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Josiah Gosyne

Presentation College
Chaguanas
Caribbean Studies
Internal Assessment
Theme:
Gender Issues in the
Caribbean
Topic:
Gender issues in Mass
Media
Table of contents
Content
Pg. #
Acknowledgements
..3
Introduction
4
Literature
Review
8
Data
collection
.11
Presentation of
Data13
Analysis of
Data
..19

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Discussion of
findings.2
2
Conclusion/Limitations of
Research/Recommendations24
Appendices
.27

Acknowledgements
Being both time and consuming and vast in its nature, I would like to
acknowledge and thank the following persons for their assistance in this
juncture, without whom I would have been scarcely able to put forward the
work that one will see below.

My parents, for there unending support and assistance, opinions,


suggestions and encouragement.
My friends and colleagues, for their constructive criticism, suggestions,
assistance and urging onwards in light of the work we were faced with
covering

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All respondents, for taking the time to fill out the questionnaire, thus
enabling real data to be presented in this study.
My teacher, Mr. Kerry Harripaulsingh for his ceaseless guidance,
patience, advice, encouragement and provisions of tools to complete a
work of this standard.
To my God, without whom, none of this would be possible.

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Introduction
"Media plays a large role in creating social norms, because various forms of
media, including advertisements, television, and film, are present almost
everywhere in current culture. Gender roles, as an example, exist solely
because society as a whole chooses to accept them, but they are
perpetuated by the media. Conspicuous viewers must be aware of what the
media is presenting to them, and make sure they're not actively participating
in a culture of oppression."

- Anonymous

As we glance over this topic a number of both heavy and intensive ideas
often dance across our minds. We consider the bias faced by women on a
daily basis owing to the media that surrounds the entire nation and the
Caribbean by extension, but in the same way the often ill portrayal men as
simply and only, dogs. One may argue that, as stated by a survey, 46 % of
local news content reinforces gender stereotypes, almost 8 times higher than
those which challenge the crass stereotypes or that only 6 % percent of
stories in media address gender inequality yet still be met at a frustratingly
permanent stand still. Often, the idea that less than 5 % of all music videos
circulating on social media and the internet display a well-balanced
relationship between men and women is overlooked and merely thrown to
our youths who then in turn become slaves of mass media, imbibing what
they see as all there is to be seen.

When carrying out this study, research will be done on two specific areas
(see Map 1, 2 in Appendix 3)

Presentation College Chaguanas,


The corner of Yves Street,
Chaguanas,
Trinidad and Tobago,
West Indies

Holy Faith Convent Couva,


121-125 Southern Main Road
Couva,
Trinidad and Tobago,
West Indies

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This study attempts to take a broad view of the problem of social
stereotyping from both a boys and girls point of view on the matter. It is
important to note that some 1300 students are represented between these
two schools alone and thus should the ideals of a mass media which speaks
to the end of being one particular way or to delve into one manner of work
based simply on ones gender, it may result in a biased society, an bitter
workforce, countless cases of lost talent and abandoned dreams. Say this
phenomena occurs all around the islands in its respective 141 schools, the
result is approximately 75,000 possible cases of a person who is not fit to do
what they and has at the same time lost the opportunity the pursue what
they love. Immediately the development of Trinidad and Tobago as a people
is impeded by the gender bias generated by the media and its infinite
stereotypes.

With the hopes of making an active difference in the lives of young men and
women and offering representation to an often minority, the researcher
writes on this topic. Finally, the loss of a mutual respect between men and
women, especially in mass media, has become so indignantly engrained in
our way of being, it is second nature, and this work attempts to open ones
eyes to what the mass media often truly tells us and thus in same way, allow
young men and women to go forward as technologically aware members of
society and significantly more informed.

Problem statement

-The impact of mass media on the gender roles of young men and women of
Presentation College Chaguanas and Holy Faith Convent Couva.

This study is an investigation into the effect of mass media into the roles
young men and women of Presentation College Chaguanas and Holy Faith
Convent feel they must play on account of what they witness in the mass
media, i.e. social media, televised media, audible media and written media.
This study specifically examines the stereotypes, expectations, and bias
often placed on boys and girls because of their gender. Further cases
portraying gender bias within mass media will be examined.

Research questions

Mass media is around us in many forms. As such we are witness to the


men and women of mass media on a seemingly constant basis. By
virtue of what we can see, does discrimination of one gender (either
male or female) occur in mass media?

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Does the Mass Media, by the virtue of portrayal, display both men and
women as biased to one field of activity, rather than the other, due to
common stereotypical views?
Mass media can be extended in many different formats, most
influentially, social media and in the same way broadcast media.
Therefore, does the heaviest sector of mass media, i.e. the social
media, encourage young men and women, whether subliminally or not,
to behave in one way or the other?
How then can we move forward to solve the issues of social, mental
and physical conditioning by the Mass Media on the young men and
women of society?

The Purpose of Research

This purpose seeks to offer insight into the influence of the Mass Media on
the young men and women of our society through a study into the young
men and women of Presentation College Chaguanas and Holy Faith Convent
Couva. It firstly seeks to address the existence of an influential Mass Media
and whether or not discrimination of one gender or the other takes place. It
then asks, because of its influence, whether or not, Mass Media encourages
young men and women to go one way or the other. Specifically in this study,
a slight emphasis is placed on the most heavily used form of media, the
social media. From the young men and women of the aforementioned
schools, the researcher hopes to glean a proper insight into the effect of the
mass media on them, with attention being paid to the different issues faced
by each gender. Finally, this study hopes to offer through its findings, a
means of solving the issue of the effect of Mass Media on young men and
women, if any is found.

