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1. Hazard Management
Identifying, assessing and controlling significant hazards is essential to prevent injuries. Good hazard management requires a proactive approach, staff involvement and regularly
reviewing the effectiveness of the controls.
Question Response
1.1 How do you identify significant hazards?
A significant hazard is a hazard that could cause:
Serious harm (can be an illness or injury) including death, amputation, fractures or serious
burns; or
Harm that occurs when someone is repeatedly exposed to a hazard, or exposed to high-levels of
a hazard, such as noise or chemical exposure; or
Harm that isn't detectable until a long time after exposure, such as asbestosis.

Proactively identifying significant hazards must include feedback from staff and be done on a regular

Ways of systematically identifying significant hazards includes thinking about hazards in particular work
areas, specific tasks and processes, even before you start work. This process must be ongoing, as a
change of any sort on your site can mean a new hazard is created. Regularly check and investigate staff
reports of injuries, near-hits, and reports of pain and discomfort to identify and manage the hazards

1.2 Describe how you decide on the best method to control a significant

Significant hazards should be eliminated, e.g. by building a roof on the ground and lifting it onto
a structure with a crane, eliminates the hazard of falling.
If that is not possible, significant hazards should be isolated, e.g. install guards or covers over
dangerous machinery parts.
If you cannot achieve either of these options, then your last option will be to minimise the
significant hazard, e.g. in noisy workshops, provide ear muffs to protect people's hearing.
Health monitoring may be required when you minimise significant hazards, e.g. hearing tests to
ensure that ear muffs provided are effective in a noisy workshop.
You should always take "all practicable steps" towards managing significant hazards. This means
doing what is reasonably able to be done to control those hazards, taking into account a number
of factors including the likelihood and severity of any harm that might occur, and the availability
and costs of ways to prevent harm.

1.3 What steps do you take to ensure that the controls you have put in
place for significant hazards are effective?

Regularly check the hazard controls you put in place are working:
Talk to staff
Do safety audits.

Every employer must provide must provide reasonable opportunities for their employees to participate in
ongoing processes for improvement of health and safety in their workplace. It is a legal requirement for
there to be a system that allows for the participation for employees in health and safety if the employer
30 or more employees
Less than 30 employees, but an employee or union representative asks for such a system.

Regardless of the size of your organisation, a staff health and safety representative who has appropriate
experience or training in implementing health and safety procedures relevant to your workplace is very

2. Incident Investigation
When an incident or injury occurs, it can reveal that a hazard has not been successfully controlled. It is vital that the incident or injury is thoroughly investigated and that hazards are
identified, controlled and made part of your regular hazard management process.
2.1 How do you go about the investigation of incidents and injuries in your

When investigating incidents and injuries (including illnesses), it is important not to place blame. Focus
on the facts - note down what happened. Then ask yourself:
Why did it happen?
What was the hazard involved?
What control did we have in place to manage that hazard?
Why did our control not work?

2.2 How do you investigate to ensure that any identified hazards are
adequately controlled?

When you investigate incidents and injuries you may discover a hazard that has not previously been
identified or perhaps, not successfully controlled. This hazard must now be included in your hazard
management system, and further investigation about why the hazard was not identified is recommended.

An incident also includes a near miss event that in different circumstances could have caused injury or

3. Emergency Readiness
When an emergency occurs it is too late to make new plans. Well-practised plans will help keep you, your staff, customers and visitors safe should an emergency occur.
3.1 What are the emergencies you have prepared for?

The emergencies that you prepare for will very much depend on the nature of your business, but as a
starting point you might like to consider:
Medical emergency
Working alone
Adverse weather conditions
Aggressive behaviour
Communication or technology failure
Armed robbery
Chemical spills.

It is very important to involve workers in the development of your emergency procedures.

3.2 What preparations have you made to ensure you can cope with

Evacuation exits, plans and drills

Emergency equipment such as first aid supplies, fire extinguishers, smoke detectors and civil
defence supplies
Trained first-aiders
Procedures for dealing with aggressive behaviour or an armed robbery
Involving local emergency services in the development of your plan.

