the path trav-
eled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second.
Previously, the standard of the meter was equal to 1650763.73 wavelengths
of light in vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between
the levels 2p10 and 5d5 of the isotope krypton-86.
The second was adopted as a standard unit of time, equal to the duration
of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition be-
tween the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.

22
The standard of the mass unit (1 kg) is a cylinder made from an alloy of
platinum (90%) and iridium (10%) with diameter and height being approxi-
mately the same (about 30 mm).
The mole was recognised as a unit of amount of substance. The mole is
the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary enti-
ties as there are atoms in 12.000 grams of carbon-12.
As a standard unit of luminous intensity the candela was adopted, which
is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits mono-
chromatic radiation of frequency 540x1012 Hz and radiant intensity in that di-
rection of 1/683 watt per steradian.
As a standard unit of current the ampere was adopted, which is the con-
stant electric current which, flowing in two parallel straight conductors of in-
finite length, of negligible circular cross-sectional area, located one metre
apart in vacuum, produces between these conductors an interaction force
equal to 2x10-7 newtons per metre of length.
The standard unit of thermodynamic temperature is Kelvin, constituting
the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of
water.
If the direct transfer of the unit value from the existing etalons with the
required accuracy is not technically feasible in view of the special conditions,
then the special standards are produced for the unit reproduction. Such condi-
tions may include: high or low pressure, high humidity, measurements at ex-
treme boundaries of the range of values of the measured quantity.
In metrological practice secondary standards, working standards and
reference standards are widely used. These standards are produced and ap-
proved for organization of verification procedures, as well as to ensure safety
and minimize wear of the state primary standard.
The following categories of standards are also used:
transfer standard is the secondary standard used to compare stand-
ards, which for some reason cannot be checked against each other;
duplicate standard is the secondary standard used to test the integri-
ty of the state standard or to replace it in case of damage or loss;
reference standard is the secondary standard to transfer unit value
to the working standards. It may not always be an exact physical
copy of the state standard;
working standard is the secondary standard that is used to store the
unit and transfer it to the reference measuring instruments or to the
most accurate working measuring instruments.

23
The working standards can be implemented as a single standard (or sin-
gle material measure), as a collective standard, as a complex of measuring
instruments and as a group standard.
An example of a single standard is the standard of mass in the form of
platinum-iridium weight. An example of a collective standard is the reference
standard of volt, consisting of 20 normal cells. An example of a measuring
instruments complex is the standard unit of the molar fraction of the concen-
tration of components in gas mixtures. In this case the different components,
different concentration ranges and different diluent gases create a large num-
ber of measurement tasks with the general formulation. Therefore, in this
case a standard consists of several tens of measuring instruments. An exam-
ple of a group standard is a set of instruments for measuring density of liq-
uids in different parts of the density range.
Such a wide range of varieties of standards is not specified in the inter-
national metrological documents. International standards stored at the Inter-
national Bureau of Weights and Measures reproduce a limited number of
physical units. Typically, this is either the basic units of the SI system or
units which can be reproduced at accuracy equal to or exceeding the accuracy
of the standard of basic unit. An example of such a standard is the standard of
volt based on the Josephson effect, which consists in the flow of direct cur-
rent across the junction formed by two superconductors separated by a thin
dielectric layer (stationary effect), or in the flow of alternating current across
the junction of two superconductors, to which direct voltage is applied (non-
stationary effect).
The number of international standards is small in comparison with Rus-
sian standards due to the fact that the concept of standards and reference
measuring instrument does not have a clear distinction in many countries.
There is a vast concept a standard, which can be applied to the secondary
standard (reference measuring instrument) or an etalon (original reference
measuring instrument).

24
6.2 Measures and Reference Measuring Instruments

The measures and the reference measuring instruments are examples of


the reference measuring means. They are intended for verification and gradu-
ation of other measuring instruments. These means have a reading error that
2-3 times smaller than that of the instruments being verified, these means are
issued a certificate for the right to carry out verification.
The measure could be implemented in the form of a body, substance or
device for reproducing, storing and transferring unit of physical quantity
from one measuring instrument to another. The measure reproduces quantity,
which value is associated with the accepted unit of a certain well-known
equation.
Measures and reference measuring instruments, serving for reproduction
and storage of units with the highest accuracy possible at the present state-of-
-the-art, belong to the standards. In contrast to the standard, the measure re-
produces not only a unit, but its sub-multiples and multiple values. For ex-
ample, one metre rod or a set of gauge blocks of various sizes can be used as
a measure of length.
Measures of mass are not only the reference kilogram weights and their
copies, but also weights of different masses.
Measures are essential means of measurement, because they are used as
means of transferring units of physical quantities from one instrument to an-
other.
In many countries, including Russia, special storages of measures are
constructed, which functions include comparison of state measures with in-
ternational. The first storage in Russia was established in 1842 as the Depot
of Standard measures, and in 1893 the Central Office of Weights and
Measures under the direction of D.I. Mendeleev was established.
Measures as means of measurements are available in various grades of
accuracy, which are regulated by the relevant state standards and verification
procedures. The so-called certified reference materials belong to a particular
class of measures.
A certified reference material is a measure in the form of substance with
which a size of the unit of physical quantity is reproduced as property or as a
composition of matter, from which the certified reference material is made.
Examples of such measures are substances that under certain conditions re-
produce a unit or its sub-multiple or multiple value. Examples include con-
stant temperature corresponding to the transition from one state of matter into
another 1063 C the melting point of gold, 960.8 C the melting point of

25
silver, 444.6 C the melting point of sulphur, 100 C boiling point of wa-
ter, 182.97 C the boiling point of oxygen etc.
Another example of the certified reference material, which uses the
properties of matter, is folic acid. The combustion of a certain mass of folic
acid in a closed volume generates a fixed quantity of heat. According to the
results of preliminary tests the certificate is issued on the certified reference
material, and the material is registered in the State Register of certified refer-
ence materials. Certified reference material, as well as other measures are pe-
riodically compared and stored in the metrological organizations.
In the Russian Federation, the State Register of certified reference mate-
rials is kept in a special institute in Yekaterinburg. A special place in the sys-
tem of measures is occupied by the certified reference materials of composi-
tion reference gas mixtures. These reference materials have features that
distinguish them from reference materials made in the form of liquids or sol-
ids. The main difference is that the reference gas mixture is consumed in the
process of measurement, which may lead to changes in gas composition. It is
also impossible to store the reference gas mixture that is being analysed.
Therefore, a batch of vessels with mixtures is prepared for analysis.
The measures are divided into single-valued and multi-valued.
Single-value measures are measures that reproduce constant value of
the physical quantity. It can be a unit or a multiple or a sub-multiple value
(weights, gauge blocks, receiving flasks, standard cells of electromotive
force, electrical resistance coils etc.). For convenience of use the sets of
measures (weights, gauge blocks and other measures) are manufactured. A
set of measures combined in one mechanical unit with a device is called a
measure box (resistance box, capacitance box, and so on).
Multi-valued measures reproduce not one, but several sub-multiple or
multiple values of units. Such measures are, for example, a millimeter ruler
and other graduated measures, graduated variable capacitors, variometer and
so on. To reproduce a length the line gauge blocks and end gauge blocks are
widely used in the industry. The line gauge blocks are made in the form of
samples, rulers, tape measures and scales with the indicating elements.

26
6.3 Gauge Blocks

The plane-parallel end measures of length or gauge blocks come in sets


of parallelepipeds (plates and blocks), which are made of steel for lengths up
to 1000 mm or carbide for lengths up to 100 mm with two mutually parallel
planar measuring surfaces (GOST 9038-90). They are designed for the direct
measurement of the linear dimensions, as well as for transferring unit of
length from the primary standard to gauge blocks of lower accuracy.
Gauge blocks are used for verification, calibration and adjustment of the
measuring instruments, measuring devices, machine tools etc. With the
wringability (i.e., adhering), due to the action of intermolecular forces of at-
traction, gauge blocks can be assembled into stacks of the required size,
which do not fall apart while handling. The gauge block sets are made from
various numbers of gauge blocks (from 2 to 112 blocks).
The gauge blocks are available in the following accuracy grades: 00, 01,
0, 1, 2, 3 for steel blocks; 00, 0, 1, 2 and 3 for carbide blocks. Each set of
gauge blocks is supplied with a certificate according to GOST 2.601-95 and
an instruction manual. By stacking four or five gauge blocks, from a set with
block sizes from 0.001 mm to 100 mm, it is possible to build up stacks of de-
sired size.
GOST 9038-90 applies to the plane-parallel end measures of length
(hereinafter gauge blocks) made of steel with lengths up to 1000 mm and to
carbide gauge blocks with lengths up to 100 mm, having a rectangular paral-
lelepiped shape with two opposing measuring surfaces ground flat and mutu-
ally parallel.
The gauge blocks are designed to be used as: working measures to ad-
just and set up indicating instruments for direct measurement of linear di-
mensions of industrial products; reference measures to transfer the size of a
unit of length from the primary standard to the gauge blocks of the lower ac-
curacy and for verification and calibration of measuring instruments.
Nominal length of a gauge block must meet the requirements specified
in the Table 5.
Gauge blocks are manufactured of the following accuracy grades: 0, 1,
2, 3 for steel blocks, 0, 1, 2 and 3 for carbide blocks. Steel and carbide
gauge blocks of accuracy grades 00 and 01 are supplied upon request.
The gauge block used as a reference should be verified as reference, of
the 1, 2, 3, and 4th class according to the MI 1604. The reference gauge
blocks should have a distinctive mark stamped during manufacture. Accuracy
grade of a gauge blocks set is determined by the lowest accuracy grade of the

27
individual gauge block of the set. Gauge block of 1.005 mm available in sets
1, 2, 3, 12, and 15 of the third accuracy grade, should have accuracy grade
not lower than 2nd.

Table 5

Nominal length of gauge blocks

Size increment Gauge block nominal lengths


- 1.0005
From 0.99 to 1.01
0.001 From 1.99 to 2.01
From 9.99 to 10.01
0.005 From 0.40 to 0.41
From 0.1 to 0.7
From 0.9 to 1.5
0.05
From 2 to 3
From 9.9 to 10.1
0.1 From 0.1 to 3
0.5 From 0.5 to 25
1 From 1 to 25
10 From 10 to 100
25 From 25 to 200
50 From 50 to 300
100 From 100 to 1000

Cross section dimensions of gauge blocks (a, b) must meet the require-
ments specified in the Table 6.

Table 6
Cross section dimensions of gauge blocks

Gauge block nominal Cross section dimensions b


lengths a b
From 0.1 to 0.20 15-0.45 5-0.3
Over 0.20 to 0.29
30-0.45
20-0.3
Over 0.29 to 0.6
900..03
3
30-0.3
Over 0.6 to 10.1
Over 10 to 1000 35-0.3
28
Examples of gauge block designation according to the GOST 9038-90:

set 2: steel gauge blocks of gauge blocks 1-H2 GOST 9038-90;


the 1st accuracy grade
set 3: carbide gauge blocks gauge blocks 2-H3-T
of the 2nd accuracy grade GOST 9038-90;
steel gauge block of 1.49 mm gauge block 3-1,49 GOST 9038-90;
of the 3rd accuracy grade
set of the reference gauge reference gauge blocks 1-KO
blocks of the 1st class GOST 9038-90;
set 3: reference gauge blocks reference gauge blocks 2HO3
of the 2nd class GOST 9038-90

Technical requirements: gauge blocks have to be manufactured in ac-


cordance with the requirements of the standard and working drawings.
Permissible length deviations and deviations from flatness of the meas-
uring surfaces of the gauge blocks at 20 C must not exceed values, given in
the Table 7.

Table 7

Gauge blocks deviations

Permissible deviations
Nominal length
from nominal length, m, from flatness and parallelism,
of a gauge
related to the accuracy grade m, related to the accuracy grade
block, mm
00 01 0 1 2 3 00 01 0 1 2 3
To 0.29 - - - 0.20 0.40 0.80 - - - 0.16 0.30 0.30
Over 0.29 to
- - 0.12 0.20 0.40 0.80 - - 0.10 0.16 0.30 0.30
0.9
Over 0.9 to 10 0.06 0.20 0.12 0.20 0.40 0.80 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.16 0.30 0.30
Over 10 to 25 0.07 0.30 0.14 0.30 0.60 1.20 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.16 0.30 0.30
Over 25 to 50 0.10 0.40 0.20 0.40 0.80 1.60 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.18 0.30 0.30
Over 50 to 75 0.12 0.50 0.25 0.50 1.00 2.00 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.18 0.35 0.40
Over 75 to 100 0.14 0.60 0.30 0.60 1.20 2.50 0.07 0.07 0.12 0.20 0.35 0.40
Over 100 to
0.20 0.80 0.40 0.80 1.60 3.00 0.08 0.08 0.14 0.20 0.40 0.40
150
Over 150 to 0.25 1.00 0.50 1.00 2.00 4.00 0.09 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.40 0.40
29
Permissible deviations
Nominal length
from nominal length, m, from flatness and parallelism,
of a gauge
related to the accuracy grade m, related to the accuracy grade
block, mm
00 01 0 1 2 3 00 01 0 1 2 3
200
250 0.30 1.20 0.60 1.20 2.40 5.00 0.10 0.10 0.16 0.25 0.45 0.50
300 0.35 1.40 0.70 1.40 2.80 6.00 0.10 0.10 0.18 0.25 0.50 0.50
400 0.45 1.80 0.90 1.80 3.60 7.00 0.12 0.12 0.20 0.30 0.50 0.50
500 0.50 2.00 1.00 2.00 4.00 8.00 0.14 0.14 0.25 0.35 0.60 0.60
600 0.60 2.50 1.30 2.50 5.00 10.0 0.16 0.16 0.25 0.40 0.70 0.70
700 0.70 3.00 1.50 3.00 6.00 11.0 0.18 0.18 0.30 0.45 0.70 0.80
800 0.80 3.20 1.60 3.20 6.50 13.0 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.50 0.80 0.80
900 0.90 3.60 1.80 3.60 7.00 14.0 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.50 0.90 0.90
1000 1.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 8.00 16.0 0.25 0.25 0.40 0.60 1.00 1.00

These requirements are not applied to the zone adjacent to the edges of
the measuring surfaces; the zone is 0.5 mm wide for gauge blocks of nominal
length up to 0.29 mm and 0.8 mm wide for gauge blocks of nominal length of
more than 0.29 mm.
Deviations from flatness of the measuring surfaces of gauge blocks with
the nominal length from 0.9 to 3 mm in free state (not wrung) should not ex-
ceed 2 m.
Wringability of the gauge block measuring surfaces must meet the re-
quirements specified in the Table 8.
Flatness tolerance of the optical flats is equal to 0.03 m for accuracy
grades 00, 01 and 0, and is equal to 0.1 m for accuracy grades 1, 2 and 3.
Gauge blocks surface roughness parameter Rz<0.063 m is in accord-
ance with GOST 2789.
The edges of the measuring surfaces of gauge blocks should be rounded
to a radius less than 0.3 mm or have a chamfer of less than 0.3 mm.
The measuring surfaces of gauge blocks, including zone of the chamfers
transition to the measuring surface, should be free of defects that adversely
affect the use of gauge blocks.
Scratches on the measuring surfaces of gauge blocks are allowed as long
as they do not affect wringability, deviation of length from the nominal value
and deviation from flatness and parallelism.