Educational Value of Research

I believe that through this work one may lay witness to the influence of mass
media on our young people. Through this we can have a comprehensive
break down and not only what scholars say, but what the very populous in
question, the youth, have to say about the matter as well. Furthermore by
this investigation one can glean analytical, social and methodology skills,
which prove useful in the coming future. Beyond this, the youth and parent
population, especially of the Central region of Trinidad and of the schools
Presentation College Chaguanas and Holy Faith Convent Couva, benefit by
means of a recent and veritable look into the influence of mass media from a
solely objective point of view. Finally, in the future this study may be used to
give insight into what mass media both is and has far its grasp is. In the

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same way, from this study, one may have grounds for further investigations
and the establishment of district and even national policies governing mass
media.

Technical terms

According to Steven Coleman, Bachelors in Communication, (2013) he


describes mass media as,

Technology that is intended to reach a mass audience; It is the primary


means of communication used to reach the vast majority of the general
public

Oxford dictionary (2015) defines a stereotype as

A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type
of person or thing

The Merriam Webster dictionary (2015) describes social media as,

Forms of electronic communication (as Web sites for social networking and
micro blogging) through which users create online communities to share
information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (as videos)

Laura Govia, writer for opsdog.com (2015) describes broadcast media as,

The most expedient means to transmit information immediately to the


widest possible audience, although the Internet currently challenges
television as the primary source of news.

The Merriam Webster dictionary describes the glass ceiling as,

An unacknowledged barrier to advancement in a profession, especially


affecting women and members of minorities

As postulated by Jason Sammy, the self-fulfilling prophecy is the


phenomenon where the expectations of a person come to past directly or
indirectly by virtue of the expectation itself i.e. it comes to past, because one
expects it to come to past.

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Literature Review
A study of Gender Discrimination in Pakistani Media, Zara Khan
(2008)

In this article it was found that Khan sought to highlight the gender bias in
the Pakistani media by emphasizing the misrepresentation of women in the
media, specifically the broadcast media. Beyond this, she sought to show
how the portrayal of men and women in broadcast media automatically
closes the door of opportunity specifically for a woman in that culture;
according to Khan (2008), The fact that women are never shown in any
roles defines the proper place of women in the home (p. 3). Thus, Khan puts
forward the idea that because of the discriminatory nature of the Mass Media
women are automatically unable to achieve social mobility even if they so
desired.

This article was conducted as a case study and therein Khan largely uses
examples in her culture to support her ideologies. General observation was
also noted and as with this study, many books and authors were referenced
as was relatable in the study. This study however, lacks the real life
percentages of what happens in the mass media as well does not address a
specific demographic but rather examines the discrimination faced as one

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large picture. The study being done will seek to fill that gap by generating
statistics within a specific and concentrated sample. This literature reports
on specifically the gender discrimination faced by women because of the
medias influence. This study intends to examine this but also to include
issues faced by men and more so, the youth population. Finally, this study
reports on Middle Eastern data (Pakistan) whilst this study will be conducted
in the schools of Presentation College Chaguanas and Holy Faith Convent
Couva in Trinidad.

CASE STUDY: ANALYSIS OF THE GENDER STEREOTYPING


PHENOMENON IN TV COMMERCIALS, Malgorzata Wolska, (2011)

In the form of a condensed version of this current study, here Wolska sought
to present the realities of the commercialized media, specifically what is
seen through televised commercials. Speaking from the perspective of both
men and women, Wolska addresses the common stereotypes by name and
example using specific instances from our culture to highlight the common
stereotypes, gender roles, and breaking these stereotypes whilst
simultaneously commenting on their influential effect on society. For
instance, according to Wolska, (2011) Commercials are the vast source of
gender stereotyping, because they are adapted to the specific, either male
or female target, and are the reflection of the recipient. The aim of the
modern commercial is not only the satisfaction of needs but also their
creation.

Done as a case study, this article lacked statistical evidence however this
study seeks to fill that gap. Wolskas work was also heavily opinionated yet
supported by interviews, and was based around what is seen. This study
seeks to encompass the thoughts of many young men and women rather
than the thoughts of any one person. This literature was also based on
Middle Eastern Data, while this present study will focus on the demographic
of young men and women of Central Trinidad. Finally the study to be
conducted targets a demographic rather than simply a broad brush of
ideas and opinions.

Gender Roles in Media, an e-article by Allison Lantagne, (2014)

Written in a satirical yet concise form, Lantagne very precisely examines with
the use of heavy statistics and real life examples to support her claims to the
issues of the mass and advertisement media. In her expose, she also
addresses the subliminal messages often put forward by the media arriving
at conclusions such as, Gender roles, as an example, exist solely because

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society as a whole chooses to accept them, but they are perpetuated by the
media. Beyond the broadcast media, she also addresses films but on a more
subtle note putting forward ideas such as, The message consumers are
sending to filmmakers is that they should produce more films with women
falling into the resigned, quiet, gender role, as opposed to films that break
away from these molds. Statistically, she found that 84% of women feel
somehow stereotypically portrayed in commercials and broadcast media as
well 78 % of all respondents (men and women) saw men portrayed as bread
winners and women as submissive. Her work addresses however solely the
broadcast and film media and thus is largely limited in this regard. She closes
with highlights of companies fighting gender stereotypes, thus showing the
shell can be broken while simultaneously acknowledging its presence in the
first place.

Written as an article, this article had with it solid statistical evidence and real
life case examples to support her various claims and opinions it however
lacked interviews and a set of professional opinions. Lantagne reports
heavily on broadcast media whilst this study will seek to address the effect of
the complete Mass Media as it pertains to young men and women. Also, this
literature is based completely European data specifically that data coming
out of the United States of America while this study will seek to address the
young men and women of Central Trinidad.