4. Training & Supervision

New staff will not know about the hazards in your business and so they need an induction, supervision, and training to work safely. Existing staff need training when new procedures or
equipment are introduced, as well as ongoing training to keep their skills current. A key factor in all of this is deciding when a staff member is safe to work unsupervised.
4.1 What kind of information do you give to your staff about workplace

Before they start on a new job, new equipment or a new process, the people doing the job must know
what hazards they are exposed to and the controls that are in place. Controls that might require training
Safe work procedures
Personal protective equipment and safety equipment required
Early warning signs of injuries that occur over time e.g. noise induced hearing loss.

4.2 How do you decide what training your staff need to complete their
work safely?

Give new staff an induction or orientation. Go over things that seem common sense to you. You
can't assume people know how to do things in your workplace, because your equipment, tools
and layout may be different.
Show and tell people how to do tasks.
Pace training so that people do not get too much information at once.
Ensure you provide training on all equipment, machinery and vehicles.

4.3 How do you decide when staff are skilled enough to work

People will be safe to do some tasks unsupervised but not others. Do not assume that people will work
safely, just because they have received training - observe them doing each task before you leave them
to work on that task unsupervised. In deciding whether or not someone is safe to work unsupervised on
a task, consider the following:
Do they use the required safe work procedures, personal protective equipment and safety
Think about any mistakes they made when you observed them.

The person is not ready to work unsupervised on that task if:

They made lots of mistakes
They made one or two serious mistakes
The task has changed to include other risk factors (e.g. high volume traffic), and you are not
sure they can manage the other risk factors safely.


Slips, Trips & Falls

Falls are commonplace, are a leading cause of injury hospitalisation and are one of the top three causes of injury-related death in New Zealand. The severity of the injury could be reduced
or the fall prevented if the work environment was safer and the worker was aware of the risks and what they could do to reduce them.
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Walking across a variety of E, I or M Footwear that helps protect you from a fall on
different surfaces that may one surface may be useless on another
be slippery, wet, rough or Try to organise your work so you work on one
smooth while doing work type of surface as much as possible (e.g. do
greatly increases the not keep crossing from one surface to another
chance of a fall. How do to do a task).
Having proper footwear is a good start
you manage this significant
towards reducing falls, but the footwear must
hazard? be in good condition. Footwear will often have
lost its slip protection long before it is deemed
worn out.

Carrying loads and E, I or M Handrails can help prevent slips and falls on
climbing stairs or ladders stairs.
Good lighting reduces the chance of a fall.
all increase the risk of a Ladders should not be used as a work
fall. In your opinion what platform, except for minor repair work of a
are some of the things you short duration.
can do to reduce these Always ensure you have 3 points of body
risks? contact when using a ladder.

For more information refer to the Prevention of Falls


Good housekeeping will E, I or M Good housekeeping is only possible if there is

reduce the number of enough storage space where you can put
significant hazards likely to Keep walkways and corridors clear.
cause a fall. What things If you are to keep tripping hazards (e.g.
do you do to maintain a extension cords) off walkways, there must be
tidy workplace? somewhere to put them when they are not in

Manual Handling
Manual handling is defined as: "any activity requiring a person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry, throw, move, restrain, hold or otherwise handle any animate, or inanimate, object". This
includes many activities - for example, packing in an apple shed or supermarket, lifting boxes from a conveyor to a pallet, cleaning or operating machinery. Injuries associated with these
types of activities are common at work.
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You can reduce the E, I or M Moving material by hand is labour intensive and time
consuming. Always consider mechanical solutions first.
chances of an injury
through lifting and If your load handling involves any of these factors,
straining by assessing the there is a much greater risk that you will be injured:
significant lifting hazards Twisted, stooped, awkward or asymmetrical
on the site and deciding postures.
Fixed, sustained, rigid, prolonged postures.
how they are to be Unvaried, repetitive movements.
managed. What steps do Sudden, uncontrolled or jerky movements.
you take to identify high- Handling or reaching away from the body.
risk manual handling Using high or sustained force.
tasks? Handling heavy or awkward loads.
Handling that goes on for too long without a

Loads that are heavy, E, I or M Breaking heavy loads down into lighter loads
bulky, unpredictable, that Putting handles on containers to improve grip
Ensuring that there are always enough people
block your view, or are
on hand to lift a load safely.
difficult to hold, increase
the chance of an injury.
What sorts of things could
you do to loads to make
them safer to handle?

