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15 Jan 91

APPENDIX D

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

D-1. General. After the shear strength and stratification has been selected,

the capacity of piles may be computed. The geotechnical engineer computes the

capacity of a single pile placed in the subgrade at various levels, then fur-

nishes to the structural engineer a curve relating the pile tip elevation to

the axial capacity. These computations may be for any number of pile types,

i.e., timber, concrete, steel H-pile, etc., and the computations should be

both in the construction shear strength case Q and the long-term shear

strength case S. Therefore, two curves for each compression and tension

loading will be produced and the designer should use the lowest composite in

selecting an allowable load.

D-2. Example Computations. Included are examples for soil profiles con-

sisting of soft clay, sand, silt, and alternating layers. To reduce the

number of computations, a timber pile at a single tip elevation is shown.

These computations must be made at each change in soil property and at a close

enough interval to describe the curve mentioned in Paragraph D-1. In the

examples, each of the various tip elevations used a timber pile having a

12-inch butt diameter and a 7-inch tip diameter, with the butt driven flush to

the ground surface.

slab elevation of +10.0 feet.* Using the shear strengths from the laboratory

testing, two shear strength trends are developed. The example trend is shown

below:

Q Case S Case

Elevation ft (pcf) c (psf) (pcf) c (psf)

0.0 to -15.0 0 48* 600 23 48* 0

-15.0 to -20.0 0 42* 650 23 42* 0

-20.0 to -30.0 0 40* 800 23 40* 0

-30.0 to -60.0 0 38* 900 23 38* 0

*The unit weight below the water table at elevation 0.0 (NGVD) is the

submerged weight.

(1) Example computation for soft clay in the "Q" case for a single tip

elevation of -30.0 using a timber pile having butt diameter of 12 inches and

tip diameter of 7 inches. This will be the computation for a single point on

a pile capacity vs. tip elevation curve. It is based upon the data above

which therefore means that the pile length is 40 ft.

(a) Compute pile skin friction "Q" case. Computations will be by layer

due to property variation computed as follows:

*All elevations (el) cited herein are in feet referred to National Geodetic

Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929.

D-3

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

To compute the average diameter of the tapered timber pile the following

equation is used.

L(dB - dt_

_________)

di = dt +

A B

where:

A

35(5)

_____

Average pile diameter = 7 + = 11.375 inches

40

11.375

______

Qs = (10)(400)(1) = 11,911 pounds

12

22.5(5)

_______

d = 7 + = 9.813 inches

40

D-4

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

9.813

_____

Qs = (15)(600)(0.95) = 21,965 pounds

12

12.5(5)

_______

d = 7 + = 8.563 inches

40

8.563

_____

Qs = (5)(650)(1.9) = 6,556 pounds

12

5(5)

____

d = 7 + = 7.625 inches

40

7.625

_____

Qs = (10)(800)(.8) = 12,712 pounds

12

D-5

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

Qs

__ 27.15 tons

__________

_

Qs = = = 13.57 tons

Allow FS 2.0

(b) Compute end bearing "Q" case with pile tip at elevation -30.0 using

the equations:

q = 9C

QT = ATq

where:

C = shear strength

AT = tip area

(7/12)2

________

QT = 9.0(800) = 1,924.23 lb = 0.962 tons

4

QT

__ 0.962

_____

_

QT = = = 0.48 tons

Allow FS 2.0

The allowable "Q" case Compression soil/pile load with the pile tip at

elevation -30.0 using a safety factor of 2.0 in the "Q" case is computed as

follows:

QA = QS + QT = 14 tons

-30 A A

The allowable "Q" case tension soil/pile load with the pile tip at elevation

-30.0 using a safety factor of 2.0 in the "Q" case is computed as follows:

-30 A

(2) Example computation for the "S" case capacity with all factors as in

(1). This will compute a single point upon the "S" case portion of the curve

pile capacity vs. tip elevation. The effective overburden pressure at any

point has to be computed at any point in the soil profile, this is presented

herein on page D-21, using the soil properties presented in the table above.

(a) Compute Skin Friction "S" case. Computations will be by the layer

due to property variations as follows:

D-6

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

where:

fs = ksu

su = D tan + C

is normally considered necessary to obtain ). See Table 4-2 for values of

to use. A reduction factor value of 1.0 is used herein. The engineer has

to use judgement and load test results to find the range of for the area

in which the work is being performed.