30
Table 8

Wringability requirements

Wringability of gauge blocks to


Wringability of gauge blocks to each other
Accuracy the lower (supporting) optical Steel gauge Carbide gauge
grade flats of 60 mm in diameter ac- blocks with blocks with lengths
cording to TU 33.2123 lengths from from 0.99 to 100
0.6 to 100 mm mm

00
Without fringes and shades -
01
viewed with white light
Sliding pres-
0 sure from 29.4
to 78.5 N Sliding pressure
Without fringes. Shades in the
1, 2 and 3 form of bright spots, viewed from 29.4 to 98.1 N
with white light

The measuring surfaces of carbide gauge blocks, at a distance of 1 mm


from the center of the measuring surface and at the corner points at a distance
of 1-2 mm from the non-working surfaces, are not allowed to have dents
larger than 120 m in width for the 00 and 0 accuracy grades, and larger than
200 m in width for the 1, 2 and 3 accuracy grades. The porosity should not
be higher than 0.4% according to GOST 9391.
Coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel gauge blocks per 1 m and
1 C must be within 10.5-12.5 m in the temperature range from 10 to 30 C.

Table 9

Coefficients of thermal expansion for the carbide gauge blocks

Nominal length of a Coefficient of thermal expansion, m,


Accuracy grade
gauge block, mm per 1 m and 1
From 2 to 5 3.5 12.5 1; 2 and 3
Over 5 to 10 8 12.5 1
Over 5 to 10 3.5 12.5 2 and 3
Over 10 to 25 8 12.5 1; 2 and 3
Over 25 to 100 10.5 12.5 1; 2 and 3

31
Carbide gauge blocks should have a coefficient of thermal expansion
and allowable elongation at a temperature range from 10 to 30 C in accord-
ance with the Tables 9 and 10. The carbide gauge blocks should be manufac-
tured as entirely solid carbide gauge block or as steel block with carbide-
tipped measuring surfaces.

Table 10

Permissible change of the gauge block length

Permissible change of the gauge block length (l, mm)


Accuracy grade
in the course of year, m
00 and 01 0.02 + 0.0002l
0 0.02 + 0.0005l
1; 2 and 3 0.05 + 0.001l

Manufacturer of the carbide gauge blocks must indicate a coefficient of


thermal expansion corresponding to the grade of the carbide used. Hardness
of the measuring surfaces of steel gauge blocks should be at least 800 HV ac-
cording to GOST 2999.
The change in length of the gauge blocks in the course of year, due to
instability of the material, must not exceed the values given in the Table 10.
The requirements for the stability of the gauge blocks over time should be
ensured by the manufacturer, provided that the gauge blocks are not subject-
ed to sudden temperature shocks, vibrations and impacts, as well as the ef-
fects of magnetic fields, excluding magnetic field of the earth.
The perpendicularity tolerance of the non-working surfaces with respect
to the measuring surfaces must meet values specified in the Table 11.

Table 11

Perpendicularity tolerance of the non-working surfaces of gauge blocks

Perpendicularity tolerance of non-working surfaces


Nominal length of a gauge
with respect to the measuring surfaces over the whole
block, mm
length of the gauge block, m
From 10.5 to 25 70
Over 25 to 60 90
Over 60 to 150 110
Over 150 to 400 140
Over 400 to 1000 180

32
Non-working surfaces of gauge blocks of nominal length over 100 mm
should have marks engraved at a distance of 0.211 l from the block sides.
To clamp gauge blocks together with the ties, according to GOST 4119,
the gauge blocks of the sets 8 and 9, as well as gauge blocks longer than
100 mm of the sets 22-24 should have two holes; wear blocks of 50 mm
nominal length and gauge blocks of 51.4 and 71.5 mm nominal length of the
sets 22-24 should have one hole.
The holes should be located at a distance of 25 mm from the measuring
surfaces, and for gauge blocks of 51.4 and 71.5 mm length at the distance
from one of the measuring surfaces.
Explanation of terms used in this section is given in the Tables 12 and
15.
Each set of gauge blocks and kits of the set should be packed in a case
with an enclosed certificate in accordance with GOST 2.601, and for the ref-
erence gauge blocks a calibration certificate according to the MI 1604 should
be enclosed as well.
The nominal length of a block should be stamped on it. For the gauge
blocks of length equal to and smaller than 5.5 mm, the nominal length mark-
ing should be shifted from the middle of the measuring surface, so that its
central zone of 9 mm long remains free of markings.
For the gauge blocks of length greater than 5.5 mm, the nominal length
marking and trademark of the manufacturer should be applied to the non-
working surface. Additional distinctive sign, in addition to the markings men-
tioned above, should be applied to the wear blocks and reference gauge
blocks. It is allowed to label gauge blocks of the 00, 01 and 0 accuracy
grades with the set number or other additional information.
Marking on the case of the gauge block set should include:
trademark of the manufacturer (on the outer surface of the cover);
serial number of the set or kit;
accuracy grade (for working gauge blocks), class (for reference
gauge blocks), the words reference gauge blocks (on the outer sur-
face of the case cover of a set or kit of reference gauge blocks);
reference to GOST 9038-90;
letter "T" (for carbide gauge blocks) on the inner surface of the case.
Each pocket should be supplied with an indication of the nominal length
of the gauge block placed in.
Gauge blocks sets and gauge block of length from 500 to 1000 mm, de-
livered individually, must be packed in cases made of materials specified in
GOST 13762.

33
Each gauge block in a set must be placed in the appropriate pocket and
shouldnt fall out when the closed case is turned upside-down.

Acceptance of gauge blocks


To verify compliance of the gauge block with the requirements of
GOST 9038-90, the following activities are carried out: state tests, metrologi-
cal certification (for reference gauge blocks), acceptance inspection, periodic
testing and testing for compliance of coefficient of thermal expansion and
stability of the gauge blocks length over time.
State tests are conducted in accordance with GOST 8.383 and 8.001,
metrological certification according to GOST 8.326.
During the acceptance inspection, each gauge block is checked for com-
pliance with the requirements of wringability to optical flats. The sliding
pressure is checked selectively.
Periodic tests are conducted at least once every three years for compli-
ance with all requirements of GOST 9038-90. Periodic testing should be per-
formed on typical representatives:
any set of steel gauge blocks with lengths to 100 mm of any accuracy
grade and/or class;
any set of steel gauge blocks with lengths from 100 mm of any accu-
racy grade and/or class;
any set of carbide gauge blocks of any accuracy grade and/or class.
At least 10% of the gauge blocks, but not less than four, are selected
from each set.
From the set composed of carbide and steel gauge blocks, 10% of car-
bide and 10% of steel blocks, but at least in fours of carbide and steel blocks,
are selected.
The results of periodic testing are considered satisfactory if all tested pa-
rameters of the gauge blocks meet all requirements.
The testing in accordance with MI 1604 is held at least once every three
years, on at least four blocks of each representative group. In case tests are
performed together with periodic tests, the gauge blocks selected for periodic
testing are used.
It is allowed to carry out testing on at least four separately manufactured
carbide and steel blocks.
The results of testing are considered satisfactory if all tested parameters
of the gauge blocks meet all requirements.

34
Inspection and testing of gauge blocks
Verification of gauge blocks is performed in accordance with MI 2079,
MI 2186, GOST 8.367 and MI 1604.
The effect of climatic factors of environment on transportation is tested
in climatic chambers. Tests are carried out in the following conditions: at a
temperature of plus (50 3) C, at a temperature of minus (50 3) C and
relative humidity of (95 3) % at a temperature of (35 3) C. Exposure
time in the given conditions in a climate chamber is equal to 2 hours.
Upon completion of tests, all tested gauge blocks must comply with the
requirements of the standards mentioned above.
For testing effect of transport shaking a shock table, which creates shak-
ing with acceleration of 30 m/s2 and frequency of 80-120 beats per minute, is
used.
Boxes packed with gauge blocks are attached to the table and undergo a
total of 15,000 strokes. After the test, the metrological characteristics of the
gauge blocks should not exceed values, specified in GOST 9038-90.
Description of terms used in the section and gauge block sets is given in
the Tables 12, 13 and 14.

Table 12

Terms concerned with the gauge blocks

Term Explanation
Length of a perpendicular from a given point of a measuring
surface to the opposite measuring surface.
Note. As an opposite measuring surface, in absolute inter-
Length of a gauge ferometric method of measurement of the block length, a
block (at any point) flat surface of the auxiliary plate made of the same material
and same surface finish as the gauge block, to which it is
wrung, is used.

The highest difference in absolute value between the length


Deviation of the
of the gauge block at any point and nominal length of the
gauge block nominal
gauge block.
length
The difference between the maximum and minimum lengths
Deviation from flat-
of the gauge block.
ness and parallelism

35
Term Explanation
Property of the measuring surfaces of a gauge block that
provides a firm bond between gauge blocks or between a
Wringability of a gauge block and a flat metal or optical flat when a block is
gauge block applied or slid across a block or a plate. Wringability is
characterized by sliding pressure.

The block included at the ends of the gauge blocks stack to


Wear block protect the gauge blocks from wear.

A set of gauge blocks designed for verification of certain


A set of special gauge products and measuring devices (wires, micrometers, verni-
blocks er calipers, optikators).

Table 13

Sets of gauge blocks

Accuracy
Quan- Size Wear blocks
Set Block grade
tity of incre- Nominal lengths,
num- quan- Nominal Quanti-
blocks ment, mm Steel Carbide
ber tity length, ty of
in a set mm blocks blocks
mm blocks
- 1.005 1
0.01 From 1 to 1.5 51
0.1 From 1.6 to 2 5 0; 1; 2 1; 2 and
1 83 - -
0.5 0.5 1 and 3 3
From 2.5 to 10 16
10 From 20 to 100 9
- 1.005 1
0.01 From 1 to 1.1 11
1; 2 1; 2 and
2 38 0.1 From 1.2 to 2 9 - -
and 3 3
1 From 3 to 10 8
10 From 20 to 100 9
- 1.005 1
0.01 From 1 to 1.5 51
0.1 From 1.6 to 2 5 0; 1; 2 1; 2 and
3 112 - -
0.5 1 and 3 3
0.5
From 2.5 to 25 46
10 From 30 to 100 8
4 11 0.001 From 2 to 2.01 11 - - 0;1; 2 -
5 11 0.001 From 1.99 to 2 11 - - 0; 1; 2 -

36
Accuracy
Quan- Size Wear blocks
Set Block grade
tity of incre- Nominal lengths,
num- quan- Nominal Quanti-
blocks ment, mm Steel Carbide
ber tity length, ty of
in a set mm blocks blocks
mm blocks
6 11 0.001 From 1 to 1.01 11 - - 0; 1; 2 0 and 1
7 11 0.001 From 0.99 to 1 11 - - 0; 1; 2 0 and 1
25 From 125 to 200 4 0; 1
8 10 50 From 250 to 300 2 50 2 2 and
100 From 400 to 500 2 3
From 100 to 0; 1; 2
9 12 100 10 50 2 -
1000 and 3
1; 2
10 20 0.01 From 0.1 to 0.29 20 - - -
and 3
0.01 From 0.3 to 0.7 41 0; 1; 2
11 43 - - -
0.1 Over 0.8 to 0.9 2 and 3
- 1.005 1
0.01 From 0.9 to 1.5 61
12 74 0.1 From 1.6 to 2 5 1; 2; 3
- 0.5 1
0.5 From 2.5 to 5 6
- 5 1
13 11 - - 1; 2; 3 -
10 From 10 to 100 10
0.5 From 10.5 to 25 30 0; 1;
14 38 - - -
10 From 30 to 100 8 2; 3
0.001 1.005 1
0.01 From 1 to 1.1 11 1; 2
15 29
0.1 From 1.2 to 2 9 and 3
1 From 3 to 10 8
From 0.991 to 0; 1
16 19 0.001 19 - - 0 and 1
1.009 and 2
From 1.991 to 0; 1
17 19 0.001 19 - - -
2.009 and 2
1; 2 and
18 2 - - - 1 2 -
3
1; 2 and
19 2 - - - 2 2 -
3

Note: The carbide gauge blocks of sets 1, 2 and 3 with length over 5
mm may be replaced by steel gauge blocks.