Confined areas, awkward E, I or M The best height to store heavy items that
postures and stretching have to be carried is between shoulder and
knee height at the front of shelving. In this
high or wide put you more position they are easiest for someone to pick
at risk of an injury when up.
handling loads. Outline the Heavier objects should be stored on lower
things you think are shelves.
important to reduce the For more information refer to the Code of Practice for
risk when storing goods. Manual Handling.

Access & Traffic on Site
Construction sites are constantly changing and each change brings new hazards. Managing these hazards to allow safe access to the site is vital to reduce injury risk.
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As work progresses on a E, I or M Identify, control and manage. Consideration should be
given to:
construction site, new
Access and egress routes on site
hazards will be created Vehicle movements
each day. How do you Deliveries (timing and location)
ensure that you can safely Inducting new staff and authorising access
get to your place of work The impacts on the public who have lawful
on the site? access to, or around the site, e.g. sales reps
Housekeeping issues on site
Rubbish removal and storage
Delivery of products and services to the site
Designated safe work areas
The location of site facilities
Material storage areas
You will have many visitors E, I or M Keep visitors safe by:
Displaying warning signs, fencing and barriers
to your site. How do you
to deter unauthorised access
ensure that visitors are Ensuring clear access and egress from the
both authorised and kept site
safe? Ensuring all visitors report to the site office
Having designated areas for deliveries
Inducting all visitors to hazards on the site
(depending on the site, visitors may need an
Using demarcation lines or zones to highlight
Ensuring all visitors to the site wear
appropriate personal protection e.g. high
visibility vests, safety boots and hard hats.
Construction sites are E, I or M Ensure safety around moving vehicles by:
Isolating vehicles and plant from persons on
often busy with vehicles
the site
delivering and moving Using fencing, barriers, barricades, temporary
materials. What steps do warning or control signs
you take to keep others Planning the direction that plant moves, so
safe from moving vehicles? visibility is not restricted
Implementing safe working distances
Using clear communication systems
Minimising the amount of plant working at

one time
Using demarcation lines or zones
Ensuring all plant is fitted with an effective
combination of mirrors and reversing aids
(such as cameras) to reduce the driver's blind
spots as far as possible
Using audible reversing alarms
Using reversing sensors
Using flashing lights
Using high visibility garments
Using spotters or observers

For more information refer to the Construction

Bulletins: Moving Plant on Construction Sites and
Clean Sites are Safer Sites.
Working at Heights
Falls from height kill and injure more people in construction than anything else. Workers fall off ladders, scaffolds, elevated working platforms (cherry pickers and scissor lifts), through
fragile roofs and uncovered openings, as well as from unprotected edges. Other people can also be struck by falling objects dislodged or dropped from above.
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Before starting any work at E, I or M When assessing the risk of a fall, consider:
Is there an alternative to working at a height
height, an assessment of
The possibility of falling objects
falling risk should be Identifying where and how a worker might fall
made. How do you assess Overhead hazards
the risk of a fall? Weather

Working on a roof can E, I or M Protect openings and edges, including gables

include risks such as Protect or fence fragile surfaces and skylights
Be aware of potential damage or decay of
sloping or fragile surfaces.
original surfaces
How do you assess the risk Always consider the slope and potential total
of a fall while working on a fall distance from a roof

What do you consider E, I or M Ladders are only for access - they are not
before deciding if a ladder working platforms
Ensure the slope ratio is 4:1 and the ladder is
is suitable work equipment secured in place
and that it will be used Never use domestic grade ladders
safely? Maintain ladders in good condition

What factors do you E, I or M Power-operated work platforms such as cherry pickers,

consider before deciding if scissor lifts or power hoists are specialised pieces of
equipment often designed for particular types of
an elevated working
operation. When using an elevated work platform:
platform is suitable work It is essential that the correct type of machine
equipment and that it will is selected for the intended work
be used safely? The operator is trained to operate that
particular type of elevating work platform
Do not exceed the manufacturer's loading
Do not operate outside the manufacturer's
limits for slope and ground loading
Never drive while elevated unless specifically
allowed by the manufacturer for your current
Always use a trained and competent operator
Be aware of overhead hazards and fixed
structure crushing risks
Scaffolding is often needed E, I or M The scaffold must be erected by a competent
to allow work to be person
If it is over 5m (or a special scaffold), the
completed safely, but it scaffold must be erected by a ticketed
brings its own risks to the scaffolder
worksite. Outline how you Inspect and maintain a scaffold throughout its
ensure your scaffolding is life on site
Examine a scaffold after adverse weather,
safe during its time on
damage or any change of use or alteration of
your site. the scaffold

Scaffolding will often be E, I or M Workers and material in any one scaffold bay
used to store work does not exceed the maximum loading, e.g.
light-duty live loading
materials during Materials are evenly distributed on the
construction. How do you scaffold
know the safe weight of Care is taken that materials are arranged so
materials that can be they cannot be knocked off the scaffold or
cause a tripping hazard.
stored on a scaffold and
how do you control
platform loadings?