1,100 tan 23

_____________

_

su = + 0 = 233.46 psf

2

11.375

______

Qs = (10)(233.46) = 6,952.4 pounds

12

Average strength

1,100 + 1,820

_____________

su = tan 23 = 619.73

2

fs = kv = 619.73

D-7

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

9.813

_____

Qs = (15)(619.73) = 23,880.43 pounds

12

Average strength

1,820 + 2,030

_____________

su = tan 23 = 817.11 psf

2

fs = 817.11 psf

8.563

_____

Qs = (5)(817.11) = 9,158.94 pounds

12

Average strength

2,030 + 2,430

_____________

su = tan 23 = 946.58 psf

2

fs = 946.58 psf

7.625

_____

Qs = (10)(946.58) = 18,895.82 pounds

12

D-8

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15 Jan 91

Qs

Qs __

= = 14.72 tons

Allowable

FS

(b) Compute end bearing in the "S" case with the pile tip at elevation -

30.0 using the equations:

q = vNq

QT = ATq

where:

7/12_2

____

Area of tip = AT = = 0.267 sq ft

4

Qs

__

Qs = = 1.62 tons

Allowable FS

The allowable "S" case compression soil/pile load with the pile tip at

elevation -30.0 using a safety factor of 2.0 in the "S" case is computed as

follows:

QA = QS + QT = 16.34 tons

-30 A A

The allowable "S" case tension soil/pile load at elevation -30.0 tip, using a

safety factor of 2.0 in the "S" case is as follows:

-30 A

text and should be accounted for in any actual computation. Negative skin

friction may occur, especially in the long-term, drained shear strength case.

The soils engineer will estimate this load and furnish it to the structural

engineer to be included into the applied loads.

D-9

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

e. Uniform Medium Density Sand Profile. This example was also developed

for a bottom slab/ground line elevation of +10.0 feet, using the shear

strengths from laboratory testing on a sand classified SP-F the shear strength

trends shown below were developed.

0.0 to -60.0 30 60* 0

weight.

30.0 and a timber pile having butt diameter of 12 inches and tip diameter of

7 inches. This is a single point computation in a series to form a curve of

pile tip elevation vs. pile capacity. This computation requires a 40 ft pile

from elevation +10.0 to elevation -30.0.

the computer example on Page D-24. Applying the critical depth limiting value

criterion of D/B = 15 , the critical depth is 15 feet, taking B to be the

butt diameter. Therefore, v is zero at the surface, 1,220 psf at eleva-

tion 0.0, and 1,520 psf at limit depth.

Table 4-3. In this example is taken as 1.0, which is based upon engineer-

ing judgement, the pile material and pile load tests in this area.

property variations, as follows:

where:

fs = ksu

i

su = D tan + c

35(5)

_____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 11.375 inches

40

D-10

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

0 + 1,220

_________

su = tan 30 + 0 = 352.18 psf

2

11.375

______

Qs = 10(352.18) = 10,487.83 pounds

12

27.5(5)

_______

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 10.438 inches

40

1,220 + 1,520

_____________

su = tan 30 = 790.97 psf

2

10.438

______

Qs = 5(790.97) = 10,806.78 pounds

12

12.5(5)

_______

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 8.563 inches

40

D-11

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

fs = ksu = 877.57

8.563

_____

Qs = (25)(877.57) = 49,108.04 pounds

12

Qs = Qs = 70,475.0 pounds

i

i=1 to N

(c) Compute end bearing with the tip at elevation -30.0 using the

following equations:

q = N

v q

QT = ATq

where:

Nq = 18

Compute:

7/122

_____

AT = = 0.2672 sq ft

4

QT = 7,311.24 pounds

The allowable compression soil/pile load with the pile tip at elevation -30.0

using a safety factor of 2.0 will be:

Qs + __

_____QT 70,475.00 + 7,311.24

____________________

QA = = = 19.45 tons

-30 FS 2(2,000 lb/ton)

The allowable tension soil/pile load with the pile tip at elevation -30.0

using a safety factor of 2.0 will be:

D-12

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

Qs __

_____kT 70,475(0.7)

______________

QA = = = 12.33 tons

-30 FS 2(2,000 lb/ton)

slab/ground line_elevation of +10.0 feet, using the shear strengths developed

from laboratory R testing on a silt (ML). The "Q" values are from the

envelope to the total stress circles, where the "S" values are from the

effective stress circles. The silt used in this example was "dirty" with some

clay included. The shear strength trends are as shown:

Elevation, ft (deg) (pcf) c (psf) (deg) (pcf) c (psf)

0.0 to -60.0 15 55* 200 28 55* 0

*The unit weight (?) below the watertable at elevation 0.0 ft is the

submerged unit weight.

(1) Example computation for silt in the "Q" case using a pile tip at

elevation -30.0 and a timber pile having a butt diameter of 12 inches and a

tip diameter of 7 inches. This is a single point computation in a series to

form a curve of pile tip elevation vs. pile capacity. This computation will

use a 40 foot pile to extend from elevation +10.0 to elevation -30.0.

the computer example on page D-27/28. Applying the critical depth limiting

value criterion of D/B = 15 we find the critical depth to be 15 feet.