37
Table 14

Set of special gauge blocks

Accuracy grade of
a set Class of
Nominal lengths, mm
Steel Carbide a set
blocks blocks
Set 20 (23 blocks)
0.12; 0.14; 0.17; 0.2; 0.23; 0.26; 0.29; 0.34; 0.4; 0.43;
1 and 2 - 1, 2, 3, 4
0.46; 0.57; 0.7; 0.9; 1.0; 1.16; 1.3; 1.44; 1.6; 1.7; 1.9;
2; 3.5
Set 21 (20 blocks)
5.12; 10.24; 15.36; 21.5; 25; 30.12; 35.24; 40.36;
1 and 2 1 and 2 1, 2, 3, 4
46.5; 50; 55.12; 60.24; 65.36; 71.5; 75; 80.12; 85.24;
90.36; 96.5; 100
Set 22 (7 blocks)
3 3 -
21.2; 51.4; 71.5; 101.6; 126.8; 150; 175
Set 23 (13 blocks)
1.00; 1.00; 1.05; 1.10; 2.00; 2.00; 21.2; 51.4; 71.5; 2 and 3 -
101.6; 126.8; 150; 175
Set 24 (25 blocks)
1.00; 1.00; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.10; 1.11; 1.12; 1.13;
- 2 and 3 -
1.17; 1.18; 1.19; 2.00; 2.00; 21.2; 51.4; 71.5; 101.6;
126.8; 150; 175; 250; 400; 600; 1000
Set 25 (15 blocks)
0.990; 0.992; 0.994; 0.995; 0.996; 0.998; 1.000;
- - 2
1.002; 1.005; 1.010; 1.015; 1.020; 1.030; 1.040;
1.050
Set 26 (8 blocks)
0.990; 0.995; 1.000; 1.005; 1.010; 1.020; 1.030; - - 2
1.050
Set 27 (9 blocks)
- - 3
1.00; 1.02; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.08; 1.10; 1.15; 1.20
Set 28 (28 blocks)
1.00; 1.02; 1.04; 1.06; 1.08; 1.10; 1.12; 1.14; 1.16;
- - 3
1.18; 1.20; 1.24; 1.28; 1.30; 1.32; 1.36; 1.40; 1.50;
1.60; 1.70; 1.80; 1.90; 2.0; 2.2; 2.4; 2.6; 2.8; 3.0

38
Accuracy grade of
a set Class of
Nominal lengths, mm
Steel Carbide a set
blocks blocks
Set 29 (8 blocks)
0.990; 0.995; 1.000; 1.005; 1.010; 1.020; 1.030; - - 3
1.040
Set 30 (7 blocks)
- - 4
5.12; 10.24; 15.36; 19.50; 20; 21.50; 25
Set 31 (9 blocks)
- - 3
1; 1.01; 1.02; 1.03; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.08; 1.10
Set 32 (7 blocks)
- - 3
0.995; 1; 1.005; 1.010; 1.020; 1.030; 1.040
Set 33 (7 blocks)
- - 3
1; 1.06; 1.10; 1.12; 1.18; 1.20; 1.30
Set 34 (9 blocks)
1.001; 1.002; 1.003; 1.005; 1.006; 1.007; 1.008; - - 1
1.009
Set 35 (9 blocks)
- - 1
1.01; 1.02; 1.03; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.07; 1.08; 1.09
Set 36 (13 blocks)
1; 1.001; 1.002; 1.003; 1.004; 1.005; 1.006; 1.010; - - 2
1.020; 1.030; 1.040; 1.050; 1.060
Set 37 (8 blocks)
- - 1
1 2 pcs; 10 2 pcs; 50 2 pcs; 100 2 pcs

Note: The carbide gauge blocks of sets 23 and 24 with length over 5
mm may be replaced by steel gauge blocks.

39
6.4 Angle Gauge Blocks

Angle gauge blocks (GOST 2875-88) are intended for inspection of the
inner and outer angles of tools, templates, parts and verification of devices,
etc. The angle gauge blocks of five types are available: 1 and 2 with one
working angle either with a truncated top or sharp top; 3 with four working
angles; 4 regular polyhedrons; 5 with three working angles. Angle gauge
blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 are manufactured of three accuracy grades (0, 1
and 2), multi-faceted blocks of type 4 are made of four accuracy grades (00,
0, 1 and 2), angle blocks of type 5 are available of grade 1. A wide range of
nominal angles is possible by wringing angle gauge blocks together.
GOST 2875-88 applies to angle blocks accessories and angle gauge
blocks of plane angle (hereinafter the angle gauge blocks) having shape of
a right prism with a number of side faces, some of them or all of them are
measuring surfaces, pairs of which form the working angles.
Angle gauge blocks are intended to be used as:
working measures for adjusting and setting-up angle measuring in-
struments and direct measurement of angles of industrial products;
reference measures for transferring size of the unit of plane angle
from the primary standard to working angle measuring instruments.
Terms and their explanations used in GOST 2875-88, as well as descrip-
tion of angle gauge block sets are given in the Tables 15 and 16.

Table 15

Terms and their explanations used in GOST 2875-88

Term Explanation
Right prism Prismatic block of a plane angle, the base of which is a
regular convex polygon, the nominal values of the interi-
or angles at the vertices of the polygon are equal and less
than 180, the nominal values of the lengths of its sides
are equal.

Working angle of a Angle in the plane of measurement made by two measur-


block ing surfaces or two normals to the measuring surfaces.

Plane of measurement The imaginary plane which is placed in the body at pos-
sibly equal distances from the base and top surfaces and
oriented so that the measuring surfaces, chosen to fix it,

40
Term Explanation
were equally inclined thereto. It is allowed to place the
plane of measurement parallel to the base surface of the
block or the block mount.

Wringability of an Property of the angle gauge block measuring surfaces,


angle gauge block which provides a strong bond with an optical flat or be-
tween two blocks when lapped measuring faces are put or
slid together.

Basic parameters and dimensions of angle gauge blocks

Angle gauge blocks are produced in sets or as individual blocks of the


following types:
1 with one working angle and truncated top;
2 with one working angle and sharp top;
3 with four working angles;
4 a multi-faceted right (n-sided) prism.

Table 16

Angle gauge block sets

Set
num-
ber
Incre Quan- Accu- Mass of
(quan- Block Nominal values of working an-
cre- tity of racy a set, kg,
tity of type gles
ment blocks grades less than
blocks
in the
set)
1 From 10 to 79 70
2 10' From 1510' to 1550' 5
1' From 1501' to 1509' 9
80 81 100 99
1
82 83 98 97 1, 2 15
(93)
84 85 96 95
3 - 6
86 87 94 93
88 89 92 91
90 90 90 90

41
Set
num-
ber
Incre Quan- Accu- Mass of
(quan- Block Nominal values of working an-
cre- tity of racy a set, kg,
tity of type gles
ment blocks grades less than
blocks
in the
set)
8910' - 8920' - 9050' - 9040'
8930' - 8940' - 9030' - 9020' 3
8950' - 8959' - 9010' - 9001'
10 From 30 to 70 5
1 From 10 to 20 11
2 - 45 1
2 10' From 1510' to 1550' 5 1, 2 5
(33) 1' From 1501' to 1509' 9
80 81 100 99
3 - 2
90 90 90 90
3 2 - 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55,60 7
1, 2 2
(8) 3 - 90 90 90 90 1
1510', 3020', 4500', 4530',
4 2 - 7
5000', 6040', 7550' 1 2
(8)
3 - 90 90 90 90 1
5 1 From 1 to 9 9
1 1 4
(24) 2' From 1' to 29' 15

Examples of designation of:

a set 2 composed of angle gauge angle gauge block H2-1 GOST


blocks, accuracy grade 1 287588;
an angle gauge block of type 4, 24- angle gauge block 4-24-0 GOST
sided prism, accuracy grade 0 287588;

an angle gauge block of type 3 angle gauge block 3-80, 81, 100,
with working angles 80-81-100-99, 992 GOST 287588.
accuracy grade 2

Basic dimensions and accuracy grades of angle blocks must be con-


sistent with those indicated in the Table 17.

42
Table 17

Angle gauge blocks

Accuracy
Block type Drawing
grade

B
1 1; 2
5

B
M1
70

2 1; 2
M2
5
N

M2
M3 a1 B
30

a3
3 a4 M1 1; 2
a2
5
M4

M4
M3
B
4 M2 0; 1; 2
M6
20min
M1

Note. Designations used in the drawings are as follows: M measuring


surface; N non-measuring surface; B base surface; T top (engraved)
surface; working angle.

Nominal values of working angles of angle blocks of types 1, 2 and 3


must correspond to the angles indicated in the Table 18.
43
Table 18

Working angles

Block type Measurement range Increment


1' 29' 2'
1
From 1 to 9 1
From 10 to 79 1
10'
From 15 to 16
2 From 15 to 1510'
1'
From 15 to 1501' 15"
From 1510' to 7550' 1010'
80 81 100 99; 82 83 98 97;
84 85 96 95; 86 87 94 93; 1
88 89 92 91; 90 90 90 90;
8910' 8920' 9050' 9040'
3 8930' 8940' 9030' 9020'
10'
8950' 8959' 9010' 9001'
90 90 90 90;
8959'30" 8959'45" 9000'30" 9000'15
15"
90 90 90 90;

Blocks of the types 1, 2 and 3 should have holes for clamping them to-
gether into stacks with the holders from accessory sets.
Blocks of the type 4 must be manufactured with 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 20, 24
and 36 measuring surfaces (side faces).
Angle gauge blocks with the number of measuring surfaces 6 8, 10 and
12 should have a central hole with a diameter d = 20H7; angle gauge blocks
with the number of measuring surfaces 18, 20, 24 and 36 should have a cen-
tral hole with a d = 32H7.
Width of the measuring surfaces (length of a polygon) must be not less
than 15 mm. The difference between the maximum and minimum width of a
measurement surface should not exceed 0.8 mm.
The distance from the measuring surface to the wall of the central hole
should be at least 15 mm.

44
Specification requirements for angle gauge blocks
Permissible deviations of gauge blocks from the nominal values, toler-
ances of perpendicularity of the measuring surfaces to the base surface of the
block or the block mount, as well as tolerances of the measuring faces flat-
ness should not exceed values given in the Table 19.
Deviations of working angles from the nominal value are determined
between the adjacent faces.
Hardness of the measuring surfaces of steel blocks must be not less than
61 HRC.
Surface roughness parameters of the gauge block surfaces are set in
technical specifications for specific types of gauge blocks.
Failure-free performance of gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 shall be not
less than 220 wringings.
Mean life of the gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 must be at least 2
years, gauge blocks of the type 4 no less than 10 years.
The established full service life of the gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3
must be at least 1 year, gauge blocks of the type 4 at least 5 years.
Failure criteria and limit state of a block are set in the technical specifi-
cations for specific types of gauge blocks.
Gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3, and a special ruler should be made of
steel -15 GOST 801-78 or other steel grades compliant with the basic
characteristics of the mentioned grade.
Gauge blocks of the type 4 must be made of optical grade glass-ceramic
0115M. It is allowed to use optical glass 8 or 7 GOST 3514-76 or steel
-15 GOST 801-78.

Table 19

Tolerances and deviations of the angular gauge blocks

Tolerance
Perpendicularity of the
Permissible deviations measuring surfaces
Flatness of the meas-
Block from nominal values with respect to the base
uring surfaces, m
type surface of the block or
the block mount
Accuracy grades
0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2
1 - 10" 30" - 60" 100" - 0.15 0.30
2 - 10" 30" - 60" 100" - 0.15 0.30
3 - 10" 30" - 60" 100" - 0.15 0.30
4 5" 8" 15" 5" 20" 30" 0.05 0.07 0.10
45
Note. Flatness requirements are not applied to the area of the measuring
surfaces adjacent to the non-measuring surfaces; the area is 3 mm wide from
the short edges and 1 mm wide from the long edges for gauge blocks of types
1, 2 and 3. Flatness tolerance for these areas for the mentioned gauge blocks
types is 0.6 m. Flatness tolerances for the edge areas of the measuring sur-
faces and their dimensions for gauge blocks of the type 4 should be set in en-
gineering documentation.

Sets of gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 (see the Table 16) include a
special ruler, clamping accessories and screwdriver.
All sets (individual blocks) or a multi-faceted prism in a mount are
packed in a case or packing box. The set includes a certificate in accordance
with GOST 2.001-93 and a manual.
Gauge blocks are marked according to GOST 13762-86. Nominal val-
ues of working angles should be marked on the upper surface of each block
of type 1, 2 and 3.
The upper surface of each block of the type 1 should be labeled with
plus sign (+) and minus sign (), indicating the direction of the imaginary in-
tersection of measuring surfaces (dihedral angle vertex). The minus sign (-)
must be marked on the side of the angle vertex.
The upper surface of the blocks of the type 4 must be marked with: the
serial number according to the numbering system of the manufacturer; accu-
racy grade; order number of faces (1, 2, 3, .. n) or nominal value of the angles
in degrees (0, ..., N) from the first face in the direction opposite to the
clockwise direction.
The table on the case of the gauge blocks should include: designation
for the gauge blocks of types 1, 2, 3 or 4; the order number according to the
numbering system of the manufacturer; year of production or reference des-
ignation of the year.
For the blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 each pocket in a case should be sup-
plied with an indication of the nominal value of the gauge block placed in.