Into the Mind of Women by Michelle Ivashkov (2003)

Written over ten years ago, it is safe to say that the information within this
journal may be out of date however Ivashkov offers a very deep and intimate
look into the mind of women specifically the discrimination they face.
Recorded as a means to examine the mindset of women across North
London, Ivashkovs journal offers an insight into the thoughts of women on
how they were and are often portrayed. Consisting of 18 chapters spanning
various forms of discrimination the places where it takes places, Ivashkovs
study yields sentiments such as, Women are often at the base of the
corporate world shadowed in by a growling beast of sexist discrimination
constantly plagued by an impossible to cross glass ceiling, despite any effort
we make and of course, the media stabs through the heart of any legitimate
plea to be taken seriously and it doesnt help that most women believe all
they can be, is what they see on the tellie.., Ivashkov, 2003, p.68. While this

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despite old and testimonial, it lacks much other solid evidence of
discrimination other than the recorded feelings of English women.

Written as a journal this study focused mainly on the issues faced by women
while this study seeks to address the issues faced by both men and women.
Additionally, this study lacked statistical evidence; this study will seek to
provide this both for men and women. Lacking a gender unbiased outlook,
this study will seek to arrive at a complete view on gender issues in the mass
media. Finally, this literature reports on North London data while this study
will be conducted in two schools of Central Trinidad.

Data Collection Sources


Primary Sources

In this study, for the means of data collection a questionnaire of 13 questions


(this can be seen in Appendix 4) was asked and this was handed out evenly
to 40 students of Presentation College Chaguanas and Holy Faith Convent

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Couva. Respondents were selected at random but it was ensured that each
respondent was between the ages of 15-19, i.e. fifth form and sixth formers
of each respective school.

Beyond this, contained within the questionnaire were open ended responses
where the unedited opinion of a respondent may be voiced. At 11:00 a.m. on
the grounds of Presentation College and Holy Faith Convent Couva on the
14th of January questionnaires were distributed and were collected the
following day (January 15th) at 11:00a.m. A full sample of the questionnaire
can be found in Appendix 1. This particular method was used in an attempt
to hear straight and unedited directly from the population in study as well as
persons who interacts closely with the population on a daily basis (i.e. ones
peers). The student questionnaire was built around the research questions of
this study as was the interview. By the method employed, it provided not
only an insight into the minds of the populous but closed the window for
error and straying. Beyond that, by using this method it was particularly easy
to target specifically the intended population.

Sources helped by providing statistical and situational evidence upon which


to make assumptions and inferences. The questionnaire designed comprised
of questions directed to individuals facing the problems and challenges or
laying witness to it, which are being investigated in this study.

In this case, the data collected comes with a fairly certain validity owning to
the fact that it was a confidential study and thus, a respondent would have
zero reason not to be honest. However, for reasons such as, shame, naivety
or lack of proper thought, one must consider that data may have
inaccuracies with it. It is therefore just reliable as it is valid.

Secondary Sources

Unfortunately in this study, it proved very difficult to obtain solid and


sensible Caribbean literature for the topic at hand however from the
international sources one can glean useful information. Gender roles in the
Media, Lantagne (2014) puts forward solid statistical evidence which offers
a salient view into the issues at hand as they pertain to the study.
Furthermore, Into the mind of Women, Ivashkov (2003) puts forward
equally as useful information in the form of real life circumstances evidenced
by women across North London.

Each of the above mentioned sources were useful in study as well as those in
the Literature review not mentioned because of the instances they put

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forward. For instance, in Ivashkovs journal we are able to see what women
faced on a daily basis because of the media. From this, we can ascertain an
idea of what the current situation of most women are. These sources thus
prove relevant for the ideas and insights they offer, which in every case,
addressed a major part of this study. It is noteworthy, despite these studies
taking place in the Middle East, United States and London, they all have
overlapping trends which thus propagates the global nature of this situation
and we can thus see how culturally, the Caribbean emulates these places.

All sources in this case can be taken to reliable information as they were
taken from professional sources, however in these cases one considers that
they took place in space and time. For example, Into the Mind of Women,
Michelle Ivashkov (2003) is a study which took place thirteen years ago.
Thus, though these sources may be reliable they may not still hold to be
valid unlike the sources in the Primary Sources which were taken only this
year.

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Presentation of Data
Graphic Presentations

Figure 1 below demonstrates whether the studied populations feel there is a


gender bias in the Mass Media.

20
18
16
14
12
10 Male

8 Female

6
4
2
0
YES NO

Figure 2 below demonstrates whether or not the studied population feels as if


men are displayed as the homes breadwinners and women play a more
timid role in a relationship.

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18
16
14
12
10 Male
8 Female
6
4
2 Female
0

YES Male
NO

Figure 3 shows how young men of Presentation College Chaguanas people


agree and disagree (and to what extent) with the question posed in Figure 2.

Figure 3

Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree

Figure 4 shows how young women of Holy Faith Convent Couva agree and
disagree (and to what extent) with the question posed in Figure 2.

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Figure 4

Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree

Figure 5 below shows the extent to how both the young men of Presentation
College Chaguanas and Holy Faith Convent Couva feel the influential artists
of the media, display men and women i.e. in a common stereotypical
manner.

18
16
14
12
10
8
6 Male
4 Female
2
0

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Figure 6 below demonstrates how the young men of Presentation College and
Holy Faith Convent Couva feel about the presence of certain stereotypes in
the Mass Media (variable correspondence listed below)

E
Male
D Female

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

A. Men as lacking the capacity to provide emotional care and depth

B. Women as the role of caregiver

C. Women as having clean jobs I.e. office work and menial tasks, while
men have harder jobs?

D. Men as the leaders of society and at the head of the society

E. Women submissive to men, and often under their leadership

F. Women stay at home, while men work and earn for a family

G. Women serve the purpose to please men, especially intimately

H. Women prefer easier leisure activities whilst men much prefer to


engage in more physical activities

Figure 7 below shows how influenced the studied population feels by the
Mass Media to pursue a certain career or the other.

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7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Male
0
Female

The following, flow diagram 1, gives statistics based on questions in a


continuous order.

65% of boys and girls


feel influenced by the
Mass media to behave
in certain way.