Therefore, v at the surface in zero, at elevation 0.0, it is 1,170 psf, and

at the limit depth elevation of -5.0, it is 1,445 psf.

Table 4-3 to obtain . In this example is taken as 1.0 for the "Q" case

and 0.9 for the "S" case. The use of reduction factor to obtain depends

upon engineering judgement, the pile material, and the results of pile load

tests in the area.

(c) Compute skin friction "Q" case. Computations will be by layer due

to property variations as follows:

where:

fs = ksu

i

D-13

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

su = D tan + c

35(5)

_____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 11.375 inches

40

0 + 1,170

_________

su = tan 15 + 200 = 356.72 psf

2

11.375

______

Qs = (10)(356.72) = 63,738.19 pounds

12

27.5(5)

_______

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 10.438 inches

40

1,170 + 1,445

_____________

su = tan 15 + 200 = 550.34 psf

2

10.483

______

Qs = (5)(550.34) = 7,519.48 pounds

12

D-14

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

12.5(5)

_______

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 8.563 inches

40

8.563

_____

Qs = (25)(587.19) = 32,908.97 pounds

12

(d) Compute end bearing in the "Q" case with the pile tip at

elevation -30.0 using the following equations:

q = N

v q

QT = ATq

where:

Nq = 4

compute:

7/122

_____

AT = = 0.2672 sq ft

4

D-15

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

The allowable "Q" case compression soil/pile load with the pile tip at eleva-

tion -30.0 using a safety factor of 2.0 will be:

Qs + Q_T

______

QA = = 26.43 tons

-30

FS

The allowable "Q" case tension soil/pile load with the pile tip at

elevation -30.0 using a safety factor of 2.0 will be:

Qs K_T

______

QA = = 18.33 tons

-30 FS

(2) Example computation for silt in the "S" case using a single pile tip

at elevation -30.0 and a timber pile having a butt diameter of 12 inches and a

tip diameter of 7 inches. This is a single point computation in a series to

form a curve of pile tip elevation vs. pile capacity. This computation will

use a 40-foot pile to extend from elevation +10.0 to elevation -30.0.

(a) The overburden pressure and limit values from the "Q" case example

are valid; i.e., elevation +10.0, v = 0.0 ; elevation 0.0, v = 1,170 psf;

elevation -5.0, v = 1,445 psf and D/Bcritical = 15 feet.

(b) Compute skin friction "S" case. Computations will be by layer due

to property variations as follows:

where:

fs = ksu

i

su = D tan + c

35(5)

_____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 11.375 inches

40

D-16

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

0 + 1170

________

su = tan (28 .9) + 0 = 275.28 psf

2

11.375

______

Qs = (10)(275.28) = 8,197.75 pounds

12

27.5(5)

_______

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 10.438 inches

40

1,170 + 1,445

_____________

su = tan (28 0.9) = 615.26 psf

2

10.438

______

Qs = (5)(615.26) = 8,406.49 pounds

12

12.5(5)

_______

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 8.563 inches

40

D-17

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

8.563

_____

Qs = (25)(679.97) = 38,108.71 pounds

12

(c) Compute end bearing in the "S" case with the tip of at elevation

-30.0 using the following equations:

q = N

v q

QT = ATq

where:

Nq = 15

Compute:

7/122

_____

AT = = 0.2672 sq ft

4

The allowable "S" case compression soil/pile load with the pile tip at

elevation -30.0, using a safety factor of 2.0, will be:

Qs + Q_T

______

QA = = 15.13 tons

-30 FS

D-18

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

The allowable "S" case tension soil/pile load with the pile tip at

elevation -30.0, using a safety factor of 2.0, will be:

Qs K_T

______ 54,712.95(.7)

________________

QA = = = 9.57 tons

-30 FS 2,(2,000 lb/ton)

f. Layered Clay, Silt and Sand Subgrade. This example is developed for

a bottom of slab/ground line elevation of +10.0 feet, using the strengths

developed from laboratory testing on the various soil types as follows:

Elevation (ft) (deg) (pcf) c (psf) (deg) (pcf) c (psf) Type

0.0 to -12.0 15 55* 200 28 55* 0 ML

-12.0 to -20.0 0 38* 600 23 38* 0 CH

-20.0 to -60.0 30 60* 0 30 60* 0 SP

*The unit weight () below the water table at elevation 0.0 feet is the

submerged weight.

(1) Example computation for a multiplayered soil in the "Q" case using a

single pile tip at elevation -30.0 and a timber pile having a butt diameter of

12 inches and a tip diameter of 7 inches. This is a single-point computation

in a series to form a curve of pile tip elevation vs. pile capacity. This

computation will use a 40-foot pile to extend from elevation +10.0 to eleva-

tion -30.0.

the computer example on Page D-31. It should be noted that the critical depth

limit was applied from the upper surface of the granular layer and not from

the ground surface.