46
Acceptance and Test

To verify compliance with the requirements of the standard, the state


check testing, acceptance testing, periodic testing and reliability testing are
carried out.
The state check tests are carried out in accordance with GOST 8.001-80
and GOST 8.383-80.
During the acceptance tests, each gauge block must be tested for com-
pliance with GOST 2875-88.
Gauge blocks should be subjected to periodic tests at least once every
three years for compliance with all requirements of GOST 2875-88.
Gauge blocks of the types 1, 2 and 3 are selected in fives from the sets
1 and 2 for tests.
If the tests reveal that the gauge blocks comply with all requirements of
the standard, periodic testing results are considered satisfactory.
Reliability testing is carried out at least once every three years for com-
pliance with the requirements of the standard. It is allowed to combine relia-
bility tests with periodic tests.
The effect of climatic factors of environment on transportation is tested
in climatic chambers. Tests are carried out in the following conditions: first at
a temperature of minus (50 3) C, then at a temperature of plus (50 3) C
and finally at a relative humidity of (95 3) % at a temperature of (35 3)
C. Exposure time in each of the given conditions in a climate chamber is at
least 2 hours. Upon completion of the tests, gauge blocks deviations must not
exceed values given in the Table 18.

6.5 Transfer of Physical Quantity

The procedure of transfer of units of physical quantity from the standard


or base reference measuring instruments to the standards of lower accuracy,
including working standards, is provided in accordance with the verification
chain. The verification chain of length transfer involves parallel intercompar-
ison and verification. The transfer of unit is done from working standard to
reference standard, then to standards of lower accuracy, then to working
measuring instruments (optimeters, measuring machines, automatic checking
machines, etc.). The structure of the verification chain consists of several lev-
els, corresponding to stages of transfer of units.
There are various types of verification of measuring instruments.

47
1. The usage of a reference standard being calibrated according to the
standards. This type of verification may be conducted by any service
agency, including industrial standardization service.
2. Intercomparison of the instrument readings and readings of the ref-
erence instrument or reference device. Reference instrumentation has
higher accuracy grade and respectively quite high cost, for these rea-
sons, as a rule, verification is carried out in special organizations
centres of standardization and metrology.
3. Elemental-equivalent method is the most time-consuming type of
verification. The method consists in the fact that if the instrument
has, for example, a sensor, an amplifier, an analog-digital converter
and some other auxiliary devices, then the working performance and
measurement errors are determined for all the elements of the in-
strument, without verification of the instrument as a whole. In this
case, depending on the type of auxiliary devices, these may be tested
as the instruments that measure physical quantities different from
those for measurement of which the instrument is intended. For ex-
ample, profilograph-profilometer may consist of a diamond stylus, an
electrical measuring converter, an amplifier, an integrating block and
a high voltage direct-writing instrument or output to computer. It is
possible to verify the mechanical, electrical and electronic parts of
the instrument individually and to arrive at conclusions about work-
ing performance and accuracy grade of the instrument as a surface
layer quality measuring instrument.
In some cases, when a new type of the measuring instrument is verified,
the mentioned type of verification turns out to be more suitable and even in
some cases the only one possible. Verification of some types of measuring
instruments can be conducted without using reference instruments or stand-
ards. The measuring instrument readings may be checked by the tables of
physical constants and standard reference data. Among these constants, for
example, there are electromagnetic constant, Avogadro constant the num-
ber of particles in one mole of a substance, Newtonian gravitational constant
and so on. Readings of these measuring instruments are checked with physi-
cal constants or standard reference data.

48
6.6 Measuring Instruments and Devices

The measurements of physical quantities in production are carried out


with the help of working measuring instrumentation measuring instruments
or measuring units.
The measuring instrument is a measuring device aimed at obtaining
measuring data in such a form which is comprehensible to an observer. The
measurement instrument represents a device calibrated as a rule in units of
the measurand.
The measuring instruments include: a measuring transducer (sensor), da-
ta digitizer or analog transducer, signal amplifier, readout device.
In addition, the modern measuring instruments can be equipped with
various electronic devices. For example, they may include digital readout de-
vices, recorders or magnetic storage, special devices for jointing instrument
and computer. If the measuring instrument has digital outputs, such as USB,
the user has some extra options, for example, statistical processing of data
under dynamic conditions of measurement, measurement of parameters of
rapidly changing processes.
Depending on the software used for measuring procedure, different pos-
sibilities are available, such as: computer can manage the measurement pro-
cess, carry out an analysis of current measurement information, etc.
The measuring transducer is a device designed to issue signal of meas-
urement information in an easy-to-use form for its transfer, conversion, pro-
cessing and storage. The transducer includes a sensor (primary transducer),
an intermediate transducer, a transmitting transducer and a multiplier:
the sensor comes first in the measurement chain and directly acquires
measurement information. The sensor has a sensitive element (con-
tact or non-contact) which is influenced by the measurand;
the intermediate transducer is placed second in the measurement
chain;
the transmitting transducer is intended for remote signal transmis-
sion;
the multiplier is designed to increase the quantity in several times.
The transducers differ in construction and operating principles. They are
available of the following types: mechanical, optical, capacitance, inductive,
laser and etc.
The amplifiers are realized as cathode amplifiers, frequency converters
and matching devices with computer output.

49
The measuring device is a complex including several devices and auxil-
iary components. The differences between instruments and devices are very
subtle. For example, if the temperature is measured with the help of thermo-
couple and voltmeter, one can call it either a thermoelectric device or an elec-
tric thermometer.
Another example is a universal measuring microscope (MMM) which is
used to measure geometrical parameters of parts, but essentially is a measur-
ing device with a variety of auxiliary devices and appliances.
Besides measuring devices and auxiliary devices the measuring systems
may include measures or reference sets. For example, there are sets of re-
placeable scales, interchangeable lenses with different focal distance, weight
sets, resistance multipliers and inductance boxes, normal galvanic cells, etc.
At the present time geographically spread means of measurement may
be connected by communication channels, forming a network. All in total
represent information and measurement system. Information in such a system
is provided in the most comprehensible form and can be transmitted via the
network. The measuring system allows carrying out electronic information
processing, analyzing and using it for automatic control of production pro-
cesses.

6.7 Metrological Parameters and Characteristics of Measuring In-


struments

Metrological parameters and characteristics of measuring instruments


and devices include scale range, measurement range, scale interval, scale
spacing, sensitivity and variation, etc.
The indication range is a range of scale values limited by initial and fi-
nite values of the scale. The maximum and minimum values of a measurand
marked at the scale are called initial and finite values of the instrument scale.
For example, for optimeters of IKV-3 type the scale range corresponds to
0.1 mm; for length gauges of IZV type the scale range corresponds to
0100 mm.
The measurement range is a range of measurand values, within which
the measuring instruments errors are standard. For the optimeters of IKV-3
type the measurement range is equal to 0200 mm, and for the length gauge
to 0250 mm.
The scale interval is a difference in values of the quantity corresponding
to the two adjacent marks on the scale. For example, for optimeters and
length gauges it equals to 0.001 mm, and for a micrometer 0.01 mm.

50
The scale spacing is a distance between centres of two adjacent marks
of the scale measured along the imaginary line passing through the centres of
the marks of the scale. It is clear that the bigger the scale spacing is, the high-
er the magnification is and the easier the way of comprehension of measure-
ment information by an observer is.
The measuring instrument sensitivity is a relation of the measuring in-
strument output signal variation to the caused variation of the measurand. For
example, if the measurand variation equals to 0.01 mm , when measuring a
shaft diameter with nominal dimension x=100 mm, caused travel of a pointer
of the given device over 100 mm, then it means that absolute sensitivity is
10/0.01 = 1,000, and relative sensitivity equals to 10(0.01/100) = 10,000. For
the indicating measuring instrument the absolute sensitivity is numerically
equal to the transmission ratio and with change of scale interval the instru-
ment sensitivity remains invariant. But sensitivity may differ with respect to
the section of the scale. The concept of sensitivity can be determined by
transfer function as the function of a relationship between input and output
signals of a transducer. Depending on the type of the function, the sensitivity
may be a constant quantity or a quantity dependent on this function. If a func-
tion is linear, then the scale of an instrument is linear and vice versa. The
scale linearity depends not only on the transducer characteristics but also on
the type of physical quantity unit.
Together with sensitivity there is a concept of threshold of sensitivity,
which is the minimum value of measurand variation which may be shown by
the device. The lower the threshold of sensitivity is, the greater the sensitivity
is. Furthermore it is dependable on definite conditions of observation, such as
possibility to differentiate small deviations, stability of indications, static fric-
tion magnitude and others.
Reading variation is defined as a difference in device indications ob-
tained for a point of the measurement range, when the point is slowly ap-
proached from the left and from the right. The reading variation represents
algebraic difference of the maximum and minimum values of the multiple
measurements of the same quantity in fixed conditions. Variation character-
izes instability of indications of a measuring instrument.
A calibration characteristic is a relationship between input and output
values of a measuring instrument represented by a formula, table or diagram.
In most cases instruments are calibrated in such a way that the scale interval
exceeds the maximum calibration error but this principle is not always appli-
cable. Thus, although there is a certain relation between accuracy and sensi-
tivity, we should not confuse these concepts. The device calibration charac-
teristics can be used for refinement of measurement results.

51
The important characteristic of contact measuring instruments is meas-
uring pressure, which is applied on a measurement line and creates defor-
mation at the contact of a measuring point with a part surface.
The measuring instruments can be analog and digital. In analog instru-
ments the indications are determined by the scale and are continuous function
of measurand variation. In digital devices the discrete signals of measuring
information are produced and the result is represented in a digital form.

52
7. Measurement Errors and Causes of the Errors

The quality of measurement is characterized by accuracy, certainty, cor-


rectness, repeatability and reproducibility of measurement. The measuring
device accuracy is a metrological characteristic determined by measurement
error within the limits of which we can use the given measuring instrument.
In metrology a concept of accuracy grade of a device or material
measure is used. The accuracy grade of means of measurement (GOST
8.401-80) is a general characteristic which is determined by the limits of in-
trinsic or complementary errors including some other properties influencing
accuracy which values are specified by the standards issued on different
types of measuring instruments.
The accuracy grade describes properties of measuring instruments but
not accuracy of the measurement itself, as to determine measurement errors it
is necessary to take into account errors of the method of measurement, cali-
bration errors, etc.
Depending on accuracy all devices are divided into grades: the first, the
second, etc. The permissible errors for different types of instruments are
specified in national standards. Accuracy is a measurement quality that repre-
sents closeness of measurement results to the true value of a measurand.
Quantitative assessment of accuracy is a reciprocal absolute value of a rela-
tive error. For example, if the measurement error is equal to 10-6, then the ac-
curacy equals to10+6.
The measurement accuracy depends on measurement errors:
absolute error of measurement is a difference between measured val-
ue of a quantity and its true value expressed in units of a measurand;
relative error of measurement is a relation of absolute error of meas-
urement to the true value of a measurand;
systematic error of measurement is an error component being con-
stant or varying in accordance with a definite law within repeated
measurements of the same quantity. Systematic error can be elimi-
nated with the help of corrections;
random error of measurement is an error component varying within
measurements of the same quantity repeated in a random manner;
gross error of measurement is defined as an error, which value is es-
sentially greater than the expected one.

53
According to the sequence of errors origin there are several types of er-
rors:
instrument error is a measurement error component depending on er-
rors of the given measuring instruments. These errors are determined
by the quality of measuring instruments;
error of the method of measurement is a measurement error compo-
nent caused by imperfection of a measurement method;
calibration error is a measurement error component caused by imper-
fection of the calibration process;
reading error is a measurement error component caused by inaccurate
reading of a measuring instrument. The error is caused by visible var-
iation of the relative positions of scale marks as a result of move-
ments of the line of sight; this error is called a parallax error;
verification error is a measurement error component which is a result
of imperfection of verification of means of measurement. The errors
due to measuring pressure take place when a contact measuring in-
strument is used. In estimating of measuring pressure effect on meas-
urement error it is vital to define elastic deformation of a positioning
part of the instrument and deformation in a contact area of a measur-
ing point with a part;
influence quantity is a physical quantity that is not being measured
by a given instrument, but which influences the value of the measur-
and, for example, temperature and ambient pressure, relative humidi-
ty and other parameters different from standard values.

The error of a measuring instrument that occurs when the instrument is


used in standard conditions, when the influence quantities are within the lim-
its of reference range, is called intrinsic error.
If the value of the influence quantity is out of the standard range, the
complementary error arises.
Standard conditions for the measuring instruments application are the
conditions in which influence quantities have normal values or are within the
limits of a standard (working) range. The standard conditions for
implementation of linear and angular measurements and verification are
specified in GOST 8.050-73 and GOST 8.395-80 respectively.
Standard temperature of measurements is equal to 20C (293 K), here-
with the working range of temperatures is equal to 201 C.
Thermal errors are caused by thermal deformations. The reason for the
deformations is a difference of temperatures of an object being measured and
a measuring instrument. There are two basic reasons that cause errors by

54
thermal deformations: deviation of air temperature from 20 C and short-term
variation of air temperature during the measurement.
Personal errors are the errors depending on an operator. Four types of
personal errors are possible:
1. reading error;
2. presence error (influence of operators thermal radiation on ambient
temperature and thus on a measuring instrument);
3. implementation error (brought in by an operator during the device
setting up);
4. professional errors (are connected with operators qualification and
his/her attitude to the procedure of measurement).