Yet, 93% of boys and girls


see an influence of social
media on their peers.

And, 75% of boys and


girls feel that the mass
media discriminates
those who break out of
a common stereotype.

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Open ended Responses

With a 95% of all respondents deeming this study real and relevant
noteworthy responses to the open ended question,

The combined fan base of Kanye West and Kim Kardashian is greater than
that of President Obama. Do you believe that these two social icons portray
men and women as acting in one way or another? What way?

Are as follows:

Yes. The two seem to work almost hand in hand. Kanye constantly
focuses on the objectification of women and Kim always acting as an
object of sex and pleasure.
No. I believe their influence is based on a false popularity.
Yes! With respect to Kim Kardashian, she acts in a manner that
objectifies and sexualizes women. In the case of Kanye, he constantly
demonstrates to boys to be cold and arrogant.
Yes. I believe Kim constantly shows young girls to sexualize yourself in
order to get what you want. Kanye not only supports this rubbish, but
encourages young men to be cold-hearted and arrogant.
Both of them have a negative effect on our youth and my peers. Real
talk, they act like airheaded dotish fools who are too high and mighty
for anyone else and frankly show our youth that to be promiscuous, is
good and worthy of praise.
Yes. Kanye portrays men as shallow individuals who are not great role
models for development.
Yes. They tend to portray an idealist and lavish lifestyle as well as the
over sexualization of women as well portraying a royal lifestyle that
most people yearn for.
Yes. Together, they portray than women are all about flash their bodies
and men are only good to talk about it.
Yes. They portray men as unproductive members of society with no
real life incentives.
Yes. Kim indicate to simple minded gyal that they should run down rich
black man and utilize such gained money to enhance their body i.e.
ass. Kanye indicate that men should get rich through bep means.

Noteworthy responses to the question, where 38 respondents responded yes


(95% of total population),

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If yes, (that Mass Media promotes gender stereotypes, discrimination and
biases), how then would you as a young person move to combat the
problems of stereotyping, discrimination and any gender bias generated by
the Mass Media?

Are as follows:

Alter consumption of media to things that don't promote sexist gender


biases. Watch egalitarian TV shows, go see movies with strong
complex female characters, buy books with diverse characters written
by diverse authors, don't subscribe to crap magazines, support
musicians whose message you like.
Model and demonstrate the kind of world you demand to live in. To
write the books. Make the music. Paint the art. Shoot the films." -
Chuck Palahniuk
That quote was partially the reason I decided to pursue becoming a
filmmaker, because motion pictures are probably the most influential
form of mass media in history.
Honestly, just surround yourself with better persons and better
influences. Theres no denying that it will get to you if you stay around
it long enough, so dont.

Note: 100% spoke to the end of re-surrounding oneself with a better


environment in order to combat the gender stereotypes, bias and
discrimination present by the Mass Media.

Analysis of Data
In figure 1, we see that initially 90% of girls (18 respondents) found that a
gender bias existed in the Mass media while 10% did not (2 respondents).
Nearly exactly mirroring this, 85% of boys (17 respondents) agreed to the
presence of gender bias while 15 % did not (3 respondents). From this we
can glean that to our young people there is an evident gender bias present
by the Mass media. Correspondingly from figure 2 we can glean what they
believe it to be. The question was put forward if they believe men are
displayed as the homes breadwinner and women as having a more timid
role. 70% of males (14 respondents) and 85% of females (17 respondents)
not only agreed that this was the case, but as seen by figure 3 and figure 4,
50 % of males (10 respondents) and 60% of females (12 respondents)

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STRONGLY AGREE with this sentiment. From this we can safely glean that the
Mass Media portrays to our young people that women always have a
dependency on men for provision of their needs. Alternatively, figure 4 only
30 % of males (6 respondents) and 15% of females (3 respondents) either
disagree or strongly disagree. This further supports that opinion that to our
young the Mass Media displays men as the ones to provide and women as
the ones to depend.

The most influential persons in the Mass Media were stated to the
respondents and it was asked if they felt these men and women portrayed
men and women stereotypically. Figure 5 not only demonstrates, by virtue of
pattern, of how similarly young men and women felt but shows how 80% of
boys ( 16 respondents) and 70% of girls (14 respondents) believe they very
much portray a stereotype whilst 15 % of girls (3 respondents) and 10% of
boys (2 respondents) felt they did not have a notable impact. From this we
can say that the influential men and women of the Mass Media do indeed
portray men and women as one way and this way is in fact, following with a
stereotype.

Now, considering this, in a free response it was asked how young people felt
about the icons of Kim Kardashian and Kanye West who together have a fan
base surpassing the current U.S. President and of the 83 % percent of
respondents (33 persons) who felt they had an active influence on our youth,
85 % of these respondents (28 persons) found they had starkly negative
influence, this postulation supported by statements such as,

Yes! With respect to Kim Kardashian, she acts in a manner that objectifies
and sexualizes women. In the case of Kanye, he constantly demonstrates to
boys to be cold and arrogant

Yes. They tend to portray an idealist and lavish lifestyle as well as the over
sexualization of women as well portraying a royal lifestyle that most
people yearn for.

Yes. I believe Kim constantly shows young girls to sexualize yourself in


order to get what you want. Kanye not only supports this rubbish, but
encourages young men to be cold-hearted and arrogant.

Figure 6 demonstrates in a distributive manner, how much young men and


women agree about common gender stereotypes put forward by the Mass
Media. Most notably is the instance of Women serve the purpose to please
men, especially intimately having the largest agreement of boys and of girls

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of all the questions put forward and even more so an equal spread of 17
each or 85% of boys and 85% of girls. Also, in the instance Men are the
leaders and are at the head of society saw the greatest variance between
boys and girls. In this case only 7 boys or 35% of boys agreed with this whilst
double that number, 14 girls or 70% of all female respondents agreed with it.
Beyond this, every in every other stereotype put forward one can see that
between genders there is near perfect coherence. Thus, for this we can
deduce that while boys and girls recognize and agree on certain stereotypes
in the Mass Media, ones gender can influence ones perception of the reality
of the Mass Media.