Using a safety harness can E, I or M Ensure that workers are trained and
be very dangerous. How do competent in the use of fall arrest equipment
Ensure your workers know how to fit their
you decide if a harness harnesses
should be used and how do Ensure they know the limitations of their
you ensure it is used harnesses

safely? Harnesses are a poor control in fall arrest
If using in fall arrest mode, ensure you know
the total fall distance
If using in fall arrest mode, ensure the anchor
point is suitable
Ensure you have a rescue plan in place and
practise it regularly

For more information refer to the Guidelines for the

Prevention of Falls , Best Practice Guideline for
Scaffolding in New Zealand and the Preventing Falls
from Height.
Risks during excavations can include cave-ins, falls and exposure to hazardous atmospheres. To determine the extent of the hazards, you need to consider the stability of the soil, the
presence of water, proximity of underground services, static or dynamic loads that are close by and ground vibration.
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An excavation creates a E, I or M Conduct daily inspections
If possible, eliminate the need to enter
major site hazard. What
Shore, bench or batter back walls
steps do you take to Plan for spoil
ensure the excavation you Plan for plant and vehicle movements
create is as safe as Ensure supervision
possible? Never work alone

For a brief summary about safety and the Health &

Safety in Employment Regulations 1995 relating to
excavations, refer to Construction Bulletin No.19 -
'What's Wrong with this Picture?'.
Excavations shallower than E, I or M All excavations, no matter what depth, may be
hazardous. Modes of failure will depend on any or all of
1.5m have been known to
the following:
collapse. What do you The depth
consider when deciding The soil type or soil types if layered
whether or not to shore a Bedding planes
trench? Vibration
The presence of moisture
Rain, or a high water table level
Any superimposed loading close to the edge
of the excavation
The time the excavation is open
Any previous disturbance of the soil
Excavations may be part of E, I or M Fencing, supplemented with signs, barriers,

the site for a period of lights, markers or sentries may be necessary
to provide protection for the public and
time. How do you ensure
that excavations remain Hazardous atmosphere may need to be
safe? considered within the excavation.
Where an excavation is likely to collect water
to a hazardous depth, the excavation must be
fenced-off or covered during times when
employees are not present.
Excavations, including shoring and
underpinning, must be examined before work
starts each day, and after rain or following
any occurrence that could affect the stability
of an excavated face.
Shoring members should be checked for
tightness against each other and against the
soil face.
A daily record should be kept of examinations
made, conditions found and of precautions
and actions taken.
In all excavations, the safety of faces and
fillings often depends on the effectiveness of
the control of surface and ground water.
These can be controlled by constructing
drains or installing well pointing or sump
Seek advice from a chartered engineer about
soil conditions and stability.

For more information refer to the Approved Code of

Practice for Excavation and Shafts for Foundations.
Work Equipment
Construction sites will often have a wide variety of potentially dangerous tools, plant and machinery on-site.
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Work equipment can be E, I or M Use the right equipment for the job.
deadly in the wrong hands. Ensure only trained and competent operators
use equipment.
How do you ensure your Have operators attend training courses run by
staff are trained and equipment manufacturers, industry training
competent to operate organisations or hire companies before use.
machinery? Supervise operators to ensure they are
Operating a safe piece of E, I or M
Ensure equipment is always used
mobile plant, such as a appropriately.

bobcat, can quickly Maintain and inspect equipment to keep it
become unsafe if the plant safe.
Obtain and use manufacturer's/user's
is not used properly. How manuals.
do you ensure that a Ensure operating manuals are easily
mobile plant is used understood.
correctly on your site and
that it is the right piece of
equipment for the job in
Machine guarding can be a E, I or M Maintain and inspect equipment regularly to
major hazard protection ensure guarding is used, correctly fitted and
for workers. When is If machine guards are adjustable, ensure staff
guarding most likely to be using the equipment are trained in their safe
removed from a machine use.
and how do you ensure
For more information refer to the Safe use of
that it is replaced? machinery publications.