Observation result is the value of a quantity obtained under individual


observation.
Result of a measurement is the value of a quantity obtained during
measurement after observation results analysis.
Stability of a measuring instrument is a qualitative characteristic of a
measuring instrument, reflecting invariability of its metrological properties.
Uncertainties of a measuring instrument or variations in its indications
serve as a quantitative evaluation of stability. The reliability of measurements
characterizes the degree of confidence in measurement results. The reliability
of error evaluation is determined by the laws of probability theory and math-
ematical statistics. It allows choosing means and methods of measurement for
each individual case providing results, which errors do not exceed the nomi-
nal values with the necessary certainty.
Correctness of measurement is the quality of measurement that reflects
closeness of the systematic errors to zero in the measurement results.
Repeatability is the quality of measurement that reflects closeness of
measuring results to each other, taken on the same parameter, by the same
instrument, the same method of measurement, in the same conditions and
with the same care.
Reproducibility is the quality of measurement that reflects closeness of
measuring results to each other, made in different conditions (in different
time, places, by different methods and means).

55
8. Measurement Traceability Assurance

Measurement traceability assurance is activity of metrological or other


services of the country aimed at establishment of necessary standards, refer-
ence and working measuring instruments, correct selection and application of
the instruments; development and application of metrological standards and
regulations; implementation of other metrological activities required for pro-
vision of required quality of measurements at the workplace, in enterprises
and organizations, in industry and in the national economy.
Measurement assurance is aimed at provision of traceability and accura-
cy of measurements in order to achieve desired characteristics of the equip-
ment functioning in accordance with specifications. Measurement assurance
represents a set of scientific, technical and organizational activities carried
out by corresponding organizations and specialists. Measurement assurance
includes: theory and techniques of measurement, inspection and assurance of
accuracy and traceability; technical and organizational issues of traceability
of measurements, including technical documents such as national standards,
procedural guidelines, technical specification and conditions that specify pro-
cedure and rules of processes implementation.
The practice of measurement assurance organizations covers a large
range of issues. Application of statutorily prescribed system of physical
quantities is monitored by the organizations. Traceability and accuracy of
measurements is assured by dissemination of physical quantities from nation-
al standards to reference measuring instruments and then to working measur-
ing instruments. Functioning of national and departmental verification
schemes is also monitored. New methods of measurements providing pin-
point accuracy are constantly developed. Thereupon standards and reference
measuring instruments are established.
The condition of means of measurement in departments and ministries is
monitored. Measurement assurance of measuring instruments solves quite
specific issues on the different stages of the instruments service life:
specification of requirements to volume, quality and nomenclature of
measurements and control means, the parameters and characteristics
of metrological systems and measuring instruments are studied;
analysis and selection of means of measurement and inspection
among the series-produced ones. If there are no appropriate means of
measurement, then specifications for production of the new ones are
developed;
56
implementation of the verification of means of measurement;
analysis of the manufacturing processes in terms of selection of
measuring instruments, sequence of the inspection operations and
metrological characteristics of corresponding measuring instruments;
production support of batch measuring instruments and inspection
means with the purpose of timely re-equipment of enterprises;
metrological testing of drawings and engineering documentation to-
gether with updating of methods of measurement and inspection.

Responsibility for correctness, timeliness and integrity of measurement


assurance of technical equipment is laid on the users. Metrological services
of organizations and enterprises are in charge of solution of issues on meas-
urement assurance.
Technical foundations for measurement traceability assurance are the
following:
a system (set) of national standards of units and scales of physical
quantities known as a national standard base;
a system of dissemination of units and scales of physical quantities
from standards to all measuring instruments with the help of stand-
ards and other means of verification;
a system of development, manufacture startup and production of
working measuring instruments which ensure activities connected
with research, development, identification of product characteristics,
manufacturing processes and other objects with required accuracy;
a state system of testing of measuring instruments (approval of meas-
uring instruments type) designed for batch production or mass pro-
duction and import;
a system of state and departmental metrological certification, verifi-
cation and calibration of measuring instruments;
a system of certified reference materials of composition and proper-
ties of materials;
a system of standard reference data on physical constants and proper-
ties of materials.

57
8.1 Verification, Inspection and Expertise of Measuring
Instruments

One of the most important forms of state supervision of measuring


equipment is state (or departmental) verification of measuring instruments,
which ensures metrological accuracy.
The measuring instruments undergo initial, periodic, additional or in-
spectional verifications:
initial verification is carried out along with the output of measuring
instruments after the manufacture or repair;
periodic inspection is carried out when measuring instruments are in
operation or storage, at appropriate intervals determined in such a
way so that to provide metrological accuracy of measuring instru-
ments for the periods between verifications;
additional verification is carried out when it is necessary to prove ac-
curacy of a measuring instrument in the process of correction of veri-
fication intervals, in cases of damage of verification mark or seal or
loss of documents, including some other cases, while the timing of
the inspection is determined independently from the timing of period-
ic inspections;
inspectional verification is carried out to identify metrological accu-
racy of the currently used measuring instruments; during metrologi-
cal inspection in organizations, at enterprises and supply bases.

The following measuring instruments are subjected to compulsory state


verification:
measuring instruments used by national service of legal metrology
and reference measuring instruments serving as initial ones in metro-
logical organizations of ministries and departments;
measuring instruments used for estimation of the material values, in
mutual settlements and trade;
measuring instruments related to health care of population and safety
regulations;
measuring instruments used for state testing of new measuring in-
struments, as well as instruments, the readings of which are used in
registration of official international and national sport records;
measuring instruments used for merchandise accounting: weight
measuring devices, flow meters, electricity meters, gas meters, oil
meters, water meters etc.;
58
devices used in population health care: sound level meter, dosimeters,
roentgen meters, tonometers, medical thermometers, etc.;
measuring instruments that ensure safety of works: radiometers, mi-
crowave field-intensity meters, gas-analyzers, etc.

Other measuring instruments are subjected to compulsory departmental


verification. Timing of the inspection (verification intervals) are assigned and
corrected by metrological departments of enterprises, organizations and other
establishments exploiting measuring instruments in such a manner to provide
their metrological accuracy for the periods between verifications.
Initial verification interval is determined in state testing of the measur-
ing instrument. Verification of measuring instruments should be carried out
in accordance with current national standards that cover measurement chains,
methods and means of verification.
The successful results of verification are certified by giving a verifica-
tion mark to the measuring instrument and issuing a verification certificate.
Metrological inspection includes verification of measuring instruments con-
ditions and implementation of a verification procedure. The results of metro-
logical inspection are filed under the act containing particular verification re-
sults including also proposals on withdrawal of measuring instruments
acknowledged as nonserviceable, and proposals on corrective measures with
time indication.

8.2 State Testing of Measuring Instruments

The measuring instruments designed for batch production and import


from abroad are put to compulsory state testing by agencies of National ser-
vice of legal metrology. State testing involves examination of engineering
documentation of measuring instruments and experimental investigation of
the instruments in order to determine the conformance to the specified stand-
ards and manufacturing requirements. State-of-the-art of the measuring
equipment is also evaluated for reasonability of manufacture or purchase of
new equipment.
State testing can be of two types: state acceptance testing of the proto-
types of measuring instruments of new types that designed for a batch pro-
duction or import into the Russian Federation, and state check testing of the
pilot samples from the preproduction batch and batch-produced measuring
instruments.

59
State acceptance tests are carried out by corresponding national services
of legal metrology or special national commissions consisting of representa-
tives of institutes of metrology, organizations-developers, manufacturers and
customers. In the process of state acceptance testing of pilot samples of the
measuring instruments the service checks conformity of measuring instru-
ments with the state-of-the-art, requirements of the performance specifica-
tion, specification project and national standards.
Normalized metrological characteristics and possibility of their inspec-
tion during manufacturing, after repairing and in operation, the possibility of
verification and maintainability of the measuring instruments being tested are
also subjected to inspection. On the basis of study and analysis of the engi-
neering documentation and instruments being tested the state acceptance
commission makes recommendations on expediency (or non-expediency) of
production of the measuring instruments of the given type.
The governmental agency on standardization and metrology studies the
materials of the state testing and concludes on approval of output of a meas-
uring instrument. After that this type of a measuring instrument is registered
in the national registry of measuring instruments.
State check testing is carried out by territorial organizations of the gov-
ernmental agency on standardization and metrology.
The purpose of state check testing is verification of conformity of the
manufactured measuring instruments and measuring instruments imported
from abroad with the standard requirements and standard specifications.
Check testing of batch-produced measuring instruments is carried out in cer-
tain cases. Tests of this type are required during the manufacture of new
measuring instruments of a preproduction batch, in case there is a quality de-
terioration of the measuring instruments produced by a manufacturer.
Check testing is carried out if there are some changes in the structure or
technology of measuring instruments production, which influence standard-
ized metrological characteristics. The testing also takes place in order to con-
trol quality of the manufactured measuring instruments within the terms
which are assigned by the governmental agency.

60
9. Product Quality Control

Product quality is a set of product properties that determines product


ability to meet some definite requirements in accordance with the product
application.
Quality control is acquisition and processing of information on an ob-
ject with the purpose of finding object parameters within the specified limits.
The process of control involves identifying if the actual values of physical
quantities correspond to the specified limit values. The purpose of control is
to answer the question whether the inspected physical quantity is within the
tolerance zone or not.
Control of parameters and characteristics of an object related to deter-
mination of actual values of physical quantities is called inspection by meas-
urement.
When there is no need to determine numerical values of a physical
quantity, but it is required to determine the fact that the parameter is within
the tolerance zone or out of it, a qualitative estimation of object parameters,
i.e. quality inspection is made. Quality inspection unlike inspection by meas-
urement is simply called inspection.

9.1 Types of Inspection

Classification of types of quality inspection is based on various criteria:


time and position of measurement in the manufacturing route, control action
of the inspection, object of inspection, etc. Lets consider the most common
types of inspection.
Inspection can be of destructive or nondestructive type.
In destructive testing to perform checking operations it is required to
destruct an object making it unsuitable for further use. The example of de-
structive testing, when the checking of compliance of a controlled parameter
with the specified limit deviations is accompanied by the object destruction,
is the product strength testing.
In nondestructive testing the compliance of a controlled value with the
specified limit deviations is determined on the results of acquired information
on the object of inspection. Interaction of measuring instrument elements
with the object of inspection doesnt cause destruction of the object and
doesnt change its properties. The examples of nondestructive testing can be:
61
inspection of the part dimensions, form deviation and location deviation,
pressure, temperature, etc.
The results of inspection can be used to work on the manufacturing pro-
cess. Depending on nature of this action the inspection is divided into in-
process (or active) control and passive control.
In-process control is carried out in the technological process of product
shaping, for example during the part machining. The active results of in-
process control give information on necessity of change of the machining pa-
rameters or correction of manufacturing equipment parameters, for example
the necessity of change of position between cutting tool and part. In-process
control can be manual when the machine is operated by a man during manu-
facturing process or automatic when operation is carried out with the help of
commands from the control unit. Application of in-process control helps to
increase labour productivity, improve quality of manufacture, introduce sim-
ultaneous handling of component parts of equipment, achieve high accuracy
of products, and employ semiskilled operators to such kind of work. The cre-
ation of in-process control devices that operate according to reference models
without any adjustment is rather future-oriented. These can be both tangible
objects (for example, reference parts) and corresponding software.
Unlike the in-process control the passive control is carried out after the
completion of either a single manufacturing operation or entire technological
cycle of the object manufacturing (batch of parts or product). At the stages of
product life cycle, including production process, the given type of control has
different purposes and time needed for implementation.
There are incoming quality control, operational inspection, acceptance
inspection and also continuous, periodic and casual inspection.
Raw materials, initial materials, semi-finished products, component
parts, engineering documentation and etc. are put to incoming quality con-
trol. The control is carried out in accordance with several parameters, includ-
ing visual inspection control and instrumental verification of product geome-
try, compliance with shipping documents, defects evidence etc. The devel-
opment of product quality in the process of manufacturing at the enterprise
starts with income quality control.
Operational or interoperational inspection is carried out at different
stages of manufacturing process of batch production. Its purpose and proce-
dure is specified in manufacturing documentation by route or operation
sheets.
Acceptance inspection consists of inspection of finished products and
critical components. Relative position of the product elements, quality of
joints (tightening force and torque of the threaded joints, quality of adjust-
ment of joint surfaces etc.), correctness of positioning and presence of parts
62
in assemblies, the mass of components and product in whole, balance of ro-
tating parts, etc. are subjected to this kind of control.
Continuous and periodic inspection means either continuous checking
of the controlled parameters compliance with the standards of accuracy or
correspondingly the periodic inspection in definite time intervals.
The casual inspection may take place at any arbitrary time.
The inspection is carried out in end-to-end manner; objects of govern-
mental, regional and international significance are subjected to state control
and supervision. For example, it refers to the objects subjected to the re-
quirements of technical regulations, state supervision on measuring equip-
ment, supervision of application of statutorily prescribed system of units of
physical quantities.
Another stage is inspection checkup which can be departmental, inter-
departmental, non-departmental.
Further, there are manufacturing inspection, inspection implemented by
the quality control department (QCD) of the enterprise, shop inspection by a
shop foreman and individual inspection at the workplace.
Depending on the site of inspection implementation, there can be non-
stationary and stationary inspection.
Most of the inspection types are carried out directly at the workplaces:
at the machine tool, at production areas, in the workshops etc. Such kind of
inspection is called non-stationary. But in some cases it is impossible to carry
out non-stationary type of inspection, since it requires use of special means of
inspection such as separate test areas, inspection stands, laboratories and
sometimes detached structures as, for example, for radiation control. This
type of inspection is called stationary.
The objects of the inspection are: manufactured products; engineering,
trade and accompanying documentation; parameters of manufacturing pro-
cess; fixtures and tools; reclamation documentation; rules of observance of
operational conditions; technical discipline and qualification of employees.
According to production output there are two types of inspection: single
and multiple inspections.
In accordance with sampling procedure there can be 100% inspection
and inspection sampling. 100% inspection of all the manufactured products
without any exception takes place in job production and small-batch produc-
tion.
In case of large-batch production or mass production the statistical qual-
ity inspection is carried out.