We can see in figure 7, like in figure 5, the rise and falls, declines and
concentrations in terms of boys and girls are near mirrors of each other. In
this distribution, 40 % of males (8 respondents) feel influenced by the Mass
Media to pursue a certain career path, however 50% (10 respondents) do
not. 45 % of females (9 respondents) feel influenced by the Media to pursue
a certain career whilst, like boys, 50% do not (10 correspondents). Only, 10%
of respondents in total (4 persons) felt strongly influenced by the Mass Media
to pursue a certain career. This data suggests that whilst young people see
recognizable influences in the Media, these may or may not affect their
choice of career with a guaranteed effect being unlikely.

Alternatively, from flow diagram 1 we see that 65 % (26 respondents) of all


respondents feel an influence of the Mass Media on their lives; however 93 %
(37 respondents) of all respondents see the influence on their peers.
Following the trend of thought from figure 6 which demonstrated that seeing
and feeling stereotypes can be based on ones gender, this data also
suggests that the influence of Mass Media may be part of our daily lifestyles
with us even realizing it as suggest by the sharp fluctuation from influence
on ones person, to seeing the influence on a persons peers. Flow diagram 1
also shows that 75% (30 respondents) of all respondents feel that
discrimination will happen to those who break out of stereotype put forward
by society. This can lend an explanation to why 93% of all respondents see
an active influence of the Mass Media on their peers, which is to say, they
are wary of discrimination. It stands to reason that since 100 % of all
respondents who agreed the study was relevant (38 respondents) suggested
that to combat the effects of the Mass Media one must surround oneself in a
better environment that our youth know what must be done, and are once
again, dissuaded or wary in some manner.

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In the final analysis, there were resemblances in figure 7 and figure 5 in
terms of mirrored distributions. Figures 1 and 2 were not exactly alike but
followed the same basic pattern in terms of YES and NO. Similarly, figures 3
and 4 were not exactly the same in values yet followed the same basic
patter. Finally in figure 6, the exactly same number of boys and girls agreed
upon one certain stereotype and this nearly repeated itself for several other
stereotypes in the list as seen by the distribution.

Therefore, a summary of my findings are:

Both young men and women feel there is gender bias in the Mass
Media
This gender bias generally portrays men as the dominant figure and
bread winner while women are quieter in the relationship and more
timid playing a more submissive role.
The most influential person in the mass media portray men and women
in a very poor and stereotypical manner often displaying men as
dogs and women as over sexualized.
The Mass Media while expansive in its reach has not yet begun to
affect the career choices of young men and women does have an
influence on them. This however is not usually recognized by oneself
Young men and women however, know there is an influence of the
media and seek to combat it by altering what reaches them and
properly educating themselves and exposing themselves to better
examples.

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Discussion of Findings
In the first piece of literature, A study of Gender Discrimination in Pakistani
Media, Zara Khan (2008) we find that she very carefully paints a picture of
exactly what is happening in the Pakistani media. From this picture she
creates, she is able to draw references and make educated inferences. In
doing so, Khan found most dominantly that due to the nature of the
discrimination present in her media women are unable to climb socially even
if they desired to do so. She has therefore; found the phenomenon of the
glass ceiling in her particular media. In this study however, when the
question was put forward if a person would be met with discrimination for
jumping out of a social norm the results were nearly split down the middle
with a little more sway to the idea that yes there will be discrimination,
implying that in Trinidadian culture there lacks a powerful glass ceiling,
however one cannot avoid or ignore the fact that the Mass Media encourages
and points our youths in one direction or the other. 65% of all young persons
surveyed feel as if they are influenced by the Mass Media and further more
so, 93% see this influence on their peers. From this we can conclude, that
while one might not see a glass ceiling in our Media, perhaps it is not even
necessary to influence our youths one way or the other without them even
beginning to realize what is happening. Resultantly, the stakeholders (us, the
people in this case) face the consequence of losing intelligence, leaders,
ingenuity and hinder the overall development of a place, society and country.

Following this was CASE STUDY: ANALYSIS OF THE GENDER STEREOTYPING


PHENOMENON IN TV COMMERCIALS, Malgorzata Wolska, (2011). Acting as a
hyper condensed version of this study, Wolska dives into the advertisement
and broadcast media, dissects and points out the various flaws and
subliminal messages associated with it. She found that Commercials are the
vast source of gender stereotyping, because they are adapted to the specific,
either male or female target, and are the reflection of the recipient. The
aim of the modern commercial is not only the satisfaction of needs but also
their creation, Wolska (2011). Similarly, this study found that young women
actively see men being portrayed as the leaders of society and women as
serving only to please the intimate desires of men with nearly all of the
young persons agreed on the ideal that women prefer leisure activity and
men more physically engaging ones. As Wolska put forward, it is a reflection

37
of the recipient. Therefore, if this is allowed to perpetuate, the self-fulfilling
prophecy takes place where our young men and women become a certain
way (or a feel a need to become this way) and thus are robbed of expressing
their possible multiple intelligences and we lose as both a people and a
country in a situation similar to that mentioned previously.