Table 4-3 to obtain . In this example, is taken as 1.0 for both the

"Q" and "S" case. The use of reduction factor to obtain depends upon

engineering judgement, the pile material and results of pile load test in the

area.

(c) Compute Skin Friction "Q" Case. Computations will be by layer due

to material variations as follows:

D-19

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

where:

fs = ksu

i

su = D tan + c

35(5)

_____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 11.375

40

11.375

______

Qs = (10)(400) = 11,911.9 pounds

12

24(5)

_____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 10.0 inches

40

1,100 + 1,760

_____________

su = tan 15 + 200 = 583.17 psf

2

10.0

____

Qs = (12)(583.17) = 18,320.87 pounds

12

D-20

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

23(5)

_____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 9.875 inches

40

9.875

_____

Qs = (8)(600)(0.95) = 11,788.85 pounds

12

5(5)

____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 7.625 inches

40

= 2,064 psf

2,064 + 2,664

_____________

su = tan 30 = 1,364.86 psf

2

7.625

_____

Qs = (10)(1,364.86) = 27,245.68 pounds

12

D-21

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

(d) Compute end bearing in the "Q" case with the pile tip at elevation

-30.0 using the following equations:

q = N

v q

QT = ATq

where:

(Refer to paragraph C-2.f(1)(2))

7/122

_____

AT = = 0.2672 sq ft

4

The allowable "Q" case compression soil/pile load with the pile tip at

elevation -30.0 and a safety factor of 2.0 will be:

Qs + Q_T

______

QA = = 20.53 tons

-30 FS

The allowable "Q" case tension soil/pile load with the pile tip at elevation

-30.0 and a safety factor will be:

Qs K_T

______

QA = = 20.13 tons

-30 FS

(2) Example computation for a multilayered system in the "S" case using

a single pile tip elevation -30.0 and a timber pile having a butt diameter of

12 inches and a tip diameter of 7 inches. This is a single point computation

in a series to form a curve of pile tip elevation vs. pile capacity. This

computation will use a 40 foot pile to extend from elevation +10.0 to -30.0.

internal friction () reduction factor is reduced by a factor given in

Table 4-3 to obtain is taken as 1.0 as discussed in Paragraph 1.b.

D-22

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

(b) Compute Skin Friction "S" case. Computations will be by layer due

to material variations as follows:

where:

fs = ksu

i

su = D tan + c

35(5)

_____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 11.375 inches

40

v top of stratum = 0

0 + 1,100

_________

su = tan 23 + 0 = 233.46 psf

2

11.375

______

Qs = (10)(233.46) = 6,952.38 pounds

12

24(5)

_____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 10.0 inches

40

D-23

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

1100 + 1,760

___________

su = tan 28 = 760.34 psf

2

10.0

____

Qs = (12)(760.34) = 23,886.84 pounds

12

23(5)

_____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 9.875 inches

40

= 2,064 psf

1,760 + 2,064

_____________

su = tan 23 = 811.6 psf

2

9.875

_____

Qs = (8)(811.6) = 16,785.67 pounds

12

D-24

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

5(5)

____

Average pile diameter d = 7 + = 7.625 inches

40

= 2,064 psf

60 pcf = 2,664 psf

2,064 + 2,664

_____________

su = tan 30 = 1,364.86 psf

2

7.625

_____

Qs = (10)(1,364.86) = 27,245.68 pounds

12

(c) Compute end bearing in "S" case with the pile tip at elevation -30.0

using the following equations:

q = N

v q

QT = ATq

where:

Nq = 18

D-25

EM 1110-2-2906

15 Jan 91

7/122

_____

AT = = 0.2672 sq ft

4

The allowable "S" case compression soil/pile load with the pile tip at

elevation -30.0 and a safety factor of 2.0 will be:

Qs + __

_____QT

QA = = 21.92 tons

-30 FS

The allowable "S" case tension soil/pile load with the pile tip at elevation

-30.0 and a safety factor of 2.0 will be:

Qs __

_____KT

QA = = 13.10 tons

-30 FS

examples similar to those computed above are shown in Tables C1 through C4.

D-26

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15 Jan 91

(Continued)

D-27

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15 Jan 91

(Continued)

D-28

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D-29

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D-30

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D-31

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(Continued)

D-32

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(Continued)

D-33

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D-34

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D-35

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D-36

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(Continued)

D-37

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D-38

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D-39

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D-40

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15 Jan 91

(Continued)

D-41

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(Continued)

D-42

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D-43

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D-44

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D-45

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