63
10. Measurement and Inspection of the Product Parameters

10.1 Measurement and Inspection

The main requirement for carrying out inspection during the manufac-
turing process is to ensure accuracy. The measurement accuracy depends on a
number of factors, the main are: the maximum errors of the means of meas-
urement and inspection, metrological principles of the instruments design,
accuracy of the implemented measurement methods, influence of the external
factors.
The development and adoption of procedures of measurement and in-
spection is of great importance. The measurement procedure is a series of
methods, tools, procedures, conditions of preparation and implementation of
measurements, as well as rules for the processing of the experimental data to
perform specific measurements.
Measurements should be carried out in accordance with the appropriate-
ly certified procedures. The development of the measurement procedures
should include:
analysis of technical requirements for the accuracy of the object be-
ing measured;
identification of the required conditions of measurement;
selection of measuring instruments;
designing of the supplementary metrological equipment;
testing of the means of measurement and inspection;
planning of the processes of measurement and inspection;
development and selection of an algorithm for analysis of the results
of observation;
designing of the execution and presentation of the results of meas-
urement.
Technical documents that regulate measurement procedures are:
GOSTs and procedural guidelines on procedures of measurement.
Standards are issued in case the means of measurements are regis-
tered in National registry of measuring instruments;
industrial procedures of measurement that are used within the branch
of industry;

64
standards of enterprises on procedures of measurement that are used
in the enterprise. The procedures of measurement include: the stand-
ards of the measurement accuracy; functional features of the meas-
ured value; the need for measurement automation; the use of software
for data processing, etc.

Measurement procedures before the implementation should be certified


or standardized.
Certification of measurement procedures is performed by the state and
departmental metrological services. Here, the state metrological services cer-
tify procedures of the extra accurate and vital measurements.
The standardization of procedures is used for the measurements that are
widely used in enterprises. Measurement procedures are reviewed periodical-
ly for the purpose of their improvement.

10.2 Selection of Means of Measurement and Inspection

Selection of means of measurement and inspection provides the solution


of the issues related to the selection of organizational and technical forms of
inspection, expediency of inspection of the specified parameters and perfor-
mance of these means.
The same metrological task can be solved with the help of various
measuring instruments that have different costs and different metrological
characteristics. The set of metrological, operational and economic character-
istics should be considered in interconnection.
The metrological parameters, which should be primarily taken into ac-
count are:
maximum error;
scale interval;
measurement force;
measurement limits.
Operational and economic characteristics include: cost and reliability of
measuring instruments, operating period until repair, time spent on setup and
the measurement process, weight, dimensions, etc.
In most cases, the higher the required accuracy of measurement tools is,
the heavier and more expensive the instrument is, the higher the requirements
for the operating conditions are.

65
10.3 Accuracy of Means of Measurement and Inspection

Accuracy of means of measurement and inspection influences applica-


tion of the standard tolerance T of the part dimension, which is reduced in a
way (Fig. 1a). Let the measuring tool be perfect, i.e. without errors, then it
can be set to the limits E1 and E2, and the tolerance T would remain un-
changed.

Fig. 1 Variants of the acceptance borders relative to the tolerance zone

In fact, there is always a metrological error of measurement METR ,


thus to avoid acceptance of defective parts and admission of the parts, by
mistake, as non-defective, value of the tolerance T must be reduced to the
value of the manufacturing tolerance Tr T 4 METR (Fig. 1, b). The vari-
ant, corresponding to the situation when an instrument is set to the limits of
error METR , which are the limits of the tolerance zone E1 and E 2 , reduces
the manufacturing tolerance and, therefore, increases the cost of manufacture.
Reduction of manufacturing costs can be achieved either by reducing a met-
rological error METR , or by changing the setup, i.e. establishing acceptance
66
limits outside of the tolerance zone (Fig. 1d). Thus, the tolerance will extend
to the guaranteed value TG . The actual combination of measurement error
and deviation of the measured parameter is a random event.
Assuming that both components are subjected to the normal distribution,
the following can be written T Tr 2METR . Analysis of these dependen-
cies shows that if METR / T 0.1, then almost all the tolerance is used to
compensate for manufacturing errors, since Tr / T 0.9 0.995 in this case.
Assuming that Tr / T 0.4 , then (0.6 0.917 )T can be used to compensate
for manufacturing errors. According to GOST 8.051-81, the maximum per-
missible error of measurement, for a range of 1 500 mm, can range from
20% (for lower accuracy grades) to 35% of the standard tolerance value.
Standardized measurement errors include both random and systematic
errors of the measuring instruments, including errors of gauge blocks, locat-
ing elements, etc. They are the maximum permissible total errors.
In practice, it is economically reasonable to take value of the random er-
ror of approximately 0.1 of the standard tolerance value. Consequently, the
accuracy of measuring instruments must be an order of magnitude higher
than the accuracy of the parameter being inspected. The increase in accuracy
of product manufacturing, in order to ensure the required level of quality,
leads to the need to create measuring instruments with much greater accuracy
of measurement, i.e. the principle of advanced raise of accuracy of measuring
instruments compared to the accuracy of the manufacturing tools must act.
Another variant of positioning measurement error zone is symmetrical
location with respect to the limits of size (Fig. 1, c). However, in case of such
location, there is a risk, though not large, that defective parts can be mistak-
enly accepted and good parts will be rejected. If it is necessary to reduce the
risk of accepting defective parts the acceptance limits are shifted inside the
tolerance zone on the value of c (Fig. 1, d).
Value of the acceptance limits offset can be taken equal to c METR / 2 ,
if the accuracy of the manufacturing process is known, then c is to be calcu-
lated. The permissible error of measurement depends on the part tolerance
and, thus is taken into account when selecting measuring instrument. Permis-
sible errors of measurement for IT2 - IT17 grades and range of sizes from 1
to 500 mm are given in GOST 8.051-81.
The relative error of measurement is expressed by the following equa-
tion:
AMETR () METR / T ,
where METR is the standard deviation of the error of measurement.

67
The influence of the measurement errors in acceptance inspection upon
linear dimensions can be estimated with the help of parameters m, n and c
(Fig. 2), where: m portion of the measured parts with dimensions exceeding
the limits of size, but taken among the good parts (wrongly accepted); n
portion of the parts with dimensions not exceeding limits of size, but rejected
(wrongly rejected); c the probabilistic maximum value of the wrongly ac-
cepted parts sizes overrun.
Fig. 2 shows the distribution curves of the part dimensions ( ymanuf ), and
measurement errors ( ymetr ), with the center of distribution of the measure-
ment errors coinciding with the tolerance limits.

Fig. 2 Distribution curves of the inspected parameters with measurement errors


taken into account

68
The superposition of curves of ymanuf and ymetr distorts the distribution
curve y ( METR , MANUF ), as a result, the probability areas of m and n appear,
which cause the size to exceed the tolerance limit on the value of c. The
greater the ratio METR / T is, which means more accurate manufacturing pro-
cess, the smaller the number of incorrectly accepted parts compared to incor-
rectly rejected parts is, since m / n 0.1 1.1 . The maximum value of the c is
in the range (1.5-1.73) METR .
The parameters m, n, and c may be defined according to the Table 20, it
is recommended to take AMETR () =0.16 for the grades IT2-IT7;
AMETR () =0.12 for the grades IT8, IT9; AMETR () =0.1 for the grade IT10
and lower. The smaller values of m, n and c in the Table 20 correspond to the
normal distribution of measurement error, the greater values correspond to
the law of equal probability.
With the unknown law of measurement error distribution the values of
m, n and c can be defined as the average of the range values given in the Ta-
ble 20. Limit values of m, n and c/T include only the influence of the random
component of the error of measurement. Values of m, n and c are also given
in the literature as nomograms.

GOST 8.051-81 provides two methods of establishing acceptance bor-


ders. The first method implies that the acceptance borders coincide with the
limits of size, in the second method the acceptance borders are shifted inward
with respect to the limits of size.

Table 20

Values of the relative error of measurement for different distribution laws

AMETR () , % m, % n, % c/T
1.60 0.37...0.39 0.70...0.75 0.01
3.0 0.87...0.90 1.20...1.30 0.03
5.0 1.60...1.70 2.00...2.25 0.06
8.0 2.60...2.80 3.40...3.70 0.10
10.0 3.10...3.50 4.50...4.75 0.14
12.0 3.75...4.11 5.40...5.80 0.17
16.0 5.00...5.40 7.80...8.25 0.25

Lets consider examples of the measuring tools accuracy selection.

69
Example 1. Determine the accuracy of the measuring instruments
required for the procedure of acceptance of manufactured shafts with
100h6(-0.022), and determine values of the statistical parameters m, n, and c.
Acceptance limits are set matching the limits of size.
The permissible error of measurement, according to GOST 8.051-81, is
METR 6 microns for AMETR () 16% (accuracy grade IT6). According to
the Table 20 the number of defective parts being accepted is m=5.2%, the
number of incorrectly rejected parts is n=8%, and c=5.5%. The general
dispersion of the error of measurement of the accepted defective parts is in
the range from 27.5 to 5.5 microns (see Fig. 1, c), i.e. up to 5.2% of
defective parts with permissible deviations of +0.0055 mm and -0.0275 mm
can be found among the accepted ones.

Example 2. The decrease in accuracy due to errors of measurement is


unacceptable, therefore acceptance borders are shifted inside the tolerance
zone on the value c (see Fig. 1, d).
Depending on whether the manufacturing process accuracy is known or
unknown, there may be two ways of manufacturing tolerance defining. In the
first case it is needed to define limits of size when the accuracy of the manu-
facturing process is unknown. In accordance with GOST 8.051-81 the limits
of size are shifted by half of a permissible error of measurement. For the ex-
ample considered, it would be 10000..003
019 . In the second case it is needed to
define limits of size when the accuracy of the manufacturing process is
known. In this case the limits of size are reduced by the value of c parameter.
Suppose that for the example mentioned above the T / MANUF 4 (there is
4.5% rejection rate on the both limits of size after the manufacture):
AMETR () 16% , c/T=0.1, c=22 microns. Accuracy requirements for the size
of the shaft, with respect to these data, will be the following: 10000..002
020 .

10.4 Measurement Results Analysis

Processing of measurement results, using statistical methods, is applied


in practice towards the following tasks:
determination of the measuring instrument error;
identification of whether the manufacturing process parameters meet
the specified accuracy of the product;
calculation of the manufacturing tolerance;
70
determination of accuracy characteristics of the preproduction batch-
es and sample batches of parts, to control and manage quality of the
products;
setting of the quality scattering parameters of similar products;
etc.

Measurement results are obtained by appropriate processing of observa-


tions, readings obtained by means of measurements.
The following concepts are implemented here:
result of observation the value of the instrument readings, obtained
by an individual measurement;
result of measurement the value, obtained after processing the re-
sults of observations.

During the manufacture of the batch of parts, scattering of their geomet-


rical and physical-mechanical parameters inevitably occurs. Therefore, re-
sults of measurement of the parameters of each individual part are random
variables. The same thing happens with repeated measurements of one part
with a given means of measurement.
In manufacture and measurements there are systematic and random er-
rors.
Systematic errors are errors constant in magnitude and sign, or changing
in a predetermined law, depending on the effects of certain predictable rea-
sons.
Systematic errors occur, for example, because of inaccurate machine
tool setup, measuring instrument errors, deviations of temperature from the
standard operating temperature (including the subjective actions of the opera-
tor), deformations, etc.
Systematic errors of measurement can be partially or completely elimi-
nated, for example, with the help of a correction table to the incorrectly grad-
uated scale of the device or by determining the arithmetic mean values of
several readings in opposite positions, for example, when measuring the
thread pitch and half angle of the thread profile or by correcting wrong ac-
tions of an operator (the effect of breath or touch on the temperature, the ex-
ceeding of the measurement force).
Random errors are variable in magnitude and sign errors, which occur
in the manufacture or measurement, and take a particular numerical value de-
pending on the number of randomly acting reasons.
A characteristic feature of the random error is a variation of their values
in repeated experiments.

71
The random errors are caused by many randomly varying factors, such
as: inaccuracies of the measuring instrument components, machining allow-
ance, mechanical properties of the material, cutting force, measuring force,
varying accuracy of installation of parts on the measuring position and other
factors, and in general, none of these factors prevails.
Manufacturing errors and measurement errors are random variables. Ex-
amples of random variables are: dimensions of parts during manufacture,
clearances in sliding joints, results of repeated measurements of the same
quantity, etc.
Random errors are difficult to eliminate, thats why they are taken into
account when assigning a tolerance for a dimensional or any other parameter.
The numeric value of a random variable being a result of a measurement
is considered as a random event. The same thing happens during product test-
ing, for example, when it is needed to establish product quality indicators.
The ratio of n events of a random value A to the N produced tests, in
which the event might occur, is called relative frequency of W(A)=n/N.
With a sufficiently large number of trials N, the ratio value for most of
the random events is found to be stable. The value of W(A) for the event A
will fluctuate around some constant number equal to one. This number, al-
ways less than one, is called the probability P(A) of the event A, i.e., P(A) is a
measure of the objective possibility of occurrence of the event A.
The probability of a certain event is equal to one, probability of an im-
possible event to zero.
The relative frequency can be taken as the approximate value of the
probability P(A) of the event A at a sufficient number of tests:
P ( A) W ( A) n / N . (1)
Relative frequency W(A) is different from the probability P(A) that it is
a random variable, which in various series of similar tests may take, depend-
ing on the random factors, different values, whereas the probability P(A) is a
constant, for a given event, number, which on average determines the relative
frequency of the event occurrence in the experiments.
With the increasing N the relative frequency approaches the probability.
The relationship between the numerical values of the random variable
and the probability of their occurrence is established by the law of probability
distribution of random variables. Probability distribution of a discrete random
variable can be represented as a table or diagram, showing how likely a ran-
dom variable x takes a particular numerical value xi.
Probability distribution of the continuous random variable, which can
take any value within a given interval, can not be represented as a table.
The distribution is represented as a differential function of distribution
or probability density function px(x). This function is the limit of the ratio of
72
the probability of the fact that the random variable x takes the value that lies
in the interval from x to x x to the value of the interval x , when x
tends to zero.
The nature of the scattering of the essentialy large set of values of a ran-
dom variable usually corresponds to a theoretical distribution law.
The scattering of the random variable values, the change of which de-
pends on a number of factors, when no one factor has predominant influence,
follows the normal distribution law (Gaussian), shown in Fig. 3.

x
3 3
a

Fig. 3 Curve of the normal distribution

To this law with some approximation may be subjected: variance of er-


rors of the multiple measurements; variance of manufacturing errors; errors
of measurement of linear and angular dimensions; masses of parts; values of
hardness and of other mechanical and physical quantities.
Normal distribution law has the following properties:
the probability of positive errors is equal to the probability of nega-
tive errors;
small in magnitude errors have a greater probability of occurrence
than the errors of larger magnitude;
the algebraic sum of the deviations from the mean value is equal to
zero.