Gender roles in Media, an e-article by Allison Lantagne carefully examines


in her hypothesis of the Mass Media with the aid of case-in-point examples
as well as statistical evidence. She would go on to find that 84% of women
feel as if they are stereotyped by the Mass Media and 78% of men and
women surveyed saw men as superior and women as submissive. Likewise in
this survey, at least 85% of female respondents felt there was gender bias in
the Media and 90% of boys and girls found that one such bias, was that men
are the leaders of society. Furthermore, 63% of boys and girls felt that the
media portrayed women as submissive to men. From these findings, we can
see how the situation here is like any other part of the world. Choosing her
study to be solely on Broadcast Media and not the Mass Media in general, it
was limited in its scope yet still yielded strong evidence. Evidence which
suggests that the active influence across the world and if this is not acted
upon can prove detrimental to world development. Here, governments must
take action for their youth in order to set up and build up a better and safer
environment in which to learn and grow in. We can understand from the first
study what it means to be captured in one spot due to the Media. If the
whole globe is allowed to perpetuate in this manner, the consequences may
prove dire.

Finally, Into the Mind of Women by Michelle Ivashkov (2003) tackles the
issue of how women feel about the Mass Media in perhaps the realest yet
abstract manner, keeping an active track of how women feel in her journal.
This methodology, while starkly different to what was done in this study, still
bears similarities to what this survey investigated and eventually found.
Perhaps the most testimonial evidence in this were statements such as,
Women are often at the base of the corporate world shadowed in by a
growling beast of sexist discrimination constantly plagued by an impossible
to cross glass ceiling, despite any effort we make and of course, the media
stabs through the heart of any legitimate plea to be taken seriously and it
doesnt help that most women believe all they can be, is what they see on
the tellie and Sometimes I feel as if cause of the damn Media, a guy only
notices me at the pub if Im as bare-naked as I am on the beach, it shouldnt
be that way love. This is not far from sentiments in this study such as, I
believe Kim constantly shows young girls to sexualize yourself in order to get

37
what you want. Kanye not only supports this rubbish, but encourages young
men to be cold-hearted and arrogant where Kim speaks of Kimberly
Kardashian and Kanye of Kanye West, who are two extremely influential
members of the media. Like this study, Ivashkov found not only the presence
of a glass ceiling but that women do in fact feel the need to be one way or
the other because of the media. Again, as with the above this may
negatively affect a nation by affecting the people within and thus affect
development. However, in this instant we see a case of where this particular
situation, where a person believes the only way to be, is this way and they
must strive for, can cause a ripple of deadly effects. One thing may lead to
another and persons may be depressed, the engrained thoughts may affect
their children and so forth. As this spreads, it seeps into a culture and with
time and unedited negativity a whole world may be lost in the grasp of the
Mass Media.

Conclusion, Limitations and


Recommendations
Conclusion

This study sought to investigate the effect of the Mass Media on the young
people of today. This was done by collecting data on the aforementioned
topic from both young men and women. Its point was to obtain a better
understanding on exactly what and how widespread was the grasp of the
Mass Media on our youth. Conversely, this study also serves to demonstrate,
as postulated by our youth, how to combat the effects of the Mass Media
which are inevitably negative.

It was found in this study that both young men and women and specifically
more so, young men feel that in the media there is a gender bias.
Correspondingly, they feel as if this gender bias displays men as the head of
the home and the primary source of income and provision while women are
the caretakers of the home and are fitter to carry out this than any other
function. Furthermore, the youth of today feel as if the most influential
people on the Mass Media portray men as reckless and emotionless, and
often arrogant; the women being portrayed as images of solely pleasure and
often over sexualized. It is undeniable therefore that to our youth, men and
women are displayed in negative stereotypes. A noteworthy conclusion from
this study was that 65% of all respondents feel as if Mass Media influences

37
them however, 93 % see an influence of Mass Media on their peers. This
serves to show that often times, the Mass Media affects our youth but they
are oblivious to the effect of it on their own lives and do not realize, yet it is
most present. It is however comforting to know, that it was found that most
young persons are not only aware of the negatives of the mass media but
also how to combat it.

Amongst the literature, this study serves to give and concise as well as live
and direct look into the minds and thoughts of the young people of today. It
addresses real and current issues in a statistical and literary format, and also
includes and considers the unedited opinions of our young people. It fills the
gaps in studies lacking statistical evidence and compliments those having it,
with opinions, postulations and a discussion. Furthermore, it offers a
foundation upon which others who conduct a similar survey can build as well
as a skeleton for those seeking to venture into a comprehensive study in the
future.

In my opinion, the Mass Media influencing our youth to be one way or the
other is a very real and critical issue. Too often a young person strives to be
what they see on a screen and in doing so miss the opportunity to both be
who they are and offer that person to society. Along the same line of thought,
if this is allowed to carry on then society is reduced to an unimaginative set
of persons governed by what the Media allows them and more specifically
wants them to see. It is thus my hope that is study will shed light on the
effect of the Mass Media on our youth and from this, they will strive to be
productive members of society, unaffected by what is demonstrated to them.

There is nothing more beautiful than seeing a person being themselves.


Imagine going through your day being unapologetically you.

Steve Maraboli

Limitations

In terms of the method of data collection in this study, this was limited by
the possibility of a respondent giving an answer that was an inaccurate
representation of what they believe, for instance, if a respondent was/was
not persuaded to choose one particular answer over the other by his or her
peers whilst conducting the study. It is unfortunate that in this circumstance
no amount of confidentiality can avoid one such error. Furthermore, data
collection was also limited in the form of technique and instrument. Should a
respondent not have chosen to answer a question, it negatively affects the

37
results however it is within their right to do so and so a limitation arises by
virtue of what is presented to a respondent and how it is presented.
Conversely, depending on a given respondent, one may or may not have
interpreted a certain question in a certain manner. Every effort was made to
ensure questions were relevant and straight forward however as everything
is relative a person made have unavoidably and inevitably interpreted a
question out of its intended boundaries; here again, a limitation arises in
technique and instrument.

Finally, this study was limited by its sample size which totaled at 40
students. Due to cost and practicality, one was unable to investigate on a
wider scale and whilst this study offers a look into the thoughts of these
young men and women it lacks consideration for the 60 or so other people in
ones form, the other forms of that school, other schools in central and other
schools in the twin island state on a whole. Unavoidably, this study was very
concentrated in terms of location and person, and thus is limited in the
regard of properly addressing the views of an entire nations youth.