All work equipment must E, I or M Follow the manufacturer's / supplier's

be well maintained to recommended maintenance schedule.
Inspect equipment regularly to identify on-
remain in a safe condition. going repairs outside the normal maintenance
How do you ensure that schedule.
this is carried out regularly Use a reputable on-hire equipment provider
and correctly? that has a servicing contract for the
Ensure all maintenance and repairs are
carried out by a competent person.

For more information refer to the Guidelines for the

Provision of Facilities and General Safety in the
Construction Industry.

Of all energy sources, electricity has the greatest potential to seriously injure or cause fatalities. The human body is an excellent conductor of electricity and even non-fatal electric shocks
can cause severe and permanent injury. Electrical injuries include burns, electric shock, which can result in the loss of limb function and neurological disorders, and electrocution, causing
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When a building is under E, I or M Always store extension cords 'high and dry'.
construction, extension Use the closest temporary supply rather than
running leads over long distances.
leads will often be the only

way to get power to Use insulated hook or bracket devices to hang
power-tools. What do you leads from studs, door architraves or other
suitable hanging points.
do to ensure extension
leads are not used across
Underground or overhead E, I or M Investigate and identify the location of any
cables pose a serious risk electrical services in the vicinity.
If you are using a machine such as a crane or
of harm. How do you an excavator or if you are erecting or working
decide whether existing on a structure or building, check with the
electrical services do not local power company before deciding how
pose a hazard? close to work beside overhead lines.
Assistance in locating underground services is
available from your local electric supply
Implement a safe system of work for
underground services involving plans, mark-
outs, cable locating devices and safe digging

For more information refer to the Guide for Safety with

Underground Services.
Substances Hazardous to Health
A substance that is hazardous to health is any substance, or product containing a substance, that you are exposed to in the workplace which is known to or suspected to cause death or
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Demolition or renovation of E, I or M Substances could include dust or fumes generated
old buildings could expose
Fibre cement sheeting
you and your staff to Insulation material
harmful substances. How MDF board
do you manage this risk? Asbestos
Solvents, thinners and cleaners
Paint and primers
Welding equipment
Exhaust fumes from petrol motors, e.g.
It is important that your E, I or M Obtain Safety Data Sheets from the
staff recognise hazardous manufacturer / supplier of materials you are
working with to understand the hazards
substances and the associated with that harmful substance and
possible symptoms of the appropriate methods of managing those

exposure. What hazards.
Assess your workers' exposure to those
information do you have
harmful substances.
available on hazardous Seek advice and put in place suitable control
substances? measures and ensure they are effective.
Inform your workers of the hazards in
working with the harmful substances they are
working with.
It may not be possible to Train your workers in the safe and effective use of the
controls to manage those hazards. For example,
eliminate all hazards on-
always ensure that:
site and sometimes you personal protective equipment is suitable for
will be relying on personal the environment and the worker
protective equipment to the user is trained in its use
minimise a hazard. What equipment is used correctly
equipment is well maintained
health monitoring do you
equipment is clean
do to ensure the personal equipment is stored correctly.
protective equipment is
providing appropriate Under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms
protection? Act 1996, some substances require that the workers
using them are Approved Handlers. For more
information refer to the Environmental Protection
Authority website.

Health monitoring includes biological exposure

monitoring, biological effect monitoring, medical tests
and examinations. The type(s) of monitoring that
should be used is dependent on the chemical or
hazardous substance. For example, monitoring the
health of workers handling asbestos may include chest
x-rays and lung function tests.

For more information refer to the Chemicals and

Hazardous Substances resources.
Contact with wet cement E, I or M Reduce as much as possible exposing skin to
can cause burns. How do wet concrete or cement.
Inform workers of the dangers of working
you go about controlling with wet concrete, it is strongly alkaline and
contact with wet cement prolonged contact with skin will cause severe
on-site and what measures chemical burns.
do you have in place if Ensure that workers use heavy grade PVC
gloves, boots and protective clothing to
cement gets on your skin?
protect skin from contact with wet concrete.
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