The dependence of the probability density is defined by the equation:

73
( x a )2
1
2
yx e 2 , (2)
2
where a and are the parameters of the distribution; x is the argument of the
probability density function, i.e. a random variable that varies in the range
x ; e is the base of natural logarithms.
The normal distribution curve is symmetrical about the ordinate axis.
The value of a is equal to the mathematical expectation M(x) of the random
variable x, which is determined by the equations:
for discrete values
k
M ( x ) xi p ( xi ) , (3)
i 1
where xi is the possible value of a discrete random variable; p ( xi ) is the
probability of the value xi of a discrete random variable;
for continuous variables

M ( x ) xp( x)dx , (4)

where p(x) is the probability density of a continuous random variable x.
The value of M(x) represents the position of the center of variance of
random variables, the place where, for example, the sizes of the most parts of
the batch are grouped around.
In the absence of systematic errors in the results of repeated measure-
ments of the same quantity in the same conditions, the expectation can be re-
garded as the closest approximation to the true value of the measurand.
In analysis of the nature of the variance of the machined parts dimen-
sions, the expectation can be regarded as the dimension, for which the ma-
chine tool has been set up.
The magnitude of the random variable variance from the expected value
is defined by the parameter , which is called standard deviation of a random
variable and is determined by the equation:
for discrete value
k 2
( x) xi M ( x) p ( xi ) , (5)
i 1
for continuous variable

2
( x) x M ( x ) p ( x)dx . (6)

Scattering of the random variables is also characterized by variance
D ( x ) ( x ) 2 .

74
Formula (2) represents an equation of the curve for the case when the
origin is located at an arbitrary position on the x-axis. If the center of vari-
ance coincides with the origin of x-axis, the equation of the normal distribu-
tion curve will take the form:
x2
1
2
y ( x) e 2 . (7)
2
At the same time, there are other distribution laws that describe the ran-
dom variables, which have the nature of a somewhat different nature.
In this case it is necessary to mention Maxwell law, to which the essen-
tially positive quantities are subjected; such quantities are: the scattering of
eccentricity values, axial and radial run-out, concentricity deviation, imbal-
ance and other quantities that cannot be negative.
To evaluate the reliability of products Weibull law, which gives an idea
of the probability of failures, is used.
Simpson law (or the triangular distribution law) and the law of equal
probability also have become widespread.
However, for the analysis of observations the normal distribution law
Gaussian law is used.
The probability for the value to fall into a given interval can be defined
as follows. The branches of the theoretical normal distribution curve (Fig. 3)
go into infinity, asymptotically approaching the x-axis. The area enclosed by
the curve and the abscissa is equal to the probability that the random variable,
for example, error of size, belongs to range . The area under the distribu-
tion curve is equal to 1 or, what is the same, 100%, and is determined by the
integral:
x2
1
2 2 dx
e 1. (8)
2

The origin is located at the point coincident with the center of variance.
Since the integrand is even and the curve is symmetrical with respect to the
maximum ordinate, we can write:

x2
1
2 2 dx
e 0.5 . (9)
2

To express the random variable x as a fraction of its lets assume that


x / z hence x z , dx dz . In this case, the abscissa in Fig. 3 is ex-

75
pressed in fractions of . If 0 and z are taken as limits of integration, then the
integral in equation (8) is a function of z, i.e.:
zz
1 z 2
0 (z) e dz . (10)
2 n

The function 0 ( z ) is called a normalized error function (Laplace func-


tion): 0 (0) 0 ; 0 ( z ) 0 ( z ) ; 0 () 0.5 ; 0 () 0.5 .
It is followed from equation (9) and Fig. 4 that the area enclosed by a
segment z1+z1 of the x-axis, the probability density curve and the two ordi-
nates corresponding to the boundaries of the segment is the probability that a
random variable z1 falls into the given interval.
Values for functions 0 ( z ) are given in the handbooks. Using data giv-
en in these handbooks it is possible to determine the probability that a ran-
dom variable x, expressed in terms of , will be within a particular interval
z1 . For example, we find that for z1=3, which corresponds to the random
variable x=3, error function is equal to 0 (3) 0.49865 or
0 (3) 0 (3) 2 0 (3) 0.9973 .
Since the area enclosed by the Gauss curve and abscissa axis is equal
to 1, then the area, which lies outside the values x=3, is equal to 1-
0.9973=0.0027 and is located symmetrically in 0.00135 or 0.135% on the
right and on the left relative to the y-axis (Fig. 4).

0,135 % 0(-z1) 0(+z1) 0,135 %

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 x
Fig. 4 Normal distribution curve and representation of integrands

76
Therefore, with a probability close to unity, one can assert that the ran-
dom variable x will not exceed the limits of 3. Therefore, with the distribu-
tion of the random variable according to the Gaussian law, the range of dis-
persion is equal to Vlim 6 or the range 3 is considered as a sensibly
limiting range of dispersion of a random variable and is taken as the stand-
ard of accuracy tolerance. Here the probability of a random variable to ex-
ceed the limits of 3 is equal to 0.0027 or 0.27%.
In production environment, due to the limited number of measurements,
analysis involves not the mathematical expectation and variance but their ap-
proximate statistical estimates the empirical average x and the empirical
variance s2 respectively, which characterise the average result of the meas-
urements and the degree of results variance. These estimates are determined
by the equations:
x n x2 n2 ... xk nk k ni
x 1 1 xi ; (11)
n1 n2 ... nk i 1 N

k ni
s (x x)2 . (12)
i 1 N

In these equations xi is the value, corresponding to the middle of the i-th


interval, and k is the number of intervals. The smaller the value of s is, the
higher the accuracy of the manufacturing process or the measurement is, i.e.
the smaller the magnitude of random errors is. Hence, the parameter s is used
as a measure of the manufacturing process accuracy or, in repeated measure-
ments of the same value, as a measure of the measurement method accuracy.

10.5 Examples of Measurement Results Analysis

If a set of random variables follows the law of normal distribution or the


law close to the normal distribution, then it is possible to establish, using cor-
responding criteria that the considered empirical distribution in the best way
conforms to that law.
In the process of inspection of dimensions of a batch of parts or multiple
measurement of any parameter of the same part, one can find out that the ob-
servation results represent a set of values of discrete random variable, i.e. set
of actual dimension values or values of size errors.
Lets study the examples of observation results analysis.

77
The method of statistical analysis of observation results is considered on
the example of measurement of discrete sizes of the shafts with 12h10(0.07)
machined on a lathe. The size of a sample out of the statistical population
(batch size) is equal to N = 200. Measurements are carried out by instruments
like length gage or optimeter with the scale interval 0.001 mm.
Analyzing the observation results, we conclude that among these values
there are such values which are significantly different from most of the re-
sults, so we can call them gross errors. Such observations can be caused by
inspectors inattention, by extraneous parts in the sample and some other
causes that break normal conditions of experimental results generation. We
should keep in mind that these observations differ visually significantly from
the average for the given sample. In the case of gross errors, their causes
should be analyzed and eliminated.
The result that is the gross error is excluded from the population and the
remained results are processed again and new values of x and s are calculat-
ed; then the furthest analysis is carried out and, if necessary, other gross er-
rors are also excluded by means of Kolmogorov criterion, Irwins criterion or
others. In preliminary calculations the errors, i.e. deviations from x , exceed-
ing absolute value 3 are excluded.
The observation results after the preliminary analysis are arranged in or-
der of magnitude forming the variational series. We shall find maximum and
minimum values of dmax and dmin and find the range of the series.
In our example the minimum value of the observed dimension equals to
11.915 mm, the maximum value to 12.005 mm and then the range R, equal
to the difference of the found limit values, is equal to:
R=dmax dmin=12.005 11.915=0.09 mm.
Then we shall divide the variational series into k intervals. The number
of k intervals, to some extent, depends on the sample size N and can be taken
by the following recommendations: 5 k 7 with N 40 ; 7 k 9 with
40 N 100 ; 9 k 12 with 100 N 500 , moreover with the small num-
ber of intervals it is better to take k as an odd number. So we can see that the
values are considerably overlapped and selection of the interval number is
not determinant, thus the recommendations are only suggestive, not literal.
Taking k = 9, the interval value is equal to R/k= 0.09/9 = 0.01 mm and a
half interval totals to 0.5 R/k= 0.005 mm. We shall find the values of the class
marks and form interval series, for that we shall add 0.5R/k to dmin, then to
the found value we shall add 0.5 R/k again and so on, as a result we shall ob-
tain d max 0.5 R / k , i.e. 12.000 mm.
Then we shall find a number of observations falling in each interval, for
example, 20 results have fallen in the interval 11.93511.945; 12 results

78
have fallen in the interval 11.97511.985 and so on. We should keep in
mind that the values that coincide with the interval boundary are included in-
to the left interval.
The number of observations fallen in the given interval is called fre-
quency.
The order of results analysis and the example of analysis presentation is
given in the Table 21. The values x and s are determined by equations (11)
and (12):
x (11.920 2 11.930 6 ... 12.000 2) / 200 11.960 mm;
S (0.04) 2 0.01 (0.03) 2 0.03 ... (0.04) 2 0.01 0.015 mm.

Table 21
The example of measurement results analysis

Average xi of Number ni of Deviation from av- Relative


Intervals of actual erage vi xi x , frequency
an interval, parts in an
dimensions di, mm
mm interval mm n /N i

from 11.915
11.920 2 0.04 0.01
to 11.925
over 11.925
11.930 6 0.03 0.03
to 11.935
over 11.935
11.940 20 0.02 0.10
to 11.945
over 11.945
11.950 48 0.01 0.24
to 11.955
over 11.955
11.960 56 0.00 0.28
to 11.965
over 11.965
11.970 34 +0.01 0.17
to 11.975
over 11.975
11.980 20 +0.02 0.10
to 11.985
over 11.985
11.990 12 +0.03 0.06
to 11.995
over 11.995
12.000 2 +0.04 0.01
to 12.005
0.10 ni
x 11.96 -- N 200 v i 0 N 1
i 0.10 i

The dispersion pattern of values of the random variable, which in the


considered example is actual dimension of the shaft, is graphically represent-

79
ed by the histogram consisting of rectangles, which height equals to frequen-
cy and width to the range of the interval.
The dispersion is also determined by the empirical curve of distribution,
which is called distribution polygon (Fig. 5). Graphical representation of re-
sults in manual analysis is easier to perform with the help of squared paper.
X-direction means intervals of the actual dimensions of the shaft, Y-direction
is the height of rectangles equal to frequency.
Distances along X-axis and Y-axis are recommended to plot in relation
equal to 0.8 1.0. In Fig. 5 you can see polygon and histogram of distribu-
tion of shaft dimensions and location of tolerance zone that reflects require-
ments to accuracy according to the drawing; as we can see the empirical re-
sults do not meet the requirements of engineering documentation and this is
as it should be.

ni

50
Polygon
40

30

20 Histogram

10

0
-11.92 11.94 11.96 11.98 12.00 x i , mm
Empirical center of Tolerance zone
variance 11.96 midpoint 11.965
ei =-0.07 ec =-0.035 0
Tolerance zone 70 m
dmin =11.93 dmax =12.00

Fig. 5 Histogram and frequency polygon of a random value

80
For example, noncoincidence of tolerance zone midpoint with empirical
centre of variance is equal to 0.005 mm and the range exceeds tolerance by
the value equal to 0.09 0.07 = 0.02 mm. In order to make conclusion on
batch acceptance, it is necessary to analyze the obtained results according to
the following features:
compliance of empirical distribution with the normal distribution
law;
estimation of confidence probability of empirical parameters;
manufacturing tolerancing.
The results analysis of random variable measurement becomes possible
if we know which theoretical law of random value distribution the empirical
distribution corresponds to.
On the basis of empirical curve shape and values of empirical parame-
ters, the correspondence of the curve to one of theoretical laws is suggested.
We shouldnt forget about the importance of graphical representation of
the empirical curve, which is influenced, among other things, by selection of
intervals number and ratio of values along X- and Y-axes.
Correspondence of empirical distribution to the supposed theoretical
distribution is determined on the basis of criteria 2 , for example, of the
Kolmogorov criterion, according to GOST 11.006-74.
Comparison of characteristics of empirical and theoretical distributions
is carried out in the following manner. Values of parameters of empirical and
assumed theoretical distributions are considered. The parameters x and s, de-
termined by sampled data, give only approximate response of accuracy of en-
tire population of the objects.
Mathematical expectation M(x) and standard deviation serve as a
characteristic of random variable values dispersion in entire assembly.
The difference between probabilistic characteristics M(x) and and em-
pirical values x and s lies in that the first are considered as unknown con-
stants characterizing distribution of the statistical population, and the second
are random variables, defined from the sample, and give only approximate
estimate of M(x) and .
The difference between M(x) and x and between and s reduces with
the increase of sample size and number of observations.
Analysis of the observation results of the sample allows to define the
limits, within which the values of the statistical population parameters will
lie.