Recommendations

Based on what was found in this study, it is first recommended to the


administration of studied schools as well as parents and guardians to
carefully monitor how often and exactly what our youth are exposed
to in the Mass Media. As realized with this study, there is undeniably a
gender bias present in the Mass Media. Thus, the more these stereotypes are
reinforced, the more a young person may be inclined to become this
stereotype. This may include, setting time constraints, blocking certain sites
and checking a young persons phone or media access port to regularize
exactly what they are seeing.

Alternatively, it is recommended also to the parents and teachers to


reinforce to students that despite what is commonly displayed by
the media and its patrons that one should never stray from who and
what one is. Via the positive power of the hidden curriculum, educators and
parents alike should seek to encourage students to make independent
choices and not be influenced negatively or pressured by anyone or
anything; instead encourage them to stay true.

To the relevant Borough Corporations and inter-governmental administrations


of counties and districts within a country it is recommended to have
educational seminars for youths to bring insight to how the Mass Media
seeks to grab and maintain the control of a youth through its messages, both

37
obvious and subliminal. By this, young persons can have a better idea of
what to expect and how to deal with and therefore not be subject to the
influence of the media.

Finally, to anyone reading this study, it is recommended to you in the future,


to build on this by having a geographically and demographically wider
and more in depth study. This encourages one to study not only more
schools across the nation but a wider age category, of both young and older
persons. This not only provides a more comprehensive study to glean
information but it also better shows how and where one is to attack the issue
of Gender issues in the Mass Media.

Appendices and Bibliography


Bibliography (

- Appendix 1 and Appendix 2

Literature - Appendix 1

CAPE CARIBBEAN STUDIES SBA WRITING GUIDE, Kerry Harripaulsingh (2015)

A study of Gender Discrimination in Pakistani Media, Zara Khan (2008)

37
CASE STUDY: ANALYSIS OF THE GENDER STEREOTYPING PHENOMENON IN TV
COMMERCIALS, Malgorzata Wolska, (2011)

Gender Roles in Media, an e-article by Allison Lantagne, (2014)

Into the Mind of Women, Michelle Ivashkov (2003)

The Nature of Prejudice, Gordon Allport (1954)

The Social Animal, Elliot Aronson (1972)

Men, Masculinity and the Media, Craig S. (1997)

The Medium is the message in: Understanding Media: The Extensions of


Man, Marshall McLuhan (1964)

Merriam Webster Dictionary, (2016)

Websites Appendix 2

Facebook.com/josiah.gosyne

Google.com

Dictionary.com

http://krytyka.org/gender-stereotypes-in-mass-media-case-study-analysis-of-
the-gender-stereotyping-phenomenon-in-tv-commercials/

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/allison-lantagne/gender-roles-media

http://www.thesociologicalcinema.com/uploads.jpg

https://s-media-cache-
ak0.pinimg.com/236x/26/d3/b6/26d3b6e42b9cea8d3aee492fe7290a1b.jpg

http://716963747693281147.weebly.com/uploads/2/9/2/1/29216285/359673
5.jpg

http://bagnewsnotes.typepad.com/bagnews/images/LeBron-Vogue-Cover.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_ZipJ0RTXJSg/TVDciPg2MrI/AAAAAAAAABU/GQqhDN
GdPFQ/s1600/gender.jpg

37
http://genderspectrum.weebly.com/uploads/2/5/0/8/25080280/1816777.jpg?
480

https://bates30.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/axe_shower_gel_corset.jpg

Google.tt/maps

Maps and Pictures Appendix 3

37
Map 1 highlighting two areas that were studied.

37
Map 2 showing exact geographic location of Holy Faith Convent
Couva

37
Map 3 showing the exact geographic location of Presentation
College Chaguanas

37
The following are pictures demonstrating Gender issues, biases and
stereotypes in the Mass Media

Questionnaire, Cover letter and Tally


sheet Appendix 4

Shown below, is the cover letter used when


distributing questionnaires.

Presentation College Chaguanas

Wednesday 13th January 2016

Dear Respondent,

37
I am a sixth form student of Presentation College Chaguanas conducting research
as part of my Internal Assessment for the Caribbean Studies Programme. I am
researching whether or not the Mass Media affects the behavior and choices of the
gentlemen of Presentation College Chaguanas and ladies of Holy Faith Convent
Couva.

This study is being conducted in order to determine whether or not the Mass Media
has an effect on our youth, how great the effect is and additionally whether this
effect is negative or positive. For example; Communication research has shown that
identical pieces of information can be interpreted differently by different people
because we do not all share the same interests, values, and social environment. It
is this difference in interpretation that I am interested in.

I have selected the schools of Presentation College Chaguanas and Holy Faith
Convent Couva and from these schools, 20 students at random each, provided they
are in fifth or sixth form. You are one such selected student and I would appreciate
deeply if you would complete the attached questionnaire which is quite simple and
brief.

Completing this questionnaire may only take 15 minutes of your time at maximum
and it is asked that only you, the respondent, answer the questions at hand.
Participation in this project is completely voluntary. If there are any questions that
you prefer not to answer, you may skip them. If you would like to write additional
comments on the questionnaire, please feel free to do so.

All information that you provide through your participation in this study will be kept
confidential. Further, you will not be identified in the thesis or in any report or
publication based on this research. There are no known or anticipated risks to
participation in this study. The data collected through this study will be kept for a
period of 2 years in a secure location.

It would be appreciated if you would return the completed questionnaire by the 15 th


of January. It is understood that by returning the completed questionnaire you have
consented to the use of any information contained therein. If after receiving this
letter, you have any questions about this study, or would like additional information
to assist you in reaching a decision about participating, please feel free to contact
me Josiah Gosyne at 1 868 465-9658 or e-mail at gosynethedancer@gmail.com

I would like to assure you that there has been every attempt to consider ethical
research procedures in conducting this study; however, the final decision about
participation is yours.

Thank you in advance for your co-operation in my research.

Yours sincerely,

Josiah Gosyne.

37
Shown below, is sample of the questionnaire distributed to Presentation
College Chaguanas and Holy Faith Convent Couva

Josiah Gosyne, Presentation College Chaguanas.

Caribbean Studies Questionnaire

Age:

Gender: School:

1. Do you have access to the mass media in your life? I.e. to email, social
media, broadcast media and even written forms of media such as
newspapers?
Yes
No
2. Are you a regular participant in the above mentioned media, at least once a
week?
Yes
No
3. Based on what see on social media and the mass media at large do you
believe there exists a gender bias on any scale?
Yes
No
4. In commercials, TV shows and most broadcast media on the whole, men are
displayed as the bread winners and physical contributors in a relationship
while women are often seen as timid and often playing a quieter role. Do you
see this and to what extent do you agree with this which is displayed in the
above mentioned media in any way?
Yes
No

Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree

5. A heavy part of mass media is music and all encompassed by it. Beyonc, for
instance, has been named Forbes Magazines most influential artist in the
world closely tailed by Jay-Z. Do you believe the messages often given by
these artists, display men and women in one way or another?
Very much so
Yes they do
Uncertain
No, they do not

37
They very much do not

6. The combined fan base of Kanye West and Kim Kardashian is greater than
that of President Obama. Do you believe that these two social icons portray
men and women as acting in one way or another? What way?

7. In terms of the broadcast and social media in what way, do you as a


technological member of society, see men and women portrayed? (Please
tick)

I. Men as lacking the capacity to provide emotional care and depth


J. Women as the role of caregiver
K. Women as having clean jobs I.e. office work and menial tasks, while men
have harder jobs?
L. Men as the leaders of society and at the head of the society
M. Women submissive to men, and often under their leadership
N. Women stay at home, while men work and earn for a family
O. Women serve the purpose to please men, especially intimately
P. Women prefer easier leisure activities whilst men much prefer to engage in
more physical activities

8. Thus, as a young person how much do you feel influenced by the mass media
to pursue a certain career or the other?
Very much influenced
Mildly influenced
Uncertain
Influenced minimally
Not influenced at all

9. Thus, as a girl/boy, do you feel AT ALL expected or influenced by the mass


media to behave in one way or the other?
Yes
No

10.Do you see an active influence of social media on your peers?


Yes
No

37
11.Thus, do you believe mass media discriminates against person who breaks
the normal confines of what boys and girls should be?
Yes
No

12.All things considered, do you believe gender issues in the mass media
specifically the impact of the mass media on the roles young men and
women should portray in society, is a real and addressable issue?
Yes
No

13.If yes, how then would you as a young person move to combat the problems
of stereotyping, discrimination and any gender bias generated by the Mass
Media?

End of questionnaire, thank you very much for


your time and opinion!

Shown below is Tally Sheet 1 of the results of the Yes/No questions of the
questionnaire for Presentation College Chaguanas

Questio YES NO
n
1 1111 1111 1111 1111
2 1111 1111 1111 1111
3 1111 1111 1111 11 111
4 1111 1111 1111 1111 1
9 1111 1111 11 1111 111
10 1111 1111 1111 111 11
11 1111 1111 1111 1111
12 1111 1111 1111 1111 1

37
Tally sheet 2 showing various results of degree agreement questions for
Presentation College Chaguanas

Question Very much so/ Much/ Uncertain Not Not much at


strongly Agree/ Agree/ much/Disagr all/Strongly
Very Influenced Mildly ee/ disagree/Not at all
Influenced Not influenced
influenced
5 1111 1111 1111 11 11
1
4 1111 1111 1111 111 111
8 11 1111 1 11 1111 1111

Tally sheet 3 shows the results of question 7 of the questionnaire for


Presentation College Chaguanas (Key is given below)

A 1111 1111 1
B 1111 1111 11
C 1111 1111
D 1111 11
E 1111 1111 11
F 1111 1111
G 1111 1111 1111 11
H 1111 1111 1111 111

Shown below is Tally Sheet 4 of the results of the Yes/No questions of the
questionnaire for Holy Faith Convent Couva

Questio YES NO
n
1 1111 1111 1111 1111
2 1111 1111 1111 1111
3 1111 1111 1111 111 11
4 1111 1111 1111 11 111
9 1111 1111 1111 1111 1
10 1111 1111 1111 1111 1
11 1111 1111 1111 1111
12 1111 1111 1111 1111 1

37
Tally sheet 5 showing various results of degree agreement questions for
Holy Faith Convent Couva

Question Very much so/ Much/ Uncertain Not Not much at


strongly Agree/ Agree/ much/Disagr all/Strongly
Very Influenced Mildly ee/ disagree/Not at all
Influenced Not influenced
influenced
5 1111 1111 1111 111 11 1
4 1111 1111 11 1111 11 1
8 11 1111 11 1 1111 1111 1

Tally sheet 3 shows the results of question 7 of the questionnaire for


Presentation College Chaguanas (Key is given below)

A 1111 1111 1111 1


B 1111 1111 1111
C 1111 1111 11
D 1111 1111
E 1111 1111 111
F 1111 1111 1
G 1111 1111 1111 11
H 1111 1111 1111 1

A. Men as lacking the capacity to provide emotional care and depth

B. Women as the role of caregiver

C. Women as having clean jobs I.e. office work and menial tasks, while
men have harder jobs?

D. Men as the leaders of society and at the head of the society

E. Women submissive to men, and often under their leadership

F. Women stay at home, while men work and earn for a family

G. Women serve the purpose to please men, especially intimately

H. Women prefer easier leisure activities whilst men much prefer to


engage in more physical activities

37
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