81
The degree of that confidence that is so called confidence interval is se-
lected in accordance with standard specifications to the product performance
characteristics.
Limits of the confidence interval determine confidence probability,
which characterizes reliability of the results.
In case of normal distribution, such confidence interval for mathemati-
cal expectation M(x), for example, is the interval with the limits of M(x)
equal to 3 x where x is a standard deviation for distribution of values x .
Since
si
x ,
N 1

the limits of confidence interval will be

3
x si .
N 1

From the table of values 0 ( z ) we shall find that within the limits
z1 3 , there is 99.73% of all values of random variable x, expressed by z,
as 0 (3) 2 0.49865 0.9973 . Thus, with reliability 0.9973 we can predicate
that the M(x) value is within the interval x 3 x .
As x and s are random variables, the confidence intervals, as it follows
from the calculation given above, depend on a factor multiplying 3 x , which
we shall denote for general case by z.
It is evident that the reliability of that the value of M(x) will be within
limits of x z x is more than 0.9973 if z>3 and is less than 0.9973 with z<3.
It is common when reliability is equal to one of the following quantities:
0.90, 0.95, 0.99, 0.999, which is equivalent of z equal to 1.645, 1.96, 2.576,
3.291.
Lets study the example, assume that the distribution described above is
the sample with N = 200 and is normal distribution, then:

si 0.015
x 0.001 mm.
N 1 199

The confidence interval for M(x) is determined by the equation:

x z x M ( x) x z x .

82
So with reliability 0.9 or 90% we may expect:

11.96 1.645 0.001 M ( x) 11.96 1.645 0.001

or
11.958 M ( x ) 11.962 .

For the samples of small sizes the multiplier x should be replaced by a


multiplier t which is determined in the Table 22 according to Students dis-
tribution.

Table 22

The value of Students coefficient with different confidence probability P

The value of Students coeffi-


The value of Students coefficient cient
observations

observations
Number of

Number of

with different confidence probabil- with different confidence prob-


ity P ability P

0.05 0.90 0.95 0.98 0.99 0.05 0.90 0.95 0.98 0.99
2 1.0 6.31 12.71 31.82 63.66 10 0.70 1.84 2.26 2.76 3.25
3 0.82 2.92 4.30 6.96 9.92 15 0.69 1.76 2.14 2.60 2.98
4 0.77 2.35 3.18 4.54 5.84 20 0.69 1.73 2.09 2.53 2.86
5 0.74 2.13 2.78 3.75 4.60 30 0.68 1.70 2.04 2.46 2.76
6 0.73 2.01 2.57 3.65 4.03 60 0.68 1.67 2.00 2.39 2.66
7 0.72 1.94 2.45 3.14 3.71 120 0,68 1.66 1.98 2.36 2.62
8 0.71 1.90 2.36 2.97 3.50 0,67 1.65 1.96 2.33 2.58
9 0.71 1.86 2.31 2.90 3.36

The value t depends on the sample size, i.e. on N - 1; using these table
we may find that with N = 20 and reliability 0.9 the coefficient t is equal to
1.73; with the same value N and reliability 0.95, 0.99 and 0.999 the t equals
correspondingly to 2.09, 2.86 and 3.88.
The selection of reliability is defined by the object of manufacture, for
example: for general-purpose products the reliability can be equal to 0.9; for
critical parts 0.95; for aeronautical equipment 0.99; and finally 0.999 for

83
critical equipment which malfunction can pose a hazard to human health and
life.
Thus, if the values x 11.96 and s 0.015 were obtained from the sample
of 20 pieces, but not 200 pieces (as it has been shown in the previous exam-
ple), so with reliability 0.9 the limits of confidence interval would be the fol-
lowing:
si 0.015
x 0.001 mm.
N 1 199

11.96 1.73 0.001 M ( x) 11.96 1.73 0.001

or
11.955 M ( x ) 11.965 .
For the reliability equal to 0.999, the confidence interval is significantly
larger:
11.96 3.88 0.001 M ( x) 11.96 3.88 0.001

or
11.948 M ( x) 11.972 .

With the sample size decreasing and the required reliability increasing,
the width of the confidence interval will increase, i.e. the limits of possible
values M(x) will expand.
Similarly to this, the confidence intervals for the value x can be found.

10.6 Example of Creating Frequency Polygon and Histogram in


Excel 2007

Open Microsoft Excel 2007 and into the Table (Fig. 6) enter data of
the example given in Section 10.5 (Table 21): average value xi of the interval
and number ni of parts in interval, having doubled the column with the val-
ues ni .

84
Fig. 6 Initial data

Perform the following actions:


1. At the toolbar push the button Insert (Fig. 7). First choose the
type Histogram. Then push the button OK.

Fig. 7 Choosing Histogram type of graphic representation

2. Secondly it is necessary to specify the source of the diagram data.


To do this, click the right mouse button in the opened white panel
and choose Select data. In the bar Range of data for the dia-
gram push the button with red arrow and having pressed the left
mouse button select two columns with values ni , then push the but-
ton with red arrow again returning to the panel of diagram master.

85
3. Then in the same panel Select data go to tab Bar/Column. In
the bar Labels on horizontal axis click on Edit and also push
the button with red arrow and select column with values xi, then
push the button with red arrow again returning to the panel of dia-
gram master. Click OK.
4. At the constructed diagram click the right mouse button on any
column of the histogram and select Format data series, go to the
tab Parameters of series and set the width of side clearance equal
to zero, press OK. So we have constructed the distribution histo-
gram for the given values (Fig. 8).

35

30

25

20
1
15
2
10

0
2,2190 2,2202 2,2214 2,2226 2,2238 2,2250

Fig. 8 Completed histogram

5. The next step is the construction of distribution polygon. On the con-


structed distribution histogram we do the following actions: click by
left mouse button on any column of the histogram and at the toolbar
select Insert, then Diagram and select one of the suggested dia-
grams. As a result we have got histogram and distribution polygon
(Fig. 9).

86
35

30

25

20
1
15
2
10

0
2,2190 2,2202 2,2214 2,2226 2,2238 2,2250

Fig. 9 Histogram and distribution polygon

10.7 Example of Creating Histogram, Polygon and Curve of


Normal Distribution in Statistica 7.0

The system Statistica is a package for complete statistical analysis


which involves broad graphic possibilities. The package Statistica includes a
great number of different categories and diagram types.
In order to construct histogram and polygon with curve of normal distri-
bution it is necessary to have only initial data for the histogram. These data
should be entered into the table of Statistica 7.0 (Fig. 10). Fig. 10 represents
only small part of data.

87
Fig. 10 Initial data

Then, in horizontal menu, select Graphs and Histograms (Fig. 11).

Fig. 11 2D histograms

88
With the next step it is necessary to set the number of histogram col-
umns (Categories). In our case we set 6 columns and push the button
OK. Now we can see the window of data selection for the histogram
(Fig. 12). Select a column with data and press OK again.

Fig. 12 Data selection window

So we have the constructed histogram and theoretical curve of normal


distribution (Fig. 13).

Fig. 13 Histogram and distribution curve

89
For the construction of distribution polygon it is necessary to push the
right mouse button on the constructed histogram and in the dropdown menu
select Fitting. Then it is needed to push Add new fit (Fig. 14) and select
the type Lowess (Fig. 15).

Fig. 14 Fitting window

Fig. 15 Fit type selection


So we have got the histogram, polygon and theoretical curve of normal
distribution for the entered data (Fig. 16).

90
Fig. 16 histogram, polygon and theoretical curve of normal distribution
Thus, the package Statistica 7.0 substantially helps to simplify analysis
and processing of data and provides simple tools of diagram construction.
The outlined method allows to estimate any manufacturing process, nu-
merically assess accuracy of the process, determine values of the parameters
that exceed acceptance limits.

91
Conclusion

A limited volume of the book is not allowed to consider a number of


practical issues of engineering measurements in mechanical engineering. The
degree of importance varies and the questions are commonly examined in the
literature.
The issue of the maximum achievable accuracy of measurements, which
depends on the accumulated knowledge in the basic sciences, is expected to
be considered in a separate book.
Verification of measuring instruments, as well as metrological certifica-
tion, calibration and graduation is received relatively little attention. Further
information on these questions can be found in the recommendations MI
1967-89.
Of great importance for the practical activities are the development of
techniques of measurement of the required quantity, the choice of the method
and means of measurement, planning of the inspection process, etc. Further
information on these questions can be found in handbooks on engineering
measurements in the relevant areas of industrial production.

92
Index

complex of measuring instruments,


A 24
component parts, 62
abscissa axis, 74 confidence interval, 82
absolute error of measurement, 53 confidence probability, 82
absolute measurements, 11 contact method of measurement, 12
absolute scale, 19 continuous inspection, 62
acceptance border, 69 continuous quantity, 74
acceptance inspection, 34 correction table, 71
accuracy grade, 25 correctness of measurement,53
actual dimension, 77 cutting force, 72
analog, 48
analysis of measurements results, 70 D
area under the curve, 76
automatic control, 62 defective part (faulty part), 66
derived unit, 14
B destructive testing, 61
deviation, 12
base unit, 14 dimension, 9
batch of parts, 62 direct measurement, 9
batch production, 59 discrete quantity, 74
duplicate standard, 23
C
E
calibration, 8
calibration characteristic, 51 elemental-equivalent method of veri-
calibration error, 54 fication, 48
casual inspection, 63 empirical average, 77
center of variance, 74 empirical variance, 77
certain event, 72 engineering documentation, 46
certified reference material, 26 Engineering measurements, 11
clearance, 72 error function, 76
collective standard, 24 error of method of measurement, 54
comparison measurements, 11 essentially positive quantity, 73
complementary error, 54 event (random event), 67
extraneous part, 78
93
Irwin's criterion, 78
F
J
frequency, 15
frequency polygon, 80 job production, 63
gauge block, 12 joint measurement, 11
gauge block holder, 44
K
G
Kolmogorov criterion, 78
Gaussian law, 73
gross error, 53 L
group standard, 24
guaranteed tolerance, 67 length measuring gauge, 78
limit of integration, 76
H
M
handbook, 76
histogram, 80 machining allowance, 72
maintainability, repairability, 60
I manual inspection, 62
manufacturing documentation, 62
imbalance, 75 manufacturing process, manufactur-
implementation error, 55 ing route, 62
incoming quality control, 62 manufacturing tolerance, 66
indication range / scale range, 50 mass production, 63
indirect measurement, 10 material measure, 22
influence quantity, 54 mathematical expectation, 19
initial material, 62 Maxwell law, 75
in-process control, 62 mean life, 45
inspection / review, 7 means of measurement, measuring
instrument error, 54 instrument, 7
instrument error, 70 measurand, 9
integrand, 76 measure box, 26
interchangeable, 50 measurement, 9
intermediate transducer, 49 measurement datum, 49
inter-operational inspection, 62 measurement error, 11
interval, 19 measurement force, 65
interval scale, 19 measurement method, 9
interval series, 78 measurement position, 72
intrinsic error, 54 measurement range, 50
94
measurement result, 10 probability density, 73
measurement standard, standard, eta- product quality, 61
lon, 22 production process, 62
measurement traceability (uniformity professional error, 55
of measurement), 7
measuring instrument, 7 Q
measuring instrument sensitivity, 51
measuring transducer, 49 quality control, 61
method of comparison with a stand- quality control department, 63
ard measure, 12
method of direct evaluation, 12 R
multiplier, 49
multi-value measure, 26 random error, 53
random variable, 71
N range, 20
range of dispersion, 77
nominal scale, 18 ratio scale, 19
non-contact method of measurement, raw material, 62
12 reading error, 25
nondestructive testing, 61 reading variation, 51
normal distribution, 67 reference measuring instruments, 25
normal distribution law, 73 reference standard, 23
reject, 67
O relative error of measurement, 53
relative frequency, 72
observation result, 55 relative frequency, 72
operation sheet, 62 reliability, 47
operational inspection, 62 repeatability, 53
optimeter, 12 reproducibility, 53
ordinate, 73 route sheet, 62
ordinate axis, 80
S
P
sample, 71
passive control, 62 sample size, 81
periodic inspection, 34 scale, 18
personal error, 55 scale interval, 50
physical quantity, 9 scale spacing, 50
presence error, 55 sensor, 48
principle of measurement, 64 service life, 45
probability, 55
95
Simpson distribution (Triangular dis- transfer standard, 23
tribution), 75 transmitting transducer, 49
single-value measure, 26 transposition measurement, 9
squared paper, 80 true value, 53
stability of a measuring instrument,
55 U
standard conditions, 20
standard deviation, 19 unit, 8
standard of accuracy, 77 unit of physical quantity, 14
standard tolerance, 66
state testing, 34 V
statistical analysis, 78
statistical estimate, 77 variance, 73
statistical population, 78 variational series, 78
Student's coefficient, 83 verification, 7
Student's distribution, 83 verification error, 54
surface layer quality, 48
systematic error, 53 W

T wear block, 33
Weibull law, 75
testing-calibrating measurements, 11 working measuring instruments, 22
thread pitch working standard, 23
threshold of sensitivity, 51 workshop, 63
tie, 33 wringability, 27
tolerance, 20
tolerance zone, 66

96
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